Model United Nations 101 | Gideon T | Skillshare

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Model United Nations 101

teacher avatar Gideon T

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (1h 5m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. The United Nations

    • 3. General Rules of Procedure

    • 4. Points & Motions

    • 5. Points & Motions 2

    • 6. Voting Procedure

    • 7. Position Paper Writing

    • 8. Draft Resolution Writing

    • 9. Success in Council

    • 10. Effective Chairing

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About This Class

Learn more about the world of Model United Nations (MUN) and its rules of procedure to prepare yourself for any upcoming MUN conference. The short course covers:

  1. Introduction to the United Nations
  2. General Rules of Procedure
  3. Points and Motions
  4. Procedural & Substantive Voting
  5. Position Paper Writing
  6. Draft Resolution Writing
  7. Succeeding in Council
  8. Effective Chairing

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Gideon T


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1. Introduction: Hi, everyone. I'm getting found off one bank and the mom and I think the organized international online man conferences for youth globally here in our shot course. Modern vaccinations. So a new one. I'll be introducing you to the wall off, Mom. But we will be covering an introduction to the United Nations in structure. I'll be going through the general rules across India in months, including, aren't emotions procedural and substantive voting position people writing is, well, a draft resolution writing Besides that, giving you some tips on how to succeed in council said that again. And if you aren't share how to be an effective one, I can't wait to see you in the first lesson off our costs. See you day. 2. The United Nations: everyone. Welcome to the first lesson in this course introduction for the U. N. Audio imaginations. You understand what model United Nations are monkeys in the first place? We have to understand what it is modeled after, which is the actual United Nations. In this lesson will be covering a bit about the history off the United Nations. Is relatives purposed in its structure? Okay, that's that credit. So what happened before the United Nations was for who understand history and the purpose of the United Nations? If we go all the way back to war one which happened between 1914 and 1918 after the war one and after witnessing the mass destruction and many, many lives lost a true the war. Many countries banded together to form the League of Nations or long ago in, and they rectified the covenant off the League of Nations. We share the following goals. Firstly, this armament meaning to remove arms second, to prevent war and last need to settle this international disputes, true diplomacy and this covenant or stratified by 42 countries around the world in 1920 after the Great War and the League of Nations wasn't entirely failure. You know some successes. For example, the the Upper Silesia territory dispute between Germany and Poland was successfully solved by the League of Nations and Diplomacy. There, UH, in 1922 and another dispute between Greece and Bulgaria after caused by the Greek envision or settle successfully. True, the League of Nations efforts. However, problems started coming into the League of Missions when multiple countries suffered withdraw from it in the 19 thirties with Japan when it invaded China in 1930 tree and as well as Italy 1937 and Germany when Adolph Hitler came to power in 1933. And all this events snowballed into the event role war to which happened between 1939 in 1945 and during this period. Although the League of Nations wasn't officially dissolved, it was clear that the League of Nations field in his purpose in preventing war. So yes, that's exactly the birth of the United Nations and the U. N. Was founded on October 24 October 1945 with 51 member states, and it was formed after World War Two to start off, and it's sort of the successor of the League of Nations and the purpose off the United Nations is late up clearly in the U. N. Charter today. I want under an extreme member states in the United Nations member states being countries, and there are two observer states which have which participate in the United Nations but do not have a voting rights. So I'll be showing you what the U. N. Charter is. So here we are at the U. N. Website, and here we see the chatter off the United Nations. The U. N Charter. As you can see this cry along Chata down. Many check this and I and I would encourage you to read some of them. But the only mass read, I would say, is the checked one of the purposes and principles of the United Nations so that articles in this chapter the first article focuses on purpose of the United Nations and its again focus on the principles in which you on which the United Nations is built on so I can see the purposes mainly include maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly nations between nations, having equal rights and self determination of peoples international cooperation in solving international problems on different fronts. And so one and you're noticed that drink water United Nations conferences, especially in pre ambulatory clauses in draft resolutions. U. N chatter is often cited. So let's go back to our lesson. Okay, so now we move on to restructure off the United Nations in terms of its principal organs. So the United Nations has five principal organs. Thebe biggest one is the General Assembly and in many, many moderate definitions conferences. Uh, generally, the General Assembly is a must is definitely one of the councils of which you would see in conferences. So the General Assembly is composed off. All the United Nations member states elects members for other principal organs. So it's sort of like the base off the entire United Nations. The General Assembly can pass resolutions which are documents that sort off that sort off present solutions to international challenges and problems. But these resolutions that are passed by the General Assembly are not legally binding. For that, something important to know there are six main committees in the General Assembly on the ah list that here. So there's dissect coffin. So Schum Spec poor and end the fifth and sixth. The administrative and budgetary is once the vehicle committees. Usually you will see in matters that are there are individual committees and councils in man conferences. I dedicate that to each of these committees. Okay, So other principal organs off the rail United Nations include the Security Council and equals. So the Security Council, it is its mother exclusive. So I'm at the General Assembly. Not all nations are represented there. Security councils in charge off their