Monitoring and Managing Linux Processes | Mostafa Mahmoud | Skillshare

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Monitoring and Managing Linux Processes

teacher avatar Mostafa Mahmoud, Data Scientist/ML Engineer/Linux Expert

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Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (1h 3m)
    • 1. 00 Class 7 Overview

      0:57
    • 2. 01 Processes

      1:57
    • 3. 02 The Life Cycle of a Process

      2:46
    • 4. 03 Process States

      6:38
    • 5. 04 Listing Processes

      11:07
    • 6. 05 Controlling Jobs

      4:54
    • 7. 06 Killing Processes

      13:50
    • 8. 07 Monitoring Process Activity

      7:36
    • 9. 08 Real time Process Monitoring

      5:26
    • 10. 09 The System Monitor Tool

      3:50
    • 11. Exercise 8

      4:02
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About This Class

RHEL 8 / CentOS 8 Linux Administration - RHCSA 8 - Class Seven

Monitoring and Managing Linux Processes

Hi, I'm Mustafa Mahmoud. A Senior Linux Administrator and Online Instructor. I have been working as Linux System Administrator for more than ten years, currently devoted to teaching. I like to share my knowledge with others and help them advance in their careers.

Students testimonials - See what others say!

  • Siddharth Kumar: I really loved the course content and the way all details have been explained by the trainer, it will certainly help me or anyone else to improve their Linux administration skills.
  • Eric Voigt: Excellent overview of the basic skills, well organized and taught.
  • Suman Mandal: This course was useful to me. I have learned many things that were not clear to me. Thank you.

What you should know before starting

The goal of this class is to evaluate and control processes running on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.

Objectives:

  • List and interpret basic information about processes
    running on the system.
  • Control processes in the shell's session using bash job control.
  • Terminate and control processes using signals.
  • Monitor resource usage and system load due to process activity.

Class content:

  • Processes
  • The lifecycle of a process
  • Process States
  • Listing Processes
  • Controlling Jobs
  • Killing Processes
  • Monitoring Process Activity
  • Real-time Process Monitoring
  • The top command
  • Using the System Monitor Tool

What's next?

RHEL 8 / CentOS 8 Linux System Administration - RHCSA 8 - Class Eight

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mostafa Mahmoud

Data Scientist/ML Engineer/Linux Expert

Teacher

Hello, I'm Mostafa. A data scientist, ml engineer, and Linux expert. I worked for ten years as a Linux systems administrator at Express, then I had the opportunity to turn to data science. Because of my passion for this field and my keen attention to detail, I got my Udacity certifications to work as a data scientist and machine learning engineer. The most recent projects I worked on were Finding Donors for CharityML, a full exploratory and explanatory analytics work project for Ford Go Bike company trips data, and creating a logistic regression to predict absenteeism. I'm working on improving my skills and looking for job opportunities that will help me in this direction.

