Moho 13 - Creating a 2D Animation Scene | McCoy Buck | Skillshare

Moho 13 - Creating a 2D Animation Scene

McCoy Buck, Create and Animate!

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29 Lessons (1h 49m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      1:29
    • 2. Preferences

      4:16
    • 3. Importing Image + Navigation Tool

      4:51
    • 4. Draw the Head Shape

      7:21
    • 5. Draw the Mouth + Eye + Hair

      7:14
    • 6. Draw the Body + Pants + Mask

      5:01
    • 7. Draw the Arms

      5:46
    • 8. Draw the Arms

      3:33
    • 9. Draw the Legs

      3:14
    • 10. Refining the Character Design

      4:26
    • 11. Select Shape Tool

      1:37
    • 12. Organize for rigging

      2:11
    • 13. Add Bones

      4:49
    • 14. Naming Bones

      1:07
    • 15. Flexi Binding Arm

      7:53
    • 16. Layer Binding

      1:31
    • 17. Point Binding

      5:54
    • 18. Combination Binding

      3:44
    • 19. Offset bone tool

      4:40
    • 20. Smart Bones

      3:24
    • 21. Target Bones

      2:26
    • 22. Prop and Midground Design

      2:52
    • 23. Setting up 3D scene

      2:24
    • 24. Sky + Gradients

      3:02
    • 25. Pose to Pose

      3:36
    • 26. Timing

      3:24
    • 27. In betweens

      1:48
    • 28. Squash Stretch

      2:45
    • 29. Camera

      3:07

About This Class

In this free step by step course, I will teach you how to create a 3D animation scene in Moho 13. The course will be split up into (4) sections and we will first start off with the character design.

Stage 1 - Character Design

Unless you already have a character that you want to import from outside of Moho - I will show you everything you need to know about the drawing tools and how to use them to design the character Orville that we will be animating.

Stage 2 - Character Rigging

After we have designed our character it is now time to rig it. Rigging is the process of adding bones. Much like 3D software - in Moho, after creating your character you will add bones to make the character move when we get to animating. Along with adding bones we will also go over the powerful bone rigging tools and methods including flexi-binding, smart bones, target bones and more.

Stage 3 - Background Design

Now it's time to set up the background. We will have it set up in (2) planes - midground and background. But now only that I will show you how to set up your background in a 3D space - which will give it a professional/ appealing parallax effect.

Stage 4 - Animation

Now for the best part, it's time to animate! First, we will start with our character. We will go over the principles of animation and how to apply them directly to your character animation. Then we will take our background and character and combine them and I will show you how to use the camera tools to create your first scene!

Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: Welcome to the Mojo 13 introductory tutorial, Siri's In this series, you're gonna learn how to create your first ever animation if your brand new mojo or animation I'll be walking you through step by step on how to design, rig and animate your first ever animation seen using Mojo 13. My name is McCoy Buck, and I'm gonna be your instructor. I have been using Mojo for five years, creating animations for personal projects, competitions and clients. Along with animating my own projects, I also love to teach animation and, more specifically, how to animate in mojo. I have personally taught and mentored thousands of students, both new and veterans of the software. So you may have found yourself here for the one common reason that connects us aspiring animators together. You love animation. Whether you wanted to be an animator ever since you were a child and saw that first animated movie that inspired you or you love to draw and wants to bring those drawings to life and tell stories, however it is, you fell in love with animation. You decided to pick up mojo 13 to make your dreams come true. So let's talk a little bit about what we'll be doing and how we'll be doing it. Each video will be about 5 to 10 minutes long to make it easy to fall along with and go back Teoh. If you ever need to see how a particular thing is done, the entire series will be separated into four stages. Design rigging, creating the scene. An animation. In each video, you'll be taking actionable steps, meaning and none of these videos will you simply be watching without doing anything. So get ready because we're starting right now. 2. Preferences: in this video, we're to go through the preferences that I recommend having on before you start animated in Mojo. If you want to look more in depth at the Preferences menu, I suggest checking out the Mojo 13 user manual found in the help menu. To go to your preferences, go up to your menu bar and select edit preferences in the first general top. It's totally up to you what you want to include. If you want to include library content, be sure to have these two checks. If you want to enable the GPU, which improves the display of image and vector layers, then keep this checked on. If you're using a tablet and you want to use touch support, you can have this checked on. And if you want to help the Smith Micro team with future development, go ahead and leave your analytics. Information checked on going over to documents, one that I highly recommend having on is your auto save for crash. It's normal for software to crash every now and then. It's always good to be able to recover your projects in case of a crash. Take a look at the breast of the settings that I have checked and decide for yourself. If this is what you want as well onto layer and objects, go ahead and leave the auto center new layers checked off and also check off scale compensation for new layers. Let's take a look at the other settings I have checked on and decide for yourself. If that's what you want as well. Moving on to the timeline SAP. Make sure to have consolidates timeline channels off. It's important to be able to see all your animation channels, and we'll get into that later frame. Zero is where you do your designing and your rigging. All animation happens on frame one and beyond, and that is all I have checked on for. The timelines have moving over to the tools tab. Enable drying tools on Leon frame. Zero. Highly recommend having, if you're just starting out and also enable audio feedback. This is when you WellPoint's together. It makes an audible click on your computer. This is helpful to know when things were connected. Moving over to the tools layout. As you get more familiar with mojo, you might want to reorder the tools and how they are used, But I won't do that right now because that would just make things confusing for you if you're just starting out learning this. So I'm gonna leave this as is, Let's go over to edit colors and you can change these two. Whatever you would like. The only one that I would recommend changing is the view output on Lee. I would recommend clicking this square, selecting the color black and then bringing your opacity from half words at right now all the way to full. And if I hit OK, I can show you what that does right here. This purple square represents our camera. Everything that's going to be inside the camera is where our animation is going to be, so you can have your assets and all sorts of different things outside of your camera like I have right now. But if I go up to view show output, only this is gonna show me just what I would see in my camera and nothing else. This really helps you to focus in on just what the final animation will look like. So if you prefer to have that with some transparency, you can leave that semi transparent. In my case, I like it have 100% opaque. Lastly, I recommend updating one keyboard shortcut, goto edit and select edit keyboard shortcuts. There's one keyboard shortcut that has changed that I use a lot. So if we come up here and we select the action filter, I'm gonna type in flexi to bring up the keyboard shortcut that's being currently used, which is you selected bones for flexi binding. So right now, the keyboard shortcut is all control F. Now, for me, this is a little bit difficult to get used to, as I'm used to control shift F for the keyboard shortcut. So what you can do is you can change up any of the keyboard shortcuts to what works best for you by simply going to new and then creating a new shortcut file. Then once you have that selected in my case, I have mine labeled my shortcuts. You can then go back to flexi, and you can type in the selected keyboard shortcut that you want to change now to create a new keyboard shortcut. I'm just gonna select this filled and hit control shift F to create that new keyboard shortcut. Now you can see, hear and read It says the shortcut. Shift control F is already and used by the action key frame. So what I'm gonna do is I'm just simply going to swap that with control Ault F So let's go ahead and let's just type in key frame. And here I can see that it's the menu window key frame control shift F. So I'm gonna go ahead and click that and change it to control old F. Now I'm gonna hit, done, and now control all f what that's gonna do, it's gonna bring up my little key frame window. We won't be using that, but we definitely will be using control shift F, which is you selected bones for flexi binding. And that's it. We're all set up and we're now ready to start designing our character. I'll see you in the next video 3. Importing Image + Navigation Tool: Now that you got your project settings and preferences set up, let's start designing the character and this section I'm gonna show you how to use Mojo is drawing and navigation tools As we draw our character. The first thing we're gonna do is important color palette for the character that will be drawing. Next thing we need to do is select the image of the character that we will be drawing to get the character in the color palette. Go up here to the top right and select the library icon. Once in the library, go down to scenes and expand that folder. Then if you come down here so McCoy Buck, go ahead and expand that folder and expand the folder. Orville Inside the folder. Orville, you're going to see the full mojo scene for the completed animation. But if I go to this images folder here and I expand that I have the Orville PNG, the Orville character modeled so you can see the breakdown of the whole character, and I also have the Orville color palette. Go ahead and select the Orville dot p and G and right click and adds to the current document. Then add the Orville color palette, so I'm also going to left, click and then right click and adds to the current document. Next, go ahead and hide the Orville color palette. Select the Orville dot panji and then with your transform layer tool, go ahead and shrink down the character so that's inside of the workspace area. Then go up to file, preview or control R on your keyboard, then select save as PNG and save it to somewhere on your computer. Once that image has been saved, go ahead and delete it from your layers panel, then come up here to view, select, tracing, image or control. Why and select the image that you just saved. Now you will have a semi transparent tracing image in order to make the character design much easier to trace. Then go ahead and bring back your Orville color palette. Now a tracing image is not a layer. As you see, you can see a color palette for the image that we imported, but there's not one for the Tracy and image. It's something that's built into mojo and that you can toggle on and off if I come up here to view and I go to show tracing dimension. You can see that the keyboard shortcuts control you. I highly recommend using keyboard shortcuts as this will improve the efficiency of your workflow. So I'm gonna hit control you on my keyboard. And as you can see, it's gonna toggle that tracing image off. So now, with this layer selected, what I want to do is I want to move this style palette over to the side, so it's not in the way. So to do that, I'm gonna come over here to my transform layer tool or M on the keyboard. And then I'm just you to come over here and I'm going to left click and drag this over to the side of the screen. Now, I also want to resize this so it's not so big. So I'm gonna come over here to the corner part of these little nodes, and I'm just going to select this corner and I'm just gonna shrink it down. Just bring that up in the corner there. Now, you probably saw me zoom in and zoom out. I am using the mouse wheel, another keyboard shortcut that you can use his shift and right click and drag left and right to get very, very smooth. Zoom in and zoom out the mouse wheel. Zoom also works, but you're not gonna get as fine of a zoom, so just use whichever one works best for you. Now I want to focus on the workspace as far as the navigation goes so really quickly. This workspace right here we have this little hand icon for the pan tool, and if I left click and I dragged us anywhere here on screen, you can see that it's panning the screen. A quick shortcut for that one is just right. Click and drag on your mouse, the pan. We already covered the zoom, but here it is on the workspace tool. This is the zoom tool, just a zoom in and out. So let's hop back over to this panel right here. This is called the Layers panel. As you can see, there's a layer that's created by default. This will be created any time that you start up Mojo. There's always gonna be at least one layer in the program, and that's the layer one right here as it starts out, and then as you can see there we created an image layer. Now, by default, you're gonna have this layer one right here. This is a vector layer. If I come up here to this button, it lets me know that I can create a new layer. And as you can see, there's a ton of different layers that I can create. This one in particular is a vector layer. And if I come up here, you can see this little image right here. These air indicators to tell me what kind of layer it is. This image right here lets me know that this is an image layer. So think of a layer like a transparent sheet of paper. They can be stacked on top or behind one another, creating a background mid ground and a foreground. So let's layer right here. It has nothing behind it. That's why if I just talked about on and off, this is the visibility. Nothing changes because there's nothing in that layer. But right here, if I come over here to the image layer and I toggle that on and off, you can see that the visibility is changing as I'm clicking on that icon last but not least go ahead and hit control you to toggle your character back on so we can begin drying. And that's it for this video. We just went over the navigation tools, how to import your image for the color palette and also for tracing. So just go ahead, get familiar with the tools, get familiar with the keyboard shortcuts and will move into the next video. 4. Draw the Head Shape: in this video, we're gonna create the head of our character, Orville, using the mojo drying tools. So one of the first things that we need to dio is create a layer for his head. So, like I said, we talked about layers in the last video. We're gonna come appear to our layers panel and really click a new layer and select vector . Now to rename this. I'm just going to click once, and it's gonna highlight the name. And then I'm just gonna call this had So we have our head layer, this layer that's down here blow because we're not gonna be using it for anything. I'm just gonna go ahead and click it and delete it. So I'm gonna select the head layer once more, and now I'm gonna come over here to my drawing tool. So this is the drawing tools panel. Now let's say you're an artist and you like to draw with pencil on paper. I want you to get in the mindset of focusing and drawing in mojo with shapes. Now, because mojo has drawing capabilities, you can draw frame by frame. But in terms of vector, I find it always easy to start with shapes. So I'm gonna come here to the shape tool or s on the keyboard. And as you can see when I select a different tool has this option menu that's dynamically changing. Now, here we can see I have an auto fill in an auto stroke. But what is that exactly? If I come over here to the right hand side, I have a style Tabin inactions tab for. Right now I'm just like the style tab. And as you can see here, it's gonna bring up my color swatches is getting bring up my different settings And this is what I'm gonna be using to color the character now, right here we have the fill. You can see it sets of white and the stroke. It sets a black. If we take a look at this character right here, this black outline that's going all around the character this is known as your stroke. And then what's inside the character? The whole color that's filled in that is the fill. So what? This color palette that we imported? I made it easy. Select. You can simply use the colors that are already provided. So first thing. I'm gonna keep my auto fill on in my auto show. What this lets me do is when I create a shape is going to automatically create a Phil and a stroke. If I have that checked off and I go ahead and I create a shape, you can see that there's nothing inside of it. So I'm gonna leave that on. And if I come over here to the fill palate, you can see that I have an eyedropper tool, which is really common in most animation and drawing software. If I left like this and I hold it down and I dragged over here, you can see that it's giving me the option to select these different fills. As I hover over them. I'm gonna select this blue right here and let go. And then for my stroke, I'm going to keep it at that same color. You can see what it is simply by left looking inside of that box there. And you can see I can change this color to anything that I want. But right now, I'm just gonna leave it that start black for this style and hit OK now in the shape tool. I construct all the different shapes that I want to create before this head. I want to create a rectangle. So using my mouse will get a zoom in. I'm going to right click to pan. And now we're just gonna focus on this area of the head. So the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm going toe left, click, and then I'm going to drag down and then I'm gonna drag over. Basically, it's where the corners are of this head. And then what I'm going to Dio is I'm gonna select this point right here, and I'm gonna move it down to the tip of his nose to do that. I'm gonna come over back here to the draw tools, and I'm gonna suck my transform points right now. You can see these little red circles at the end of this shape. These air the points. So to move those individually, the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hit escape on my keyboard to de select all the points because I just want to select one of these points. So I'm gonna come over here to my transform points tool t on the keyboard and I'm going toe left. Click this point right here. You can see it's gonna highlight and I'm gonna drag it to the tip of his nose right here and then for this corner of the box I'm gonna left click, and I'm gonna drag it to the end of his neck right here. So it's just there at the edge. Now you can see it still doesn't really look like he's got much head going on there. So now we're gonna do is give this rectangle some curvature, so you can see when I select this tool, I have the different options. However, I just want you to focus on this one icon right here. This is what's called a busy a handle. If I click this, it's going to let me see the busy handle right now you can't see it because everything is straight. But as soon as I apply a curve, you're gonna see what's gonna happen. So let's go over to the curvature tool. So here, back on our panel here, you can see that this little icon right here, see, for curvature is gonna create our courage or tool. You can see the different actions that it's gonna pop up here for right now. Just go ahead and select this point left, click and drag to the right. Now, what you're seeing here is the busy A handles. This gives me really good control over the shape that we're creating right now. So right now, as I'm moving this backwards and forwards, it's pulling and bringing in those busy handles. I can also control those individually, which gives me a lot of control to be able to create this curvature that we have for this head right here. So to do that, what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna select one of these handles right here and now I'm gonna pull it. See, I can pull it up and down, given me a lot more control, and I'm just gonna pull it too right about there. The first thing that I need to dio is I need to add a new point for this corner. So at a point, I'm gonna come over here to the out of point tool or a on the keyboard, and I'm gonna select a and I'm come over here to the head and I'm gonna click once Now you can see that these busy handles they are talk a ble. You can talk with them on and off if you'd like if they get in the way. But I have a new set of busy handles for this new point. I'm gonna go over here to the transform points tool see on the keyboard and I'm gonna click . I'm gonna drag that point over the side. Now you can see that this whole thing is now distorting And that's because we don't have fixed busy a handles. So if I drag this point around, we don't want everything else being influenced by this. One point. We want this to stay the same. So I'm gonna hit controls on my keyboard toe un dio and then on the transform points will still selected. I'm gonna come over here to this icon and I'm gonna select fix busy a handles. So what this allows me to dio is I'm gonna go ahead and click it. When I dragged this point Now you can see nothing else is affected. Pretty cool, huh? So I'm just gonna drag this over roughly to the corner right here, so we don't really want this guy to have a witches nose. Let's go ahead. Let's fix this busy A just a little bit. So what? I need to dio because this point right here, I just go ahead and I talk about off. This point right here is pretty straight. There's really not any coverage your going on there. So how do we also make that straight? Well, let's say go look again at our busy handles. See this busy handle? It's going just straight off. Let's break that busy handle and let's create it's wholly different shape. So to break this busy handle, you can do this with either transform points or within the curvature tool. Just wherever a busy handle is showing. Go ahead and hit Alz on your keyboard and then left click and then dragged that. So I want this busy handle to follow this same line on this nose and then for this part of the knows. What I want to do is right now there's a curve in it as I go ahead and I use my curvature tool. You can see that it's using this curve. Let's go ahead. Let's take out that curve completely because we're basically working with just corners here and then I'm gonna use tea on my keyboard, and I'm just gonna fix that. Knows part a little bit more there. And there you go. We're basically getting now the shape of the head with the tools and mojo. So that's it for this video. We learned how to make ahead. We learn how to use the shape school. And the ad points told the coverage, a tool that transformed points tool. We learned about busy a handles. Let's go ahead and move on to the next video. 