Schalke's and security and yes, 15 members consistent off the P five, which has veto power as well. S a 10 elected members eso the p five are permanent. Are countries that are permanently in the Security Council. On this include countries such as China, Russia and U. S. So these countries have veto power, meaning that if they disagree with the resolution, they can fill it immediately. And even if the majority of the people, the Security Council voted it both that for it to pass as long as one of these p five vetoes the resolution, the vegetation feels the other 10 elected members other countries there are elected into the council and the, uh, for a certain amount of time. Meanwhile, the Equal Sock is the Economic and Social Council, which focuses on global economic and social affairs as their names suggest. They're 54 elected members in the equal saw and the self staggered three year mandates. Other principal organs include B S, E J and the U. S. Signature. The ICJ's The International Court of Justice is located in The Hague. You can see the picture of The Hague under manicure. It is the court's point in the shore law and is, uh, adjudicates disputes between states and directed my justice jurisdiction. So when ah phew countries have a certain dispute and international law is involved, they can bring the case forward to the I C J. Who they would hear the case. The I C J has 15 elected judges that each soft nine year tops and I see you off course. We have the U. N secretary just checked by needy like the U. N. Secretary general, which is seen as the hit off the entire United Nations and Access Toe and the U. N Secretary access toe administrative body off the entire United Nations. It is important to note, however, in the model United Nations contacts the secretariat US is the term that is used to refer to the organizing team off, uh, the conference. Besides this principal organs, the United Nations also consists off other specialized agencies, some of which are showed in a slight below. It's specialized agency is in charge off a certain fuel of expertise. For example, the Food and Agriculture Organization is in church, off food and agricultural issues. For what? We have many initiatives that get toe. What if you in a model United Nations conference? Some councils and committees maybe also model after this specialized agencies and that's it . I've introduced the United Nations to you, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 3. General Rules of Procedure: everyone. Welcome to this lesson on general rules of procedure. Rop, the rules proceed. AEA debates how a committee session is run and how debate flows. It is really important to note that rules off CDO Rop the first from conference. The conference the Rop that I'm presenting to you today is the General Rop is used for most convinces Mr European and the man uses understanding the Rop in a specific Rop for your conference is really important before you enter. It's not knowing the Rop what would actually leave you quite not lost. Uh, when you enter the conference. Okay, so general rules. Usually when you enter a conference committee sessions you're only allowed to speak in the official language of the conference. Usually English for the bias on the bias is made up off chairs and those chairs offish council. And this is the power and ability Make alteration rules off. Proceed. AEA has deceived. This is usually done to have died more new comma minus and is used many and begin a level months and in beginner councils. And he and any alteration to the rules off proceed AEA, for instance, by seeing at a chess discretion. This motion passes or fails when in reality, the motion requires voting by the council to determine whether issue past or should feel. Khorram is a term that, uh that means the minimum number off that it gives required to be present for the comedy session to begin and last. My last point is one that I get conduct. I think that's quite self explanatory by just being Oh yes, remember that, um, any misconduct by the delegate can hold. You can venue from all the wars in the conference. So this misconduct, including being using vulgarities, harassing a fellow delegate and so one. So how does the committee session should? Even it's natural for roll call. Every committee session started. Roco. Where did you get both? Where the child went off a battle order and call up the delegation names where the delegation is being called. The respective that gets should raise up the apricots 40. This is basically usedto check the attendance off the entire conference before committee session starts to ensure it. Nobody's left up after that. There is three setting off agenda, and this only happens in the first committee session, and only if the Committee has more than one topic to discuss in conferences like and be mine. But it's only one topic. There is no need to set the agenda, but for setting up a gender, the purpose is simply to choose the order of the topics to discuss this more than one topping and time for and against each topic, uh, would be given for delegates to debate whether the one we stop it, they want to be discussed for us. After that, we'll have for putting speeches and open the experience is done for each new topic. So openings be just like the vocal is that in alphabetical order, where delegates are recognized in alphabetical order, in accordance studio Country names and in opening speeches that gets are expected to give their country's stunts on the specific issue and propose some solutions, It is important to prepare beforehand an opening speech and you were really a decrease of stress to have when committee session begins, mix and also because of this, after everything opening speakers are you moving to weaken us? Because this or DSL in the Jessel speakers given 60 to 90 seconds, depending on a conference? If you desire or but he are speaking time to be lengthen or shorten. You can make a request to the chair. I simply raising a motion, seeing a motion to shopping or to extend the speaking time. The general speakers. This is used for open debate on a topic so you can talk anything. Talk about anything related to the topic and Toby edit. You can simply raise your placard on Senate Motor Chair to tell the chair that you want that you want to be added into the channel speakers list and speakers I recognized on, at least in order in the order in which they added. Okay, so we're having completed your speech right in the general speakers. This How do you in your speech also, we just end with yielding. Um, and yielding can be done in trees. You Can you tow another delegate parts of information on the chair. The fault method is using the time to share where you would yield the floor back to the share and your speech ends automatically. However, if you complete your speech and