Skills: Python, SQL, Linux
Applications: Jupyter Notebook, Weka, Excel, Pycharm,... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. 00 Class 7 Overview: Monitoring and managing Linux processes. The goal of this class to evaluate and controlled processes running on edit head Enterprise Linux system. After completing this class, you should be able to list and interpret basic information about processes running on the system. Control processes in the same session using best job control, unit and control processes using signals will, it'll resource usage and system load due to process activity. In this class, you will learn what a process is. The life cycle of a process. Process states, listing processes, controlling drops, killing processes, monitoring process activity, using the system monitor tool. 2. 01 Processes: Processes. After completing this lecture, you should be able to define what is a process and find what is a thread. And instance of a running program is called a process. Processes are also frequently referred to as tests. Every time you run a shell command, a program is run and fibrosis is created for a while. A computer program is a massive collection of instructions. Fibrosis is the actual execution of those instructions. Several processes may be associated with the same program. In Linux. And abstraction of process is however, incomplete without discussing threads. Sometimes called lightweight processes. By definition, method is an execution context or flow of execution in a process. Thus, every process consists of at least one thread. Fibrosis containing several execution threads is said to be a multithreaded process. Each thread has its own ID, program counter, process, tech, and a set of registers. Each process consists of system resources that are allocated to it and addresses piece of allocated memory, operating system descriptors of resources that are allocated to the process, security attributes and the process state. The environment of a process includes local and global variables, a current scheduling context, and allocated system resources, such as file descriptors and network ports. Thanks for viewing. 3. 02 The Life Cycle of a Process: The life cycle of a process. After completing this lecture, you should be able to define the lifecycle of a process. A new process referred to as the child is normally created when an existing process, referred to as parent makes an exact copy of itself in memory using the fork function. The child process will have the same environment as its parent, but only the verses ID number is different. Every new process is assigned a unique process ID for tracking and security. The process ID and the Barons process ID are elements of the new process environment. Burned processes are processes that create other processes during runtime. And the child processes are processes created by other processes during runtime. Any process making it a child process. And all processes are descendants of the first system process, which is system D on Elhadad Enterprise Linux system. The system d process is the mother or parent of all processes on the system. It is the first program that is executed when the Linux system boots. It manages all other processes on the system. It is started by the kernel itself. So in principle, it doesn't have a parent process. The system d process always has process ID of one. It functions as an adoptive parent for all orphaned processes. The fork and exec functions through the fork routine. A child process inherits security identities, previous and current file descriptors, and the resource privileges, environment variables. And the program could a child process within exec, its own program could normally aberrant process sleeps while the child process runs, setting a request width to be signaled when the child completes. Upon exit. The child process has already closed or discarded its resources and environment. That remainder is referred to as a zombie. The bird signaled awake when the child exited, cleans the remaining structure, then continues with its own Brooklyn could execution. 4. 03 Process States: Process states. After completing this lecture, you should be able to define process states. In a multi-tasking operating system. Each CPU or simi, you can be working on one process at a single point in time. As a process runs, its immediate requirements for CPU time and the resource allocation change. Processes are assigned a steep which changes as circumstances require processes, states defined what process is doing and what is expected to do in near time. Performance of the system depends on a major number of process states. From the birth till death. Process has a lifecycle going through several states. Rodney process states are running or runnable. Sleeping or waiting. Stopped. Zombie. Let's dive into each state. Process state running. Kendall defined state name, running. This is the most healthy state of all. It indicates a process is active and serving its request. Process is probably getting system resources, especially CPU, to perform its operations. Running process is a process which is being served by CPU. Currently, It can be identified by state flag are in BS or top command's output. As you will see later in this section, enlisting processes. The runnable state is when a process has got all the system resources to perform its operation except CPU. This means process is ready to go once CPU is free. Runnable, processes are also flagged with the state flag or the process state sleeping. The sleeping process is the one who waits for resources to run. Since its own weightings ten gives up CPU and goes to sleep mood. Once it's required resource is free, it gets placed in scheduler cue for CPU to execute. There are three types of sleep moods. Uninterruptible, uninterruptible, and capable. Uninterruptible sleep mood. The Kernel defined state name, desk interrupt will. In