5. Draw the Mouth + Eye + Hair: in this video, we're gonna finish the rest of the head by drying the mouth. I in hair. We're also going to introduce a new tool to use called the Line widths tool. So let's do the same thing for the mouth. Let's use the add points tool and the keyboard, and I'm going to create a point. Now again, these handles, they're starting to get in the way a little bit. So I'm going to go ahead and just turn that off for now. Now I want to create this part of his mouth in here. It gets a little bit more complex, so I need a few more points right now. I just have one point. So if I used to have in the keyboard transform points and I try to drag that over, you can see it's not giving me the result that I want. What I need to do is I need to create another point. So I'm gonna select and the keyboard for an ad point tool, and I'm just going to click, and I'm just gonna drag that to the corner. And now we got this really weird curve going on. What I like to do whenever I'm drawing in. Mojo is I always like to use sharp corners, so I actually toggled this sharp corner on. So to fix this, I'm gonna hit, see on the keyboard. And I'm sure just like this point, I'm just gonna click and drag left, and I'm going to the same thing. Click and drag left. And there we go. We're back to using straight corners, etc. On the keyboard. Just fix that corner a little bit there. Okay, so now we got this part of the mouth right here. We know that now we need more points in order to get the shaped of work. So what? I'm going to use them to get a A on the keyboard and I'm gonna click, and I'm gonna drag to that point, I'm gonna create another point, right about round here. It doesn't really matter where I'm just gonna hit a on the keyboard, click and drag, and then and the keyboard click and drag. So do you see what I'm doing? I'm just bringing those points to the different corners. So now we just basically have a point in every single corner. That's the drying tools. When you're using the vector tools and mojo. It takes a little bit to get used to. But I find these tools really cool and I've gotten used to them, and I've been able to create a lot of cool stuff with these Driesell's. Okay, so now that we got our head and we got our mouth, let's go ahead and create the I layer. So technically, I could build this into the same layer, but I want to start introducing how to use different layers. So let's go to a new layer and let's create a vector layer called the I layer. Now, if layers is important that you stack them in the correct order with this I If this I layer was behind the head, I wouldn't be able to see the eye itself. So I'm gonna keep the eye on top of the head. Gonna come over here is the ad point tool, and I'm simply going to create two points. I'm gonna create a point by clicking once left, clicking and dragging, and I'm gonna drag over to this other corner there. Now you can see, as I created this that there's not an auto fill in on a stroke or anything, and that's because it's not a close shape. If I go ahead and then I create a few more points and I close the shape you can see that's automatically going to create those things. But that's OK. I just want to leave it just like that for now. So the next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select somewhere in the middle here of this I and I'm gonna create a point and I'm gonna drag it down to right about there. So it's about halfway centered in this stroke. The next thing that I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hit see on the keyboard for my curvature tool , and I'm going to left, click and drag to the right and I'm gonna create a curvature. Now, right here you can see that the curvature got tweaked a little bit. So fix that. Just simply just drag left or right with the curvature tool. And now we have a good U shaped going on there. Now, the next panel that we're gonna look at is the fill panel. Right now we just have a vector line. This has nothing to If I go ahead and I render the so awful are you can see that that line doesn't even show up. That's because there's nothing on there. There's no stroke. There's no Phil. So what we want to do is we want to create this into a shape, remember? Like the rectangle. It was a shape. So everything was enclosed and was able to create a filling stroke for this vector line. It doesn't create anything. So we got I tell the software that we want this to be a shape. So to do that, I'm gonna come over here to the fill tool. I'm gonna hit the create shaped tool or you on the keyboard, and then I'm gonna come in, select the shape. Now, when I selected this tool, you can see it gives me more options. I have the ability when I create the shape to add a fill a stroke or both. Right now, I'm just gonna leave both selected. Even though we're not creating a Phil, we're just using a stroke because it's not a close shape. And then I'm gonna hit, create shape or answer on the keyboard. And now we have our shape. So to make the shape look more closer to the shape that we have. Now, let's go ahead and just see what it looks like. What I wanted use. I want to taper the ends and I want to add a thicker stroke to the center. I'm going over here to the line wits tool W on the keyboard and I'm gonna click and I'm gonna drag. And as you can see, we got a little bit more of that I shape that we have when we come over here to these corners and I'm just going to thin them out a little bit more using t on the keyboard. I'm just going to move them more into the corner. So it's a little bit closer to the actual shape, and that looks pretty good. The next thing that we're gonna do is we're gonna create the hair so this layer is gonna go below the head. I could either create a layer and then just click and drag it down wherever it is or if I create a layer below the head layer. It's also gonna put that layer below it as well. So I'm gonna go ahead and create new vector layer and I'm gonna call this hair. And before we forget, right click this tab or go to file and then hit Save, Always remember to save. Okay, so now we're gonna do something similar that we did with this. I I'm first going to show you the first strand, and then I want you to do the next three yourself. So on this hair layer, making sure that it selected I'm gonna come over here and with a on the keyboard. I'm gonna create my ad point by now, he should be getting familiar with the keyboard shortcuts. I'm just gonna create point here, really close to this point that I just created. I'm gonna click again and I'm gonna create another point. And as you can see what this kid to do, it's gonna connect those points together again. This has no stroke or anything connected to it. So I need to create a shape. I'm gonna come over here to create shaped tool you on the keyboard. I'm going toe left click to select enter on the keyboard and there we go. We got another shape. Now the shape does have a little bit of curvature to it. So I'm going to hit see on the keyboard for my curvature tool, and I'm gonna left, click and drag to the right. Fix that right there again. It tweaks a little bit sometimes with the straight points and curvature tools, so you just have to fix that little bit. It's a on the keyboard. Just bring in these corners where they should go. And then I'm going to hit W for the wine with tool. Go ahead and white in the strokes here on his hair. She's gonna move that a little bit, curve it a little bit, and that should be good. Let's go ahead and let's give it a little bit more wits to his hair. I think it needs to be a little bit more thicker, and I'm sure to click and drag that so it's not popping out. I just want to have that. So it's just part of his head. It just kind of goes with the curve there, and that looks good now. Like I said, for good practice, go ahead and create these next few hair strands. Well, I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select this whole layer with the tea on the keyboard. I'm just going to select the line itself. It's gonna select all the points and then I'm gonna hit control C Control V and that's going to copy and paste that hair strand that we just created. And that's it. So we created the rest of the mouth layer we create. The I Layer got familiar more with the ad points tool, the line wits tool. And now we're ready to start working on the body. I'll see you in the next video. 6. Draw the Body + Pants + Mask: in this video, we're gonna create the body layer and his pants using shapes and masks. Okay, so now we're ready to create the body. So let's go over here to our new layer icon and let's select a vector and let's call this body and I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna move this body underneath of everything else, including the hair. The next thing I'm gonna dio is I'm gonna come over to my tools now. Something that I want to mention is if you click on each one of these tools, you're gonna see a little tool description underneath of the tool itself. This is really helpful. And it's good to pay attention to these so you can see what you can do with each one of these tools. So the ad point tool, I'm gonna zoom in here, and I am going to create a point and I'm going to hold down shift and drag. So I created this line right here while holding down shift. Next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come to this point right here, and I'm just gonna left click and I'm going to drag to probably right about here So again, if I'm thinking about the different corners of the different extremes of this body, I want to create a point each of those extremes. So I mean that I'm gonna go back to here. I'm gonna bring this point over. So it's hovering over top 10 hit, enter on the keyboard, You're gonna hear a snap. And that's inaudible cue to let you know that this is snap together and is now a shape. If I go ahead and hit control you and I hide that you can see that I have the shape that's been filled and has a stroke. Now I want to add an extra point because I want this character to bend forward and backward just a little bit. So I'm gonna come here to his back. So it's not just a straight line, and I'm gonna add a point and think of points almost is kind of like joints at the same time or just bending areas. So bending points. So you have his body does get a bend in the front, and then this point in the back, that's gonna bend not just like my curvature tool or see on the keyboard and I'm gonna go ahead to this front part right here, and I'm going around this out. So it's more of a what we had in the original image. And then I'm gonna grab this handle down here, and that looks pretty good. Now, the next thing that we're gonna dio is we're gonna add a new layer for the pants. Now, the pants in the body, they're all gonna be part of the same shape right here. So I'm gonna come over here and create a new layer in Vector, and I'm gonna name this one pants. Now, what I want to do is I want to put the pants and the body inside of the same group. So to do that, I'm gonna have one of these layers highlighted Hold down, shift and left click. And as you can see there, it's highlighting both of those layers. And then I'm going to right click and then hit group with selection. I'm gonna go ahead and call this group body plus pants. So now the next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go back to this pants layer because now we want to create the actual pants and we're gonna do so using a mask. So now I'm going to zoom back out for the pants. I'm gonna create the green Phil. So I'm gonna use my little color palette that I have take my eyedropper tool, hover over and let go. And now I have that pants color, and then I'm gonna come over to the shape tool. It s on the keyboard and I'm gonna select my rectangle. I'm still gonna leave on the auto, fill on the auto stroke, and I'm just gonna go ahead and drag out roughly where that Rex single would be. And as you can see there, it's just a little bit up above it so I can move that down by grabbing the Transformed Point school and then clicking and dragging that down. Now, these don't quite look like pants right now, and that's because we haven't added what's called that mask so masking can get a little complicated. But think of it in its simplest form as a way to make certain layers invisible. So Adam asked, I'm gonna come here to the body plus pants group player, and I'm going to double click and what this is gonna do. It's gonna bring up the settings for this group player. And I'm gonna come here to masking inside of this masking tab. I have the group mask. Currently it set to know masculine this group. What I want to do is I'm gonna hide all meaning for this body shape that we just created. And for these pants, I want to hide everything outside of it. So I'm gonna go ahead and hit. Apply. So now I'm gonna hit control you on the keyboard to hide the tracing image. And right now, the display kind of looks a little off. It makes it look like nothing's exactly quite the Samos faras the strokes. And it looks like there's strokes missing down here. But if you hit control our new keyboard and you render it out, you should see what it should look like. So in this case, we made this pants layer basically invisible from everything outside of the body layer. So what I need to do now is I need to go into the body layer mean a double click, bring up its settings, go into the masking tab, and now I want to exclude the strokes so I want everything to stay invisible besides the strokes. So that's what that means. So go ahead and check that and then hit, apply and okay. And now you to see that those strokes came back again. It looks like the width is a little bit different, but it's not. If you zoom in, it gets a little bit more clear. It's just kind of a display difference that you see there. So if I hit, control are again, you can see now this is fully rendered out and it looks great. And that's it. That's all that we're gonna do in this video. We're just gonna create the pants and the body and the mask I'll see in the next video. 