you still have excessive amounts extract time Liff you have not used the 4 60 or 90 seconds you can give your time to another dedicate, which gives the rest of the remaining time for the other delegate to take the stage and give a short speech. You can also you toe other points of information or any and all points of information, which is basically, uh, questions that basically opening yourself up to questions and when a delegate reasons on his hand and ask the question, you can simply answer it in No time called continues during the time where you are answering the questions. So in summary, it's more than one topic. The first committee session would start with the local for about seven French and the opening speakers and yourself SAfrican committee sessions who have roll Call me immediately move into a jail cell. Everything going on the next roll call opening speech. Just bench. If the council is when you want topic like Endymion Conference. The first company session started for Roco, followed by opening speeches, and if I need a Jessel subject committee sessions stop, continue on to suggest sell directly after the roll call is conducted. I hope this gives you a good understanding off the how the conference in the council sessions are roughly run, but I'll give you a more in depth introduction in the following lessons. We are cover points and motions, uh, which can be introduced when you are in the Jessel. Thank you, and I'll see you in an excessive 4. Points & Motions: Hello. Welcome to the lesson on points emotions. Because there's quite a lot of content that is topic. I'll be splitting it into a few lessons. Okay, let's not writing. So what appoints points out is something that you can Reese in council on. They do not need a voting. Okay, so there are about point so fast. Easy points off, personal privilege on you can simply said, by raising a placard and saying point of personal privilege or in the whole nine conference just happen in individual and enduring it. Okay, so you raise a point of personal privilege when you experience some sort off personal discomfort, for example, you are unable to hear the current speaker due to technical audio issues. Oh, if you I know Echo one room in the conference you feel recalled can raise point of personal privilege to increase the temperature. And so what point of personal privilege can actually disrupt a speech, Especially when you are? You are simply asking the speaker to talk a bit louder, for example, and you can be raised in between speeches. A point of order is another point, uh, which can be raised when an error is made in the Rosa. Proceed AEA by the chest, and you want to point it out. The other point parts of parliamentary inquiry is when you have some clarification about the Rosa Parks idiot that you're unsure off. And this is really used by more beginner that it gets to be able to clarify what the rules of nausea is and what is happening on. Of course, that's points off information, which I covered in the previous lesson. It is basically a question that you can ask toe a speaker after a speaker complete to speak . If yields to tow any and all points of information, you can read your placard or for an online conference, simply type a pure I into the check. And if they are recognized, ask your question. So that's about it. That's points. And now we move on to motion so motions can only be raised when the floor is open, meaning that when there is no speaker, recognize imagesa. So the procedure for passing and raising emotion If, uh, you you introduce it. So, for example, when there is no speaker mechanize and, for example, in between speakers image Kano's because of this or G s L U research Blackheart or simply time into the online months, every time into the check motion. Then when a Cherica NYSE issue by seeing or delegate off country X, you're recognized. Uh, then you can recent portion and state what it is after stating your motion, the chair will ask, Are there any seconds? Ah, seconds meeting anyone who supports and wants to see your motion passed. If there are no seconds for emotion, your motion feels immediately. Meanwhile, after they are seconds, the chairs were asked at any objections if there are no objections to the motion being passed emotional pass automatically. If there are objections, we will go off the council movinto voting procedure, uh, for emotion, right? So how voting procedure works is that the chalice see okay, dose in favor. But I also want to see the motion being passed resort, black arts or foreign on nine months. Say type yes, into the check. The chair was against count the number of votes for the motion to pass and the votes for the motion to feel. And based on that, the emotional passel field. Uh, and this sort of motion only requires, uh, half of simple majority of the council to vote for the motion for emotion to pass. Okay, it is important to know that seconds and objections are not compulsory, but voting for motion is compulsory. Okay, so now that you have raised a motion, I will explain to you, uh, what type off motions you can, Reese. So the first time off meantime of motion you can raises Caucasus. So there are two main types of caucuses Firstly on moderates and caucus. It's led moderated compass. He and moderate focus, uh, locally known ISS and more is something where you can't break away from for more debate. No, the any delegates can just discussed the topic informally. And if you're in the physical room in a physical conference, can move around and walk around, right? How do you introduce a moderate the caucus? You simply raise emotion. It's and see motion to introduce on margarita caucus off any minute you once or 10 minutes for the purpose off. And he explained the purpose of the off the moderator caucus in this case, we'll say, consolidating different viewpoints that have been hurt by the committee and at the end off this time the Alexis 40 and Margarita Caucus. The chair would call upon the delegate who raised a motion in the first police to give a short speech summer what has happened and what has been achieved truly on more really, that caucus. Okay, if you wish to extend the and moderate their caucus, for example, are discussing something and the time's running out, you can raise a motion toe. Extend the moderate that caucus by X amount of minutes. Okay, so it's a motion for moderator caucus. So the moderate, the Caucasus, the opposite Off the and Margarita Caucus, The Moderator Caucus is very structured, and it's used by delegates. Toe sort of focus on a certain aspect. Off topic in my conference is the topic are usually very brought, and they are multifaceted. If better get can truth to introduce to a motion for a moderator caucus to focus on a single aspect and solutions to a single aspect off the topic. For example, you can see a motion