this MOOC, the process is waiting for some condition as how do we request system resource access or signal? When an event or signals satisfies the condition the process returns to running. These processes are shown with the state S, MBS or top comments output. Uninterruptible sleep mood. Can then define state name, desk, uninterruptible process in this sleep mode gets its timeout value before going to sleep. Once the time outset of eta weeks, re-tweets when weighted upon resources become available for it. It can be identified by state D and outputs. The kilovolt sleep mood. Kendall defined state name. That's scalable. This sleep mood is identical to the uninterruptible the state, but modified to allow the reading task to respond to a signal to be killed. This process plague is K, but utilities frequently display capable processes as this tape. The process state stopped. The process is stopped, has two candles defined states and both have the same T flake. First, desk top. And second, task three is in Kendall defined state desk stopped. The process has been stopped, usually by being signaled by a user or another process. The process can be continued by another signal to return to running. And in Canada, undefined state desk is a process that is being debugged, is also temporarily stopped and shares the same T state flag. The processes state zombie. Zombie has two Kernel defined states. Exit zombie with Z state flag and exit date. With excess state flag. In the kernel defined state exit zombie. A child the process signals experience as it exits. All resources except for the process identity are released. It can be identified by state x0 in outputs and in covalent defined state exit. After the Barents receives the exit signal from the child process, the parent cleans up the remaining child process structure and removes the processes slot in the table. The process is now released completely. This state will never be observed in process listing utilities. Note that process can stay in zombie mood if its parent died before it releases giant processes slot in the table. It can be identified with z and outputs. The complete life cycle of process can be circled. It's been waiting, runnable, running, stopped, zombie, and last removed from process table. Thanks for viewing. 5. 04 Listing Processes: Listing processes. After completing this lecture, you should be able to view and interpret process listings and use the BS comment. Viewing active processes in Linux. There are several Linux tools for viewing and listening running processes on the system. The two traditional and well-known RBS and top Kamen's Rose's status command is used for listing processes. The command can provide detailed process information. It needs the process information on the virtual files in the file system. The BS command is one of the important utilities for system administration, specifically under process monitoring, to help you understand what is going on, dynamic system provides numerous options for manipulating the output according to your needs. Let's try using ps command here to processes only our showed the best shell. And ds, which itself is a process which dice as soon as it is displayed. By default. Bs with no options, selects all processes with the same effective user ID as the current user and associated with the same terminal where BS was invoked. Note that the Linux version of VS sub bolts three options permits, including Unix options, which may be grouped and must be preceded by a dash. Bsd options, which may be grouped and must be used with a dish. And new loan options which are preceded by two digits. For example, the result of using the Dutch auction for Unix is not the same when using the option for BSD. Using the AUX option with the ps command. Adding the AUX option to the ps command, we provide a full listing of the current processes. The option tells me to list the processes of all users on the system rather than just those of the current user. The u option tells VSS to provide detailed information about each process. And the option adds to the processes that have no controlling terminal, such as demon that are started during booting. As the number of processes can be quite long and LQ by more than a single screen. Here i biped output of that to the less common, which lets it be viewed one screen at a time. The output can be advanced one screen port by pressing the space bar. And moved one screen backward by pressing the geeky. Among the information that provides about each process is the effective user name of the Process Owner, user. The process ID, the percentage of CPU used by the process, the percentage of memory used by the process. The visual memory size in kilobytes, the land is swept physical memory size in kilobytes. The location of process standard known as the controlling terminal. The processes state could the starting time of the process, the length of time that process has been active, and the command that initiated the process. Now let's check the meaning of the different values that are shown in the state column IV to exit. You can rescue at any time. We can use the manual helped to check the values of the state column values. Here are different values that lasted column will display to describe the state of a process. As an example, d will be used for an interrupt sleep. And I put idle kernel threads are for running or runnable. And for the b is d formats, the state keyword is used. Additional characters may be displayed. For example, uppercase N, for low-priority, and lowercase S, four session leader. Using the option with the BS. Along listing options, LAX provides more technical detail. As you can see here, each process has a flag represented by uppercase character. Take numbers from one to five. We can check the meaning also by using the man command. As you can see here, one will mean poor kid but didn't exist. And for superuser privileges. And if the number five appears to you, it will mean that both legs apply. 