7. Draw the Arms: in this video, we're gonna draw the arms of our character, Orville, using simple shapes, I'm gonna hit control you on my keyboard to bring back in that tracing image. Now, you can probably already see what shape this is gonna be. We got rectangle here. We got some circles and then we got some nobles, and that's really what it is. So wanted me to do is I'm gonna create a new layer and it's gonna go above the I layer. So I'm just like the i layer go to new layer and selective vector, and then I'm gonna come here. I'm gonna call it Arm F for front and with that layer selected, let's go over to the shape school s on the keyboard. I have my auto fill auto stroke on to create a rectangle. Go ahead and drag that out. And then because this is an arm, I want to create an elbow and I want to create the joint where it bends. So I'm gonna come here about halfway on this elbow hit and the keyboard. Teoh, create my add points, going to create a point here in a point here. The next thing I'm gonna dio inside of this arm layer is I'm gonna create the hand to do that. I mean, it s on the keyboard for the select shapes, and now I'm gonna grab an oval. Now, by default, it's an oval. But if I hold down shift, it's gonna create and constrained to make it a circle. And one thing that I just saw is we need to update our filth. So this is gonna be a really good opportunity to show you the select shaped tool because the shape is already created. We now need to select that shape to change the color. So to do that, I'm going over here to the fill panel and I'm going to select the select shaped tool or Q on the keyboard. Now, as you can see, there it has this shape selected, and it shows the color here and here, so disliked that shape. I'm simply just gonna left click it now. This made to be difficult to see with the Tracy image. So let's go ahead and start all that off. So control you and there we go. We have a way that we can see that that shape is now selected. You can also come over here to the checker selection and check that on. And that also gives you another way that you can see if something is selected. And then what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come over here to this eyedropper tool and I'm gonna click, and I'm going to release here to create that arm color and then going back to s on the keyboard. I'm also going to make sure that that shape is already the correct color. And it is gonna hit control you on the keyboard to bring back that Tracy an image. And let's go ahead, trace that image. So I'm gonna hold down s on the keyboard to create a circle something else that Aiken Dio to keep the circle contained from where I am drawing. I can hold down Ault and then shift and then drag so there's a couple ways you can do it. But if it's hard to remember all that, just know that holding down shift and dragging down creates a circle. So we'll just use that I'm gonna hit, see on the keyboard. And now I'm going to move that. So it's basically where we need it. I'm gonna hit s again on my keyboard to select the shape. And now I'm gonna create ovals. So I'm gonna create these fingers right here. So let's go ahead and let's drag out one oval really quick. And that looks pretty good. I mean, hits he on the keyboard, and I'm going to go ahead and drag it over. So where this is roughly and then using the transform points tool, I'm gonna go ahead and rotate that. You can see it's a little bit bigger. So let's go ahead and let shrink it down using this node where the double arrow showing lets me know that I can scale it down and let's go ahead and drag that into place. And that looks pretty good now from there. Just like what? We did it. The hair I couldn't just hit control C control V to copy. If you want to recreate that shape and keep practicing that yourself, you can go ahead and do that. The last tool we're gonna use in this video is what's called the Hyde edged tool. And it does basically what it sounds like. So if I come over here to the fill panel and I select this icon right here. This is my hide edge tool and all it says right here. Click on edge to hide or to show it. So I'm gonna bring back my tracing image. And I wanted to look like the image before, so I'm actually gonna click one of these points here. I'm just gonna drag these in and I'm gonna drag these points in. So all I did is I just took the Transform Point school, and I just clicked those points, going to do the same thing over here. That way, when I hide these edges, it's hidden within that hand before it was out here. So if I hid that edge, you can see what it looks like when I render this. It has that space right there where it has no stroke. So what I wanted to do is I wanted to take and drag those points to that hand and then, with my hide edge tool h on the keyboard, I'm gonna hide that edge. Gonna hide this edge. So something you may have noticed is the actual shape order of these different shapes I created. If we're thinking about perspective. This finger is actually gonna be behind this finger as well of this finger being behind this finger. Soto, order these shapes. What I'm gonna do is I'm gonna use the select shaped tool, and I'm going to select the shape and simply hit down arrow on my keyboard. See that it now has that shaped blow the other one. And I want to make sure that this shape is blow this one. So I'm just gonna quickly just drag this one over top, Okay? That one is not below. So I'm gonna select this shape Q on the keyboard. And I mean, click the up arrow. So now it's going to be up and I'm gonna grab the shape one more time, and now I can see that it's under the other shape there, and I'm just going to tweet this a little bit, so it just looks a little bit better. So if I wanted to, I can come in here and I can fix this shape a little bit and that looks pretty good. It's not perfect. And that's because we're using shapes. So if you wanted to use the outpoint soul, you can get in there and refine it a little bit more, and it won't have this curvature to it. This is just a really quick and easy way to show you how to create this hand by just using shapes. And that's it for this video. I know. Right now, things look a little off. But don't worry. We're gonna fix that at the very end. Right now, we're just gonna create the shapes. We're gonna get everything in there, and then we'll go back and we'll refine as the last video of this section so that we can get this character looking just like the original. I'll see in the next video. 8. Draw the Arms: Okay, so now that we got the front arm layer, it's gonna be really easy to create that back arm. So let's go ahead. And with this arm selected, go to this icon right here to duplicate the layer and go ahead and hit duplicate. And now I'm gonna name this arm back and the next time to do so that I can see this arm is I'm actually gonna hide the body so I could see that better. Now this arm is right on top of the other layer. So to move that out of the way, I'm gonna use my transform points will make sure that it selects everything to select everything. I'm gonna hit control a on my keyboard that's disliked all points. Or if you come up here to edit, select all that's gonna select all the points within that layer. Now, with all those points selected, I'm gonna hit shift on my keyboard and what this is going to do it it's gonna constrained my movement horizontally and also vertically, which is really handy. So I'm gonna hold down shift and I'm gonna left click, and I'm gonna drag over roughly to where that other hand would be. Now what I want to do is I want to hide the tracing image. So I'm gonna take control you to hide that, and I'm gonna take a look at this hand. So now the perspective has changed, but we also need add a thumb. So I'm gonna use the select shapes tool I'm gonna hit s on the keyboard. It's gonna select that shape. It's already the correct Phil, and I'm just gonna drag out an oval, And now it's gonna be opposite for everything else. I'm gonna hit Q on the keyboard for the select shaped tool. And I'm gonna bring this all the way to the front to bring a shape all the way to the front or bring it all the way to the back. Simply hold down shift and then the up arrow or the down arrow. So I'm gonna hold down, shift and hold up, and this is gonna bring that shape all the way up, and then I'm gonna bring this shape all the way to the back. So now the perspective has changed, and then this one is going to stay in the middle. Now I'm gonna go into this shape here and I'm gonna bring back the stroke, and I'm gonna mess with this a little bit to make it look a little bit better. So to do that, let's go ahead and let's just drag a point. It's probably about right there. We might need to shrink that down a little bit and then hit H on the keyboard to bring in our hide edge tool to hide that. So it's gonna need a little bit of fixing there, but this is gonna be hidden with the thumb, so I'm just gonna go ahead and bring that thumb over top. So let's go ahead and select that with the transform points tool. I'm just selected in the middle and selecting. I usually select everything. I don't want to hit control A in this situation because I just want to select the thumb. If for some reason it's difficult to select, you can come here to the Select Points tool or G on the keyboard. Now, with this tool, you have an option to select with either a rectangle or you come here to the lasso mode and select certain points. It's totally up to you what you want to use. Sometimes it's better to use one than the other. Right now, I'm just gonna use the select shaped tool hit see on the keyboard and hold down shift and just constrained this to the movement This way. So now we have another situation where we want to move the shape up, So this thumb is gonna be on top of all of the shapes. So I'm gonna hold down, shift and up on the up arrow, and then I'm going to select the hide edged tool. I'm gonna go ahead and hiding edge there, and I'm just gonna tweak this a little bit. I'm going to select this point up here. We're gonna bring this over, so feel free to change these hands to how you want. This is just a really quick way to make hands because hands gonna actually pretty complicated anatomically So that is it. We created both the arm layers that both rates ago. We went over the Hyde edge tool. Right now, things still look a little off. Let's go ahead and bring her image back in in our body and pants. So things are still looking off. They don't look quite the way that the original image looks like. But we will clean all that up so that it looks just like the image that we're using. What is it for this video I'll see in the next one? 9. Draw the Legs: in this video, we're gonna draw the front leg and foot of our character or Bill. Okay, So one of the first things that I'm going to dio is I'm gonna hide both the arms that we created. I Then I'm gonna come here to the group body layer, select it and create a new vector layer. I'm gonna go ahead and label this layer leg f for the front leg. The next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hit s on the keyboard. I'm gonna zoom in here with my mouse right click to Pan, and I am going to draw out roughly where his leg would go. So this is a rectangle that we're gonna be drawing. So I'm gonna select my rectangle tool, and I'm gonna go ahead and draw out our rectangle roughly and then using this select points tool G on the keyboard going to go ahead and select just those two points right there. It see on the keyboard to translate, and I'm gonna translate those points so that they line up just a little bit better with the leg that we're tracing. The next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go to my ad point tool A on the keyboard, and I'm gonna figure out roughly where his knee would be. I'm gonna come down here about halfway on the leg and I'm gonna put his knee right about there. Now, the next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna create a new layer for the foot. So let's go ahead and go to New Vector and we'll call this foot front. But first, what I want to do is I want to come here to my styles palette, and I want to make sure I have the right style selected for the fill. So I'm gonna come here and I'm gonna select this red fill. And then when I draw out my rectangle, it should have the correct Phil. The next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna take this point right here and using the translate point school. I'm gonna go ahead and bring this over to his ankle and then using are busy acres. I'm gonna go ahead and select this point hit see on the keyboard, and I'm gonna go ahead and bend this out, break the handle by making the straight with the foot and then I'm going to give this a little bit of a bed. Now I can see that this line. I wanted to make sure that it lines up exactly with everything, but we'll go ahead and we'll clean that up in the very last video of this section. So for right now, that's pretty much it for this leg. If you wanted to add some points in here to say, if you want to add it a foot in some Oh, bones. So that the token, Ben, you can totally do that in this example. I want to keep it as easy as possible, so I won't be adding like any bones to the fingers. So I'm not worried about additional points there nor in the feet. It's the next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come here to the front foot in the leg, and I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna select both of those holding down shift and clicking on the next layer. Right click and come here with group selection. No, I'm just gonna call this leg plus foot front, so I know what that group is. And then with this group selected, I'm gonna go ahead and duplicate the layer. And I'm just going to call this back and then I'll take this layer that we just create it and with the layer transform tool because now we're working with the group, so all we can do is move the layer. I can't select points anymore. I'm gonna go ahead and hold on shift and I'm gonna click here in the leg layer. And I'm gonna constrained this so that it moves over there. I'm gonna try that line that up as best I can. So right about there and that is it for now. So right now I know that the arm and the leg hair out of place. But that's the whole part that I want to go over in. The last video is cleaning everything up and just making sure all our layers are in perfect order. So that's it for this video. All we did is we just created too simple shapes. We created basically a rectangle for the leg and erect, Single for the foot added some points and we got herself some legs. I'll see in the next video 10. Refining the Character Design: All right, We have come to the last video of the section. If you made it this far. Awesome job. You pretty much have a character design. At this point. You can do whatever you'd like to make the Orville character your design. I highly recommend it getting all design choices before rigging, which we start on in the next section. So this last video is just for refining, making sure everything's group properly and everything is in the right place. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go ahead. I'm gonna hide the color palette, and I'm gonna hide the tracing image, and I'm just gonna focus on the image itself. I'm gonna bring back the arms, and I'm just gonna go ahead and start fixing this up so we can get this to look nice. So first off, I'm going to start with the head. I'm gonna go ahead and zoom into the head. Now, what we want to do with this head is we don't want any sharp corners actually in any of the parts of the body that are gonna be rotating, we don't want any sharp corners. What I'm gonna do is I'm going to go ahead and take this point right here, and I'm gonna bring it up to the level of this point. So just like this point, the transfer points tool hold on shift. And I'm just gonna pull this up a little bit. The next thing that I'm gonna do something at a new point on this head it see on the keyboard to transform that point down, and I'm sure to go ahead and hold down, shift and drag that down. The next thing is, I'm gonna hit see on the keyboard for the curvature tool. And I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna curve that out. So what I want to do again is I just want to create this smooth type of curvature here in the head. The next thing I want to do is I'm gonna hide the edges of this head. So I'm gonna go ahead and hit H on the keyboard and I'm gonna hide this edge, and I'm gonna hide this edge. Next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select this arm right here. This is the arm front. Go ahead. I'm going to create a new point right here on the shoulder, It's he on the keyboard, and I'm gonna push that up, going around it out as well. And then I'm gonna hide those edges as well. I'm gonna do the same thing down here on this part of the arm to go ahead and hit a on the keyboard. Create a new point. Drag that point and I'm gonna smooth that out. Now, I'm gonna go ahead and let you do the other arm. Once you have other arm finished for that arm back, go ahead and drag it behind completely behind the body. So the arm should be the furthest thing away from the body. The next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come here to the front leg. I'm gonna go ahead and hide the front arm for now. So I'm gonna come here to the group layer. I'm gonna go ahead and expand the group player and I'm going to select the front leg and then I'm gonna come up here and I'm gonna add a new point. And I mean, it's a on the keyboard. When push that up, kind of move that towards the middle, and I'm also going to curve that out once that sun, I'm gonna go ahead and hide those edges, and then I can see it's kind of poking out a little bit. So I'm gonna take that whole layer for the leg and the front foot, and I'm gonna go ahead and hit em on the keyboard, and I'm just gonna push that over to push it over by pixel. Where you conduce with the transform layers selected is you can hold down control and hit the right arrow on your keyboard to push that over. I'm gonna go ahead and hit control are to make sure that that straight. Perfect. So now we got some pretty straight lines going all the way down. The last part would be to make sure that the foot itself is also lined up. So I'm gonna go ahead and select the foot layer itself specifically, and I'm gonna go ahead and select that whole entire foot and then move it over with control and the right arrow. Go ahead and hit Control are all right. That's perfect. So do the same thing with back foot as well. And then once you're done with that back foot, go ahead and move that whole group player behind the body, but in front of the back arm. So now I'm gonna hit control are Just make sure everything looks good there and again As far as this whole front portion, everything looks good. Everything looks just how I want it. Teoh. It's all gonna make sense Why we designed it the way that we did. The one last thing I can see right here is the hand. Now, the first thing you notice when we at a point right here is you got to notice that it's getting a shape in a little bit, so we'll have to fix that. But I'm gonna add a point right there. And, I mean, also at a point right here. And I'm actually gonna delete the center point right here by selecting the point and then hitting the delete key on my keyboard. So now what? I'm gonna uses the busy A handles in order to smooth that out, to make it look more rounded at the top there and also all around, I'm gonna bring those points in a little bit more because what we're gonna do is we're gonna hide this edge right here, so that That hand doesn't have that line running through it. All right, That is it for this section. Well done at creating your character. We're gonna move on to the next section where we're gonna go over rigging. I'll see you there. 