to introduce an on moderate Secaucus off the total number of time. 15 minutes 1.5 minutes per speaker to consolidate different viewpoints. They have been hurt by the community by the committee or any sort of purpose for the moderator caucus. So the moderate a caucus are usually would give Speak us one minute or 1.5 minutes, and it's really up to the buzzer who resist a motion to determine the time duration. But it's important to note that the total time is divisible by the time for speaker. So don't say 1.5 minutes per speaker with 10 minutes, because that's not divisible. Usually in conferences, people ask our 15 minutes 12 minutes on nine minutes or, in a case off one minutes, be just 10 minutes. Yes, if there are no more speakers who wish to speak in the moderator caucus and they still extract time, the moderate the caucus can end before the full time elapses and in conference in a council moved back to the jackals because this all these years, so after the motion is raised and this past, uh, the chance would simply ask you a lot to be added on the speakers list for the moderate that caucus, and that's how the moderate the caucus is conducted 5. Points & Motions 2: Hi, everyone. Welcome to our next lesson on points and motions. So in this lesson will be continuing to share view out of hand motions and you can raise in council. So bust me introductions. You can motion to introduce a working paper as well as introduced a draft resolution. So a walking people is surely anything it has no fixed form. It can be what document can be a presentation or diagram, and they simply xto eight community committee in discussions example for working people is a rough draft off. Some possible ideas for solutions tackle the issue being discussed. Another example of a walking people is maybe a short presentation on the background context off the issue, Uh, that the council and some expects that council might have overlooked so on a motion to introduce a draft resolution, on the other hand, is quite different. A draft resolution focuses on solutions to resolve the issue, and it's a very formal and formatting. A document which covers ideas has been discussed by the council. I'll cover more deadly toe indeed lesson that you just you have to write a draft resolution . Okay, You can also motion to introduce an amendment. So an amendment and the MENA grammar corrections or could be major changes like adding, deleting or editing clauses and clauses in a draft resolution. So there are two main types off, uh, to mean types of amendments are friendly. Amendment is Vallas in friendly amendment, effendi. Amendment changes mixed you just to a draft resolution. UH, only if all sponsors or summit this off. The draft resolution has agreed sponsors and submitters being the people who have written the draft resolution. So if all of them agreed, one of them can send in a friendly amendment. Or did it get concerning a friendly amendment? And there are no signal there is needed for the amendment, and the changes occur automatically without any voting and upon introduction off the friendly amendment, Uh, the chairs simply announces it as a metal effect and unfairly. Amendment, On the other hand, is an amendment is not agreed upon by the sponsors any senators, or at least no agreed upon by all of them, and this sort of amendments requires into their ease off. 20% of the committee signatories are people who did not write the amendment but supported or wanted to be discussed. So if 20% of the committee signs on this unfriendly amendment, the delegate who wanted can submit it to the chair or the diess on, then after something, and after vetting, he may introduce it to the council. If the motion passes for more debate on the unfriendly amendment, what would be conduct that followed by voting posterior on the unfriendly amendment on whether it should eventually be incorporated into the draft resolution is being discussed? So how many men's work is that you submitted? Bridge share can be in the form of a thumb, drive email notes or you have a message, uh, and care proves, uh oh or rejects your, uh, York effendi amendment. You're in my minute forms you. And if a chair approves, you can introduce the motion in a diets with this baby content off the amendment to the council and announce it to the council. If the motion passes okay now on to the next plus off, motions thwarting proceed IUs. So there's the emotion to move to direct voting, proceed AEA and is used when the council is ready to vote on a draft resolution or on a amendment so how you raise the motion is your simply respect heart or C motion to move into direct 44 c Therefore, this draft resolution for this and friendly amendment. And when it is done, if the motion process, you'll move into that voting for Syria and and you would fought on whether the resolution or the amendment passes. The other motion is for roll call. Vote so normally when you vote for, uh, for anything in council, you were simply everybody was simply voted the same time they were even in a normal conference. They will raise up the black vote already would for online conferences to talk in the check room to say, Oh, I vote yes or no and a roll call for soft bricks, this simultaneous voting and and when everyone call for more a motion for a roll call vote process, the chair would have to call on each country one by one in alphabetical order, and each delicate. I would then have to put their vote in one by one as a chair calls their country, and this is really used when they has been multiple recounting of votes and votes do not tell you so you have to count it one by one is really a hassle, and he's not before causing time in council. And so a motion to reorder draft resolutions for voting. So it is possible for counsel to have multiple draft resolutions be debates that side by side in the same time. So when you move into current 14 proceed AEA. What happens? Which draft resolution do vote for? For us, See if you are a see if your draft resolution is being the second is the second draft resolution to be watered for. You can raise the motion to reorder the draft resolutions for 40 and you can see that I want my draft resolution to be both a part first. And this can be quite important because if the first draft resolution passes, the second draft resolution immediately is will not be considered and his table. So if you are the owner of the second revolution, you might be incentivized to motion to be order the draft resolution. So the chance will take all motions to reorder drop resolutions and then vote on them in the order in which they were proposed. Wanting on emotions will continue and to our motion passes all the motions field, in which case the committee will vote on draft resolutions in the original order. So if the motion fails, things go on