14. And if 0 is shown, it will means that neither plague applies. Also another new columnists appearing here, which is Wusheng column. And it is used to show memory address of the event the process is waiting for. Using the option with the comment. And alternative set of options for viewing all the processes running on a system is that this option? The option, generates a list of information about every process currently running. And the dish if option generates a listing that contains fewer items of information for each process, then the option among the columns displayed by VS DCF command is the user ID column. The user ID column contains the username of that count that owns the process, which is usually the same user that started the process. And the time column is used to display the time to process started or the starting did 50 started more than 24 hours ago? Processes in brackets usually appearing at the top are scheduled kernel threads. Using the BS3 command. The command can display in tree format to view parent-child relationships using the VST command. As you can see here. The first process is started in the system, and which is the parent of all processes is system d. The addition of the dish B option to the BS3 comment. We also show the processes ID. For example, it should heat the system d process with grosses ID1 and network manager with bruises ID one hundred one hundred and fifty five. The processes that are directly connected to the main stem, which is the vertical line extending consistent d, along the left-hand edge of the screen are listed by default in alphabetical order. This is contrast to BS, which by default list the processes in the order in which they were created. The BS common default output is unsorted. Order matches that of the system process table, which reuses table rows as processes die and new ones are created. For example, to sort the BS DCF comment output, you can use the command node that BS displays once. You can use the top Common Core update process, display is a powerful system monitoring tool that offers you a dynamic real time view of a running system as shown. By default, the dope command output is refreshed every three seconds. Later, I will talk about it in details in this section. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 6. 05 Controlling Jobs: Controlling jobs. After completing this lecture, you should be able to explain the terms foreground, background and controlling terminal. Using drop control to manage multiple command line. Slope control is a cadential feature, allowing a single shell instance to run and manage multiple commands. Without job control. Apparent shell forks a child process to run a command, sleeping until the child process exits. As in this example. With the Shell prompt read displays, the parent-child has returned. With job control. Commands can be selectively suspended, resumed, and run a synchronously allowing the shell to return for additional commands. Wild child processes run. Foreground process is a comment running in a terminal window. The terminals device ID. The processes controlling terminal. Foreground processes receive keyboard generated input and signals and are allowed to read or write to the terminal via standard input and standard output. Process session is created when a terminal or console first ovens at login or by invoking a new terminal instance. All processes initiated from a terminal shaded the same session ID. Within a session. Only one process can be in the foreground at a time. A back ground process is started without a controlling terminal because it has no need for terminal interaction. In a p s listing background processes such as service demons and kernel threads, split a question mark in the TTY column. Background processes which improperly attempted to read from right to the terminal may be suspended. Running jobs in the background. Any command can be started in the background by appending an ampersand to the command line. For example. The best shelf displays a job number unique to the session and the process ID of the new child process. As you see here, the cadential doesn't wait for the child process and reads, plays the shell prompt. The best conventional tracks job's recession in a table displayed with the job's command. Background, jobs can reconnect to the controlling terminal by being brought to the foreground using the FG command with the job ID. As in this example, the sleep command is now running on the controlling terminal. And the convention is again, asleep, waiting for this child process to exit, to recede to the background or to send any comments in which the drilling ampersand wasn't originally included. Since the keyboard generated suspend Request Control Z to the process. This has been, takes effect immediately. The job is pleased in the background, bending output and keyboard type ahead or discarded. Using the bs option GI. Please, job information including the initial command shell of each session. Since the sleep example command is currently suspended, the steed flex blade is uppercase T. To restart the process in the background using the bg command with the same job ID. If the user attempts to exit a terminal window with suspended jobs, the suspended jobs are killed. Thanks for viewing. 7. 