11. Select Shape Tool: in this video, we're gonna talk about the select shaped tool when drying in mojo with the vector drying tools you're using points, lines and curves. When those points are connected, they former shape A shape consists of a stroke, a fill or bull. So in this video, I want to talk about the difference between the select shape school and the select points tool, as they are two different things right off the bat. Dislike shaped tool gives you the ability to select and change the width, color and style of the shape, whereas the select points tool selects just the point or points of the shape, allowing you to resize, rotate or translate that shape. Let's use an example. Say we want to change the color of his pants. First thing I will do is select the specific layer I want to change the color of, in this case, also like the pants layer. With that layer selected, I'm now gonna go over to the fill tool option and click on the select Shape icon or Q on the keyboard, with both the layer and the slick shaped tool selected, I'm gonna left click on the pants. I want to change. You'll see now that there's a rectangle around the pants, letting me know that the shape is selected. Now, I can either change the stroke or the fill of the pants I just selected by coming up to the Phil or the stroke option. I can also change the with and even at a Grady into the Phil, which we will cover in the background design section. I can change any shape style just like this. By selecting the layer, I want to change the shape of selecting the shape tool, clicking on the shape of that layer and changing the style and the style palette. And that is all for the select shaped tool. I hope that it is more clear in terms of its function and how it is used real. Now move on to the next section, where we will rigor character and I'll see there 12. Organize for rigging: in this section, we're gonna rigor entire character, step by step using bones. One of the first things we need to do in order to get started is to create a bone group. So to create a bone group, I'm gonna go up here to the new layer and I'm gonna select a bone layer. I'm gonna go ahead, name this bone, Orville, I'm gonna click this hot player, hold down, shift and click the bottom layer, and I'm gonna drag that all into that bone group that we just created called Orville. Now you're going to know that that's all inside of that group because it's going to indent as shown then what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna appear to the duplicate layer icon, and I'm gonna go ahead and duplicate that layer. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to separate this character out into its different layers because it's going to be easier to rig this type of character because it's in 3/4 trying to rig bones over top of bones like here on the legs. It can get really messy. I am going to have this, Orville to as reference. I'm gonna go ahead and select this bone group and separate out its layers. So I'm gonna go ahead and expand the group and let's go ahead and let's start with the very first layer and work our way down. So our front arm, let's go ahead and hold down shift And with em on the keyboard, the transform layer I'm just gonna move that out to the left. The I ahead and hair. Let's go ahead and put that into its own group player. I'm just like all those layers by clicking and holding down shift and then I'm to right click and I'm gonna go to group with selection and I'm gonna go ahead and name this group layer head, go ahead and collapse that layer down and we'll just zoom out a little bit and holding down em. I'm gonna drag that head off, holding down shift, making sure everything's being constrained to one spot there, and that looks pretty good. So I just wanted everything separated enough so one you can see what's gonna be called the parenting the bone parents, and you can see how everything's parented but to just so we can keep everything nice and clear So the next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come here. It's the leg plus front foot right here. And I'm gonna go ahead and drag that to the left. I'm gonna leave the body plus pants, this layer right here. I'm gonna leave that exactly where it's at. I'm gonna grab the leg foot back, and I'm gonna move that to the right, and I'm gonna move this arm out to the right. So by the end, it should look something like this. I could probably bring that head in a little bit closer. So something like that. So everything's all nice and separated. So that'll get us ready for the next part of the rigging video where we're gonna add bones . I'll see in the next video. 13. Add Bones: okay. And this video, we're ready to start adding bones to our character. So now we're going to be introduced a completely new tool set, and this is gonna be our bones panel. Now, this dynamically changes as we select the bone layer. So if I select the vector layer, you're gonna see that everything's gonna change for the vector tools. But as I select the bone group, you can see everything's dynamically changing. So the first hole that we're gonna use from this bone panel is called the ad bone tool. If you need any tips, be sure to take a look at the tool tip section here. So I'm gonna come to right about here on this character, and I'm gonna create my first bone simply by clicking and dragging out a bone. Now I can constrain this bone the same way vertically or horizontally so I'm gonna hold down shift to constrain this horizontally and I'm gonna drag out my route bones from right about there. So the root bone is basically the parent of all the bones. So all the bones are eventually going to link back to this one bone. So when you move the character around. This is the bone that you want to use to move the entire character. And the reason why we create this room bone like this is so that it's easy to pick up and move around. The next bone I'm gonna create is the backbone. So right now you can see that the bone is red. That lets me know that this bonus currently selected this is the parent. Any bone that I draw after this is what's known as the child. And I'll explain that as I go. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna create the child bone, which is gonna be the back bone. So I'm gonna hold down shift and very close to where this bone was. I'm gonna go ahead and drag out my backbone now, right off the bat, there's gonna be bone snapping, which is going toe link. These two end bones together. This is actually really handy, especially when we get to see using target bones. The next thing that we're gonna do is we're gonna create a bone up here, and I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna pick a spot right about here. And I'm just gonna hold down shift and create my new bone. So with these bones, something to keep in mind is where you first draw out your bone. Where it ends up sometimes doesn't matter as much. So when I created this bone, this bone acts as a rotation point. As we bind our characters so that everything works a lot more efficiently. You'll see exactly what these bones dio. But just know that where your first connecting these bones is important and it's gonna be especially important here in the arms. So let's go ahead. And let's select this backbone, because what we want to do is you want a parent, the arms to this torso bone. So think about your own structural anatomy. Think about where things are connected. Your arms aren't connected to your head. They're connected back to your torso. So let's go ahead and select this bone by holding Ault on the keyboard and left clicking. And, as you see here, that's one of the tool tips toe all to select a bone. There's also a select bone tool. Now this basically does the same thing. That's just a quick shortcut, but the select bone tool is right here. This does come in handy, and we will be using it. And that is be on the keyboard. So making sure we're honor add bones school. I'm gonna go ahead. I'm gonna drag out a shoulder. But now with this, I'm gonna go ahead and zoom in and again, it's important where I put this rotation. It doesn't make sense that put my top of my bone up here because the shoulder is rotating right there. Think about your shoulder and where it rotates and hovering over the army to go ahead and drag out a shoulder bone and then something I need to be mindful of and this is something will fix as we go is where is the points were created, that elbow joint where that arm is gonna bend. So it's gonna be somewhere right around there. I can't see it right now, but I'm gonna go ahead and drag out the rest my arms. So I'm gonna drag out the forearm and same thing, holding down shift and dragging down to drag down the other arm. Now I'm gonna go ahead and do the same thing to the other side. I first want to select all on the keyboard and then drag out the same bones as the other side. Now, the next bone that we're gonna create is the pelvis bone for this whole pants area down here. So I'm gonna select the route bone with Ault, and I'm gonna create another bone right here and again. All of this is connecting to this one route bone right there. The next thing I'm gonna dio and this is going to make sense for this character, it might not make sense for all your characters. I'm going to bind my legs to this pelvis bone. So with this bone still selected, I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna drag out a bone for the front leg here. I'm gonna drag one down there and again trying to keep it in mind where those points are for that knee. I think it's somewhere right about there. And then I'm gonna drag out a bone right there for the foot. Now again. Like I said before in your design, this is where it matters where you would kind of need to think of. Okay, my could have toes. In this case, I don't have toes for this character, so I just drew out those one bone. Now, go ahead and select your pelvis and do the same thing to the other side. Okay, Awesome. Now, after you have done that, go ahead and select the repair int bone tool right here. And make sure your parents in is exactly what you see here on my screen again. With this room bone, everything should be pointing back or linking back to this main route bone. So again, we covered the ad bone tool we covered how to create bones with that ad bones hole. We talked about the route bone. We talked a little bit about parenting with the bones and the next video. We're gonna Neymar bones, and I'll see there. 14. Naming Bones: all right. In this video, we're gonna start naming our bones. Now, I think it's important for you to fall along with this particular video and get your bone structure the same name. So I'm gonna try to make this video as quick as possible, but as clear as possible to show you what I'm naming these bones. So to do this come up here to the bone panel, click on the Select Bone Tool, and I'm simply going to click on a bone and appear to give me a field to type in a name. I'm gonna go ahead. I'm just gonna name this route that I mean, come up here and I'm gonna name this back. Go to the head here. Name ahead for this arm here. I'm just gonna go name this arm front because we wanted to see English the To. And then I'm gonna name this forearm front and will do hand front, and then you'll name the exact bones on this side. But for the back, come here to this Bono's Go ahead and name this pelvis thigh front. Name this bone ankle front. And lastly, we'll do foot front again. Just a short quick video. Just make sure we have the naming the same. I'm gonna go ahead and do the same for this side after end this video and I'll see in the next one. 15. Flexi Binding Arm: in this video, we're gonna bind our character the bone, using a few different methods and talk about bone strength. Before we begin working on the character, it would be good to first go over what is bone binding. So when you first crave bones, you will notice that they don't exactly work the way you think they would. That is because by default, bones have bone strength which influences or moves what is around it. But we need to tell mojo specifically what layers or points. We want those bones to move. So there are three different types of binding methods. We will talk about each one why they're used and how to use them. So the first binding method I want to focus on is flexing binding. Now, this allows you to take a set of bones and isolate the bone strength or influence from the rest of the rig. This is the fastest and easiest way to bring your character life. So the best example for this is gonna be these arms. So I'm gonna do the front arm. So what you want to do to use the flexi binding method is you want to select the layer. So the layer that I want to connect to these three bones is the arm front layer. The next thing I'm gonna dio is I'm gonna come over to this panel here. Now you can see that some things are changed a little bit, so I not only have my draw tools and I'm on a vector layer, but I know how this new tool palette right here for bone. Now, this gives me the option to select a bone. It's a manipulated bone to bind a layer or buying points. Right now, what I want to do is I want to use the select bone tool or be on the keyboard again. Get in the habit of using keyboard shortcuts. It's really gonna help improve the speed of your workflow. So I'm gonna select the three bones in this arm layer. So I'm gonna click and I'm gonna hold down Shift left, click and left. Click. Now, with those three bone selected, I'm now gonna flexi buying those in the bone menu. So you come up here to bone and you selected bones for a flexi by new. Now you can see that these air now flexi bound because all three of these bones now have this thicker highlight on them. If you go back to this bone menu, you can also see. And I highly suggest, get into the habit of using keyboard shortcuts is control Shift F instead of having to go to the menu and select at each time. Now what we're gonna use is the manipulate bones tool. Again. You can manipulate bones either on the specter layer with this tool here, or we can go back to the bone layer and we could manipulate it with this tool. Here. It's the same thing, and the keyboard shortcut is the same. It Z again get used to using that keyboard shortcut. So let's go ahead and manipulate this arm that we just bound. Now you can see as I use this manipulation, everything's all wonky. But now let's take a look at the difference between this manipulation. See, it's a little bit more clean than this one. That's because this is bone strength. Bone strength is basically what tells the bones to influence here. We don't have any sort of binding. We just have that strength here. We have binding and strength. This just basically takes the general region and says, OK, I need to move whatever is in this area. Well, we did is we took and we isolated that bone strength. That's why if I move this leg right here, you can see that it's affecting this arm. But it's not affecting this arm because we now have this bound. So now nothing else will influence it. And if I hit see on the keyboard, this is gonna bring me to my transform bone tool, and this is basically going to reset everything. Right now, I'm on frame zero, and everything is just kind of a testing area right now. So what I want to do is I want to make sure that this arm is bending properly. So again, let Z on the keyboard from Manipulate Bones Tool and let's go ahead and move this. Now there's a couple of things that's wrong right off the bat. This arm looks terrible and we can fix that by just in the bone strength. So let's do that. Let's come here to this icon right here for the bone strength tool and click on that. And now let's drag left and right and you can see how this bone strength is basically affecting this arm. Now, a good amount of bone strength right off the bat is just enough to cover the vector layer itself. So I'm gonna reduce this Ah, whole lot. The next thing that I want to make sure of is that the arm right here as I move it backwards and Ford's is not affecting anything here. I don't want this be moving at all. So let's say I have a lot of bone strength right now and you can see as I manipulate and I move this around, it's actually moving the entire arm. You don't want that. It's gonna give you a lot of work in the long run to fix. So make sure that nothing is being influenced here. If things are moving in a distorting down here, that's not as big of an issue as if things are moving up here. So I'm gonna go ahead. I'm gonna de select that. I'm just gonna go ahead, reduce that a little bit and okay, so we're in a better spot. Nothing up here at this pivot is moving. You can see the artworks moving back and forth a little bit, and that's totally fine. But as long as this isn't moving out position, we're in a lot better shape now with this character, I want to give him some loose, flexible arms, and right now they're just jagged straight corners. Now, this actually had to do with our design stage. So in our design, we actually had straight edges. What I want to do is I want to create curved edges or curve points. So let's go back to the arm front layer and let's select thes two points that we created to select those points. PRETTY is the select point tool, and I'm gonna go