espionage. So other motions related to voting is motion to divide a house to find a house entered. If I the question so the motion, they defy the question, eyes useful in some parts of the resolution where there's not a large part of the council actually disagrees upon. And when you divide the question, what happens is dead. The draft resolution will be voted on clause by clause, so it's quite a long process. So all the past closest would then be combined to form a new draft resolution, which would then be voted on as a whole. So for this motion to divide a question, there will be two speakers for and to speak against the motion before voting for emotion. So it is a special case where you actually debate on whether the motion should be passed and, um, yeah, so it is usually used when you want to vote for certain crosses. But not at this in a draft resolution. Emotion to divide a house. It's different and is useful when he wants. When the votes for a resolution is very close or is tight and if the motion to divide the house has passed of revolt for the resolution is conducted, so the emotion to divide the house is conducted after voting for the resolution. And if the results are closed tight, you raise this motion for revolt and it is revote. People and delegates. I know a lot toe Epstein from voting, meaning that you have to vote for or against. You cannot stay neutral. And finally, we have emotions too close debates. So emotions toe suspend. The meeting is where is used to suspend committee Antigenics committee session, for example. There is a shadow break or a meal in the conference. The race in motion to suspend a committee session on the motion for adjournment of the meeting is only used once and end the entire council a time conference toe. Suspend the conference until its next edition, and that's it. Okay, so conclude their long pointed motions lessons our expense you a bit on the presidents of motions. What happens when their mother promotions are being raised the same time in that case on some motions are considered in order of preference based on their destructiveness, with their most destructive motion being prioritized. First in this order shown in this light. So point will be and then for us full of a suspension off meeting and Ahmad caucus moderate the conquers uh so one. And in the case where they are to on margarita caucus or to moderate their caucuses, for example, the order reached emotions are considered will be in accordance to the order in which they have been brought up. And that's it. I hope this gives you a good understanding of what points emotions are. I know it's a bit hard to picture, but what's trust me want to enter? Do you conference? You would get a hang of it. Thank you, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 6. Voting Procedure: everyone, Let's move on to the next lesson on posted zero in substantive voting. Okay, so there are two main types off voting in my convinces. So procedural votes is a vote on any meta other than passing resolutions and passing amendments. So every member of the committee, including a non members I love to put mass vote on all procedural motions without any abstentions, being a lot so we can eat a footfall against, uh, the motion. So for opposite of Woods, uh, for the vote to succeed, an emotion to pass a simple majority is needed a simple majority being 50% off the council of voting for emotion. Meanwhile, motion to divide the house. Um, this study different is a procedural vote by requires a 2/3 majority. So it is a special keys. It is important to know that you require more than a simple majority and more than a tool that majority. So if you have exactly 50% avoiding for exactly 50% voting against a demotion, students not past unfortunately okay, makes we have such that devotes. So stop sending votes is for passing black resolutions and Anthony amendments. So it is not for introducing eso Exactly when your motion to introduce a resolution. That would be a procedural vote about if you what Motion to, uh what if you for the putting off whether proposition should pass, there will be a substance before. Uh, yeah. So besides that motion after motion to divide the question, um, and you are voting close by close on, whether it's crossing, pass, it is resources and substantive votes off are different from proceed rowboats in that they require to cuts off majority to pass through to that of the council. My support for for the for the draft resolution or for the unfriendly amendment pass isn't bought them to know some exceptions. Ah, 40 substantive and procedural voting room. So is a sections, including disagreed council. So remember in the introduction to you when I said that there's defrag nations So the p five nations we have five prominent nations in the Security Council have veto power in that , uh, even if see that's majority off become so Viscardi Council votes for the for the 40 draft resolution to be passed, it can be veto and can be feel if one of the p five nations are votes against it, and this applies only to something devotes. Besides the Security Council, there are other special counsels. For example, historical councils like the League of Nations may require the unanimous vote off all that . It gets, uh, for any substantive vote to pass for any resolution on friendly amendment on That's it. Short lesson, and I'll see you in the next one. 7. Position Paper Writing: I all welcome to this lesson on position. People writing So before conference, usually delegates are required to write a position keeper on regarding the issue, and the country stands on it. So usually most new delegates at a loss in terms off annoying not knowing what to write in a position paper because it's really a free from paper is returning continuous text and you don't want to stop, so I'll show you a bit and give you some tips on how to write a good position. People. Okay, so right, a good position, if you first it research and understand topic and issue. So you have to find a general background issue. And the study guides given by conferences are very useful for this. You can look up the issue in Wikipedia and settled back to learn more issue something you bottom for you to ask while researching on issue is how is issue relates at your country? Uh, and what is on countries stance in position on the issue. So understand your country stands in position. Sometimes it can be very obvious for Southern contentious issues, but in other cases you can look at statements made by some leaders of the country are representing can look at previous voting records on the United Nations, and some regional actions have been taken as well as the core values of Venetian to set off . Get a few off. What would this, with stunts off the nation be? Besides that, you can also research, and you should also research on