Maya for Beginners: Texturing | Lucas Ridley | Skillshare

Maya for Beginners: Texturing

Lucas Ridley, Instructor and Animator

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27 Lessons (3h 59m)
    • 1. Course Overview

    • 2. Download Maya Free Trial

    • 3. Interface Intro

    • 4. Manipulators And Camera Movement

    • 5. Look Development Introduction

    • 6. UVs - Intro & Planar Projection

    • 7. UVs - Merge Borders & Cylindrical Projection

    • 8. UVs -Straighten & Transfer

    • 9. UVs - Final Ghostbusters Trap UVs

    • 10. UVs - "Bones" Head

    • 11. UVs - "Bones" Body

    • 12. Intro To Shaders

    • 13. Lighting Shaders

    • 14. Photographic Textures

    • 15. Procedural Textures

    • 16. Scene Adjustments

    • 17. Hypershade Intro & Fractals

    • 18. Brushed Metal & Bump Maps

    • 19. OBJ File Format & Fix "Bones"

    • 20. "Bones" 3D Paint Tool

    • 21. Mix Rust Shader

    • 22. Ghostbuster Trap Finishing Touches

    • 23. Fog Lighting

    • 24. "Bones" Displacement Maps

    • 25. "Bones" Glass Material

    • 26. "Bones" Lights

    • 27. "Bones" Render Sequence

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About This Class

In this second part of the course series, we will learn how to give color and texture to our 3D models!

"Look Development" is a broad term that defines the stage of 3D that involves several different steps which we will cover all of them in this course:

  • UV-ing
  • Textures
  • Shading
  • Lighting
  • Rendering

We will take a grey shaded model and learn how to paint textures right inside of Maya! No other software needed. The models we created in Part 1 will be used, but if you want to skip that part and start with this one! Download the course files to get all the models we built in Part 1 to follow along with this course!

Download your FREE trial of Maya here!