ahead and select those two points right there. And now what I want to dio is go to my curvature point tool and smooth out that arm. So I'm gonna go ahead and select this tool right here. Now we're gonna see is you go back to your bone group and you hit Z on the keyboard for your manipulate bones is now we have a more bendy. It's not so much that straight corner anymore, but also something you probably saw as I went to the design stage is Now, if I go back to this arm, you can see that my bone placement for this bone right here where it would be rotating does not match at all Where that elbow is so right now, keeping in mind where that bone is, I'm gonna come right back up here to the bone layer, and I'm going to select the bone with be on the keyboard. The next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hit t on the keyboard and this is going to give you my transform bone. Now I'm on frame zero here so I can move these bones anyway, I want. Even after I had already laid out these bones. So again, the points were right there and what I can do to kind of give myself more of a better reference. I can come here to the Slayer, right click it hit quick settings and then select paths. Now pass is going to show me my points even if I'm not on the actual layer. So let's go back to the phone. Now. You can see I have a clear idea where that elbow is, so let's go ahead. And with t on the keyboard on that transformed bone tool. Let's go ahead and move that up. Now I'm gonna hold down shift to constrain everything, and I'm just gonna bring my point to write about their. So now when I connect to this forearm bone said this arm bone, it's gonna snap right in place. So I'm just gonna drag that and snap. You can see that it stops right in place there, and then I come down here again. The bone is gonna be attached, the other bone because this is a parent child relationship, so anything underneath of it is going to be controlled by the parent. So what I want to do is I'm gonna go ahead and drag this bone down for now, and then I'm gonna take this bone, and I'm going to scale it too, right about there and again, keeping in mind where I want this rotation for this hand. I'm just gonna go ahead and snap it right about there. So now wouldn't we take And we've been this arm you can see we have a little bit better of Ben There. Rigging is a lot of trial and air. Nobody gets it right perfectly at the first time, I I don't get it right the first time. It's trial on marriages to see what works, what doesn't. So right now all we're doing is just figuring out, OK, what do we need exactly? To make this arm move as good as we can. Now, all of this can be fixed with what's called smart bones, which will get into later. But right now, just do what you can with the bone strength to make sure that nothing controls up here, but also so that you can kind of get a decent result in here with the arm. So that is it for this video that is flexing binding. Now that you did that, do the back arm using the same steps we used for the front arm in the next video, we're gonna go over one of the easiest, binding methods known as layer by noon. I'll see you there 16. Layer Binding: in this video worry to go over the layer biting method. This is one of the easiest and straightforward methods. The bone binding layer binding is ideal for multiple layers. That move is one group such as the head. Inside this head, we have the I head and hair layers. Other cases where you might want to use layer binding is for characters or objects that are only rigged with a single bone and no joints or forbid Matt characters. Let's say you drew a character in photo shop and you have different parts of the body like an arm, forearm and hand all on its own lier. You can use layer binding to bind each layer to a bone, so let's go ahead and buy in the group head layer. So the first thing I want to dio is select the layer that I want to buy it. So right here I have the group layer selected. Then what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come over here to the tools palette, and I'm going to select the buying layer icon once that has been selected. Now I'm gonna come over here to the head bone, and I'm gonna click that to select it, and now that head group is now bound to that head bone, and that's it. Now something important. One layer binding a group of layers is that it overrides any and all binding done within those layers. Let's say I decide later zad bones to the hair and then bound my head layer using layer binding. I am no longer going to be able to bind those hair bones unless I move the hair layer outside of the group. Or if I bound the separate layers within the head group and not the head group itself. And that's it. Now the next and last type of bone binding we're going to Dio is called Point binding I'll see in the next video. 17. Point Binding: in this video, we're gonna go over point binding. Now. Point binding is a binding method that gives you more control when you don't want to just buying a layer or wants to use the influence of bone strength through the flexi finding method. So to use this method, I'm gonna come over here to our group. But I'm gonna go ahead and expand that and I'm going to work on this front leg right here. So let's go ahead and let's zoom into this leg and let's like the leg layer. So we have leg and foot front. I'm gonna go ahead and expand that group and for starters, I'm just going to use the leg front. So, as you can see, when I select the layer, I have all the points that are now showing that we have drawn. Now what I'm gonna do is with either be on the keyboard or selecting the select bone tool. I'm gonna go ahead and select the bone of this leg right here, this top bone. So with the five front bone now selected, I now have to decide with point binding. What points is this bone going to control now? I know for this top bone for thinking about this anatomically, it's just going to control this thigh. So then what I'm gonna do is with this layer selected with that bone selected, I'm gonna come over here to the bone panel and I'm gonna select this icon right here, which is buying points or eye on the keyboard. Go ahead and select that. And now what we're gonna see is you're gonna see each one of these bones have a distinct color. And now the reason for this is pretty cool. It's so that you can tell which points are bounds of which bone Now with that icon, select it And that bone selected I'm gonna go ahead and left, click and drag and select those three top points. Now you can see that these points air selected Now, Aiken, bind them. So I'm gonna come up here to the bind points tool or enter on the keyboard. And now those points are bound. So if I hit escape on my keyboard, they're now matching the color of the bone that they're bound to. So let's go ahead and do the same thing with this leg right here, so again. One important thing about Bones is to realize where the rotation point is. The rotation point is right here at the tip of this boat. So I want this bone right here, toe act as the knee joint and the rest of the bone for this leg. So what? I'm gonna do something to use the keyboard shortcut, Ault, I'm gonna hit Ault and I'm gonna click that bone to select it. Or you can use this like, bone tool. And then I'm gonna come over here to the bind points tool and I'm gonna left click, and I'm gonna drag out box over top of those bones. Now, let's say you have something a little bit more complicated. If you want to use a different selection method, you can either click on the last remote here or you can hold down control. And that will give you more control of points that you want to select. So I'm gonna go ahead and against, like, those points come appear to the buying points button. I'm gonna go ahead and click that and then I'm gonna hit, escape to de select those points. And now you can see that I have yellow points that are bound to this yellow bone. So buying points doesn't require any bone strength. It's going to simply be bound to these bones. So what I can do now is I can come back here to the main bone layer and I can hit Z on the keyboard for my transform points tool F for right now, go ahead and ignore the strength that you are seeing. We'll fix that a little bit later for both the point binding and the layer binding. They both don't require bone strength, but for right now, I'm just gonna test this. So I'm gonna grab this top leg here with Z on the keyboard and I'm gonna move it and you can see it's moving totally fine again. Ignore all the different pieces, other moving pieces. That just means that they haven't been bound yet. And then I'm gonna come down here to the bottom of the leg and I'm going to rotate that. We need to add that curvature with our curvature tool. I'm gonna go ahead and rotate that and you can see what it's doing. You can see what points that this bone is bound to just by the rotation on this leg. So again, just like what we did it, the arms go ahead into the leg front, layer itself and let's select those points. So I'm going to use my slick point tool or G on the keyboard. Select those points hit, see on the keyboard, and then I'm gonna come up here and click on the Smith button. So now when I go ahead back to the bone layer and I hit Z on the keyboard and I move this, you could now see it's working just a little bit better. It doesn't look quite as good. And because we can't use bone strength, we don't have any control over the Slayer. And that's actually one of the huge manages of flexi. Binding is you can adjust the bone strength to also adjust the artwork here. I'm gonna come here to the foot now, and I'm going to do the same thing. So I'm going to select the foot front layer, and now I have a little bit different of a decision of what points I want to move. I want these points to stay fairly intact with the rest of the leg because I don't want the whole entire foot rotating at this pivot point here. So what? I'm going to dio with that layer selected with the bone selected I'm gonna come here to the bind points tool and I'm gonna hold control on my keyboard and I'm gonna just like just the points that I want So I want just thes points right here. So with those two points now selected, I'm just like my buying points button and I'm gonna hit escape to de select those points And now I can see that those bones are now bound. But now these points right here aren't bounds anything. So what do I bind those two? Well, let's go ahead and let's test it first to see what it looks like. OK, so it doesn't look quite right. So let's go ahead and select this bone right here for the bottom leg to bind this layer to so I can actually bind more than one layer to the same bone. So what I first need to dio is against, like, the front foot. So the point that I want to bind with that bone selected come here to your bind points icon . Select those points and bind those points. And now what you're gonna see is two different binding selections. You can see that the sole of the shoe are bounds of this bone, whereas the top of the shoe are now balance to the ankle bone. So let's go ahead and let's again test this just to see what it looks like. And you can see that looks a lot better as far as the connection of that foot to the rest of the leg. Now I want you to experiment with point binding or flexi biting on this leg here and just see what gives you the best result. That's the really cool thing about rigging is you can have a ton of different techniques to help you come up with the same solution. It's all a matter of preference and what works best for you. But in the next video, we're going to a combination of all the money methods for the body, and I'll see you there 18. Combination Binding: The last part of the character that we need to bind is the body plus pants layer. At this point, we have gone through all the binding methods. Now let's take a look at the body and figure which of the three binding methods is the best one. So right off the bat, what I like to dio is I like to first apply the flexi by any method, just to see if it alone works, since it's the fastest. So let's come here to the Sioux body bones with beyond the keyboard to select Bone Tool. I'm going to click and I'm gonna hold shift and left click. And then to use the flexi binding method, I'm going to come here to the body layer that we're going to be binding and I'm gonna hit control shift f toe bind that body to those bones. Now let's go back to the bone layer and let's test it. So using Z on the keyboard by manipulate bones, I'm just gonna go ahead and move that around, okay, right off the bat. It doesn't look too bad as far as the body itself. Let's go ahead and fix that corner piece right there. So we have more of a curve for the back. So I'm going to use the keyboard shortcut Ault right click to quickly select the layer. I highly recommend using that keyboard shortcut. And I'm going to select this point here with the select point school G on the keyboard hit see on the keyboard for the curvature tool. And I'm gonna come up here and smooth out that corner. Next, I'm gonna come back to the bone layer and I'm gonna hit Z on the keyboard from our manipulate bones tool And let's go ahead and rotate that once again. Next. What I'm gonna do is I'm gonna all right, click the body layer one more time and I want to move this point down to the pant line. So with this point selected, I'm just gonna hit see on the keyboard for the select points tool And I'm gonna hold down shift on your left, click and drag that point down to that waistline. Get I'm gonna go back to the bone layer hit Z on the keyboard, Manipulate and I'm just gonna go ahead and manipulate that bone again, okay? And as far as the back and everything goes with this body. I think that looks pretty good. Okay, so there is a little bit of volume that is lost when the body moves forward so I can see that there's a bunch of bone strength on this bottom pelvis bone. I'm going. It s on the keyboard for my bone strength. And I'm gonna left click that Pulis bone, and I'm just going to do stop by dragging to the left. Okay, so we got a little bit of that volume back there. I think that looks a little bit better. Let's go ahead. Let's test that again. OK, so that looks a little bit better, but it looks like we just can't quite get what we want with just lexie binding alone. So then what I'm gonna do is I'm going to select the bottom pelvis bone, and then I'm gonna slight the body layer, and I'm actually going to buying points to this layer. So I'm gonna bind this back point and this bottom point to this bottom part of the body layer because that's where the volume is getting lost. When the strength of this backbone polls on the strength of this whole bottom portion of the body. Let's select those two points and go to bind points. And again, let's go back to the bone layer and let's test that, okay? And that already looks a lot better with the volume. So the next thing that we need to do is we need to bind the pants to a bone. So I'm gonna go down and select the pants layer, and I want to bind the layer using the buying layer option. So I'm gonna come here to the bind layer, and I'm gonna select the top backbone so that when the body moves down, let's go ahead and test this with Ziana keyboards. When the body moves down, the pants moved down with it, and that's exactly what I want. And then what I'm gonna do is because there's no bone shrank for point binding. I'm gonna go ahead and hit s on the keyboard and you can see that this bone and also this route bone has bone strength. Neither one of them need to have bone strength, so I'm just gonna like both of them holding down shift with my select bone tool. It s on the keyboard. I'm gonna come here to this value, and I'm gonna type in the number zero had answer. And there you see that both of the boats strength is removed and that's it. Let's go ahead and let's zoom out a little bit And let's just test this one more time. Alright? Awesome. I think that looks pretty good. In the next video, we're gonna put our character back together using the offset bone tool, and I'll see there. 