06 Killing Processes: Killing processes. After completing this lecture, you should be able to use commands to Cal and communicate with processes. Define the characteristics of a daemon process. And in the user sessions and the processes. Roses control using signals. Signal is a software interrupt delivered to a process. It report event to an executing program. Events that generated a signal can be an error external or by explicit requests. This table lists the fundamental signals used by system administrators for routine process management. For example, sick kill immediately terminates a process and the process will not be reformed any clean up operations. It can't be ignored or handled. And take their causes Brooklyn termination. It can be ignored or handled, and it allows self cleanup. Each signal has a default action, usually one of the following. Stop and count. For example, as you can see here, sick gill action is term and term default action is to terminate the process. Note that the signals sickle and things can't be cold blooded or ignore. Although sector is the default signal, cycle is a commonly misused administrator favorite. Since the signal can be handled or ignored, it is always fatal. However, it forces termination without allowing the process to run self cleanup routines. It is recommended to send sector first, then Detroit with sickle only if a process fields to respond. Signal numbers vary on different Linux hardware bled forms, but signal nims and meanings are standardized. For command, use. This advice to use thickness names instead of numbers. The numbers discussed in this lecture are for intellects 86 systems. Programs can be pre-built for expected events signals by implementing handler routines to ignore Ripley's or extend a signals default action. For a complete list and description of signals, you can consult the manual for signaled by running the command, man, seven signal. Commands for sending signals by explicit requests. Users signal their current foreground process by typing a keyboard control sequence. Control Z to suspend, Control-C to kill, and Control backslash to cool down by a process. Note that to signal a background process or processes in a different session requires a signal sending command. Signals can be specified either by name or by number. Users may kill their own processes, but root privilege is required to kill processes awed by others. The kill command sends a signal to a process by ID, despite its name using the syntax kill B ID. It can be used for sending any signal, not just those for the meeting broke grams by specifying the signal number after the kill command. That if no signal is specified, the term signal 15 is sent. For example. And to check. Or you can provide the signal number using the command. To check. You can run the command with the l option to see signals on the system with the corresponding numbers. Old foo, you can use the kill command to send a signal to one or more processes matching selection criteria, such as a command name, processes owned by a specific user or system wide processes. Let's take some examples. Now to kill this leap command, using the kill command. To check. Another example. Do you use the kill command to get multiple commands at the same time? To check. The p command, like kill, all, can signal multiple processes. It uses advanced selection criteria, which can include a combination of command, user ID, Group ID, parent process ID, end terminus. You can check the vehicle command options using the dash dash help lagging users out administratively. The w command views users currently logged into the system and their cumulative activities. You can use the TTY and from columns to determine the user's location. All users have a controlling terminal listed as BTS. While working in a graphical environment window or d2y in when a system console, alternate console or other directly connected terminal device. You can discover how long a user has been on the system by viewing decision lagging time. For each session, CPU resources consumed by current jobs included background tasks and the children are in the JCB EU column. Current foreground process CPU consumption is in the VCB you column. Users may be forces of a system for security violations, resource over allocation, or other administrative needs. As a user, you are expected to quit unnecessary applications, close and use common shells and exit lagging sessions. We requested when situations occur in which users can't be contacted or head unresponsive sessions. Runaway resource consumption, or improper system access. Decisions may need to be administratively terminated using signals. Let's create some processes for the user test. Now switch to the root user. Processes and sessions can be individually or collectively signaled. To terminate all processes for one user. You can use the command because the initial process in elegant shell is designed to handle session termination requests and ignore unintended keyboard signals, killing all of our users or processes and lagging shells requires using the signal. First to list all the processes on by the user test, we can use the grep command. The peak grip comment sessions for processes currently running on the system based on a complete or partial process name, username, where other specified attributes. Here, I used the dash l option to list the process ID and the process name and the desu option to match by effective ID. To kill all the processes on by the user test. You can use this command to check. As you can see, because the session leader here, which is the best login shell, is designed to handle session termination requests. It successfully handled and survived determination requests. But all other session processes are terminated. To kill all of our users processes including login shell. This requires using the same scale signal. When processes requiring attention are in the same login session, it may not be necessary to kill all of our users processes. Let's open a new tab. Switch to the test user. You can determine the controlling terminal for decision using the TTY command. Switch to the first step. And the test user terminal. You can use the command. The same selective process definition can be applied using parent and the child process relationships. Use the BS3 DISP command to view a process tree for the system or a single user, then you can use the parent process ID to kill all the children they have created. Let's try. A new tab. Can lead to new processes. Then go to the root tip. Use the BS3 DISP command to get the processes with their IDs. Now to kill these processes using the process ID, this command, uppercase P option, only tried the processes of the given parent to check. And if we use the thick girl to check, this time, the barren space login chilled survives because the signal is directed only at it's the child, the processes. Thanks for viewing. 