1. Course Overview: Welcome to my A for beginners, a course on texture ring. This is part of a larger core Siri's. But you can take this course by itself and still follow along because you can download all of the course files. This course could actually be called look development because we're gonna cover many more things than just texture. We're gonna be covering U. V s lighting, texture, ing, shading, rendering and all of that's called look development. But it's just easier to call this course Text Oring, for the true beginner may not know about what looked development actually is. And that's what you're gonna learn in this course all of these steps. So we're gonna dive a little deeper into Maya, learn a few technical aspects, but also flex our artists muscles where we will paint individual textures inside of Maya. We're going to add realism. Toothy ghostbuster trap. No need for any other program like photo shop or anything like that. And don't forget to download the files you can follow along and add some color and texture to these models. Thanks for watching 2. Download Maya Free Trial: really quickly wanted to show you where you can get a free trial of Maya. So it's totally free, and you can have it free for one month or what? I highly, highly recommend. If you are student right now, you can get this software free for three years. This is huge. This is so huge, right? Even if you aren't gonna finish this course right now, whatever take advantage of this. Um, definitely, definitely. Do this. It's a full version of Maya. It will just say every time you open up the scene file, it will say, you know, this is a student version, and that's it. But it's a full version of Maya. Definitely. Do this. If your students somewhere, um, I think you might have to have ah dot et you address email address or something to prove your student, our cinema, your student, I d but do that if you're a student at a university or school somewhere, otherwise you can get it for one month for free, and then you can move into a subscription basis and just pay each month that you actually use it instead of one big one big payment. So they might move the URL around. But I'll include this in the about section of the course, so you can just click the Link or Google Free Trial of Maya, and it should take you to auto desks website and you can download that they're now let's get started in the next lesson. 3. Interface Intro: welcome to this first lesson in Maya, where we're going to cover the interface. It's the first thing you see when you open my so it's good to get familiarized with it, and as you go through this course, you will become more and more familiar with it and comfortable using it. But it's a great place to start just so that we know what we're looking at, because it's easy to get intimidated when you're first starting to learn three d. I know I was when I opened up a program, and you see all of these buttons and all of these menus, and you have no idea what's important, what's not. And it just looks like some crazy alien interface and where to even begin with that. So that's why I have this lesson. You refer back to it, but it's also just kind of to ease your fears right, like you're not gonna need to learn every single little button and menu option here to be successful in Maya and use it. I'm gonna show you the things that we use the most, and in this interface I'm gonna show you kind of how to visually categorize these things, So you can kind of No Okay, I'm probably not going to use this so visually, I don't need to worry about kind of that chaos of all these buttons up here, So let's just kind of taken overall. Look at this. Normal When you open up, Maya, you're gonna get some type of a view like this and you can see down here that it says P E R S p and that tells us the camera view that were viewing in the view port. And that's what this middle section is here. This is called the View port and you can see the axes down here on the lower left. You can see why is up and Z is kind of to the left. And so this is where we're going to see everything that's happening in our scene and down here we have a timeline for when we start animating weaken, scrub this, we can play it over here. We can set it toe loop back several times by clicking that we can turn on auto key. Turn that off, change the frame range all of these things. But typically when I'm using this, I use it just like this. I scrub, I look and then I can change frame, range, clicking and dragging that or typing in numbers here. And these two numbers actually just mean the kind of in and out points of what we're looking at versus the whole scene, right? So you can see we can't can kind of adjust this and slide this around, but it doesn't change the first number, and that's why that's kind of the absolute values of the in and out of the scene. But we can temporarily change that kind of scale so we can see you know, a smaller scale of the timeline. So it's easier to scrub a smaller section if it's a very big shot or something like that. And if you double click it, it will jump out to the whole thing and maximize to the entire length of the frame range that you've said. So that's the bottom part, and you can see down here in the bottom left. This will be very helpful. As you're starting, this will display short help tips and tools and selection. So if I'm going up here and I don't know what this is and I hover over it. I'll get a tool tip that will pop up. But if you're looking in the lower left as well, it will say the same thing. So if you're a little impatient for the tool tip to pop up, you can just look in the lower left and you can see as I scrubbed my mouse through. I'm not clicking anything. I'm just hovering over. Everything you can see is showing me what each one of these tools is named and what they dio. And if you leave it over there, you know the tool tip will also pop up. So that's one quick way to figure out what all these little things do appear. Don't worry about what each one of them does yet we'll get into that later. But just know you know these air different tabs for different kind of sections, and these sections are also kind of related to these different drop down menus. Here, Maya tries to organize the menus into different disciplines so you can see modeling rigging animation. It's all separated into their own menu sets because typically, if you're doing one, you're not really gonna be doing the other and in a production. Normally this is kind of the linear workflow of how things are made. Anyways, first model something, then you rig it. You animated, for example you can't really animate something that doesn't exist, so you have to model it first. And if you're gonna rig it, then you need to rig a before animation. So it's just kind of they try to do it in a way, an order that makes sense for how you're gonna create things, animate things and render things. That's why these air ordered the way they are. And you can see that they change the menu options up here. But only after Windows. You can see watch windows. And as I change the options, Windows stays the same. So everything from file the windows is never gonna change. And everything after that will and a lot of these things. So I'm in the animation tab here in the drop down menu and I'm on the animation shelf here and you can see there's play Blast. There's different kind of options and a lot of those things are also here soon. See play Blast is here as well. That's the same icon. It's the same tool tip. So even though there's all these different buttons, they actually just put them in more than one place. So it makes it look more complicated than it is because the same option is put in several different places. So, for example, with play Blast, I could actually even right click on the timeline down here, and it's off the screen. But if you do this on your and your Maya, you can go down to the bottom. You can see an option for play blast again. So play Blast, for example, is in three different places. So you know, this is also another reason why not to get overwhelmed while these options, because visually it looks like there's a ton of him. But really, they're just the same ones over and over in different ways. You know, depending on how you wanna work or select options are menus or how you want to select tools . Then they try to give you a Zeman E options as you want to really, which is a little too much. Typically, you're only ever gonna, you know, use this up here or the shelf. It's whatever you're comfortable with. I find it kind of hard to remember what each one of these icons are. And then toe wait for the, you know, tool tip to pop up. Typically what? I'm going through the menu up here, and I'm not using this as much, but it's definitely nice toe have sometimes on a couple different things. Like, you know, in this course, I'm probably gonna make you know, a couple spheres just to show you how things work. We'll get into manipulating things in the next lesson. But, um, you know, besides that, I don't really use the shelf options all that much. So now that we have this kind of shelf option and some of these menu things covered, let's look at what's in between them. We can see this, you know, drop down money that we talked about. Then there's all these buttons up here, and they all do different types of things that were going to get into a lot later. So for right now, just know that you don't really have to worry about any of these things and will slowly cover these later. These aren't super super important and getting started, So we're just gonna skip them now for the interface. Don't worry about thes. So the next kind of thing. We want to look at our these different windows as well. So we have, you know, a blank window here we have blank window here. They have their own little tabs here. And then there's these tabs on the side. So again it seems like there's a ton of options, but it's it's really not. So, for example, with this tab, this can actually be, you know, close down by clicking it or double clicking at the Open it back up. But if you noticed here, this little button gets highlighted and unhygienic as we're clicking it. So is the same thing we were talking about earlier. The play blast. It's just a different way to select kind of menu options here, so you can do it from a pier or you can do it from this tab so you can see the modeling toolkit would go back to the attributes or we could select over here. So why this is significant is because if I create a sphere, this is gonna tell me the name. It's gonna tell me where it is in space Is it on is invisible and the history of the object and any inputs there are so I can see what the inputs are. So this is kind of a quick way to see what's the status of this object where it is. If I go to the attribute editor, I can kind of see this information displayed a little bit differently, so I can see you know, translate is all zero. If we go back to the Channel box, we can see that's shown here as well, just the same thing showing twice, like were talking about earlier. We want help simplify this stuff in your mind so you don't feel like that. You know, this is something different than this. It's not. It's the same thing. It's just in a different place. So just to kind of emphasize this again, I wanted to show you something that I use quite a bit. If you hold down space bar, you will get the hot box menu what my calls the hotbox menu, and I'm holding down space bar and I have all of the menu options available to me. You might be able to tell that is ordered the same exact way that the tabs over here ordered. So modeling you can see mesh mesh, edit, mesh, edit, mesh, mesh tools, mesh tools and so on and so on. You can see rigging, animation effects and rendering. That's exact same way this is laid out over here. So it's just a quicker way to get to. All of these menus is by holding down space bar, and I use that quite a bit. It took me a couple of years to get used to it and actually use it, because I think it does take a little familiarity with Maya to feel comfortable with this. But the senior used this. The quicker you'll be in Maya, and I would highly encourage you to use this instead of having to hunt around for stuff up here and changing menus. You can get everything right here by holding down space bar, so that's a pretty useful tip that ah, I think, will be useful even more later. Now that we know what the channel boxes and the difference with the attribute editor, let's jump over to this section. We can see the View Port has its own options and If you have over each one of these objects , you also get the tool tip. And so I won't go over each one of these because, to be honest there, not very helpful as a beginner starting out. These aren't really that important, but I didn't want to talk about the different views in Maya. So if I don't hold down Space Warner, just tap it. You can see I get multiple views and typically what you'll see. Just click this over here is something like this when you're just starting out Maya. So if I hit space bar again with my mouth just hovering over a different window, I'm not clicking anything with my mouth. I can jump into those views, and you can see what the views are by the camera name, top Y front Z Side X perspective. And so we can jump between different perspective use. If we need to see something top down and modeling, we can do that. So that's one quick way to divide up the screen as well. So if we wanted to revive the screen in a different way, we could go to panels layouts, and we can say two panes side by side. And that's what I had earlier that you saw, because this is the way I like to animate sometimes so I can get back to the perspective. You've just by hitting space bar and these kind of buns over here just kind of like short cuts to these different mo's as well. Instead of eating space bar, you can kind of jump through, and one of the last things I want to talk about is the outlier and outline er you're gonna have open and spend a lot of time and because it's basically a table of contents of what's in your scene, you can see that we have these different cameras that we saw earlier when we were in the kind of four view set up, and they're all great cause they're hidden. We can actually see them in the interface so we can see the the peace Fear one. And that's one way that we can select this object or weaken, selected just by clicking it left mouse clicking. So that's kind of two ways dislike things you, either through the outline er or through the View port. So that is a quick rundown on the interface. I hope you got you a little more familiarized with what you're looking at when you open up Maya. It's not as intimidating as it seems. And if you follow along with this course, you'll just pick up these things and so that I won't have to walk through each little button kind of in a dry way. We'll take a project based approach so that you'll get more familiar with the interface as we go along. So thanks for watching. And I'll see in the next lesson where we will briefly cover manipulators and how to move stuff around. And Maya, thanks for watching. 4. Manipulators And Camera Movement: welcome back, and let's quickly cover how to move things around. And Maya, there's a couple things understand, especially in three D. That's important. And so let's jump right in and cover that from the previous lesson. I still have this fear here. If you don't have that, I can just delete that. And we can go up here to this polygon sphere and click that you can also get to it by going to create pulling on primitives and sphere. One other thing that's kind of fun with these menus is you can actually tear them off so you can see there's this little option here if I hover my mouse just above this. And most menus have this. This one has it. You know, most all of these menus have this little option here. So if I knew was gonna make a lot of primitives, a lot of spheres or something, just as an example, I can just click that and I'll have this kind of menu torn off. So now I can just click this a bunch of times, and if I open up my outline, er, when does outline? Er I can see I made a bunch of Sears really need. Once I'm gonna shift, select all of those, blow it and hit delete and I'll select this fear here. I'm also gonna click and drag this out liner and let it over here and let go So little kind of docket in the window here Gonna close this menu that I had hovering and no, I could get back to it, you know, appear if I want. Now that we have this fear, you can see that there's these kind of squares and different things going on here. So let's take a look. The way that we manipulate things in Maya is basically through several different tools, one of which is you may have already seen by hitting Q. You can get to the select tool or you select it up here. It's just the cursor option. I can select the object here just by left mouse clicking. I can also select it from the outline or here. So we've got the object selected, but I want to move it. How do I move it? I can hit W on my keyboard to pull up the shortcut for the manipulator. I can also select it over here, you see the move tool is what the tool tip says, and you can see as well that in parentheses, it says W so we can also see the shortcut is listed there. So now with the sphere selected and if you notice even with even with the move tool selected, I can select different objects. You don't always have to have the select tool selected to select new things. You can have the move tool selected, and you can still select stuff so you can also click and drag to select things in a group. So now that we have this one thing, let's move it around. I can click any access and will be isolated to that axis on. Do that and you can see it's isolated because the axes manipulator turned yellow. If I click the vertical one, it turns yellow or the Z axis. It also turns yellow. So now I know no matter if my mouse is going up and down or something weird, that it's only gonna go along that access. But if I want to have a free movement, I can just click in the middle and move the thing around wherever I want it. The other thing I can do is isolate on two axes. And that's what these little squares are here that I can you know. No, I'm Onley, moving it in the vertical and X axis. I use a little. I used these quite a bit, actually, because in three D space it's hard to tell where you're moving something sometimes. So you know, it's hard to tell if that's actually vertically up or if I moved it back in space. So by selecting these, you can tell that I'm not moving it up. I'm moving it in the X and Z on this flat plane, this cred. And if you can't see the script for some reason, if didn't default to that, you can also turn that on here or turn it off. If it's distracting, that's just one of these little options appear. So now that we know how to move things around, let's rotate it so we're gonna e on the keyboard, and similarly, we can find it over here in this little tool box window, and you can actually turn off these options from Windows you elements, and you could turn off the toolbox. Now you can see that disappears. You find yourself not using those. It's nice to turn them off and you have more screen real estate for the view port. But for now, since we're all beginners and we're just starting out, let's leave that up. So I'll go back to the you I elements meaning user interface, and I'll go down the toolbox and bring that back. So with the rotation, it's very similar that we can isolate different axes and they turn yellow and we can click in the middle here and have a free form option. One thing to keep in mind is because we're working on three D. Watch the X axes if I click the SEAQ season and dragged the red one down. Now the red one is where the green one used to be. Did you see that? So I just undid it. So right now, the green one is kind of going around, and if I bring the X axes the red one down now that's replaced it. So who's to say which axes is which now? Because before I rotated it, the green one was down here, the Y axes, but now because I rotated Z the exit axes is down here. So this option, this kind of view that we're seeing is based on the object, right? Because the object is rotating, the axes are changing, and that's something very important to keep in mind because that will be important later in animation stuff. So just keep that in mind that because now we're in three D. These things actually kind of matter, and we can control them in different ways if we hold out E, which is a shortcut for rotation. If we hold Downey on her keyboard and then click left mouse click, we can drag to the world option. So now you can see the manipulator pop back to have the green going around here like it was before, even though the object is rotated. So what this is saying is we're now rotating based on the world axes, which never changed, right? So even when we move an object around and see, the manipulator itself is not changing, so we can always have the option, even if an object is rotated weird to isolate based on the world axes, we just need to change that by holding down E and clicking and choosing this option. If we go back to object, you can see it's still kept all those changes. And now, based on the Objects rotation, we can see that the axes air moving all around, and and so that's just something to keep in mind for later. So we get an animation. This this will be important, and I explain later in animation why that is important. So the other thing that that just for myself, I like to do as I like to only ever stay on the channel box unless I'm doing something very specific because you can see this attribute editor here. You can see it says, Actually, editor, right here on the side. It takes up a ton of room. There's just a lot of stuff going on, and we don't need it. And so I like to keep the channel box of them because now we can see the values. We can zero them out. We can click and drag them and then zero and zero everything out. This is way more useful when we're moving stuff around than the ash read editor. I'm also can slide that down to free up more space for the view port. So similarly to the rotation axes being different. The move axes can also be different. It's right now you can see even though the object is rotated, the axes are pointing relative to the world. So if we hold down W Similarly like we held down E earlier, we hold down W and left click. We get the same option, right world object. So now we can see it's following the rotation, so it's following the object axes now. So that's just two different ways to manipulate the same object based on its own. Axes are based on the world axes, so that's important. The final thing we're gonna talk about is the scale. If you are or you go over here and click the scale button or the scale tool and you weaken scale uniformly, we can also scale on axes, and that's pretty straightforward. So we've gotten this far and we haven't moved around anything. How do we move around? So we have an object. Now let's move around it. I want to zoom into it, how I zoom in I can mouse scroll, which I don't use that much But the other option I have is all down Ault and right Click and then drag my mouse and you can see I'm doing the same thing. I was giving it out, and this is why you need a three button mouse. Because now, if you click and hold the middle mouse button, I can pan around. And then if I still holding Ault, if I left click, I can rotate around an object. So with the combination of these three things, I can do all sorts of moves and zoom in on things and say, I get way out here and I can't really see what I'm working on. I can click and drag and select the thing. I can select it from the outline er and then I could hit F so it had F and I jumped back to the selection that I have, and now I'm free toe move around again and do all that. You can also get to that option from the View menu here and go to view frame selection. One other thing that's very helpful is look at selection. So, for example, if we're over here, I'm rotating around. I'm not rotating around the object anymore. And