proposed solutions on how to tackle the issue. Ultimately, in a man conference, you would. You're not simply understanding a topic. You are proposing solutions toe actionable solutions so you can look at papers, every parts from thing things and autonomous research. Independent research centers. And you can look at other regional actions and see if it can. It can be implemented on a more global scale. Original solutions right? It can be scaled up. It's important that in opposition people you do not plagiarize don't just copy chunks of text from this reports and research people's on use it in opposition people. What do you? What you can do is that you can beat multiple people's conceptualize some key ideas and present them in your own words, and anyone flat with okay, so position prepositional area. I, uh, second fixed formatting, and this varies from conference a conference. The conference will usually give a senior document on the formatting requirements for position paper before the conference. It generally you should keep the fun color off. Lack on You should classify the text and General Conference. Julie Effort restriction of one group. Invest topic So it's really quite type in terms. Ofs piece on. You should try to use it to the maximum. So how do format a position people hate off the position. People usually leave some information, such as Congress needs to pick your country and council name and so on, followed by the actual content and finally references and a bibliography. So you don't really need footnotes in position people, unless your conference requires you to in generally simply fighter have, ah, bibliography. And don't just place links there or just that. I don't books you have to form in the references and bibliography properly using a sentence Citation Star E. P, a Chicago style Emily. And this depends on the conference requirements. That's for the content of the position people. You can get the general you first briefly on a general background off the issue and related issues. Your country Describing the background of the issue with respect the country briefly touched on this don't spend much time there makes you can also Reese True, a bit on the past actions locally, regionally and a globally that you went regarding the issue. Uh, spend some time there and, uh, moving. Moving on from that, you can explain donation stance on the issue, which you have researched and finally bring in your proposed solutions the solutions they had proposed to be in line with our nation stands innovation policy on the issue and a good week. Auf thinking off good solutions. Ihsaa breaking down d issue into different sub issues Generally issues that are presented to you in months are very complex. They have different expects there multifaceted. And each of these aspects require different solutions. So, personally, you think of different expects and for each expect, think off different, long term and short term solutions. Another way good we are thinking about it is that, uh, think to yourself what are the symptoms of the problem and what is the core? Call a reason for the problem and think of solutions to address the car solutions for long term solutions and for short term solutions to relieve. The current problem is if it's very pressing, think of other solutions to that. Can ideas that can echo some of the symptoms of the problem. So, in general, how do you do? Well, in a position, people first, they have a very good flow of ideas. I shouldn't be chance off X. Why soft? If you are a structure to it, how to make it floor naturally, with ideas are flowing for anti to each other. Logically, the language you're using Now that should be partial b professional, former, good freezing and true for new grammar and spelling mistakes and try not to repeat certain phrases or what's too much. You also can use relevant jargon. But that is not too too complex, but using some relevant jargon relating to the topic, I will be appreciated. Okay, so now I'll show you an example off the position, people. So here we are, the empty months month answer and be the source of speech. You look for position papers. Okay, let's look at this one. Okay. So the first thing you notice in a position paper okay. Is that you have this heater for, um, off with some information such as committee and topping and country, and he ends off with bibliography. All references. As you can see, he has been formative properly with President Citation start. Sorry. So you'll notice that the position papers with an impulse form and you can see that in the first part of the people the it covers a bit on the background of the context off slavery, which is the topic for this conference. And then it moves on to a bit on previous actions as well as the country's country stands on the issue shown in this paragraph. Okay, um, it also know it then follows it, then goes on to, ah, focus on some of the solutions that can be used to tackle the issue off sleeve off modern slavery. And, as you can see that there's clear signs sign posting used in the in a position people status firstly, something. Secondly, something that leaves something and so on. So this sort off samples thing allows the uh allows the chairs to be able to quickly understand Oppa's a champion part and make it look more structure, given its imports form, uh, and something you'll notice. Is that a huge part off this entire position? Paper is focused on solutions, and that is the key. While it is important to briefly cover the context in your stance on the mean powerful position, paper should be solutions. That's it. I hope this lesson gives you a good understanding off what position people are and how to write them. Just go ahead and give your best, and I'll see you in the next lesson on a draft resolution writing. 8. Draft Resolution Writing: everyone. I hope you enjoy the previous lesson on position. People writing it is less than you'll be covering. Rough resolution writing. Uh, just cut off. We will immediately go into an example of attractive solution to understand a bit more information. Okay, so we are on Ben's, where? Each response. A speech? Oh, well, such for draft resolution. And that's look at okay, this was a new field. Okay, so a draft resolution is very structured. Unless multiple sections they be known off the first section is the Hitler on this thing off, You know, things that the name of the conference, the committee, the issue being discussed sponsors to the resolution. So sponsors are people who have are countries which have delegations who have written the, uh, the document itself the draft resolution itself in some conferences. Instead off a sponsor system, they face some meter system, meaning that this one means I'm better and maybe to the tree course emitters off a draft resolution. Okay. And besides that, that