8. 07 Monitoring Process Activity: Monitoring process activity. After completing this lecture, you should be able to interpret uptime, system load and load averages, monitor real-time processes. Let's understand two important prisoners in a Linux system. System load and load average. On Linux. The system load is a measurement of the computational war the system is performing. This measurement is displayed as a number. A completely idle computer has allowed average of 0. Each running process, either using or waiting for CPU resources, S1 to the load average. So if your system has a lot of, for the four processes are either using or waiting for the CPU. Unix systems traditionally just counted processes waiting for the CPU. But Linux also counts processes waiting for other resources. For example, processes waiting to read from right to the desk. A computer might have a lot of 01 split second and a lot of for the next split second as several processes use the CPU load average. The load average is useful to understand how your system is performing. If it is overloaded, you may need to deal with a process that is wasting resources, provide more hardware resources, are moved some of the work load to another system. On multi-processor system, the load is relative to the number of processors cores available. The 100% utilization mark is one on a single core system to when a dual core system. And for unequipped core system. Same with CPUs. A load of one is 100% CPU utilization on single core books, and the load of two is 100% CPU utilization on a dual core box. The load average is shown in many different graphical and terminal utilities, including in the top comment. The graphical groom system monitoring tool. And the easiest and the most standardized way to see your load average is to run the uptime command in a terminal. This command shows your computer's load average as well as how long it has been powered. On. Understanding the load average output. The first time you see a load average, the numbers look fairly meaningless. It is an example, load average. From left to right. These numbers show you the average load over the last one minute, the last five minutes, and the last 15 minutes. In other words, the above output means the load average over the last one minute is 1.00. Two. The load average over the last five minutes is 0.70, and the load average over the last 15 minutes is 3.09. The time periods are omitted to save space. Once you are familiar with the time periods, you can quickly glance at the load average numbers and understand what they mean. Let's use the above numbers to understand what the load average actually means. Assuming you are using a single CPU system. The numbers tell us that over the last one minute, the computer was overloaded by 2% on average. And bone 0-2 processes, we're waiting for the CPU. Over the last five minutes, the CPU idle for 30% of the time. And over the last 15 minutes, the computer was overloaded by 209% on average. And 2.0. nine processes were waiting for the CPU. You probably have a system with multiple CPUs or a multi-core CPU. The load average numbers or Cabot differently on such a system. For example, if you have a load average of two, when a single CPU system, this means your system was overloaded by 100% the entire period of time. One process was using the CPU, while one other process was waiting. And a system with two CPUs, this would be complete usage. Two different processes will using two different CPUs the entire time. And on a system with four CPUs, this would be half of usage. Two processes, we're using two CPUs. Wife two CPUs will sitting idle. Node that. To understand the load average number, you need to know how many CPUs your system has allowed. Average of five would indicate a system with a single CPU was massively overloaded, but it would be fine on a computer with its CPUs. Displayed load averages represent all CPUs. Linux counts, each physical CPU, core and microprocessor high birthrate as separate execution units logically represented and referred to as individual CPUs. Each CPU has independent request queues. You can view the sledge broke slash CPU info file for the kernel representation of system CPUs. With more than one CPU, several programs can be executed simultaneously. To find the number of processing units available on a system, we may use the n block or LS CPU commands as follow. Another way to find the number of processing units using Grip command is, for performance purposes, a machine with a single dual-core processor, basically equivalent to a machine with two processors with one core Each. This means that to quit course is equal to four dual course, which is equal to its single cools. All of them are it cuz if you divided the displayed load average values by the number of logical CPUs in the system. And value below one will indicate satisfactory resource utilization and minimal width times. And a value above one will indicate resource saturation and some amount of service waiting times. Thanks for viewing. 9. 