why is that? That's because my center of interest iss somewhere over here and I cant rotator on the object. So if I want to rotate around the object, I can go look at selection. So the position of the camera didn't change, but now it's just rotated looking at the selection, and now I can pivot around that object. So that's one way to help control your camera. And if your camera gets too crazy, you can always select it from here. Select camera, which is whatever camera this view port is will select. It can also select it from the outline because we know it's purse being. See on here pr SP purse perspective and you can see now we have all the values here, and we could just zeros out if things got too crazy. And of course, now we're inside the sphere cause we're at zero world space, and now you can see I'm rotating from some crazy point out there. I can select my object, it f and now I'm rotating around it and I'm back. So that's a quick introduction on how to move, scale, rotate and move the camera around. Thanks for watching, and I'll see in the next lesson 5. Look Development Introduction: welcome to the second part of this series of my for beginners, where we will discuss look development. And if you're a true beginner to Maya, you may. You might not even know what look development means. And that's what this video is about. So if you're familiar with look, development and the concepts of look development, you might want to skip this video. Otherwise, if you're true beginner and you're not entirely sure even what that means, then follow along and I'll show you what we're going to be covering in this section and second part of this larger course. So, look, development is a concept in film that you can even find job postings for. They'll call it like a look. Development artists and what they're responsible four is creating the look of character or maybe even an environment, but that involves a lot of different steps. It's not just one skill that you need to have as a look developer, and in general, if I had titled this course texture ing, it wouldn't have encompassed really what all is involved, and it would have short changed you an understanding on a larger scale. What really goes into making an image like the Hulk Buster, for example, which we will talk about a second. And the first part of look development is we would ensure that we have good, You've ease and you ve s basically I mean, we're trying to place a to D texture onto a three d object. And that has a lot of implications because let's take, for example, this example of Globe's. You see these people making globes, and they're not taking one sheet of paper to wrap around this three d object. So they're taking a two d texture and they're trying to put on the three d object on what they have to. Dio is cut into these very specific shapes, so that wraps around and each of the seems aligned to each other. And you've probably seen this in a map like this that tries to show that distortion. And there's even different ways to project a to D texture onto a three d object. So you're you're familiar with it, but we can now apply this concept. You're familiar with 23 D objects because it's the exact same thing. So that's U V s and the next step is shading and shading a separate from textures because shading talks about the materials applied to an object. So an object that is rubber, glass or metal is going to have different properties. How an object refracts light is what materials air mostly about, so we can see here. There's a lot of reflections, and this is all metal material. But if we look at something like the cocoa movie, we can see the material on their skull is not as reflective. There's not sharp, sharp reflections like we get on the whole Buster. You can see how hard these lines are, how sharp these reflections are in the metal, which you would expect, and on them the reflections air a lot softer, more diffuse. And that's because the surface on the bone is much more rough. And when you have rough texture, the light rays bounce around and they do not reflect back as clear as something like metal that has a smoother surface. And so there's things like that and things like, you know, the transparency of windows and things like that. That's gonna be all the material and shading. So that's that. And then the next one is going to be textures which we've kind of beat been talking around . So if you go back to this example of the Hulk Buster, we can see that, Yes, you know, of course he has materials because otherwise we wouldn't see me. There's reflections and, um, other properties there. But let's take a look down here. Look at this little, ah kind of rough area where damage spot happened. Or if we take a closer look at some of these reflections, they're not consistent, you know, they're a little dappled, and there's some subtle differences all along. And then again, over here we see little damage marks, right? Stuff like that, and same on cocoa. We can see, of course, they have a material, but they also have textures on their face. There's these designs around their eyes and cheeks and chin, and even on their hats and clothes like, for example, these lines on a short would be a texture. But the properties of the shirt reflecting light and other other types of physical properties of the material is shading. But the line itself is text oring. So that's the difference between shading and text oring. So we will use shading and texture in conjunction with it with each other to try to achieve effects like this in the course. So the last thing that we're gonna discuss is lighting and sent really? The last thing, cause we're going to do it in conjunction with everything else. Because for us to evaluate shading and texture ing, we need to have some light and are seen so we can see what we're creating. So through this course, we're gonna cover all of these topics so that we can make compelling images and understand each one of the steps of this process so that we can have confidence that we could make whatever that we imagine for ourselves using these new tools that were about to learn. So I'll see the next lesson where we'll begin learning all about U V s. Thanks for watching 6. UVs - Intro & Planar Projection: welcome to the first lesson where we're going to be learning about U. V s and learning how to create them for ourselves. And I'm just going to reiterate again that you these are incredibly important. You cannot skip this step in any program in any application of three D, because every model needs you Weise to describe where in space the texture is going to be. So we're going to work in the Ghostbuster trap No u V's seen files, so you should have this downloaded and you can open up and follow along. Or if you followed part one of this series of three D modeling, you should have your own modeled as well. So when we're modeling this, we did not take into account U V s. We were just kind of, you know, scaling stuff up and down and moving Vergis ease and we do whatever we wanted. And that was fine. We got the model done. But now what we have to contend with is the fact that we distorted the U. V s of all these things. So let's take a look at what I mean. Let's let's create a new square. I'm gonna drag this up. I'm gonna open up the UV editing tools, so I'm gonna go to the workspace. I'm gonna scroll down to UV editing. The other thing we need to do is go to Windows, Settings and Preferences, plug and manager and make sure that we have turned on the unfold three D bundle and check it loaded. And you also check auto load if you want a toe load every time you open my, um And so now we have those loaded we can you Some of the tools them in the UV took it here , but so what we're looking at is the at the actual UV space here in this window, this is two dimensions. You is along the bottom. Envy is along the top O R vertically V for vertical. And let me had all being just changed the color here so we can see the numbers a little bit better. But you can see that it's basically in a zero toe one space. All of these U V s are in 01 So we have this square selected and then see this kind of represents a folded out version of it into a flat plane. Now let's select a three D object like this door rectangle. That is a much different three D objects shape. So we click that it looks pretty much the same. So what does that mean? Well, let's turn on this little checker box icon here and we can see what a texture would look like. I mean, kind of preview what the U. V s are, how they're represented on three D object. And for this kind of default square, we can see that it's pretty correct. You know, the checkerboard squares are square all along each face, and if we select the door here, we can see their super stretched out and there really distorted. So if we would apply the same texture to both of eat of these things, let's just say, you know, we wanted to look like concrete or something. The concrete texture would be super stretched out in the story here. Okay, so and let me just reemphasize This is not the most glamorous part of learning three D, and but again, you're just gonna have to learn it because there's no way around this stuff. And this is just the nature of three d All the models that you create will have to have you these even models that you buy off line may not have you V's with them, and you might have to create them yourself. So this is this is a very, very, very important skill toe comprehend because there's no skipping this. Everyone has to understand this and learn it. If you're gonna learn three d, let's take a look at how we resolve the issue that this rectangle has the same U visas a square. And we want this texture to look the same as the square. We want squares wherever we go so that we know the tech. Any texture that we apply to this object here is not gonna be distorted like this. Okay, so let's delete this and isolate select by clicking this little button up here the one of these door panels and what kind of focus in on it. Let's go to the face mode and select the top faces. And I'm gonna include the bevel on this and we actually turn off his texture to make it a little visually easier. Just like these things I'm holding down shift and selecting and rotating around and upside . Just dislike to that. And the one trick to this, um, that we can used to our advantage is the fact that these door panels are facing in the same access, which is the y axis. It's up and down, so we just wanna make sure we get these corners as well. So what I'm doing is selecting where we want to create new movies. And just in general, when you're creating unit new U. V s, it's very flexible. You don't have to select the whole object by itself and try to make all your visa at the same time in select individual faces and project new UV is just for those faces. So let's go to the UV menu coming in school down to plainer and let's click click this option box here so it's dragged us over and see what our options are. We have fit projection to best plane or bounding box. Bounding box is what we want, and we want to project from the Y axis because that's up and down the vertical access. And we want to make sure that keep image with and height ratio is on because If we don't have the song, I'll show you what happens. I'll hit, apply And it takes this really long rectangle and it tries to make it into a square. It tries to maximise the service area of the texture which may be useful if you're painting on this thing in my which will do later. And you want to make sure that you know, if this is an image, this square image is 100 pixels by 100 pixels. You don't want it to be tiny little square in the corner, cause then that really means that this entire texture would actually only be taking up like , you know, 10 pixels by 10 pixels in this entire image. So it could be useful to try to maximize the space. To make sure that the U. V s are taking full advantage of the dimensions of a texture. You can see that it's distorting the you ve Still, this is not what we want. So if we turn on keep image width and height ratio, that will respect the shape of the three D objects. So when we hit apply, it's going to make sure that we get the squares that we expect. And because we chose these beveled edges, these these squares bleed over that edge. You can see where it stops here because we didn't include this, these air facing another and another access. So we need to select those and do those separately. The one little catch here is the fact that we did the top and bottom faces together. So if you look over here in the U. V menu and we turn on this little blue button here, this little middle button excuse me that we can see that we have blue down here and this is kind of like a purple, so that tells us something is up. So if we're right clicking cover, we can choose UV or UV shell. It's shoes, UV shell. That means the whole thing. And let's click the top one, and you can see up here that we're clicking. Which one were clicking? Let's take a look. We're clicking the top one here, so let's click that. And now we have W. We can translate that up. So now we can see that we have blue here instead of it being purple earlier. You know this part is we can see these air overlapping. So these colors just denote tow us that these u V's overlapping. And if we wanted each face toe, have unique texture, we wouldn't want this toe overlap, right? So we need to make sure they're they're in their own space. And that's actually called laying out U. V S. And there's tools to help us do that. So it's select everything. We go down to arrange and layout and just click layout. So now it will lay everything out accordingly and not have them overlap. The only problem we have now is this thing is red. What does that mean? That means that these U V s this face because we projected them together was actually projected. You know, through this three d object to the back side of those faces down here. So these air flipped, and that's what red means. And we can get that with this little tool, we can turn this on and off. So now we know this is rattling to flip this around so we can do that with the transform tools over here, and we can scroll down and instead of rotating, wouldn't want to rotate it, we want to flip it. So let's flip this thing over. And now it's blue. So now we can see everything's blue. They're all facing the right direction. But we still need to resolve these edge pieces. So let's select them and I'm still in UV shell mode. So let me right click and I can go to UV. And if I hover over it, it will give me the two options. I'm gonna go, you ve or you, Michel. Right now, if I hover back, we just want to go faces because you want us like these things individually. So I'm going to include the Bev ALS on this axis and we're going to shift select all the faces that are kind of facing the same direction and let's see what direction that is. I go up and I can see my manipulators pointing the blue means the Z axis. They also look down here in the bottom left. This means the Z axis. So we when we open back up this plainer projection tool go down here, click there we can choose Z access and we have keep image with ratio height on and hit. Apply And if we go back to the texture option here, check the checker box. We can see that in fact, the these are the correct size and dimensions of checker box for what we're after. So we did a good job, but again because we did these together will need to flip the this side over. So if I right click and go to UV UV shell, I in select this side and I can go down and click of Flip. And all we need to worry about is the fact that there, right on top of each other again So you select all of these again go down toe layout, click layout and now they've sorted it appropriately. When I click off, I can see everything's blue and nothing is overlapping. So we just need to finish up with grabbing these two faces and let's choose the X axis cause that's the one the way they're facing and hit apply. And now we have another issue that we can talk about. So look at how small these checkers these checkerboards are here. Look how big these are. So they're not the same Texel density. OK, so if we apply the same texture to both of these. One would look bigger on one face and smaller another, and we would have the same Texel density, Um, across the U V. And you can see there's it says it right here. Texel density. That means pixels per unit, so we need to address that. But first, let's deal with the fact that these air overlapping and one of needs to be flipped. So if I select off of this, it looks like this one's red. Um, let's actually just move it up and see if that's in fact, the one that's read it is go down here, flip it. And now it's blue. Let's select everything and quickly out again. And now it's all nicely organized. So let's select. Let's say we want this type of texel density. So let's click this. I will choose, get, and you can say See that these numbers change over here and we also choose a map size for it. But we're just gonna focus on this for now. So we've gotten the textile density of this. So if we choose this and set it, it's gonna change to that exact same textile densities that We know textures are going to be look the same scale wise so we can click this one and it set as well. So it's just double check that These are also set to that textile density. They were pretty close, but not exact. So it's one way to just get everything to be totally exact and same across the same object , so that's pretty cool. So in the next lesson, I'm going to discuss how to merge. You've ease back together because now they're on in different pieces. And let's say we want to wrap a texture around this edge. We can see that the checkerboards are no longer lining up, so let's resolve that in the next lesson and learn another form of UV projection. Thanks for watching 7. UVs - Merge Borders & Cylindrical Projection: welcome back and let's finish out this kind of top door of the Ghostbuster trap. So we made our planner projections. But where these seams are that we made between the two different kind of faces that face different axes, the checkerboards don't line up. So let's right click and go toe edge and select the edge that they share. And we can see in the UV editor that there are two lines that are selected as well. We could, you know, manipulate those around. It's gonna distort everything. But with that selected, we can see that they share these two border edges. So this face we go right click, go to face, we know needs to get flipped around so we can o r sorry, rotated around rather. So let's go rotated. But we can see it's attached to the bubbles. See how this gets all distorted. That means there's UV is getting left behind, so we need to go grab those two. So those are these little end pieces, so it's like those and now have included those said. Now when you rotate, I don't have that crazy stretching this going on. Let's move this down towards the border edge that it shares with this face, and we can see that's going to start to line up very quickly. Let's zoom in here and right click and go toe edge. And if I choose edge here, you can see that these two edges are kind of flashing and they're the same edge. So what I can do is go to cut and sew menu. I'm just gonna minimize all this. Go to cutting so and you can say stitch together. So I'm gonna click that and you can see it, moves it immediately, move that edge and merged it with that. So under that, you can see, you know, they're not sharing the same space. This does everything that you want. Boom. There we go. So now when we look at this edge, how it rolls over, and now you can see that these checkerboards line up and it's a seamless transition from this face to this face. You may also notice that now we we no longer have that kind of stronger white line here, which you can see here and that the notes where a cut edge is has been made in the U. V s so we can identify in the three D space and we can see it in the two D space as well. See these kind of border edges here, and that's denoted with this little tool here. We can turn that on and off, so it might be a little distracting to having the view ports even turn that on enough cool . So now we've made that kind of seamless transition because we know we're probably going to see the top a lot more than the bottom. So it might make sense to make these kind of seamless transitions on the surface that we're going to see the most. So let's do that for this side. So I'll leave that up to you to do that for the rest of the sides. If you want, or you could just leave it like this. It's totally fine. So, uh, let's take a look at another type of projection. Someone a nice late select this door. And so we've been doing planning projections. Let's do a cylindrical projection. So we click this and let's zoom out. We can see that there's a lot of distortion happening, So look at these in caps their tiny squares. They are squares, at least, and then we have somewhat distorted checkerboard on the cylinder. They're two totally different scales. So let's make new ive ese for this whole thing with the object selected. Gonna go to UV cylindrical. And with these options, you can see there's there isn't really any options here. We're gonna be stuck with whatever we get with cylindrical. So let's hit, apply, and let's take a look. The manipulator that has been created don't press any buttons like W O R. You know, rotate button E or anything like that. We way do not want to hit shortcuts. Otherwise, we're gonna lose this manipulator so we can see. Let me hit. I'll be to change the background swing seats manipulator a little better. We can see that It's kind of a unique kind of a weird shape, and it looks like it's going in the wrong direction. So how do we address this? If you look over here, there's this little red T for transformation. I would assume we click that we can see that now we get a different option of the manipulator here so we can turn that on and off with this, but how do you rotate it? There's this one blue line that goes around and I can't really get to in any axes. So if I click the blue line without trying to move it, just click at one time. Now we get the axes. So what we're trying to do is get this to rotate in the direction that we want it to be. So we wanted to g o in this direction because it's a cylinder, and so we want this cylinder shape to match this one. So when we're doing this, we can see the U. V's update dynamically, and we can try to get them a straight as we can. But there's a straightening tool that we can use later, so, you know, do your best. But it's not that big of a deal if it's not exactly up and down. But you know, if this was way off to the side, you'd be able to tell because it's distorting the U. V s in a similar way, the UV zehr now kind of diagonally stretched, so let's get this vertical, and we can see that the end caps are kind of getting squash because if you think about it, they're getting project. Everything's getting projected from, you know, around this cylinder manipulator. And if you're on the end cap here, you're just getting super stretched because it's it's like looking down at this, this, like this and taking a you know, a movie projector. I'm trying to project a movie on it. It's gonna look terrible on this in cap right, and that's why that looks terrible. We're gonna resolve that later. So the other issue we need to have resolved is the fact that this is only projecting on half of the thing. We want this cylinder projection to go all the way around the cylinder. You can see with these white lines where the border of the U. V is, and it's in a place that's not super helpful, because we might actually see this. It's exactly in the wrong spot, actually. So we in general, you do not want to see UV. Seems if you can help it. So let's put this UV seam on the bottom by using this tool, so let's rotate this down. You can see that white line move as we rotate the cylinder projection so Now it's on the bottom, which is where we may never see it. Hopefully. So the other thing we can do is go back to this T button and get out of the transformation mode. And now you get these little squares over here, see how they pop back here. That's what we want to drag this thing down and we get to wrap the whole cylinder around so you can see all of these squares to start to get undistorted. And then we can drag it long ways with the kind of green acsi button up here. So now we can stretch the whole thing out. So it appears that we're kind of making a distorted image here. So what I'm gonna do is turn off that texture. I'm gonna turn on the turned that one on and this one and so what? This one shows. This is where distortion is happening, right? You can see a distortion red and blue. Neither of them are good. We want to see white. So that's what this button right here does. It turns it on and off. And I turned this one off because I don't because this is this is also showing blue and red . But we don't want to see if ah, the UV shells are overlapped or not. Right now we want to see if they're distorted and that's what this third button does. So with that selected and kind of visually see, where does this thing turn? White is like right in here somewhere. And I can double check that with the checker box here. If I turn that on, I can see that indeed, these air pretty close to being squares. It looks like it's still squash a little bit. Let me go back in this direction. It looks like in here and click the Checker box again. And yeah, it looks like these are pretty much checker boxes. But of course, the end caps are still screwed up, like in a really bad way. So let's resolve that. So now when we had any manipulator, I will get rid of this. Sorry. Any manipulator shortcut like W now we lost something really quickly. I want to show you that you can actually get the manipulator back for the U V ah cylinder projection. If we click the cylinder protection and we accidentally get off of it somehow, and we click that. You know, we can see that we don't have that manipulator anymore. But what we can do is go over here to the inputs under the, uh, channel box here and select the cylinder projection here, Polly Cylinder projection as we click that if we hit t r keyboard will get the manipulator back. When we have this selected, we can see I'm just sitting f in the eveything. Teoh, frame it up. We can see that's going outside. Okay, I'm heading. All be so we can actually see numbers again. We could see it's going outside of the 01 space. Let's go to UV and select all of them. And now we can go to arrange and lay out and just say layout. So will snap it back down to that 01 space. And even then, sometimes it gets it a little too close to the border edge. And so, actually, with all the UV selected by going here and just clicking and dragging everything actually scaled down, just touch. Now you can see that texture one away, because it was no longer going into that kind of quadrant. So I'm gonna leave up the's in caps for you to do just with the planer projection that we learned in the last lesson. So in this lesson, we learned how to merge UV borders and how to unwrap a cylinder. So in the next lesson, let's look at these cylinders. Now we know it on rapid cylinder, but what a pain in the butt this would be if we had to unwrap each one of these things and eventually. So let's learn how to transfer you visa from 11 Object to another in the next lesson to speed up UV creation like something like this. Thanks for watching. 