signatories usually for drivers solution to be introduced in the first place, it requires 20% of the council to be signatories on this document. All this the head wasn't three. Uh, okay, So the documents that's off of this Economic and Financial Affairs Council changes to whatever council you are doesn't delegate that to cater to in a conference, right? So d you said the council name comma, and then you move on to pre ambulatory forecloses. So before moving on to the actual operation operational operative closes. So pre ambulatory closes, uh, actually don't really have actual content for see the unreleased solutions to tackle the problem. Operative clauses are solutions to tackle the problem. So preamble it very close is always started for certain or such as cognition off recalling the North thing, aware deeply understanding that were first. And this what's on frees us. Are I tele sized, followed by the rest of the the sentence. So with the purpose of pre ambulatory for clauses is to set the context and to set the tone for the entire draft resolution. So, for example, you can refer to the background context, the previous actions that have been taken on this issue, for instance, uh and so on. So the main meat off the draft resolution yes, de operated closes So operative process must be number So 12 tree so one. And sometimes if you choose, you can split it into article such as to go one focusing on a certain respect off the issues such as the issue is comic migration. So controlling migrant floor, uh, I will do is But that kind of migrant rights that is public education there migrant rights , composite index, and so forth. It's already up to you, toe whether you want at the goals on if no, you can simply lead us a list operative process in a number form. And I think you know this is that operative clauses can have sat closes. So, for example, we see here operate If close number tree has some clauses A, B and C right, and you can have steps up closes. We just number one who went so far. This is the usual numbering system that is used in draft resolution. You get the Arabic numeral as the operative close a number followed by a sabbatical or drink, and finally, this sort off number number. Roman, you're more Roman numeral number. Okay? And I think you know this is that, uh, operative clause is similar to amputate your pre ambulatory clauses always sort of heavy, has an action vote before D A clause, for example, proposes. Then you propose a certain solution recommends second solution and reseach. A second solution calls for are just and, you know you can know any realize that thes action verbs I'm thinks like demanding, right, Because you realize that a lot off United Nations and month resolutions are not legally binding and because of that we can do is to recommend a proportion and solutions. And that is what is what the draft resolution is doing. Okay, so this content gives this document gives you a good understanding off how a draft resolution look like looks like, right. And another interesting thing to note is that the entire document is actually one single sentence. It starts with this the economy and friend and show a fast council. And if you notice everything else is being separated by commerce, right, there's no full stops. And the unofficial operative cross this is semi colon, right? He stopped crosses the comma and so on. There are no fault. Soft, full stops is only at the end off the entire document. Okay, I'll move back to my slights now. So how can you write a good draft resolution now? You know how it it looks like, how it's structured. How do you do it? Well, so it is important to have a comprehensive and effective resolution. It covers multiple some tissues because issues always back complex eso you should cover all as much as possible as much something shoes as possible are you include all solutions that has reached a general consensus in council during the big so draft resolutions should not be something that you have returned beforehand. It should be something that has been produced as a result. Off the debate in council on the ideas there has Bean suggested in generator and counsel the length off a draft resolution should, uh, be at least seven pages. In my opinion, it really depends on the length of the conference and so on by thing. Okay, a minimum off four pages is necessary to have some fun them, So everything after end of pre military clothes is a suggested to be only one pitch because usually the pre military clauses has just skipped, and it's not really important on you. Need at least 10 closes include with some clauses in them. Okay, so how can you be comprehensive? Right? Brands? Such big word hotline Pick it so look true. I always think about a fight. I'm new in one dish. The five W's being Why, what when, who and so on and one is being helped. All right. Uh, I constantly think off this when you've been storm ideas and for your closes and for solutions. And when you think off this and ask these questions, they find out we have one inch questions. You will get content for yourself in subset closes, for example, your operative cross covers one win solution that you think is good. Then you can ask When would it said you should be carried out? Um, no. Is that what time line for the solution? We check the progress off the efforts. How often would a check to be should he be carried out immediate effect? Or should there be some buffer time? So keep asking questions to sort of get a more detail idea off by a solution is, rather than simply placing a very big solution out there So other artistic and assets who would you oversee? The execute who oversee the execution of the solutions. Where would the funding for the solutions come from? How would a solution carried out so far, he is important to be very professional in a draft resolution, after, obviously for more documents. So in pre ambulatory clauses, you can refer to past U. N resolutions, definitions from international, international, even Christ bodies and so on to set off school problem. And, of course, you have tow use articles. You can use articles to separate the operative process. If your resolution is very long and I very many sorry, if you have many operative clauses, will be good to categorize them by articles, as shown in the example. So some precautions to take of the cocking uh, your draft resolution plagiarism do not copy clauses from previous U. N. Resolutions wholesale. Do not copy process from other man resolutions. But this make dishonesty because if you're caught plagiarizing you, maybe but from awards and you will be apart from awards, um, try not to have excessively long or too short and skimpy resolution tried to have it concise and just right and effective. A line of your nation stands if you are the summit or sponsor. So when you write it in some in the resolution, it should be in accordance to emissions stands at or a modern other nations purposes. For you to represent the excessive delegate office of the nation and you do, you should represent our national interests and position it true. The draft resolution is through also aligned to the council's purpose. For example, if you are an equal finish, focus on economy and financial issues rather than social ones. And if you're in social focus on humanitarian and social aspects of issues, so try not to pre write resolutions, as I've said earlier. But one thing you can do, I definitely do. Before conferences brainstorm ideas for solutions, which could potentially be introduced in councils and eventually included in a resolution. 