08 Real time Process Monitoring: Real time process monitoring. The top comment. Took is a powerful system monitoring tool that offers you a dynamic real-time view of a running system as shown, displaying a summary header followed by abrasive or Threadless. Similar to BS information. Unlike the static ps, output, dope continuously refreshes at a configurable interval and provides capabilities for column reordering, sorting, and highlighting. By default, the top command output is replaced every three seconds. In order to change this interval. Head the D key while the top command is running. You can then enter the new time in seconds. And breast enter. User configurations can be saved and meet resistance. The tasks through above list is total count of all the states in its output header. For each listed process, the top command displays the process ID, the effective user name of the process owner. The barriers, the lice value, the amount of virtual memory the process uses. The amount of nano swept the physical memory, the amount of shared memory. The Bruce's status field, the percentage of CPU usage, the percentage of memory usage, the accumulated CPU time, and the name of the executable file. The fundamental keystrokes in top. You can press H to C Help options. And then you can rescue or skip to return to the top display. Raise em to sort by memory usage in instead of CPU. You can press the number one to toggle showing CPU usage of all your CPU. If you have more than one CPU on your system. Rescue and enter a username to display processes only for a particular user. Pressing Enter or Space keys immediately refreshes the display. And you can press Q at any time to quit. A common practice is to use dope to find processes that are consuming too much memory or processing power, and then act on those processes in some way. A process consuming too much CPU can be really nice to give at least priority to the processors. And the Bras is consuming too much memory can be killed. With doped running. Here is how to recognize or kill a process. Renouncing a process. First, note the process ID of the process you want to revise and breasts are with the process ID to renounce message appears. Type of a process ID of the process you want to realize. And when prompted to recognize the process ID to a value, type in a number from negative 19 to 20. The priority or importance of a job is defined by its nice number. I broke em with a high nice number, is friendly to other programs, other users in the system. And it is not an important job. The lower the nice number, the more important a job is, and the more resources it will take without changing them. Making a jump nicer by increasing its nice number is only useful for processes that use a lot of CPU time, such as compilers, myth, obligations, and the like. Processes that always used a lot of input-output time are automatically rewarded by the system and given a higher priority, which means a lower nice number. For example, keyboard input always gets the highest priority on a system. The default nice value of all the processes is 0. Killing a process. The process ID of the process you want to kill. And the best. You can type 15 to terminate clearly using s6 term signal or nine to just kill the process outright using the SEC kill signal. Thanks for viewing. 10. 09 The System Monitor Tool: Using the num system monitor tool. After completing this lecture, you should be able to use the system monitor tools. The processes tip of the system monitor tool allows you to view, search for, change the validity of and processes from the graphical user interface. To install the tool. Issue this command as root. To start the system monitor tool, select applications. System monitor, or prompted type. Grew this system. This monitor. Click the processing step to view the list of running processes. For each listed process, the system monitor tool displays its current status, percentage of the CPU usage. The nice value, the process ID, memory usage, the channel the process is waiting in. And additional details about the session. To sort the information by a specific column in ascending order. Click the name of that column. You can click the name of the column again to toggle the sort between ascending and descending order. By default, the system monitor tool displays a list of processes that are owned by the current user. Selecting various options from the view menu allows you to view only active processes. View all processes. View your processes. View process dependencies. Refresh the list of processes. View a memory map of selected process. View the files opened by a selected process, and additionally, various options in the Edit menu allows you to stub process, continue running a stopped process into a process, kill a process. Change the priority of a selected process, and edit the system. Monitor preferences, such as the refresh interval for the list of processes, or what information to show. You can show any process properties by selecting it and click the Show Process Properties button. You can also end up process by selecting it from the list and clicking the End Process button. And if the process is owned by other user, you will first need to open the system when you took tool as a root user. Thanks for viewing. 11. Exercise 8: Exercise it explanation. Process ID using the BS3 command. Run ideally for 1000 seconds on the terminal in the background using the steep bring the background to the foreground using the FG command. First, I will use the job command to get the background slip process job number, then type to send it to the background again using the keyboard shortcut, press Control Z to kill the slip process using the cal command using sector signal number 15. First, I will need to get the process ID for the sleep command. Signals on the system with the corresponding number using the kill command. Run the Firefox browser in the background. It using kill all command. To run the Firefox browser in the background. Too few users currently logged into the system. To show the controlling terminal for decision you are using. To show how long the system has been running, the number of users and the load averages using one command. To renounce the top process to make nice value five using the top command. Press enter. Thanks for viewing.