8. UVs -Straighten & Transfer: in this lesson, we're gonna learn about how to transfer U V s from one object to another. Before we do that, I just want to finish up on a topic that I didn't completely finish teaching in the last lesson. And it's how to straighten TVs. When we're doing the cylinder projection. It's really hard to get the edges vertical. And if you want straight U. V s, I can show you how to do that. So I've already given this one PCV seven. Isolate Selected. Now we can see it's using the same method from the previous lesson we have. This thing already has U V's problem. Is these the main piece? The main UV shelf right click UV UV shell, The main piece here. I'm not entirely sure if it's vertical, so everything is context based in my as far as what tools you have available to you from shortcuts. So because we're in the V shell mode, if I hit shift and right click, I have a certain set of options here. But if I command and right click have a different set of options, and in this case I want to go from the UV shell to the U. V s. So if I command right click, I can say to you ve So we'll take the current selection and will convert my selection to another type of component in this case, U V s someone select that Now I have the V's of the whole thing. I could move this around. I can rotate scale, whatever I want to do in here. But the reason why I did that is because now when I hit shift, this will be a different type of menu that I saw earlier. Now I can straighten you V s and hovering over this little gray icon again. Of course, we'll give me different options here so I can straighten you V s. And I'll let go over that and you'll see them go vertical here and you do just one kind of double checked it did what it said it was gonna, too, because sometimes depending on how far off they are from being straight, it might not exactly do what you want. But these look super straight now. So that's how you straighten U V s. Now let's talk about how we take these U. V s and put them on every other object similar to it, which is a lot of them eso It would be a real pain in the butt to have Teoh do all of this UV creation for each one of these little knobs we already have. The UV is done and these are all identical pieces of John Tree. So we might as well use that to our advantage. So let's go to the mesh menu and let's go down to transfer attributes. Let's hit this little option box and this looks super complicated. There's a ton of options here, but let's walk through it. Do you know we know advert Vertex is Well, let me let me just reset that. So it's at the default settings. So Vertex position Ashley's transfer? No, we do not want the Vertex position. All we're interested right now are you ve is so we know we don't want that. We know we don't want vertex normals. UV sets? Yeah, we want that color sets. Doesn't really matter. Yeah, Okay, so the sample space is super important. What is going to say? What this is saying is how am I? How is my gonna interpret how to transfer attributes based on the world space based on this kind of absolute space based on you know, that grid 00 and then everywhere from there is you know where it is in this absolute world space. Is that local? Is it specific to the object or the U. V s. So these would be like if the object was right on top of each other. You'd probably choose one of these two, but let's go with component because these share the same components, its meaning they have the same number of urgency is the same number of edges. It's the exact same object, so I want to match them based on their components. Now that's pretty much all ending to Dio. If we shifts like this next one and hit apply boom, you can see that it transferred the U. V s. We don't have to do anything. It's It's such a relief when stuff like this works just that well, so we can't do them on multiple selections. It doesn't understand that, so we will have to do it on individual basis. But this is still a massive time saver so we can go through here and keep hitting. Apply. Or of course, if you remember the shortcut from the previous, uh, part one, we're gonna g on the keyboard and will pull up the previous command, which in this case is transfer attributes and just heat Keep hitting shift and selecting. And it G I'm gonna do this, finish this up. But before I leave, I wanted to talk about the fact that pretty much everything that we've learned by this point is really enoughto unwrap this entire thing. You know, keep in mind an object like this with kind of zany U V s. How would we approach this? We would approach it by considering the object in isolation. Let's take a look and think, you know, we're probably not going to see the inside all that much. I'm not gonna worry about this stuff that's on the inside, you know, we're never going to see that. So let's only focus on unwrapping what we really need and the way I approach this, even though it looks kind of complicated, all it is is a series of planes. And the only unique thing about this one is this Dagnall face, because all the planer projections we've done up to this point have been in a very specific axes, but this is on a Dagnall. So let me show you how to address that in the next lesson. And I'm going Teoh finish doing this stuff, but yeah, thanks for following along. And I'll see the next lesson where we'll kind of wrap up. Uh, all the kind of UV knowledge you need to have to be able to unwrap an object like this. Thanks for watching. 9. UVs - Final Ghostbusters Trap UVs: So you basically have all the knowledge you need now to UV and wrap this entire thing. If you don't want to do that, you can jump ahead to the next lessons and seen files that have this whole thing UV unwrap for you hum which I'm gonna dio So you'll have that to fall along in the shading text oring courses. But I encourage you to unwrap this whole thing. When I was in film school, we were forced to unwrap objects so that it got drilled into us. How did how to do it and how to be very efficient and to understand the tools really well because, like I said, the beginning of these few lessons this is something that you can't skip like every object asked. Have you V's? And that's just, you know, this isn't the most glamorous thing to do, But you have to dio, otherwise you're not gonna textures on your objects. So it's kind of crucial, But so in this last us and I just want to cover very quickly kind of odd angles, because the only thing that would maybe prevent you from wrapping this thing at this point is just these kind of odd angles because ah, the cylinder and the planer projection may not work because the planet projection has limited axes. But let me show you a little way around that. So let's liked all the faces that are kind of facing the same direction. So I was gonna click, drag, select all of these, and then I'm gonna go down here and I'm gonna hold down control and click drag and de select everything that I had selected through the object. So now have all of those faces I may want to grab like this, um, top kind of bevel edge around. And hopefully you double clicking on the next stage went all the way around. Maybe only going include that next one. Yeah, I'm not conclude that so. Ah, what we can do now is go to UV plainer, and now we can use the best plane option. So now you can see all the axes got great out, and if we had apply, we crossed our fingers just right. You'll see that it did, in fact, kind of choose the best plane for this thing. And now it's doing at at the right angle. So the only thing we would have to clean up about this is the fact that all of these ah edges here are sorry faces, um, they go all the way around, are facing the wrong way. So we need to do that again for these, the ones on either ends and we get it apply, and it'll maybe not work. But what we have at our disposal is this t button here and the blue ring again, a little quirky thing. But now we can rotate the plane to be exactly where he wanted to be had all be. So we can actually see the plane, and we can rotate it around. We can hit plus and minus to increase the manipulator size. And yeah, that's ah, that's what we got. So, yeah, I'm not too particular about u v s, that you're not going to see that much. You know, if you're gonna have, like, a close up shot of this object because you know it is a hero object. Um, I maybe get super specific, but this stuff also don't work. I mean, sometimes I don't even worry about the these things, you know, it all depends on what you're using this object for how close it is, the camera and all that kind of a thing. But basically, you know, some people don't even worry about that stuff. They just, like, go to who? The selected object. You know, they can be pretty lazy about going to UV hit automatic and just say at whatever it's got you these now and it does. You know, um, for you, if you're going to use ah kind of, ah, texture software or you're just gonna paint over this thing if you know someone argue doesn't really matter cause you're, um, not doing that stuff. But basically, if you're ever gonna use procedural textures, which means, like, noise or fractals or something like that, it's gonna look super stretched out weird. And in these obvious places where there's not chequered squares, so, you know, trying not to get too lazy about it. Sometimes people just avoid like, these little nooks and crannies and don't get very specific about the U. V s. And I think that's kind of okay, But ah, don't let that go too far and just totally ignore, um, getting some type of U. V s organized so anyway, But for this piece, I was just gonna keep going through selecting faces and projecting Ah, plainer Ah, you've es onto them And maybe even like selling apps. Um, seems but yeah, that that's basically it for U V s. For the ghostbuster trap. We're going to learn a totally new tool for unwrapping. I think it's it's a little more useful for oddly shaped objects. Organically shaped objects which is convenient for our school character are are Mister Bones character. So in the next lesson, we will open him up and I will show you how to UV unwrap that. But from here on out, you know that the rest of this is up to you. You know, everything you need to know to be able to unwrap this entire object. And so I will see in the next lesson where we will discuss completely new UV unwrapping tool and unwrap the little bones character. Thanks for watching 10. UVs - "Bones" Head: welcome to this lesson where we'll learn more about unwrapping making seems and specifically for organic models like ahead. And in our case, Bones is head here. And if you don't have this file, you can find it with the course files. And so you can work from your own from the previous course section on three D modeling where we created him or her. And you can open that up or you can open up mine and follow along. So what I'm gonna show you is also helpful for or hard service modeling. So if you haven't finished unwrapping the ghostbuster model, that's fine. You can use these tools to actually even help even more. So I just wanted to wait and to show you these tools until we got to bones, because it's a little more helpful for the organic shapes. So what we're gonna do is focus on the head and unwrap that I'm gonna go to work space. You ve editing like we've done before when I click the head and we can see the U. V s arc a total nightmare. Um, and with this turned on here we see we have seems all around the eyes because that's where we did the kind of edge modeling stuff and and theory. When we're looking at unwrapping ahead, we don't want any seems on the front of face or we want very few seems. And the reason for that is is simply because that's where we're going to be looking the most. And we don't want any textures to have any weird distortions around the seams, which is what tends to happen around. Seems so with that knowledge. What we can kind of to do says, we need to put the seams back here. We need unwrapped from the back of the head, and I'll show you how to do that in this lesson. So let's turn on the texture so we can see how, just how crazy and psychedelic this is and why we need to make you vys. That's sort of the border edges and think, you know what? Instead of us trying to merge these edges back together in dealing with this mess, let's just start from scratch, make her own U. V s with a projection of some kind and then start making our seems otherwise we'd have to merge all of this stuff down for no reason when we could just create our own movies. And we could do that by going to U V. Camera based and just going to use the camera that you have, and it's gonna shoot them on there and you can see where it gets distorted. Based on now that we moved the camera around, you can see how disorder that is. We can keep doing that, whatever. But, you know, um, it doesn't really matter. All we're doing in this step is getting rid of all the seams you can see there's no seems now. Okay? So just for clarity's sake, I like to do this from the front view just so we can see that. Ah, you know, the the face and the UV editor more clearly. So let's go to camera based now there in the front view and we can see it's ah, kind of looks a little more like what? Maybe we'd expected to look. So what we need to do is on Rapid because you can see this texture goes all the way through the head and there's all this stretching here on the side. So let's unwrap it with the three D cut tool here it's, ah, a new tool in my 2018. And with that selected, we need to go to the edge mode. So I'm gonna hold down, right click component edge. And like I said, in theory, we need to ah, put the seams back here. So I'm gonna double click this seam in the middle and it's gonna cut the head in half. But, you know, like I said, we don't want it seems down the middle here. So we need to get rid of all these. And we do that by holding down control and clicking and dragging, and we can try to get rid of some of these seems. And this is one way to create a seem. And I'm going to show you another way. You can see accidentally double click that while I was holding down control. So it's this way can be kind of useful in this tool. Ah is very useful. But in this case of making a scene that doesn't go all the way around, it might be a little harder to use. So let's look at another method that's kind of more traditional and has worked in every version of Maya. If we just take you and go to selection, let's click on where kind of we want the edge to start, which is maybe high up on the forehead and let's go down to the chin where we want the actual to end. So we double click that it goes all the way around. Now we've just made a selection. We still haven't cut it. So we need to go over here and cut it so we can go to the cutting so and click cut the shortcut for that. Also, if our mouses hovered over the UV editor, we can hit shift X and will make the cut for Soviet shift XLR mouses over the view port here on the left. It won't recognize that shortcut. It won't cut it. So just know that. And so now we have that cut. But if we think about or wrapping this this, this isn't gonna get us very far. We could actually even try. Right now, let's go to unfold and hit unfold. You can see, um, we actually need to select everything because you just have that one edge selected. So let's go undo that and go and geo right click U V s and select everything. And now it's unfold. Now you can see where the distortion lies based on are one cut and what we need to do more and why we need to do more. We can look at the distortion here as well. We can see there's quite a bit along the seam and on the kind of more curvy parts of the face. So let's try to reduce this by adding more seems in here. So I'm going to undo this just so we can kind of see it back where we're expecting it to be . And I'm gonna go back to the edge mode and I'm gonna turn on symmetry because with this texture on waken, turn it off and it's easier to see. But, ah, if you want to leave that on its kinda hard to see if we wanted to make ah edge cut here that doesn't go away around. Click here and then, you know, I think this is the same edge loop in double click and cross our fingers. It's actually easier to just turn on symmetry, and you have to worry about that as much. So let's hold on W left, click and go to symmetry. Symmetry. You can also get to that where we've learned before in the tool settings over here and go down to symmetry settings and turn that on here. So I just like to kind of teach shortcuts a little more the further we get along and get comfortable with this stuff. So now some trees on. Now we just have to go to the center and shift DoubleClick. So now we have that hit shift X. Now we made a cut there. Let's go to the chin and do the same thing. So we'll click here and go to the center and hit shift X with my mouse over on this side. Sorry, Shift X and make a cut there. And then we also want to make one cut that goes across the back of the head. Don't make it up to be kind of biggest protrusion here, which this was a human head and probably be the ear or something like that. Someone had shift acts, small amount else over here, make another cut, and now we can try to unfold this again. But I will say what? One last thing I want to dio is get rid of this kind of inner part of the nose because we're never going to see it. And it could add a lot of distortion to the unwrapped because it's, um, all one piece right now. So I'm gonna double click it and then try to follow along an edge that will not, um, be seen by the front. So I'm just kind of going in here and following along until I get to that. So I'm gonna hit the cut button here or shift X, You can do the same thing. And now if we right click go TV's Select Everything and hit unfold, it should look much better. And we can see here is well, you know, the checkers look pretty good. One goofy thing is just how this is kind of cock eyed, and it's not straight and a lot of kind of stuff. So we hit, shift and click on any button, and here we can put the option box. So the one little thing you can do is Click Pack, and so it's gonna pack the unfold, uh, movies as it's done. So if I had apply. It should pop back down to the kind of 01 UV space that we're expecting it to be in. So if I scale these down, just a touch will get rid of this. This kind of tells me this is poking out over here a little bit, so always tend to just scale it down, just touching. Instead, Go off. So now we can look at the distortion and it should be quite a bit less. Um, there's still quite a bit that I mean, there's still some there, but that's to be expected. So this is a really good start, and you know there's no right way or wrong. Waited to unfold ahead. Organic objects were really just trying to get the least amount of distortion on this and hide as many seems as we possibly can so that when we, you know, paint a design for his eyebrows or his mouth and around his eyes that it's not gonna be distorted. So we have learned how to use the new three d cutting so tool a little bit. But, um, we're gonna use this a little more and learn a few more shortcuts with this as we continue to unwrap the body in the next lesson, and from there on out, you'll have pretty much everything you need to know about U. V s. And you move on to shading in tech string, which is Ah, a little more exciting. But thanks for watching, and I'll see in the next lesson. 