9. Success in Council: Okay. How so We moving on to Syrian Council a lesson off this course. Okay, so how do you see in council and do well in a month conference? So, firstly, speeches, the conference revolves around speeches, so it's essential that you craft once in each speeches, you have meaningful content, so don't have excessive or unnecessary repetition off what has been said before, either By other delegates for yourself. Um, you may site has ideas that has been brought up, but you should at value, and you must add value in your speech. You simply repeat what has been said. It's also important to be succeed. Do not beat around the bush, and so you should use our time for your speech. Very wise, after all, is usually about, you know, one minute or 1.5 minutes. Express your ideas. Suck simply any extra time you can yield it to a point of information or to another delegate. Uh, you see if it so examples off speeches again, give is Ali on in the conference where things apart messy people don't know how to structure that. Maybe you can set an agenda to bring down issue some some issues and decide on how you are going to the sequence off discussing this some issues because speeches on proposing new solutions like saying like We could tackle this certain something shoot by doing something you can logically visit, supports or refute ideas that have been previously brought up by other delegates By saying all this Delegate agrees or disagrees with the delegate off something no, in terms of a suggestion to something because so it's really important to remember that among conferences, ultimately a place for discussion and debate. So instead of just having one sided speeches constantly being out new ideas, something that's important in speeches, this element of interaction or you are critiquing other people's ideas bring up new ideas on improving all the solutions along the process. So a good that again would firstly stick to your nation stunts Familia, representing a nation member state in the council and you're not representing yourself and it's a sight no. In every single speech you give, you have to refer to yourself in a that person, not in the first person. You cannot say I am feeling bad, or I feel that this is not right. You have to see this delegate beliefs or then get off country. The use of your country believes that something, something something, secondly, to be a good that again, we should lead the council, so it's important to set the council's direction and agenda and ensure that it progresses. And let's not get trucked in secular. It'd be This sometimes happen in man conferences where people just keep repeating solutions that have been previously discussed and consistent from senses, has been really roughly achieved. And so just try to ensure that council is constantly progressing and trying to cover the most pertinent subs issues and expects on the topic. Given the limited time in the conference, Nix is really important to work as a team in a month conferences. You always seek to different diplomatically find a middle ground or find areas were interests align. But remember your Stewart presenting your member state your country and must always fight for its national interest as much as possible. But in some cases you have some room to, uh, to start off compromise or or find a common areas of interest, which multiple sense most of counsel can agree on. Revolutions should be a productive teamwork with multiple responses. In some, it s rather than a single person, uh, doing it by himself. And more successful delegates in councils usually work together with the entire council, or at least a lunch blocking council a block meaning suffer collection off delegates with similar which allies within the conference because they have maybe have similar interests, for example. 10. Effective Chairing: everyone Welcome to last lesson or defective cherry. So what qualities are good? Chest good chance Have good teamwork skills Within each council, they're usually multiple chest and you have to walk together introducing the study guy defending what Lord? And when carrying council as well as in the decision making is deciding or what, Uh and so what? In boxes so important between the chance and discuss terra off man conference Impartiality and objectivity is also really important. Also really important. While these off good chest chess have the responsibility off. Assessing delegates on determining the awards hence is very important for them to be able to assess this delegate subjectively based on their merits in council. Good chance. You also understand the council girl. You provide more direction and pumping for beginner councils and give more space for advanced councils. They ensure that beginner delegates within a council newcomers in the model United Nations uh, sphere, I don't intimidate that by advanced that against and have sufficient speaking time for all delegates. So if they realize that a certain delicate is not speaking for almost the entire conference , maybe they can encourage them to speak more other bodies of good chairs is steady. First, we have to track them it. So watch is normally do Is that keep a document track speechless? So they're not just listening. That's tracking your speech and debate as it progresses to help. Better in decision making. Late for what's Tobe able to keep a record off? What? No, who has said what and also have them understand on Tripoli. Constant progress. Better chance. Also approachable. Providing then women constructive feedback to delegates after the conference, It is important that, you know, chest do not, um, gift too much feedback while the conference runs. Uh, if it's not necessary, Uh, toe a single that again Because I don't me give that single delegate unfair advantage in terms of awards. Good chance also have good expertise in knowing how you knowing the rules of procedure Rop very well for conference and in depth understanding of the topics to be debated after all the other ones who researched and produce the study guides for the delegates. Okay, and that's all