19. Offset bone tool: and this video really is the offset Bone tools put her character back together. Now, as you may recall, we did duplicate the Orville layer. So if I go ahead and I click on this icon, it brings back original character. You can either use this or the tracing image that you have of this character, whichever is best for you. I'm going to go ahead and use the duplicate layer as a reference and I'm gonna drag all these bones back. So we're gonna use the offset bone tool, which is this icon right here. Now, in order to use this tool, what we're gonna do is we're gonna select the parent of each one of these layers. So for the arm, it's gonna be the top of the shoulder for the head. It's just the head itself for the legs. It's the thigh, and we're gonna drag these back using that tool. So I'm just gonna zoom in here just a little bit. And with that bone now selected, I'm just gonna hold down shift to constrain horizontally, and I'm gonna drag that back over where the original arm is. I'm going to do the same thing to the other side on the other arm coming down here to the leg. I'm gonna go ahead and drag that leg back to where it was originally. If you do need to match something up directly, you can zoom in and use control in the left key and the right key on the keyboard. Or if you want to move it by five pixels, you can hit control shift. It's like the other leg. And I'm gonna move that back over and last. I'm gonna grab the head and move that down. Okay? Then I'm just go ahead and hide the other layer. And as I toggle that you can see that pretty much everything is the same. Once you have everything lined up, you can go ahead and delete the duplicate layer. Okay, so now something interesting that you'll notice is when you hit t on the keyboard, everything goes back to its original state. But when I hit Z on the keyboard or my manipulate bones tool, it's gonna bring everything back together that we just moved. Now you could make any changes to this at any time as faras the movement of any of these bones. The last thing that I'm going to do is I'm gonna hit s on the keyboard and I'm gonna go in and I'm gonna remove the bone strength from the different parts of the body that does not need it. So let's start with the head. The head was the layer binding method. So I'm just gonna go ahead and click, and I'm going to select the bone strength and answer zero. You can do the same thing by dragging to the left, but sometimes just know that there might be a little bit of bone strength left over even though you can't see it. So just make sure you watch this number here or just entered the number zero. The next thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna coming down here to the legs. I'm just gonna select all the legs when I hit be on the keyboard for the slick bone tool. It separates everything out. And so I'm just going to click all of those holding down shift. It s on the keyboard is gonna bring everything together, and I'm gonna go ahead, enter a value of zero, but I'm gonna escape the de select. And now this is the last part. This is where I just test things just to see how everything is working. So I'm gonna go ahead and I'm going to start with the arm. One thing that I'm going to do is we had the paths on. I'm gonna go ahead and remove the paths from that arm. So if I come here to the front arm, I'm just going to right click and hit quick settings. And then here the details selection understood. Unchecked pass and hit apply. I'm gonna go back to the bone layer and I'm just going to move the arms out just to see how they're bending and the arms look pretty good. Let's move the head and see how the head is bending. Okay, so the head looks pretty good. You can see what I mentioned before that with corners, it's always good to have smooth parts, but sometimes it's harder to avoid it. So what we can do is we can move this bone because remember, this is going off of the pivot point. So when I rotate this head, this head looks OK, but you can see that there's a sharp corner right there and notice the position of this bone compared to the next bone before it, where this bonus currently rotating this does affect the head movement and also where the body shows. So as you can probably guess, the next shouldn't be all the way down there. So let's go ahead and let's move it up to write about their It's around those lines. So now when I rotate this, you can see that looks a little bit better. It's not quite there yet because we still have a little bit that corner there. Just go ahead and move that bone up just a little bit and over to the left just a little bit. Okay, there, that looks a lot better. And the rest of this part right here can be fixed using a smart bone. This is very easy to fix. Just know that as faras your neck, your neck doesn't really have that wide range of emotion. So also keep that in mind with your animations. They don't have to bend all the way down and all the way back. The last thing that we're gonna test here is just the legs. Just to make sure that the legs are moving properly and they are. And you can see because we have the point binding that those legs, they're getting very, very skinny. And there's nothing that we can control their. So we're also going to make changes to that using the powerful future of mojo called Smart Bones. And that is it for this video. We just moved everything back with the offset bone tool fix our bone strength, looked at the rest of the rig to see if everything is moving perfectly. Now we move on to the next video to go over Smart bones, I'll see you there. 20. Smart Bones: in this video, we're gonna cover one of the most powerful features of the bone rigging system in mojo called Smart Bones. Smart Bones is an incredible feature that reduces or entirely removes distortion around your characters joints in our case, the head and legs to get started, goto windows and select actions to bring up the actions window if it isn't open already. Next thing is to make sure you're on a bone group layer to be able to create a smartphone. If you have a bone selected when you create a new action, Mojo will automatically assign the same name as the bone to the new action. So in this case, we'll start with the head, select the head bone and come over to this icon here where says New Action. Now we have created a new action called Head, and it has this icon next to it. So let us know it's a smartphone action that we have created double click on the action you just created. Now, two things will let us know that we have successfully created a smartphone. The head bone itself will have a thick red highlight, as you see, and also the timeline will turn blue, leading us now we're creating a smartphone. Select the transform bone tool in the tools panel and rotate the bonus faras. You expect it to move now. We're gonna fix the points of the neck. To fix the distortion, expand the bone group player and select the head layer with the transform points tool. Moved the points in the head to fix the distortion. Next, with the curvature tool, used the busy handles to fix the curvature of the neck to your preference. Once completed, DoubleClick the main timeline to back out of the smartphone timeline. So test the smartphone you made using the manipulate bones tool. When you rotate the bone toward that angle, it will automatically pick up the action you just created. Now that we have created a smartphone for one direction, let's create another smartphone for the other direction. For the head, go to the bone group. Select the head with select bone tool click on the new action icon. You will now see a new name of head to. It's important that when creating a second action that the name is exactly the same. But there is a space and the number two Following the name for mojo to properly referenced a smartphone, do the same thing as before. Double click the smart bone. Rotate the bone with the transform bone school and fix the points and curvature if needed. Once finished, go back to the main timeline and use the manipulate bones tool to test and make sure everything's working properly. This next part is optional, but will help keep the smart bone from rotating further than the angle we had set. This is done using angle constraints. Double click on the head action with this, like bones whole selected. Go to the top menu, word says bone constraints and drop it down. Check angle constraints on and with your mouse. Move the right angle Constraint to the same angle is the bone. Make sure you don't go past that angle. Do the same thing for head to last. I'm going to create a smart bone action for the front leg. The Ben Distortion occurs not in the thigh, but when I rotate the ankle bone. So with that bone selected and my group layer highlighted, I'm going to click on the new action icon. It automatically named it the correct name DoubleClick. Action to bring up the smart bones Timeline and using the transform bones will rotate that bone. I'm gonna hide the front arm layer so I can better see the front leg. I am then going to select the front leg layer and move the points with the transform points tool and use the curvature tool to fix those points. Go back to the main timeline and test it out now for the back leg. I want you to go ahead and do that on your own, and we'll move on to the next video. 21. Target Bones: in this video, we're gonna add target bones and independent angles to Orville to keep his feet planted and add a sense of weight. Added target bone. First, make sure that no other bones are highlighted, so I'm going to use the keyboard shortcut Escape to de select all the bones with the bone layer highlighted. Click on the add bone and drag out a bone connected to his ankle. Hit escape on your keyboard to de Select and create a new bone on the other side. Using the select bones who'll click on both of the target bones and label them Target F and target. Be to match the leg bone names. Next selected ankle front bone Using the slick bone school, go to bone constraints and from the target. Drop down select target F Do the same thing for the back ankle, but select target. Be now hit s on the keyboard and said the bone strength for both bones to zero. There are two things target bugs don't require bone strength and bone parenting. Now let's test the target bones. I'm gonna go to frame one and with manipulate bones tool, click and drag his target bones underneath the characters body you can see as I dragged the target bone. The rest of the leg follows, but also when I select the route bone and move the entire body, the legs bend. Notice the feet are moving as well. We need to add an independent angle to prevent them from moving. Using this like bones, who'll hold, shift and select both feet bones. Go to bone constraints and check the box next independent angle. Now, when we move the body down with the root bone, independent angles on the feet, keep the feet from moving through the ground. Now take and pull the body away from the ground. Notice how the feet point to the targets that don't move. This gives us a great way to add stretch to the characters legs. So let's go ahead and do that by selecting both the thigh and leg bones go to bone constraints and at a value of 1.52 all the bones. That means that each bone will stretch half more its length. This goes hand in hand with the principle of animation we will use called squash and stretch, and that's it for the target bones. Feel free to play around with the I k stretching values get familiar with the target bones and how they work. If the legs are not working the way you want them to, don't worry, we'll fix that animation. Now, if you haven't already, go ahead and save your project by going to file save and save it somewhere on the computer with the name that is easy to remember. In the next section, we will move on to setting up your three d scene in a completely new, more Hope Project file. I'll see you there. 22. Prop and Midground Design: Now that we have a character design and rig, it is now time to create the background. At this point, you should be pretty familiar with the drawing tools. So in this video, I'm going to quickly draw out the prop. Or, in this case of fire hydrant, feel free to come up with your own designer prop. It could be anything in this particular scene. I wanna have Orville jumping in a puddle in the city street next to a fire hydrant. First thing I'm gonna dio is come up to the menu and select file new. I'm gonna turn on the grid for this. Make the process faster when creating everything symmetrical to turn on the grid, go to view, enable grid or use the keyboard shortcut control G. I'm then going to use the keyboard shortcut control shift G to pull up the grid setting and set my great spacing to 20. So, for the first proper, I'm going to draw all the shapes on one layer because I won't be animating Oregon it using the grid. I'm going to make sure everything is symmetrical on both sides and has a center. So I'll drop my fire hydrant, a grid spaces wide. I'm going to color the fire hydrant orange. You can have it any color you would like. I'm going to then select the shape and remove the stroke, using the select shaped tool and uncheck in the stroke from the style panel to prevent the shapes from drawing strokes. Since we won't use any for the style of our prop while in the shape tool uncheck auto stroke, I want the different parts of the fire hydrant to also be different colors. Using the triangle shape, I'm holding Ault Shift maintain its center position while also constraining the shape of the triangle. Then I'm going into the curvature tool. I want to use the select shaped tool and reorder shapes using the up and down arrows. I think from here it's clear all that I'm doing, so I'm gonna speed up the rest of the video. Once complete. If you don't like the way things look, feel free to make adjustments. Try reducing your grid space into 10 and move points around. Change the length it's up to you. It's your prop. Next, I will drop my buildings again. Each building will be on one layer and you couldn't draw and designed these anyway that you'd like. I'm gonna have at least four buildings for this background. And last, I will draw the city background again, each background element on its own layer. Once you're all done, it should look something like this. We're gonna draw the mid ground that our character will be standing on just like our other scene elements. This will also be one layer, however, with the mid ground, because we're going to put it into our three D scene. We will design it as if we're looking at it from a top view. So go ahead and hide all the other layers and created new vector layer called mid ground using this like shaped tool I'm going to draw out of square. I'm gonna give it a color for the asphalt. Then again, using this like shapes, willing to draw a rectangle for the sidewalk, most of it to give its own color. And then I'm also gonna drive another right single for the road. Next I'm gonna use a rectangle and I'm gonna draw out the road stripes and I'm gonna give that a yellow and last I'm going to draw out the puddle using the ad point tool. All first, just draw all the points, and then we'll come here to the curvature tool and add smoothed all the points, then make some adjustments as necessary. Last, we want to make sure that the top of the mid ground all lined up. So using the select points tool and transform Point school, I'm just gonna move everything down. So it's all lined up there at the top and that's it. We're now ready to create a three D scene I'll see in the next video. 23. Setting up 3D scene: once the mid ground has been created, we are now ready to create our three D Seen to get started, select the mid ground layer, then come over to the layers tool panel and select the rotate layer X Y tool, then answering the value of negative 77 degrees for the X rotation. The next thing we're gonna do is split up our view. Go to your view options and select side by side view in the left panel. We will have our view from the front and in the right panel. We will have a top down view, right click the right panel to make that view panel active, then go up to view direction. Top this will now show us a top down view overseen. Now we're gonna set up are seen on the easy access to create our three d sane. So like the puddle using the select points tool and using the transform points tool dragged the puddle closer to the camera. Use the left view panel to see how everything will be displayed when moving the background elements in the top view. Next, select the two endpoints of the mid ground with the transform points tool, hold Ault and shut out the mid ground horizon line. Next, select the sidewalk in ST Lines and using the transform points tool scale the points in to create perspective. Next, go ahead and move the mid ground layer below all the other building layers. For now, select the first building layer in my case building for using the transform layer tool. Move the layer about halfway on the mid ground layer. Right now, we're setting up the buildings on the easy access in the right panel, and I can move the buildings on the X and Y axis in the left panel. We will refine this more as we go do the same thing for building one. Next Select Building three and using the Transform Larry Tool, move the building back in Z space. Do the same thing with building to now taken. Move the layers for building three into under the mid ground layer. Now we need to make sure all the background elements are on the mid ground plane. Visually right. Click the right view panel and go to view direction right. I'm going to use the orbits well here in the workspace panel and just adjust my view a little bit. It's a right about there and now doing the same thing. Using the left years of reference, I'm going to move my layers in the Y axis to be on the ground and also lining up on the X axis. Last, I'm going to make sure the proper is lined up. I can use this right view to move the prop forward and backward, and I'm gonna come here and line it up where that puddle is Once I think everything is lined up well, visually, I use the camera track tool to test. All right, Everything looks good. Feel free to make any tweaks, scale buildings and do anything else. You need to make it look good to you. In the next video, we'll finish up with adding the cityscape in sky. I'll see there 24. Sky + Gradients: in the last video The section we're gonna creator sky and adds ingredients. So to start, I'm going to create a new vector layer and call it sky I'm gonna put that sky layer beneath all the other layers on the sky layer I'm gonna create a rectangle and give it a base color of blue Now I want added Grady into the sky with the sky shape selected Goto effect radiant in the style panel I want to create a linear Grady it where the horizon line is brighter at the bottom and blue at the top. So I'm gonna leave the Grady and type is linear. Keep transparency checked off. I only want this great and to be two colors, So select the black color box and hit slates. Remove the additional color. I want to leave the base color of blue and leave the other color as white hit. OK, now you're gonna see a symbol that represents your radiant, how far it stretched and instruction. If I click on the bottom of this node that is filled in, this allows me to move the entire radiant as a whole. If I select this hollow node, it allows me to change rotation of this radiant still holding onto this node, I can drag it up and down to increase or decrease the incense city of this Grady in. I'm gonna leave it as is for now and make changes as I go. Now, I'm gonna go ahead and bring back the visibility of the cityscape. Next, I'm gonna test that my seen using the camera tracked full and see how everything looks so far. Now you may notice of the sky and building our parallax ing, but it's not accurate. According to its location and the sky, we don't want it to move at all. We want to make it immune to the camera to keep the sky in place. DoubleClick, the sky layer and under options. Check on immune to camera. Hit. Apply then. Okay. Now, when we move the camera, the sky stays in place. But now the building is off. So let's take a look and see what is happening. Split your view into side by side in the rave. You right, click and go to the view menu directions top. Now, you may not see the cityscape right away, and that is because it is below all the other layers so visually, even though in our left view the cityscape is visible in the right view, it is not. So In order to view it, I would have to hide the one layer that is blocking it from view, which is the mid ground layer. Remember in the last video how we moved our buildings forward and backward and Z space? We need to do the same thing with the cityscape. Right now it's on a value of zero and Z space. So using the transform Larry Tool, I'm going to center the cityscape where I want. Then holding shift Plus Ault, I'm going to click in the middle of the layer and drag up pushing the cityscape and Z space . Once I let go of the mouse button, you can see that the building snapped back into place. This is exactly what I want. In order to have it maintain its visual size, I'm then going to use the camera tool and test. This is still way too close, so I'm gonna push it back even further. Keep pushing the layer back until it is accurate, as you can get it from here you can adjust the X Y positioning in scale. Now, in the opening of the scene, I want the camera to start at the top of the buildings, then move down and focus on Orville. So I want to make sure that my composition of my buildings and everything starting now is correct, both visually and by distance. Once you have a result that you're pleased with, you are finished up with this section. Now we move on to the best part, bringing our character to life through animation. I'll see in the next video. 