11. UVs - "Bones" Body: Welcome back in before I leave you to ah, do the rest of this on your own. I just want to cover one more object and the three D cut to a little bit. Just so you get a little more comfortable with it and continue to think about how we're going to be. You've been wrapping everything when I approach Ah, on objects are character like this. I mean, we can see that there's a lot of symmetry here, so we only really need to do 1/2 of the body, and then we can do the transfer attributes like we learned in a previous lesson. So let's take that into consideration When were, you know, it's easy to get overwhelmed looking at this, but in reality, we just need to do 1/2 of this thing and we're gonna be set. We just needed transfer the attributes. So let's do one more object here just so we get comfortable with it. And when I'm looking at this arm, I'm thinking we're gonna put the seams. I want to put them on the bottom, probably because we're going to see, you know, maybe his armpit the least, and we're going to see the front and this side a lot more get even, maybe put it in the back. It'll depends. But, you know, in general I try. You try to hide stuff in the armpits and back of the head and things where people might not see as much. The other thing I want to show you right before we start. That is the optimized tool. And just to think of it, like the relaxed tool in the sculpting tool set when we learned that in the modeling, but instead of for the geometry, the optimized Tulloch's for relaxing the U. V s. So if we select a Levi's click dragons like the Head U V's and click optimized, we can see how everything starts to kind of relax a little bit. And the idea is that is going to hopefully reduce the distortion on the U. V s. So that's one other little tool I'm basically ever only ever using, you know, cut, stitched together, optimize, unfold. And then, of course, like we learned in the hard modeling, I'm going in and doing the kind of get and set for the textile density. So objects air kind of relatively similar because if we apply one fractal, do everything those kind of fractal bumps or, you know, checkered bumps or whatever kind of texture, noise, texture doing, they're going to look at different scales. And if you want to, you know, create one texture, one shader, and applied to a lot of things we're gonna make sure that has same textile density. So those were basically the main things I use. And with that said, let's follow through on one more piece and then I'll leave you to do the rest yourself. So it's like this again, and we don't want to deal with these. Seems I'm gonna go, You ve camera based. Now, I could make my own seems and I'm gonna use the three d cutting so tool here, and I'm gonna go to Component Edge and I'm gonna make thes on the bottom of the bone here and I'm just going to click that's and double click it and then I'm going to control Click along here to de select that. And instead of doing the entire in cap here, I want to go around the object. Some going Teoh are the end cap here, click drag a little bit here and control, Click that peace and click and drag up here. We kind of see that the checker box change when it takes into account the selection and the cut in the same object, which is one of the benefits of this tool. Instead of having to go back and forth with the UV editor, it will make the selection cut it at the same time. Ah, the disadvantages. It could be a little finicky. So depending on you know, your level of patients with this tool and what you're more comfortable with, you could use this tool. Or you can make the selections and then make the cuts yourself, using the tools and the UV editor window like we did previously. I'm just clicking and dragging, actually wanna want to go down one more level here so we get all of that shift clicking and then I'm just gonna control Click the top here. Whoops. Cool. So now that we have that done, one cool thing we do is with this tool still selected, we can see we still have the three d cutting so tool we can right click on this. Go to component instead of going toe edge like we have to go to you. Bichel. It's like this. And then if we had D with our mouths over here, it should unwrap it. And so that's a really nice shortcut of this tool. Specifically Ah, I won't. That shortcut won't work unless you have the stool selected. So if you're not sure where to put the seams and stuff, it's kind of nice to stay in one tool hit D and then maybe go back to component mode and go on edge, keep cutting and d again. It's gonna re unfold everything again. So it's kind of a good tool to experiment with and see where the best unfolding is gonna take place so you can see the distortion that had been kind of referring Teoh, especially when something is smooth, like this object is. When we were modeling, we had three. When you smooth something, it tends to distort thieves worse. So this is very, very important part to understand, because it's something that many people run into and never really fix or understand. We can actually fix this. So instead of all these ah, all is stretching here at the edge. We can fix this by going into for this piece of geometry. Weaken go into its ash mute editor here by clicking up here and going down to the smooth mash option. So it's the shape node of this piece of geometry of a click smooth mash, and we go down to the open sub D controls. We can see that currently we have Vertex boundary. We have UV boundary on. What typically happens is the any kind of, you know, smoothing That's done. If we hit three or one, it's going to do the same thing on the U. V s as it's doing on the Vergis ease, and we want to separate that. We want the smoothing toe happen on the Vergis ease and not the movies. So to do that, we need to go to the UV boundary smoothing, and we need to click on preserve edges and corners and watch what happens. Boom fixes that stretching issue, and it's kind of amazing and also bizarre at the same time that this is not an issue. So you may need to fix this later on when you're doing some rendering and lighting and you can see they're stretching on. Seems, but you may just hold off on this until that time and not get too in the weeds. I'm fixing that because this may never be an issue. You may never see those seems anyways, so I'm just gonna leave that on for now. But know that that does exist. If you ever wonder that issue, that's what's happening. Cool. So, no, I only need to do is transfer the U. V s over to this other side. Someone a shift. Click it and you can see how terrible they are and how much time we're gonna save here in one second by going to the edit, going to the mesh transfer attributes. Let's just click on this, make sure we have the right options when I go reset settings and we going to see that we need to go to the component mode again and we need to do nothing else. That's it. It apply, and it transfers. Thievy s and we are much happier. And we just saved about five minutes and over this whole model, we could save easily an hour. Oh, are much, much more if we don't have to. You know, unwrapped both sides. So in this lesson, you have learned kind of the last little a bit of everything you need to know about UV editing, I think. And you can now and wrap this whole thing yourself. Or you can skip it, which I also, you know, do not recommend this is all about kind of going through the motions. Otherwise, you're not gonna learn or remember this stuff. And I hope you enjoyed this lesson, and I will see in the next one. All right. Thanks a lot. Bye. 12. Intro To Shaders: Now that we have, our UV is done. We're going to take a look at shading, texture ing and lighting, and we're going to kind of jump back and forth between all of these because they're all related in some way, shape or fashion. So in this lesson, let's take a look at shading, have the ghost poster trap here. And, as always, if you take a look at the reference, we can see that the materials it's made of our metal, it looks like there's a painted black metal. And then there's this kind of maybe brushed metal that has these streaky reflections in it . And then there's maybe stickers or something on the top, but pretty much it's it's a metal material all the way around, for the most part. So let's take a look how we can create a basic metal shader inside Maya. So if we select this object, we can create a new material by right clicking and going down to as sign new material. But before we get started, I also want to explain how to begin to think about this stuff because it's one thing just to show you the buttons to breast But it's another thing to understand the reason behind this. So when we start thinking about shading, we need to consider the physical properties of material. We just start thinking like material scientists and a physicist. How light interacts with surfaces and different types of materials. Ah, rubber tire looks different than a nice, glossy finish to the car itself or the window. So we need to start to think about why do those materials behave that way and what properties they have that make them bathe. That way, the first thing we need to do before we start assigning those materials is making sure that we have Arnold loaded in. So we go down to Windows, settings and Preferences, plug and manager and scroll down Teoh the him to a bundle and in two ages means Maya Toe Arnold and Arnold is a rendering engine, and basically they're different types of rendering engines. My usedto have one called mental Ray, and that shipped with it, and now they've foregone that one, and now they're using Arnold in their software, and you can also buy different types of renders. Like V. Ray is something you might hear about, um, render man is something that picks are made. And so there's all these different types or renders, and they interpret light and surfaces differently. But basically they're all physically based renders meaning. They try to recreate the physics that we see in the real world, So this one is made by solid angle. That's why it says Saddle a solid angle is the company that makes Arnold. So we have that loaded now. So we're gonna have the correct options that we need. When we go to right click and say a sign of material, we're gonna have the Arnold options available to us now. So we click on Shader. We can see that we can get the AI standard surface, and this is basically the one we're gonna use the most. Arnold tries to condense everything you need in the one shader. If you want to see the history of Shader is, you can kind of look at the Maya Shader if we go to the surface. Is there weaken Sianis, a tropic blend? Lambert Fong Fong e Um all of these shade er's are kind of an evolution of what was created in three D, and they're named after the scientists that created them. So the evolution is such that we're now using Arnold. And the reason why I want to try to teach the why behind these is because this is going to change in the future. That is gonna be a new render that comes out. Or they're gonna change the one that's in Maya and you're gonna have to adapt. This is part of learning. Three D is always staying on top of what's current because I started with Mental Ray and that no longer exists. So I had to learn Arnold. So again, if we click on the object, right click and go down to assign new material, we get all of these options and we can isolate them by selecting them in this left side menu. And we can see only their Arnold Shade er's. And so we want the AI standard service. When click that weaken. See, we get a little more options here that takes over the screen. We just reduce that down. And if we look at all of these ai standard surface attributes, we can see each one, and they're kind of self explanatory. Arnold has a lot of good documentation on this. But for the most part, they mean what they say. They mean. So the overall color is gonna be controlled by the base color here. And And this is where you started thinking about the physical attributes of the material. So, for example, speculum something you may have never heard of his Iowa are or incidents of refraction. This is an actual scientific number. You can look up for different types of materials so you can actually click on this and get different types of incidences of refraction. And this is usually dealing with more transparent materials like you can see here. But for our purposes, we can just leave it on 1.52 Or we can choose something like plastic something that's not gonna have a ton of instances of refraction. So the roughness is is like what it sounds. It's going to make a speculator highlight, be kind of rough and diffuse. If this is low, speculator, highlight will be very sharp. So just start to think about those types of things and consider also the presets that we have appear to get you started. If you click on the presets, you can get all these different types of presets brush, metal and all these different types of things that we can use to get a good start. And we can actually use this to kind of see what does Arnold use by default to show this type of a thing. We can also save our own presets here and use them for later and they will be down here. So let's just use brush metal and I'm going to click replace, which is just off the screen here. I can show that real quick. If we click presets, we can use brush metal and we can choose how much to blend with our current settings. Just gonna replace everything and see where it gets us so we can see what it did. It change metal nous all the way up to one. So this is a metal object. The weight is all the way to one and the colors kind of middle here. We might need to change that later. So let's just isolate this object and let's render it. If we render this thing, we are gonna be able to see it. So we first need to add some lights so in the next lesson, we're gonna add some lights and learn how to adjust this material a little bit further. Thanks for watching. 13. Lighting Shaders: in the previous lesson. We sign a piece of the Ghostbuster trap, our first new material and dividing up these lessons in this way because we can't really evaluate the shader unless we can see it rendered. Because we can't see reflections in the view port here very accurately. And so we need to add some lights, and we need to add something to reflect off of a swell, because if we just add one light, it will illuminate the object. But there will be no other things around for it to reflect off of. So there are a couple new concepts you need to learn as well they're So there's something called a hdr Ah, high dynamic range image, usually on a visual effects set. They take photographs of a mirror ball and it looks something like this. You may have seen this and behind the scenes footage on game of Thrones or some movie something like that, but this is what Ah, high dynamic range image is usually created from for visual effects. So they get accurate reflections because what's what we're gonna do in three D is actually project this reflection inward so that the object in the scene will accept these types of reflections that this mirror chrome ball is receiving as well, so it might not make a ton of sense, but maybe it will once we get creating it ourselves. So let's go appear to Arnold and we'll go toe lights and you need to be in no specific tab . Arnold Tab is in everyone, so in good Arnold lights, we can just tear that off for now because we're gonna create another light in a moment. And in Maya, we actually have the option to create a physical sky. And what Arnold is trying to dio is just make a very generic chrome ball. So it's gonna be a physical sky, So it's gonna be just kind of know texture. It's gonna be colors and will be able to control all of that. But it's just trying to make it so that you don't have to have an actual image every time you want to create a sky or a kind of mirror chrome ball to be able to project reflections onto an object. So it's click physical sky and let's see what kind of render we get just straight out of the box. So it's good Arnold Arnold render view. And when we first opened this, nothing happens and we need to tell it to start. So let's sit this play button and we'll say, Initiate that. That's pretty cool. We actually can see the difference between the two different materials we've applied already. Which is this default Lambert, which comes with every single piece of geometry that's created in Maya and then our new Arnold Shader, where we can see there's actually reflections happening now and the color is black and we can see this kind of rim reflection here based off of the physical sky that we created. So if we were to delete this physical sky, this disappears. There's no light for it to reflect from. So let's. Let's try a different light. Let's do a directional light. You can tell from the Arnold Lights tab. There is no directional light, so Arnold uses directional lights, but it's not technically an Arnold quote unquote light. So let's go to the rendering tab here, and we can select this image here to get a directional light. So once we click that we can see, we start to get the image back here because we have some light in our scene. If we go into the view port here, we can see we can scale up this light. We can see we have it selected here. Let's scale it up and scaling it up won't have any effect on its intensity or anything else . It's just for us to see it a little bit better. So when see, the arrows are pointing in this direction. So we're actually illuminating the side we can't see right now, so if we just rotate this around now, we can see this object and you can see we are getting some reflections. But it's very obviously one directional, and it's not as, ah kind of illuminated, as you would probably see in nature as much as we when we had the physical sky. So this is just stuff to play around with that depending on how you want to render this or light it or use it, you may need to use a combination of these. We could use a physical light with a directional lights. Let's create a physical sky again. So now we have kind of this key light, and we have a fill light using the SkyDome and the terms I'm using key and fill our film filming terms. That is kind of ah ah, whole lesson in and of itself regarding cinematography that I won't necessarily get into now. But you can definitely look up or I might create a new course later about that kind of a thing. But so basically, this is how you create lights. This is how you start to see final renders, and what we're seeing here in the Arnold Render view is a real time update. So it's constantly trying to finish out the render based on the settings we have. So this is just kind of there's a lot going on here, but I really just wanted to show that you can kind of click a couple buttons and already get like a nice kind of Orender. So the next steps I would take is to finish applying the different types of materials to the object. So I can unsold this so you can see it here, and we can apply this shader to these other objects that it's related to. So these are all going to probably have some version of that so right now, we can just apply that same shader we've already used. So if we right click and we go down to assign existing material, we can see that this AI standard surface is already created so we can use it again. And if we were to update any of the settings in the AI standard surface actually, editor, like changing the color, it'll change for all of them. Now we can see that update in real time. So what I highly highly recommend is to get to this stage and start to drag the sliders around because you'll be able to see in real time what each one of these Dio and it will be much quicker than me going through and explaining what each one does. Um, and probably much more interesting for yourself, A swell. So definitely play around with this stuff. You know, roughness. Ah is a big thing that will dictate the type of feel that the material has. Subsurface is more for humans. And so when you have metal in this on at all, you can see how it's great out. So as soon as we take the metal this off, it'll come back but I wouldn't really get in the subsurface yet. That's a little more complicated for human characters. And other than that, I would play with these other ones, like transmission. And again we have metal Masson you can't really transmit, so some of these will become unavailable with metal shade, er's or if you're trying to get metal. But I think it's definitely worth trying and going and sliding some things around because that's the best way to learn. Ah, in addition to kind of the guidance here in these videos to show you which buttons to press to get to that point. So in the next lesson, we're going to devil deeper and talk a little bit about textures so that we can kind of get a big picture on textures as well. Thanks for watching 14. Photographic Textures: in this lesson, I'd like to discuss textures. If we take a look at the reference, we can see that the doors of the go supposed to trap have this yellow and black tape on it . And some other ways. It's representative, maybe his paint or something like that. But for us, we just need to kind of get this texture down. And traditionally what you would expect is may be taking a photograph and somehow bring a photograph in here and using that. And that's a file texture, which is totally possibility of something to use. But there are two different types of texture. Ing in three D one is called procedural, and the other, I guess, is really just photographic text ring for lack of a better ah category. So the difference between like a photograph, texture and procedural is the fact that procedural implies that you can update this in real time and you'll begin to understand what I mean when we start to compare the two. So let's first take a look at what using a photographic texture might look like we could maybe download one of these images. Um, we could try to find a top down view and projected on their. Conversely, we could open up photo shop and create our own texture inside photo shop so you could open up photo shop, create a new texture. You could go in and use paintbrushes and do all type of things, too. Create the texture that would be a little bit time consuming, but at the end of the day, what you would be left with is something that's baked down, meaning you can't change it. Inside of Maya, you would have to go back into photo shop and change it yourself and then save out a new file texture and then update that file texture. Then bring it back into Maya. And there's a lot of back and forth that you'd have to do to get this done with a file texture. So let's play that out. So let's do one door with a photograph, texture and the other door with the procedural texture and compare the results in this lesson. Let's just focus on the photographic texture in the next lesson will do the procedural. So I'm gonna close this down while we're working, because sometimes my can actually crash when it's trying to constantly update, and you're adding new things to it. So it's better to just either pause it by hitting the stop button here. Or but just by closing it altogether, and we'll open it up again later. So what's going to close down the slights? Because we don't need that. And so I need to add a new material, a new shader, because we can't apply texture without a new shader. And because this is going to be unique thing, you need to have its own shader. So when a right click and go to assign the material in our case, we could really choose anything. But ah, let's just stick with Arnold Materials. For now, we can use an AI standard surfaces always. And now what do we do? We're stuck with the same kind of dialogue box. There doesn't really appear to be anywhere to put in a file on image file that we have so we can click these little checker boxes over here and say, create render node. What we get is a lot more options. What we want is the file option. We will add a file to this. We could add a lot of different things. We're gonna get to this later. But right now we're doing What if we wanted to add a texture to this? A photograph? An image file? We want to click file. So now we have this and we can direct the path to where it needs to go. And by default. If we've set our project, it's going to look in the source images folder. So in the source images folder, I have the photograph, the texture I just made in a photo shop. And I can open that. So now nothing's happening because we can't see the texture. We need to turn on textures here in the Maya Vieux port. So I can click, textured or I can hit six. And now we see that I indeed have a texture here, and it looks pretty good. But you know what? I don't like the distance at which these black bars are. So what does that process look like? That means I have to go back into Photoshopped. I have to adjust the texture. I have Teoh, delete this, maybe start over, do all these types of things, then save out a new JPEG file, go back in here, go to the Shader and go to the color and update this file here or reload it. If I saved over it, I can also right click here to see a preview of it. So that's quite a bit of back and forth, and you need a whole different program to do that. So let's in the next lesson discover the advantage of procedural texturizing and how that might be able to help us and text oring this other door and making changes much quicker on the fly and adjustments. Thanks for watching. 15. Procedural Textures: in this lesson, we're gonna talk about procedural texture, ing and texture The other side of this door panel with a procedural texture. I'm just gonna hide this light for now. Or actually, I could go to show and turn off lights. If I was to use control h to hide the light than in the render. It would also hide it and we would have no lights and are seen. So I'm going to click this door panel and again assign a new shader by right clicking, going to assign a material, go to Arnold Tab and go down to a I standard surface now in the color option. When I click this instead of choosing file like we did when we want to pipe in a texture, we can use really anything we could use a fractal. We could use any of these all of these air procedural textures, right? And we could actually isolate thes by using the texture option here which Arnold has their own noise. Ah, textures. We could use the two D textures from Maya. We don't have toe were not isolated just to Arnold textures. Here we could use anything and what I want to use Here's of ramp Somebody click a ramp and we can see that we click and drag these top little circles that it isn't indeed working and this is a V ramp, so it's going up and down. It looks like if we click on this and go to the UV editor, which we know all about you these now I just closed that we can kind of see which direction it's going in. And the UV editor as well. We can see it's kind of going up and down here, and that's the V ramp. If you remember from the previous lessons, V is vertical, so there's a couple different ways we could adjust this. I'm just gonna delete the history on this as well, because we have a lot of ah, history is still left over from the previous lessons, and now we get to the shader a lot quicker. So if I go back to the ramp here, I can change this to a you ramp, and now it's going up and down. But we want a Dagnall ramp. Someone choose Dagnall, and it's a very soft transition here. You can see how this is kind of a Grady int. We can change that by going to none so that there's no interpretation between the two and we're getting a little bit of fuss here. But that's just because of the my view port. Hopefully, when we render this, that should be gone. And we can also check that real quick just by going into the Arnold render view and eating play. And now you can see this is a very hard line. Is this straight line? So don't be deceived by what you see here exactly, because in the final Render, it might be slightly different based on, because this is the high resolution kind of render that we're going for so close that down . Now, I know that's acting in the way that I wanted to, and I'm gonna change this color to a yellow I could, actually. So I'm clicking on this selected color. I'm clicking on the white area here and that will bring up the color history. And I can use the picker and actually match this color here that we already have. So that one being consistent I can move the position with these I can add new color here by clicking anywhere, and it'll add another color of itself, which I could change if I wanted to. I want to keep that the same and start repeating these pieces here so you can see how very quickly I could just add new lines. I can change the thickness of them. I could even animate thes things positions if I wanted to. So the ramp itself would animate very quickly in C. You know what? If you change your mind, you don't have to go to a new program. You can procedurally change this so that it will update as you want it to, and so that's quite powerful. When you compare the two, you can also combine them in certain ways, and you can do more a little more advanced things. But just for now, it's important to understand the concept between using a file, which is kind of baked down, and you cannot adjust in my right. It's just using this file and the different difference between a procedural texture, which, if you click on this and go to there's all these options, we can actually change it. We can actually add noise to it. We could do all these different types of things to it. And I just want to show you the power of that and encourage you to explore the different procedural textures that two D textures, the fractals, and we're gonna dig a little deeper into those in the next lessons as we refine the shape. But in the meantime, I'm going to encourage you to finish out the texture here one way or the other. And let me just show you one rule quick trick. So I'm gonna go with the procedural for this example, and I'm gonna go a sign it real quick. So I'm just going off of the ah, a sign, existing material. And we're just going off the screen. Just a touch to get that one. So this is an accurate to the reference the should be going the same direction like this. So what I could do is actually change the U. V s. So if I open the UV editor and I can just grab the UV toolkit and docket here on the side, and I'm gonna reduce this down so I can see it, what's happening? And we can use the transform match views, too. rotate this around and see where it needs to be Tow line up. So I could just drag this trying to get this to the correct length and lines that it lines up with. So it appears. But this 1 may get cut off the bottom here because his Dagnall doesn't continue Exactly Right. So what we need to do is tile this image in a different way so that these will line up exactly as we need them. I want to introduce you to another component of textures, which is the texture placement. If I go to the object mode, select this and we select these one of these two. This is basically the input and output of this node so we can go to the ramp and see its place to D texture here so we can see the placement of texture. And instead of adjusting the movies, we could actually adjust it from here. But because they're using the same texture, we can't really rotate it. Does it rotate both of them? So we move the U. V s. But we still have this problem, and that's just because it's wrapping at the wrong way. We want a mirror that so now we have that one's done. Ah, and it. We no longer have it where it's cutting it off because it smearing the bottom instead of repeating it because you can see what it's trying to do is start back up from the top. Basically, instead of repeating our sorry mirroring the bottom. So we mere the bottom. We'll get rid of that little thing, but so this is how we can procedurally texture the door panels toe have the same Ah, file texture. Now we can adjust this through the shader. We can also, you know, tweak the U. V's of this thing. So these line up or they don't line up. Um, you know, however, you want to be kind of add realism by offsetting some things a little bit, not making it look too perfect. Um, but yeah, that's kind of a good introduction to procedural texture ing. Why, that's important. And we're going to look at using procedural textures. Mawr in the next lessons to add a little more realism to the Shader is that we have already assigned Thanks for watching 16. Scene Adjustments: and the upcoming lessons. We're going to continue to shade this ghostbuster trap with a little more detail. But before we do that, we kind of need to adjust the scene a little bit. If we go to the Arnold render view and we hit play, we can see that everything looks kind of black and it's hard to really tell what's going on . If you look over here, we can't really see where the edges of on this part of the model. So to remedy this, we need to make kind of a ground plane. And to do that we can go over here to the poly modeling Shelf and click the plane. And we could just scale this up and I'm gonna skill us up quite big. And the other thing we can do is add some subdivisions to this, and then we can added a former. And what I'm creating is a basically what is called an infinity background, and it's used all the time and photography. And if you've watched the modeling part of this course, you'll have, you'll know how to use the bend. A former I'm not going to go into a town in detail on that as I'm making it. Um, but you can follow along here just visually. And the reason is, ah, to make this background, we need something for the ah, the model to reflect off of, ah, for light to bounce back off onto the model and so that we can see the reflections and all that kind of a thing in the model. So now that we have this, but it may be increased the curvature just to touch more and the lead by type history to get rid of the former, Then we could just rotate this in whichever way we want push it in space back here, and I'm gonna put this on its own display layer so that we don't actually accidentally grab it and turn off the grid now that we have a ground plane. So now if we go back into the Arnold or interview and hit play, we can see that the model looks way different than it did before, because it actually has something to reflect off of and for light bounce back onto. So now, against kind of see the edge of the model itself, where we couldn't before and The other thing we need adhere before he moved forward is just two things that might kind of help us in the future. And I'm gonna create a sphere here, drag it over and make it a little smaller here. And this is done and look development where you basically create a chrome ball. It's been a right click and go down to assign the material, create a standard surface and used the chrome preset here and hit click replace. And then I'm gonna leave this on the Lambert. And when we go into the Arnold render view and hit play, we can now see these kinds of reference balls basically so that whenever we're making shader adjustments, we have a reference point of OK, this is no. This is what it should look like in the scene. If there's no reflections, this should look like if it's totally reflective. So when we're making adjustments, Tar Shade Er's we can kind of visually reference the two extremes here and kind of dial it in based on what's possible with the lighting that we have and the environment that we have in the scene, which right now is just a simple ground plane. But so these couple of little adjustments will make our life lot easier. And the coming lessons where we're going to add more detail and create some more shade er's for these pieces here. All right, well, thanks for watching. I'll see the next lesson. 17. Hypershade Intro & Fractals: now that we have a good overview of what, Shader Czar, What type of textures? There are procedural and photographic and what that means. And we have our scene set up. Let's dive into the meat of this course. A Sfar shading goes and create these shade Er's for this go supposed to trap? So doesn't local chromed out and crazy looking right now? Um, so let's jump into this Shader, which is the one that we've already created. And one thing I'm going to do to make our lives a lot easier is to actually turn on Ah, feature here. Which is we can actually control the three D View and the View port. So I'm not having to constantly move this to the side and then navigating here and the move this back so I can go to Window three D manipulation. And now you can see that I can actually rotate around in here, and it will also update the view port behind it so that I'm not having to switch back and forth between ah, the two views in this course. So I'm gonna delete the history on this so that we can get to the Ah, Shader a lot quicker and the tabs up here. And the main thing that's wrong with this is, of course, the reflection. It's it's way too reflective, of course. Yeah, it's a metal material, but, um, if you think about like a painted metal and consider the two surfaces if you used a microscope, chrome piece of metal is gonna be pretty smooth. And a painted material is gonna have all the grooves of the brush stroke, and it's gonna look a lot more rough on a microscopic level. That microscopic level actually impacts how the light bounces off of this surface and makes it reflect very accurately, or more roughly, um, so you can see it's almost like a perfect mirror because we can see these reference balls in the side of the the object here, which we can also select individual objects from the Arnold render view. So with that selected, I'm also going to delete the history on that one so we can get to it a little easier, and so we want to increase the roughness, and that will get us pretty far. But we also want to make the color um, you know, a lot more dark, and we've already gotten pretty far, just with those two small adjustments. So the other thing to consider once we start shading things, are the textures that we're going to use. And since we know procedural textures, air pretty powerful and we don't have to go on to any other program. Let's use those to add more detail. So if you look at the surface of this thing, it's pretty smooth and it looks kind of perfect. And any time in CG you're always trying to fight against perfection, because whenever you create a surface or a sphere, it's gonna be perfectly round and the sh aiders and textures air always gonna be perfect. So we want to, um, break this up a little bit. And to do that, we can add there's a couple different ways we could do it. We could start to add textures to these attributes by clicking the checker box. The 1st 1 that we could try is a fractal on the roughness, so that will break up how the surface is maybe shiner in some spots and rougher and others . So it's click this checker box and we get the create render node open, and we can go down to fractal here, and this is one of the most common ones that I use. I rarely use pretty much anything else besides opening a file and using fractals. Sometimes I'll use noise, but not really. Ramp is also very useful, but for the most part, I don't really use any of these. Besides fractal you get You can get a lot out of factual news, and that's what you'll learn in this lesson and the next one. It's It's very versatile, so we'll click that and we can see that something happened, but we can't really tell what. So we need to isolate this fractal so we can actually see the texture. If we right click here, we can see you know, it's black and white and there's a lot of stuff going on. But we can't really see that here because it's being applied to the roughness channel. So for us to see that we need to open up the hyper shade and the hyper shade is something new that we haven't opened yet. And it's this little button up here. Have we click that will open up a new window and you're hyper shade might look a little different because I've closed down some of the windows that I don't use that often. If you go in here and click thes exes and closed down what you don't want and open them back up here like, for example, I believe I have closed down the material viewer so we could get that back and we could dock that in this window like so. And I believe this might be closer to what the default view is, but I like to see it in the actual view that we're doing. And, um, we might have more materials later, so I just close that one down. But you can get back to all those things right here and then docked them in this window if you want. You could also Doc this in the, uh, Vieux port. We're right next to the View port, that is. But for our purposes, I'm just gonna leave it open so we can kind of slide this around so we can see everything. Let's let's take a look at how we can isolate the fractal here because we can't see it. So what we want to Dio is map the shader that we've created in this window here. And to do that, we need to have an object selected and we need to click this little button right here that has graft materials on selected objects. So we have our object selected. Let's graph those materials. So for our purposes, what we've dealt with so far has just been this object basically, and it's displaying all this information that we've already seen over here. It is displaying in a different way, and we can see the input, connections and the output connections. And it might look pretty complicated right now, but in reality you've already seen all of this. It's just displayed a little differently over here and the attribute editor. So this is just another way to visually see this stuff and a little more quickly select different nodes. Each one of these things is called a node. And so basically the fractal is being piped into the roughness, and the fractal has a two D texture placement node, and that just basically says, Hey, this texture is going to be placed on U. V s. In a certain way, it's gonna repeat so many times it's gonna be mirrored. It's gonna you know, whatever else. So it looks more complicated than it is. And you've already seen all this information, but just in a different format. So don't get too overwhelmed with this view yet. Or ever, Uh um, So with that selected, we can actually go to this little button in the Arnold or interview and isolate that texture, which is like a lifesaver, because this is a newer thing. They haven't had this for forever. So now we can see what we're actually doing with the fractal texture. And if we can turn that on and off here, and the main thing that we want to consider is when we piped in this fractal, you know, it's a black and white image. If you notice closely here, it's actually out putting not the color but the alfa, because the speculum roughness will only accept one value and a color is combined of red, green and blue. So when you try to output a color, it's looking for three things to output into. But because roughness is a one value, we can see by the slider on the ah Shader itself. It's not like the color value this would have rgb But this is a single value, right? Just like roughness is gonna be a single value. So it's out putting the Alfa and the alfalfa. If you're not familiar with images and photo shopping, all that kind of a thing. Alfa just means transparency. So the Alfa is being interpreted as roughness. But the Alfa is pure white. Basically, um, you know, we're looking at a black white image, but it's using the Alfa, So it's not really doing what we wanted to do. We want to use the color information. Um, we could map in just the are and just choose one of these three channels, and as soon as we do that, you can see this update and now we get to see that fractal affect the roughness. So the one disadvantage of using just a single channel is that we do not have access to kind of global controls to increase or decrease that this channel. But if we use the Alfa and we just pipe the Alphin again, it will go back to not being able being visible. But if we pipe that in, we actually have these Alfa gain an Alfa offset controls. So if we use this is kind of the key here, remember, this Alfa is luminous when I click that and that basically will say hey, used the Alfa Channel or use ah, the loom in its of the channel for the Alfa. So because it's just black and white, you're basically just copying all this color information because there is no color. It's just, you know, a value from 01 It's piping that into the Alfa now, So that's the kind of trick to do here. And the reason why we're using Alfa and not just the our channel or the are the Green Channel on the Blue Channel is because we have these two sliders here and we can control with one control the effect of this texture. Whereas if we used the Red Channel, there is no, you know, Red Channel controller here. Right? So that's why we need to use the Alfa Channel for the fractal. And I know that might seem a little complicated, but, you know, read. Watch this, create this yourself, follow along so that you kind of ingrained this in your mind because this is going to come up again and again and fractals or something that's used quite often. So you want to get comfortable with understanding why this is the case. Why we're using the Alfa. And you know you use our use the R if you want use. Ah G, it doesn't really matter because it's just black and white. So whatever color channeling use, that's fine. But then you will get stuck into a position where you're like, You know what? I just want to Dallas back just to touch, and then you'll be totally stuck because there is no control like that on the fractal note . And that's why we're using Alfa. Okay, so I think that's Ah, hopefully you understand that now. But so look that you know, we added a ton of detail and one note, So if we go back, we can see that now. This object doesn't look perfect like it did before. It looks maybe a little worn and, um and what Not. So in this lesson, we've gone really far. We've learned a lot. We learned about the hyper shade. You learned how to create a little more ah texture here and in the next lesson, we're gonna create entirely new material and maybe tweak this fractal a little bit. But the next thing we're gonna create is this brush metal. Ah, Shader here that you can see in the reference. So I'll see in the next lesson where we will try to create this shader. All right, Thanks for watching. 