25. Pose to Pose: in this section, we're gonna create the animation of our character, Orville. In order to create this animation, there are a few key things we need to set up. First, go to file project settings. Set your with that standing to pee or 7 20 p for a standard HD video. Ensure your frame rate is set to 24 your end frame it sets a frame. 55. Check all the other studies on your screen and make sure that they match mine. Then hit OK, next goats the animation menu and make sure your settings are set. So what I have on screen one important one have on is allow a frame skipping. With this enabled, you'll be able to play back your animation in real time when working on large projects, depending on the computer you are using, the playback can be affected or slowed down, depending on how heavy the animation is. So this is always good to have on the next important one. To have chucked on is the auto freeze key frames when auto freeze key frames has enabled all bones and a character will get a key frame when any part is adjusted. This is very helpful when you're animating a character or objects, and you want to ensure that poses are the specific state in certain frames in your animation. Next, go to the animation timeline to make sure that it's timeline also matches mine. I'm also going to zoom in on my timeline, which makes it easier to select and move key frames by clicking this icon here. The first thing that we're gonna do is critter six key positions of her character standing crouching, lift air, fall landing and then back to standing again. The method that we will be using to do this is very common in the animation industry, and that is the technique called blocking. This helps us the first Creator characters using the principle of animation called Post Oppose. So to do this, go to from one Use the manipulate bones tool and move the to target bones underneath the character. Click First Creator standing position. Next, go to frame to and use the manipulate bones tool. Move the character down to crouching position just before he jumps by. Left clicking and dragging down the route bone hold shift to constrain the vertical movement right Now I have a pop happening leg that may be caused by the target bone To fix . This is very simple. Select, transform Bensel and select the ankle bone and click and drag to the left or right to pop back into place. Set up the rest of the character either how I have it or however you would like to have him look in this position. Next, go to frame three and, using the manipulate bones tool, move his body up. A heads links so the tip of his foot is the only part touching the ground. Move his arms in front of his body. So our character appears to be using the motion of his arms to help propel him into the air . Go to frame four and move his body slightly higher, using the manipulate bones tool move his feet up underneath of our character frame. Five. We now want the character to fall back down. The best way we want to do this is by doing the opposite of what we did on frame three. So I'm going to stretch his legs out so the tip of this foot is touching the ground. I want to make this animation a little more interesting by making the character pushing off with one foot and land first with the other. I'm also gonna move his arms up slightly. Next, we want to create our landing pose on frame six. This is when all the way to the characters coming down and he will be in his lowest position in this position. His arms gonna be following his body so they still have not come down whereas rest the body and weight has. And last we want to lose this animation. So we will copy and paste the key frames from one onto frame. Seven. So now, in order to visually see her poses in the timeline, let's go ahead and change the color of those key frames we have created to green. Select all the key frames, right, click and select label. Then select the color green. Now these poses air going and give us a rough idea of what we want our character to dio at this stage. Just try and visualize where your animation will look like. I like to use the technique used for traditional animation called flipping to flip in mojo . Just use your left and right arrows on your keyboard. Once you're happy with the poses, let's go ahead and move onto the next video. 26. Timing: in this video, we're now going apply a principle of animation called Timing. This is where we will take the poses we created and spread them out along a timeline to figure out the best timing and how long a position is held for. I have already gone ahead and done the time and for you to make this as easy as possible. So I'm gonna walk through what I have. Overall, the jump animation itself is gonna be 55 frames long. Then it will cycle back to the beginning and start over left, click and drag to select all the key frames from frame 1 to 7 with all the key frame selected. Hold Ault left, click and drag. The last key frame all the way to frame 55. Next drag all the poses, the respective frames starting with the standing position. We're gonna leave that on frame. One frame 15. We will leave for now and come back to that one frame. 23. We want to drag her keys for the crotch position from 27. We will set up to leap frame 33 is going to be our air position frame 37 is going to be the contact position frame 39 We will have for the landing and last frame 55 will be standing again now without making any changes. Go ahead and play back your animation if this is your first animation, the Smiler Good to you, however, has one common issue that most beginners make that separate them from experience. Animators. It's floaty, so let's fix that. Instead of having the standing pose, go to the crotch, impose all the way on frame. 23. Let's have our character standing place till frame 15 to keep the exact same post from frame one. Go ahead and select all three key frames and right click and select copy and then take your time indicator. Select frame 15. Right click and select paste. Now flee back your animation looking a little bit better, but it's not quite yet there. We're gonna add another timing technique called animating on twos. Right now, our animation is being played back at 24 frames per second, meaning that in one second of 24 frames, the animation from Key framed a key frame is being played on each frame. Well, let's say we want to enemy on every two frames instead of one. Let's set up our animation and see what that looks like right off the bat. I want to bring your attention to the placement of my key frames. Notice that each key frame was placed on a frame of a nod number. That is because I started my animation on one and not 00 is where the design and rigging takes place. One and beyond is where the animation happens. That means in order to animate on twos, because I am starting on frame one. I can Onley make this possible by counting two frames from one. In that case, I equals 32 from three is five and so on. So let's go ahead and set our animation of twos. Select all the key frames you created, right. Click any key frame, go to Interval and select to now playback the animation. See a bigger difference here is the animation ones, and here's animation on twos. Personally, I prefer to animate most my animation on twos. It's actually easier to know that I can only create my animation keys on odd numbers, which gives me less frames to work with, which also makes my job as an animator. Easier. In fact, that is what traditional animators did to help cut back on their work and say, within the animation studio budget, instead of animator on one's or every single frame, they animated on twos or 12 frames and even sometimes threes and fours. So now that you have the timing set up for your animation, let's start animating the in betweens of each pose. We'll go ahead and do that in the next video. 27. In betweens: There's a lot to animation in order to create a good, believable animation that we won't go over in the story a will, but it's important to keep in mind. Those are the principles of animation and acting for animation. However, to make this animation more pleasing to the eye, we will add what is called in betweens, which is going to fix the tiny mistakes between each pose in the animation. Before we start animating, it's very important that we update our key frame interval. Remember how we change the timing from 12 twos? Well, that Onley affected the key frames that have already been created, But for the key frames that were about to create, we need to make sure that the default is already set ITU's to do that. Come up here to the top of timeline and select the number one. It's gonna give you a drop down and then select the number two from here on out. It's going to create my key frames now on twos. The key things easy. We're not going to change anything from frame 1 to 23 but if we look at frames 23 to 27 you can see the foot is moving through the ground. So we're gonna fix that manually using the manipulate bones tool between 27 33. It looks bad. Just have opposed the straight leg to hold for so many frames. So let's add events that leg between 39 55. We can do quite a bit to make this a little bit better. Right now, I have a pop happen in leg that may be caused by the target bone to fix. This is very simple. Select, transform Bensel and select the ankle bone and click and drag to the left or right to pop back into place. Next. I want his arms to come down a lot faster after he falls, so I will move them behind his body. Now please back your animation. This is a really good start. There's obviously a lot we can do to improve this, but to keep it a simple is possible. We will leave it as is in the next video. We're gonna make this animation film organic by adding some squash and stretch. I'll see in the next video 28. Squash Stretch: the finish of the character animation section. We're gonna add squash and stretch the character, which is a great principle of animation that could be applied really to any situation. To give it more of an organic feel and wait to create squash and stretch, we first need to add it into the bones. The two bones I will select in order to do this is the back and head bones selected to bones with select bone tool. Go to bone constraints and set the value of squashes. Stretch to 1.5 for both of those bones. Once that is completed, what we now want to do is create our own key frames and delete the ones from the scale animation channel that we're automatically added with the auto freeze key feature. By selecting the scale bone animation channel and hitting delete, let's first go to frame one with the transform Bones will selected Go to Scale and hit the reset bone for both of those bones. Go to friend 15 and do the same thing. Now go to Frame 23. This is where we're gonna add the squash. Let's first figure out how much squash we want to get the torso and then matching equally with the head bone. So what the backbone selected? I'm gonna hold her over the top of the bone. So I get this symbol with the two arrows. From there, I'm going to click and drag down to squash that bone. One important thing to keep in mind is the maintained volume for anything that you squash and stretch. Now we're gonna do the same thing to the head. Next, we're gonna skip Frames 27 unframed 33. Reset the scale. Both those bones next on frame 37 were just scale the head and backbone to create a stretch again. Remember, it's maintain volume. Also, make sure not to stretch out the head and back so that the head is higher than the post before it. Next go to frame 39 create the squash. Now, because we're putting more weight on the character from the jump, we want to exaggerate the squash. Next, go to frame 45 reset the scale for both bones. That will complete the basic set up for animation. Feel free to make any changes or additions to this animation. Once you have finished up the animation. It's now time to create a cycle. A cycle basically does what it's doing right now. It goes to the end, and then it starts all over. But if we wanted this time to go out further, let's say 25 or six seconds. It's only gonna play this animation once, and then it's gonna stay still. So let's create cycle so that the animation repeats over and over and over again. So to create a cycle hit escape on your keyboard and make sure that no bones were selected , then come down to your animation timeline and select the last three key frames with those key frames selected right click and go to cycle. Now you're gonna see two different options, absolute and relative. We're gonna leave this cycle on absolute frame one, and I'm gonna go ahead and close that now when we plan, our animation is going to get to the end of frame 55 in cycle, back to frame one, and that's it. In the last video, we're gonna finish up our animation, put this character into the scene an animator camera. I'll see you there 29. Camera: to finish up the tutorial, Siri's and this video. We're gonna place Orville with his animation in the scene and animate the camera. Open up your background scene project and go to file import mojo objects. It's like the character animation of Orville that you just created. Now go to your layers panel and make sure Orville is on top of all the layers simply by dragging and dropping the layer on top of all others. Next, we need to scale down the layer in order to fit it in the scene. Now that we have a character as reference, make adjustments to the prop within the scene to maintain visual size. Next, we need to move or villains e space so that he is properly positioned within the scene. Split your views, using the side by side panel, right click in the right panel and go to view direction right. Make adjustments to your character and proper if necessary. Once everything looks positioned properly, test with your camera track tool. If everything looks good, we're now ready to animate are seen hit control J on your keyboard. This is going to show all that you need to see within the scene itself. This will help you get an idea of what the final result will look like with the camera. Tracks will move the camera up so that you just have a view of your buildings and the cityscape. Feel free to create duplicates within the same layer of your cityscape. If you want whiter, do any adjustments necessary for the opening shot. Once everything looks good to you, go to frame one and create a key frame for the track camera tool and zoom camera tool simply by selecting each tool and clicking in the word space to create key frame. These will be the only two tools we will use for the camera. Next, go to frame 71 with the camera track tool. Move the camera down so Orville is visible. Go ahead and play back to animation. Now to see how it feels while on frame. 71 Critic Key frame for the zoom camera. Go to frame 1 43 Zoom in and track the cameras about war bill center screen. Now replay back the animation. If everything looks good, go to file export animation. Save it as an MP format at the H 0.264 Preset. Ensure all your other settings air checked as I have them. Pick a folder to export them to and rename your animation if you choose. Once complete, open up the folder you say the animation to and click it to watch Congrats. You did that. You created this animation. Seen awesome job on making it this far By now you should have an understanding of the mojo tools to design rig an enemy your own animation seen. Now go out there and create your own animation. Feel free to upload and share this animation he just created on social media using the hashtag Maho Seen again. My name is McCoy Buck. I was an instructor for this tutorial. Siri's If you'd like to learn more in depth about mojo, check out my step by step design rigging an animation courses on my website store dot McCoy buck dot com We hope they enjoyed this tutorial, Siri's and happy animating. I'll see you later