18. Brushed Metal & Bump Maps: welcome back. And this lesson. We're going to learn how to create this brush metal shader that's on these panels here. You can see it in the reference, you know, this is Ah, very subtle kind of, Ah, streaking texture here. And so let's jump in and start to create it. We'll right click on the object. And actually, before we do that, let's just delete the history so we can access the tabs little easier here, as we've done before. That's right. Click Go to assign the material and go to the Arnold Shade Er's and shoes standard surface as we've done before. Let's rename this this time, so it's easier to apply to the other surfaces. Later, I'm gonna call this brush metal and head in ER to make sure that is applied. Scroll to the top here, and let's turn on the Arnold render view so we can see the changes were making. We know that this I'm gonna screw and hit play here. We know that this object is metal so we can at least increase the metal to start. And there's a new concept we need to cover, which is called Anisotropy, and if you look at reference of Ah, and it's a tropic reflections. They are basically saying all reflections are are happening in one direction. It's kind of like this streaky pattern in metals that happen. So that's why it's its own little, you know, control. Here's because that's a very specific type of metal and type of reflection that occurs, and that's that looks like what's happening here in this ghostbuster trap. It's an anisotropy reflection. So let's increase Anisotropy and let's increase the rotation just a little bit so we can control, actually, how the rotation ah, rotation of the reflections. So depending on where you want that kind of highlight toe occur, you can control with rotation just gonna get it somewhere where you can kind of see it on a 3/4 angle. And so the other thing we need to cover is these kind of bumps here. There's, ah, long streaky bumps, and we can control that by a bump map. And a bump map is exactly like what it sounds like. It is a ah, a map or texture. Any time you hear the word map, that means a texture, basically, usually a bump map is basically saying, Take the color values from 01 black the black and white values and say that zero goes in on the surface and black goes out course other way around. Always forget, um, but basically, it's just using that value information of Black Dwight to say, um, this goes in or out and it doesn't really matter. Um, Aziz much usually because bump maps air on Lee on very subtle things because but maps do not actually deformed geometry displayed displacement maps to, and that's a different topic for another time. But but maps are only used on very small, detailed things. Um, that aren't going to change the silhouette of an object. So if we added a bump map to this and we looked at the silhouette basically this line back here, you know, it could maybe, um, that the bump basically fakes this effect and makes it look like near There's these deep cuts that are streaks in this thing. But then when you get to the silhouette, it just still is a flat object. There's not the streaks on all go all the way to the edge. So anyway, but maps are just kind of her subtle stuff, and I think that's perfect for what we're going for. So let's create about Matt by going down to geometry and clicking on the Checker box here. Next about mapping and let's create a fractal. And when we first created the default values, air pretty aggressive. Ah, the bump depth is that one and that controls, you know, based on these 01 values that we're getting from the bump value, which you can see there's something piped in here, and that's gonna be the fractal that we we selected, right click that we can see. It just looks like a normal fractal. It's not streaky like we need it, so we need to adjust that. But the amount it's being bumped here, you know, the surface looks very, very rough. But if we look at the silhouette, the silhouette is the same. You know, if we're looking down here is just a straight line. So that's why I'm saying the bump map is for very subtle effects. So I'm typically only using, like 0.1 or 0.1 or something like that, so you can also see it increases. Render time. There's a lot more things that's having to calculate ah, light bouncing around. So that's the more subtle the effect, the quicker it could go Usually, Um, I'm just gonna increase that so we can actually see the effect while we're working on it. The other thing we can do is, of course, isolate this using the, um, Eisley button here, and or we can select it from the hyper shade just to choose the fractal itself. So let's go to ah, with the object selected here, we can click this button toe graph everything out. No, against, like the fractal. And now we can see the fractal. So we need to strike this out somehow. And one way to kind of cheat it and hack of the nodes that we have year is by increasing the ah, you've es in one direction so you can see when I click that everything went dark because it's isolating something that's really not visible. This is just a node with information about the U. V. S for this texture, how it's gonna be placed on the object. So we need just like the fractal and choose that place texture node from this tab. Actually, so now it will keep this in the Arnold or interview. So if we go down here, we can see Repeat UV. And if we hold down command on our keyboard on a Mac and ah, middle mouse drag on this value, we can increase or decrease that. And we can basically create thes streaks ourselves with adjusting and distorting the U. V s for this texture. So the other thing we need to effect is the fact that, you know, these lines aren't super solid. They kind of go dark and bright. So we need Teoh adjust the fractal, and we could do that in the amplitude. Even though this goes just the one you can see, the amplitude kind of controls the contrast here, even though this goes the one you can type in new values here. So I'm gonna type in, like, five, something big. So now you can see this definitely has a stronger effect, and we can decrease the ratio as well, which is basically like how detailed this thing is and just go way down with that. And we can also do that for the frequency. So what kind of smooth out those as well. So now we can kind of get an idea of how aggressive, you know, Maybe we increase the amplitude even more. Let's just see, you know, it's it's Ah, who knows what the best thing to do here is. Ah, it's all just kind of experimenting. And that's what's the beauty of Arnold were under view, and isolating these things is seeing this in real time. So I think we need a little more, Ah, distortion here. So let's increase this to get some more lines going down this thing and that looks about the debt, like the density we saw in the reference. And now let's turn off the isolate and weaken. See, we have these streaks now, and we used procedural texture that we can change in real time inside of Maya. And that's super useful. This was a photographic texture we're using for a bump and be really time consuming to go back and forth between Photoshopped. So let's go to the bump and decrease this back down. Now that we kind of see the effect it has, would you like a 0.1? And that looks pretty good, actually, um, zoom out and going to apply this to the other objects. So when I click these shifts, select the other one and I'm gonna right click and go to the sign existing material because we named it. We can easily identify it so we can see that maybe for this angle, it's way too strong. This, you know, this one looks right, but that one doesn't, so it could be a lot. I think it's a lighting issue on and depending on the angle of the object toe light, it might affect it. Let's say that we like this for this one for these two panels, but we don't wanna, you know, change all of them together. Let's create a new shader for that front panel there. So in the hyper shade, Wiggins go down and see the airbrushed are sorry, the airbrushed the brush metal and we could go to edit duplicate the shading network. So basically make a copy with all of the inputs and it will create a new fractal on all that. And just so you know as well it's keeping track of all these things you're making in each one of these tabs, you can see fractals 123 bubble block and so you can get back to those there as well and reuse them even. You know, if you wanted to use the same fractal over and over, you could do that. But they don't cost anything. And I encourage you to, you know, use money as you need. Now, we just need apply this duplicated material to this one. So I'm gonna middle Mouse drag it over the object and let go. So nothing changed because it's the same duplicated shader. But what this object selected? I'm going to graph just that one out and let's go to the bump and maybe reduce that down 2.1 And that kind of fixed it. So that was quick and easy, so that actually worked better than I thought it would. Um, so, yeah, that's how we created kind of a brush metal effect again, we could go in and at a fractal to the roughness. Um, I think that's definitely worth looking at. We're just increasing the roughness just a little bit. Let's see what that does. So you're gonna see it quick. It can quickly get out of hand as it's trying to Ah, references kind of spreading out the reflection. So depending on how you wanna you ah, you know what this still look? Continue to adjust those settings from the attribute editor and with the hyper shade. So in this lesson, we learned a lot. We learned about bump maps mostly, and how Teoh control and it's a Tropic Reflections. And in the next lesson, we're going to continue creating the Shakers for this object and I look forward to seeing there. Thanks a lot. 19. OBJ File Format & Fix "Bones": welcome to the Sussing, where we will quickly clean up the bones model so that we can use it in later lessons. We're gonna learn about a new file format called O B. J. So one quick thing I wanted to note is that there was this kind of artifact that was created just gonna turn on selection highlighting It was turned off on a previous scene when I transferred the attributes. It created this kind of weird artifact where they they have the same shader. But this one obviously is much more white. And if I select all of these things, uhm I'm going to first try to Rami this by deleting the history, and we want to do that with everything except for the spine. Remember, we have the spine is attached to a wire to former, so we want to keep that. We don't want to delete the history on that. So let's just select these things and I'm gonna show you a little script right now. Teoh, um, select the hierarchy because if you see, you know, we just selected this top group. We didn't like the hierarchy, which includes everything. Blow it. So there's a little thing going and type in and we can say Select Dash Hi, which means hierarchy. And as long as it's Mel, which is them my expression language we can hit, enter and it'll select the hierarchy of everything. So now we scroll down, you can see we actually selected everything in here and it just saves it on the time we got to go through and click every single thing Eso Now we can go at it delete by type history and this isn't gonna fix it. But, um, I just want to show you that's quick little thing to do And so another quick thing is to when in doubt, export these azo BJ's you can see there's one down here to and say, If I was to transfer at streets again, let's go mesh transfer attributes and didn't do at that time. But ah, let me show you real quickly. Just duplicate this and move this to the side and transfer attributes and it should do it here. Yeah, so see how it turned that white. I don't know why Transfer Ashby's is doing that, but let's just select everything. Ah, that is white. I like to show troubleshooting stuff because this is reality of learning three D and almost gonna teach you a new kind of file format. So object file, format or 30.0 b j. Is something that we need to load in first to make sure that we have that under the plug and manager and you go to object export dot bundle, make sure that's loaded. Otherwise we won't have that file format when we go to file export selection. And we see we have the O B J export option here, and we can just say ribs re import. And basically, I'm just trying to get rid of whatever kind of crazy history is happening here. Export is an o b. J o b j is not gonna remember Shade er's It's not gonna remember any kind of history. So export is an O. B. J. And then I'm gonna reimport it. And so hopefully you can see it tries to maintain the material here dot mtl, but we just want the 0.0 b. J. We just want the object, someone import that it saying basically, there's multiple objects gonna bring it in his one. That's fine. And now, if we sold this, we can see that they are not white. And they all have the same Lambert share they did before. I'm gonna three just to, ah, zero that out. What it looks like is the normals or possibly reversed. So, um, what's that one? And let's separate All of this will go to mesh separate cause it's a was all one piece and I'm gonna delete the history again. And now if we hit three and we reverse the normals, it should work. Yeah, it looks like because we, um scaled probably in the negative. It reversed the normals on us. So we just need to go to mesh display in reverse, the normal. So it's not inside out basically anymore. And if it three here, this might be the same thing, and it is so it looks like that might have been a problem to begin with. So I just want to show that kind of trouble shooting thing and kind of get thes toe where they need to be now. So let's unsold. Oh, this. And let's just replace the mesh that we have the new mesh with the old mesh. So I'm going to select these three and delete them and then grab these three and put them back in the group by middle mouse, dragging them under this group, and we can rename them if we want. For now, I'm just gonna leave it because we've already mirrored everything, and that's all fine. So Ah, let's see. This is the right side. So I'm gonna shift Click. So it's gonna grab the next thing, um, below it. Ah, and basically select through it. So now I can see it's in this group and I'm gonna shift. Click it again, and now it's going to switch the selection. So now I know I can go there and then delete that one and then do the same thing for these to shift. Select those two so I can see it's thes. Then if I shift select, it's going to select the ones below it so I can frame those up in outline or head f and then delete those and then grab not those three. Grab these two and middle Mels dragged him into the correct ribs group here. Now you just get rid of that. And so now we have the correct, um, grayscale. There's no wonky nous going on. So in this lesson, we, ah, fixed the bones. Ah, a couple of pieces geometry. And in the next lesson, let's get into a three paint and I will show you how to paint the face. Thanks for watching. 20. "Bones" 3D Paint Tool: in this lesson, we're gonna learn about the three pain tool. If you go to your rendering tap here, you can see the icon right here. Three. Paint tool. You also get to it from rendering texture ing three d paint tool. So for this lesson, I intentionally chose to take a break from the ghostbuster trap. Texture ing, too. Texture this because I think it's going to be Superfund. Teoh. Learn about the three D paint tool with this head so that we can do the Dia de los Muertos type of designs on this head. So Google some images, get some inspiration and open up the scene. File a mile and let's get started. So I'm just going to zoom in here. And so the other other reason why I wanted to start with this as well as because it all still has the Lambert shade Er's. So if you right click and go to assign the material, you can see all the Maya surface materials are right here. And Lambert, anytime you make anything in Maya, it's going to give it the Lambert one shader so you can see that right written right here. Lambert won every piece of geometry that we have is a Lambert one. And currently the three D paint tool does not work with Arnold Shade Er's. So we have to have a Maya shader assigned for the three D paint tool to work. So that's why I switched over to this one because it still has all Lamberts and the Ghostbuster trap has a bunch of Arnold changers on it now. So you could, um you know, say your text oring are your shading and have all these Arnold changers You could revert to Lambert Shater and then, you know, from the hyper shade, Bring in that arnold you had been using. But just for clarity's sake, let's just start from scratch and have a new Lambert on this because I don't want to affect the Labour cheater that's applied to everything else. So let's click Lambert, and now we can click this button and go into the three D paint tool. So it says we have no final texture assigned to the current attributes, and if you look, I'm gonna hold down, be a middle mouse drag our paintbrush has a big X on it. So that's a sign that we need to do something, and we got this little kind of air here on. Also, I should say that errors that show up in yellow are just kind of warnings. They're not errors. Anything that shows up in red is actually an air, so we know that we just got a warning. So there's something else we need to do. Let's go in the tool settings of this paintbrush, and the first thing we need to do is go to a sign edit textures because it doesn't know where to save the texture. We are about to create with the paintbrush. So we go to a sign at it textures, and we can change the size of the texture. I always like to go pretty big because you can always scale down the texture. Later, you can ever scale it back up. So let's go with four K and I'll hit sign edit textures. And now you can see the X is gone from this, and we can actually paint on this now. So I'm gonna flood this with a color that is not totally white, has some yellow in it, and it's kind of a bone color. So Aiken using the flood tool here. I can flood the entire object with that, And I have chosen a little red color here. I'm gonna make some designs around the eyes, kind of like the flowers that you see in a lot of these designs here, these kind of circle areas. So I'm gonna start with that base color and go around this, So if I hold down be I can change the size And there are different brush types here, and I'm gonna go with the harder edge brush and start painting, and you can see that my rotation is gonna be hard to navigate cause I'm rotating, not from the pivot of the head. So I'm just gonna get out of this tool for a second, and I'm gonna go to view look at selection. So now it's pivoting from the head, so I don't make navigating around much, much easier while I'm painting. So now I can go back into the tool and with the paintbrush selected, I can start painting. So I'm going to start painting and let's say I make a mistake. Whips do something like that. Well, I could use the erase tool, So let's go to their race and I started racing. And that works pretty well. What it could do is actually erase the ah flood that you have. So in that case, you can actually just use the color of the flood and paint over it so I can use the paint tool so it'll do the same thing. So you have those two tools at your disposal if you kind of mess up. So you also have these other tools here you can smear things and to kind of blend colors together. We could also blur this out in case the edges air to sharp. We could blur that out. So I'm just gonna flood the paint again one more time and go back to the color that we had go back to the normal paint. I'm gonna get to painting, and I'm gonna speed this up in all. Seen it. Second, to show you what it is we need to dio to complete our texture so that Maya knows how to use it. So now that we have some texture that we like after we've gotten done painting, we can save this out as a file by going down to save textures. We click this button. We may or may not get an error. This is just about some little preview thing. But if we click this little button down here, that's called the script editor and we can see everything that's been happening in Maya for a while. So if we look just above the air that it gave us, we can see say it's has saved and it has a file path and it says, Jay Peg right here. So if we go to that in a photo shop, we can go to file open. We can see that file, and this is the importance of setting your project. We learned about this in the first part of this course, and let me just reiterate it again. If you haven't set your project, you have to go to set project and choose the main folder. You wanna set it as, and then when we go to open things or save things, or in this case, when we're creating textures, it's going to save it in the correct place. So if we look in photo shop, we can see that it is under the Maya folder that we had set as a project, the source Images folder. And then there's three pain textures, and then it has the object that we painted on or the scene file name rather as the folder and then the object name are the shape of that geometry. So if we had open now, we can see we have this piece of, uh, texture in photo shop so we can use this as a guide. We could repaint this in photo shop if we prefer brushes and Photoshopped, or we can continue to paint the rest of this. But you might say, you know, how do we know where the the other eye is? It's over here somewhere. Well, we can export the U. V s as a kind of template so we can see how we can paint textures and photo shop. Let me show you how to do that. Right now, we go back to to Maya and we click on the object. Let's go into object mode and select it. We can go to the UV editor window by going to the modeling menu and going to UV editor, and you can see we have our U. V s from the first part of this section. If we go and select all of them, you can see that indeed, this makes it possible to paint textures. If we did not layer you these out in this way, then it would be impossible if if you these were overlapping each other and all that kind of mess, it wouldn't be possible to do this. So now you begin to see the importance of having properly laid out U V s when it comes to textural. So to get this into Photoshopped, go to image UV snapshot. Or we can click this little camera button right here that will open the UV snapshot options that we can export. This is a J peg to the Images folder and again because we've set the project. It's already populating where, what directory? To save these things in. So we want a J peg, and that's fine edge color. Let's change the color black and let's applying close. Let's save over the snapshot and because I'd already made this earlier. So I'm gonna open this up in photo shop, gonna file open, and we can go to the Maya directory that we had set as a project. We know it saved it an images folder and there's our U V s. Let's head open. And now we can see that, actually, because we said it to black, that didn't work. So let's just say that toe white and we can actually invert this and Photoshopped. So I'm going over right that with white lines now. And let's reopen this file open and the lines are just super thin. So when we bring it in, I'm just, ah, command a command C command v pasting it in here. And because they're both four k textures that overlaps exactly. Well, we can't see beneath it. This isn't really a photo shop. Um, lesson. But I'm just gonna show you a couple things. Let's just hit this to screen. And now we can see there's actually white lines here, but because our, um, a background color is so bright, let's actually invert that so we can go back to normal and we can see if we hit command. I we can actually invert that. And now if we set this to multiply, we actually get black lines so we can see if we, you know, make a new layer here and we start painting. We can actually affect this thing inside a photo shop and do textures here with this, uh, UV template. Kind of as as an outline and guide to know, where should we be? Painting textures. So just as a quick example, I'm ah, doing this really messy thing so that you can see indeed, Check Mark, We are affecting this, So I'm gonna turn off the wire frame. I'm gonna save this out as a copy here, and I'm gonna make it be a J. Paige, and it's gonna save it as a copy. I'm gonna hit save head. Okay. And now, when we go back into Maya and we look at the shader for this object, we gotta Lambert five. We can see in the color that there is something map to it. And that's the three texture that we have been painting. But if we want to bring in any other texture and like the one we just edited in a photo shop within selected here and and swap it out. So now, indeed. Check. We used the photo shop. Ah, image now. So there's different ways you can use the three. D paint tool, which is this little button up here we've been learning about. We can actually use it and just complete the entire thing all inside. My never have to go to photo shop or we can use it as kind of a guide and say, OK, here's the forehead because that's where the big check is. When I'm in Photoshop, I can export the U. V s as a wire frame paint on that and then bring it back in as a texture inside the shader color. So that is the three D paint tool. And the next lesson we're gonna learn kind of another way to use it and different type of shader and we'll jump back into the ghostbuster trap. But I encourage you to finish this out. I'm gonna spend some time on my own and continue to paint this and make whatever kind of design you want. I encourage you to have fun with this part. This is probably the most fun part of the lessons here, and that you can kind of be an artist and paint on your skull that we made. I also just want to make a quick note, um, that In this example, I did not use symmetry and in three paint tool that don't actually called symmetry. They call it reflection so you could turn on reflection and use this to paint your designs and have them be symmetrical across the model because it's a skull that might be useful so that we can, ah, you know, have some symmetry here. But it also artistically, you might want some variation on either side. But that's definitely an option to turn on reflection and change the ACSI that it is reflecting on but probably will one of the next, because that's how this model is set up. But thanks for watching, and I'll see the next lesson. 21. Mix Rust Shader: in this lesson, we're gonna take the knowledge that we've learned so far and put it to use to add some more detail to the Ghostbuster trap. We take a look at the Arnold or interview. We can see that the brush metal that we made is pretty standard. It's pretty clean. There's no rough marks on it. And it looks like this Ghostbuster trap has never been used to actually catch ghosts. So let's add a little more detail to this brush metal. We're gonna do that by adding a new shader to this with using a three D paint as a mask. So let's first create the three D paint. So let's open up the Khyber shades. Who can keep track of what we're doing here? I'm clicking a little hyper shade button up here that should pop open, and we can see our brush metal here, and we have to. So if you remember, we made one for this panel, and then these two have different kinds, So if we click this little button here, we can map it out and see that it's the original brushed metal. So let's leave that up and let's also create a Lambert, and any time or in the hyper shade we could weaken, create new materials and you know they're not applied anything yet, so we still have to apply them. But let's select the object, and we can either Middle mouse drag it and let go over it on top, where we can right mouse click and go to assign material to view port selection. And when we let go, it will be assigned. And the reason why we're doing this right now is because we're going to do some three painting like we did in the previous lesson. But of course it only works on the Maya Shader, so we need to apply on Maya Shater before we do it. So let's click the three paint tool, and we need to, of course, a sign the ah texture to it and four case fine and J. Paige is okay, so now we're gonna start painting. Let's first flooded with a color. Let's go to a white color and we'll just flood that paint and then let's do a black because we're gonna create a mask. So we want a black and white values. Basically, that's all we need we don't need me color. And we're going to take a look at this section here. We can click the folder and should go right to your brush shapes folder. And if we can preview them, we can see there's all these different types of kind of stencils that we could be using. So we're gonna use this for the ah to create a mask here so that when we ah, paint, it looks a little more organic. So this is a new kind of part to this same tool that we're getting familiar with. So I have got black. I've got the pain turned on. We've assigned the thing. So now I can start painting, and what I'm looking to dio is add rust to certain areas. And right now this black area is going to reveal a new share that we're gonna make with a mix shader. So let's take a second and paint some rust where we want rust on this panel. So now we have where we want the rust to show we can save this texture out, like we did previously by clicking the save texture button. And now that we have that texture, we can reapply the material from the hyper shade, and we can do a lot of work from the hyper shade itself now. So let's bring that brush metal in the original material that we had send a tow focusing on everything that we have. So we currently have this texture that we just created. We can see that because is apart the Lambert. If we map out the Lambert, we can see that there is a texture going into the color. So we see out color color. So we know that this is the actual file. If we click on it and go to that creator, we can actually see that right clicking here. And we can see it, uh, populate in the sample area here. So now we know this is the foul that we want, but we wanted to apply on the brush metal, but not necessarily to the brush metal. We want to mix in a different shader. So let's go about making that rust Shader first. So let's apply a new shader. That's gonna be our rush. Later we'll go assigned new material and we'll go down to the Arnold Shade er's and pick A . I standard surface, so it's gonna bring it in here in the hyper shade as well. And we can just map this out and let's first create the color that we want. Let's make it like a brown type of a color. And now let's open up the Arnold render view so we can see the changes that we're making in real time. That play on the play button here so we can see what kind of pretty basic Shader is just a brown shader, and we want to add some bump to it. So let's create about map by clicking the Checker box and go to the noise tab. And if we zoom in, we can kind of see there's some noise starting to have him, but it's really big. It's really spread out. So let's go into the bump itself and increase the ratio. Let's increase the frequency ratios well, and as we do that, you can see it change here so we can right click and get a sample, and we'll have to refresh that mawr as ah, we update. It just reduced the amplitude so that Ah, it's all kind of evenly noise distributed here, and it's looking pretty good so far, but it looks like we might have gone too strong on the noise. Potentially, let's go back into the bump map and change that 2.5 so it reduces it down a little bit. And it might also be the reflections air throwing us off. So let's go back. I'm just clicking in these buttons to go in and out of the shader. We could also click the different parts of it from the hyper shade to navigate around. So I'm going back to the Shader here and let's take a look at the speculator. Let's increase the roughness because if we think about rust, rust is pretty rough. So now that's looking a lot better. And we could even apply a fractal to this rust if we wanted, Um, but for right now, let's just leave it as it is, and we can come back to it if we'd like. So we have the rust and we have the ah bump map here that gives it some texture. Let's maybe increased that just a little bit. So how do we combine the two shade er's? We have this shader and we have that Shader. So there's a new node called the mixed node. And if we type in a, I ittle bring up all the Arnold a shade er's And if we take type in A I M. It will bring up the A ah, mix shader here. You can also get to it just from going into the shader options and just kind of scrolling down on Arnold here. So if we scroll down, we can see a I mix shader. So now let's apply this to the object. I'll select it and right click and say and right click and say, a sign material to view port selection. And you can see it's just kind of black because there's nothing going into it. If we look at the Shader here in Ashdod editor, it's asking for two shader shader one share, too. And the mixed weight is at 10.5, which means it's gonna blend between these two shakers, but they're currently empty, so we need to fill them. So we have the AI standard surface here, which we're gonna call the rust so it's label it rust and let's select the mix shader in the middle mouse drag the rust into Shader one, and now you can see it's back toe how he had it, Um, so let's bring in the brush metal. We have the brush metal appear somewhere. Or maybe we got rid of it so that we could just bring it in here. Brush metal. We could just middle mouse drag it from there and let go. So now it's just mixing 50 50 so we can drag this and see it go from one to the other. But if you remember, we have that texture, so let's use it. We painted it here. So let's middle Mouse drag the texture into the mixed weight. And as soon as we do that, we should get, ah, change here and not a lot happened. So let's look at why that might be first. It could be because we swapped our values for White for black, But also it could be because the blacks aren't black enough that we painted. So let's if you remember from a previous lesson, the Alphas luminous is really important because if you look at what's actually getting piped in here to the mix, it is the let's let's organize this a little bit better. You can click this rearrange button to kind of sort everything out a little bit better. So Ah, it's this little arrow button here. Um, so now so now we can get a better look at what's going into the mix. We can see it's the Alfa that's actually going into the mix. And if you remember from a previous lesson the Alfa, there is no Alfa here. It's just black and white. So we need to tell it that the black and white value is the Alfa. Or we could just map in one of the three channels here. So if we do that, we can just kind of circumvent the Alfa Thing. And now we can see the painting that we did is revealing the rust shader beneath it. So again, the advantage of using the Alfa is that we have these Alfa, um, color balance sliders here so that if we choose Alphas luminous, we get back to the same result that we just had if we were just piping in one of the red, green or blue channels. So now that it's Alfa, we can increase this or decrease this with the Alfa Gain and the Alfa offset, so that's pretty helpful. But let's say maybe this doesn't go far enough and we want it to affect it even more. We could, uh, add a color. Correct note. We can click on this shader here under Arnold and get to the color correct note. If we click that, it'll load it in. And we could just pipe in the Alfa from this ah, image into the color correct node and now pipe the Alfa into the mix. So we're just kind of putting this in the middle of that stream there. So now it has to go through the color correct note so that now with a color correct node, we have all these different options. Now we could change the Gamma, which if we piped in the Red Channel, this would be red. This would be green. This would be blue. So this would be a way if we did pipe in the Red Channel that we could actually affect that , and so we can increase the Alfa Gain or Alfa offset here is well, so that's another level of adjustment that we could have. So that's how you add more detail on realism with the mix. Shader. Thanks for watching, and I'll see in the next lesson 22. Ghostbuster Trap Finishing Touches: this lesson. I want to finish up the Ghostbuster trap. So let's take a look at where we're at right now with the Arnold or interview all it play so we can preview the render here and you can see that I've gone and ahead and done some textures for these other panels as well. With the same method we've learned about, you can see this one is maybe, ah, too dark here. So let's take a look at that one real quick and refine that will open the attribute editor . And first, let's delete the history here. And also, I would like to say to, um, save often when you're doing these render previews my aching crash. It's not uncommon for it to crash here, so Mr Roll down to the color balance. And if you remember, we have these Alfa gain sliders and we actually go past two, which is where the slider wants to go to now. So hit three and then just keep driving this up until I kind of get that contrast that I like to see between the rust and the metal. So it dragged it up maybe a little bit more, and then spin around and see where the reflection is kind of similar between these panels because I don't want them to be two different. Okay, so the next thing I want to do is attack this kind of black metal here. This fractal that we used in one of the first lessons is pretty, obviously a fractal, and you won't avoid that type of ah texture ing. So let's click this and get into the surface. Here. Let's go to the roughness and swing into the fractal and let's first go into the texture and actually increase the coverage so you can see there's this one big piece here, so we'll scale all this town's that. It's, ah, lot more coverage in all of these areas here so we can cheat that by going into the place to D texture and actually repeat the U. V s more than one time. So let's go five. We could actually, you know, stretch it and make it look streaky. But in this case, I want to keep it even and maybe even go further and to maybe eight eight. And then now we have that. Let's go back into the fractal and adjust the texture here by bringing down the amplitude so that it's a lot more subtle oven effect. So it's It's not like these big chunks every once in a while, but ah, and of course, scroll around. If you can tell this is taking a minute update. The other thing that we have at our disposal here is this crop region, so we can click and drag to stir region here so that it will update much quicker. So now we can see as we rotate around the fractals working pretty good. Maybe it's still a little strong here, so we don't want to bring down the amplitude. We can always go to the color battle balance and, ah, just the Alfa gain here as well. So that's working pretty good. We can also increase the offset so that everything comes down with it. Let's see. Just turned all the way off here, An increase Alfa gain. Try to find a happy medium here. Maybe it's the amplitude, that kind of even this out Bring this back down to bring some of the reflection back. So I'm just adjusting these, you know, it's not a perfect science, and you really have to kind of train your eye because it's easy once you're making these tiny little tweaks to get lulled into a sense of it looking good. So I like to kind of go at the extremes. You kind of see push it and see if I'm really actually doing any good. If this is actually going in the direction I wanted to go, so I think something like that was probably gonna be good. Um, we can always adjust that later. But the other thing I'd like to do is add that same fractal because we've already put all this work. I don't have to create entirely new fractal for this shader. So I'm gonna save this real quick and click this and delete the history so we can get into the ah surface here would open up the hyper shade as well, so we can actually map this out much quicker. What? This load up and then click this little button here. So we get ah, the object that we have selected weaken get that all mapped out. The other thing I want to do is so let's click both of these. Some shift selecting over here in the view port. So I get against, like, both of these at the same time and get both of them pulled up. So now that we have the fractal here, we can just pipe this in and I'm just gonna turn this off for now is that I have had it crash earlier on me when it's trying to update when you're putting a new textures, sometimes it doesn't like that someone, uh actually let me zoom in here so you can see this because I'm not sure how small your you're watching it on. Basically, what I'm doing is I'm taking the ah, same situation. We have year out, Alfa, going into the speculum roughness that we've been messing with on the black metal. And I'm just gonna pipe that into the speculum roughness on the ramp of the doors here so we can kind of take advantage of the work we've already done. So when I open up the Arnold or interview again hit play and now you can see we have that ah tar advantage here or now we can use both of them and it's looking pretty good. The other thing we can do is at a bump map to this, So let's go into the shader. I'm just clicking that. Want closing the hyper shade and let's create a bump map. Let's go to geometry and let's click that and go to you know what? Let's actually use the ramp, something that we've done. Let's open up the hyper shade again and just kind of use this ramped our advantage again. So let's click this and, ah, map it out and let's duplicate this ramp. And if I had copy Paste, it will work pretty well. And now I have a duplicate that I can just a little bit. So if you remember earlier, we have a linear interpolation. There's no fuzziness here. And if we pipe that in as a bump map, it's gonna look pretty wonky. So we're going to just the ramp, and that's why we're duplicating it now. So with a standard selected let's click bump map and let's just choose file so we get all that mapped in here properly and weaken. We don't want the files and just delete that. We just clicked file just so it it maps this note here for us, so let's take the ramp and and put the bump value of the Alfa into the bump value. And if we take a look at this, we can't really see much happening yet. And let's just turn on the crop here and let's go to the Ah ramp itself and we actually click this little button here and get a bigger view of it. Let's open this up. And before we change the interpolation, which we can do here, let's just add some anchor points here so that the AH colors will stay the same. So I'm just clicking in the middle here and just kind of going through so that there's a point on either end. There's a black to black and then yellow to yellow, and that way it'll kind of hold up these lines when we change the Inter Piil ation. So just trying to drag these kind of close to their partners here, and that looks like it's going to be pretty good now if we changed interpolation to maybe the linear or something like that, we can see now there's this bump right here because you can see where this is fading out. Now we can change this to something else and we can see how this changes the bump map here on the ramp. So it looks like this actually has some separation. Now, you kind of get down at an angle like this. We can kind of see that it looks like these are two separate levels here, and we get that just it's cheating it. Even though this is one piece of geometry, this really shows the power of bump maps so we can kind of add some dimensionality to these doors without having to Do you know any more modeling or anything like that? We can do it in the textures, so just keep that in mind as you're working that that's a possibility and it looks like it's a little too strong. So let's bring up the hyper shade, go to the bump here and now we can adjust the bump depth, maybe bring that down 2.5, maybe even 0.1. We just want something subtle to kind of separate these colors out. I might be not strong enough, so I think that's working pretty good. I always like to look at it from different angles to make sure it's working OK. The other thing we can do with these, um, the ramp and especially in this bump, let's get to an angle. We can kind of see this effect happening. I'm gonna try to zoom in here as much as I can so you can see it on your screen. Let's go into the ramp and we actually have noise here. So if I start with the noise, you can see there's these really big waves here and we want very small waves. So you want to increase the frequency. So it's just crank this up and you can see there's way more waves here, but ah, it's still not high enough. So let's weaken type in our own values. And now you can see it's starting to look a lot more noisy there. But we just want just a little bit of it to come through on those edges so that they're not totally straight. So check that out. Now. We had, like, a little noise to this separation here to make it look even more organic and just kind of keep dialing that in to make it look, um, you know, a little rougher here. So when we're doing that procedurally, you know, we're not having to go back into photo shop. We're not having to do anything like that. We can just update this as we want Teoh inside of Maya and that's, you know, the power of procedural textures. So in the next lesson, let's take a look at lighting this thing. Ah, in a more interesting way, one of the last things I'm going to do is continue to add she aiders to these gray pieces here. These air basically gonna be read versions of this shader we've already made here. So you could duplicate out these sh aiders and then just change the color to red pipe that in. And then you could even do some of your own texture in with three D paint. And you can see how far we've come. If you remember from the beginning, our model looked pretty similar to this chrome ball here. The reflections on here were very chrome like, so just quickly I just want to show you, you know, of course, the presets which we've already looked at But I would just want to drive that home that it's a good place to start If I sign a new material. Go to Arnold Shader, standard surface and wait for it to pop up. I'm just gonna call this rubber and use the preset here and go down to rubber and goes over to replace is just off the screen there. So it's a really quick starting point for us. It's maybe a little too bright. The color isn't dark enough, So let's just dial that down. And then, of course, we can add procedural textures to it and make it a little rough and whatnot, but probably going to use that same shader on the little nubs here. That little cylinders to go around this and then I'm probably gonna use the metal shader on the inside pieces here and these disks and make maybe a new one for the screw here. But yeah, this is pretty much it. We've basically done a pretty good job of shading this entire piece, and it looks, you know, pretty decent. If this is your first thing ever shading and Maya and three d, you should be pretty proud if you've gotten this far and one trick real quick that I wanted to show you is say I want apply a texture just to this piece here and not the kind of rubber nubs around the outside. If I click this because these air Children of this if you remember the modeling where we parent at all of these to this so that they all rotate together, it's hard to select this thing. You know, we're gonna if we right click and start assigning initiators Gonna sign it Everything. Well, one easy way to go about selecting just that kind of parent piece that's controlling everything is to press down on your keyboard. And now we just have that piece. So now you can separate your selections if you like. So I'll just finish this up with the red pieces here and the other rubber shade er's being applied. And in the next lesson, we're gonna learn about lighting this thing with a little bit of fog. Thanks for watching 23. Fog Lighting: in this lesson, we're gonna do something pretty fun and learn about fog and lighting. So at this stage of the game, you should have a pretty well textured and shaded ghostbuster trap. Let's just take a look at what we have So far, I have done some three texture ing on the other shade, er's and basically put in a mix shader for everything so that we can map in a chrome texture underneath. So it looks like this stuff is kind of painted, and then the scratches reveal more of a metal chrome texture on this stuff. So it's all the same techniques you've learned how to add Russ to these plates, and in this way it's using, um, the textures to reveal chrome so it looks like painted metal and with some scratches on it . So it adds a lot more realism and kind of organic quality to it. So at this stage of the game, this is kind of what we're working with. Let's make something super cool and have some glowing light and fog coming out of the doors here, so it's close this down and learn how to do that. First, let's open up the doors will just like the geometry had e to rotate this stuff up, so we need to open the doors up and then let's go into the render settings. This is something that we haven't touched yet. It's this little button up here with a clapper board and the gear wheel. We click that we get a new window and we want to make sure that we change our render. Ah, that we're using to Arnold Render. And again, if you don't have that loaded up, you can just go to Windows, Settings and Preferences. Plug and manager, and it's down at Thea into a bundle down here right here. So you probably already have that turned on because we've been using Arnold Shade er's. But in this case, we need to tell it. We want to render with this on as well, and you can see these tabs change, and now we get the Arnold Render tab. Let's go down to the environment, and now we see atmosphere and when you can add a texture into here. So if you click that we get some unique options and we're gonna want the atmosphere volume . So let's click that and now you can see it's piped in here and we can get to it through clicking this button. Um, and you can see the attributes of it over here. So before the fog can work, we need some lights that work with it and atmosphere, Fog and Arnold is particular to certain types of lights. It will not work with infinity based lights, meaning sky domes and directional lights that come from an infinite distance. So it really like spotlights. So we're gonna add a spotlight to this scene. Let's close the render settings and you notice under Arnold Lights, it does not have a spotlight, but it is actually located over here with this little flashlight, and it'll still work in Arnold. It's just not an Arnold Onley light like those other ones are. So let's click the spotlight and even see we've created it here, and we need to enable show lights under this tab if we've turned it off like we did earlier in the series. So now we can manipulate this like anything else rotated up and shoot it in the direction of straight up is what we want. Let's kind of set this in here. And as long as we don't have this point at the bottom, go through the geometry, you know this is too far right there. We want to get it just above the kind of floor of this bottom. And let's rotate that and even direction. So 90 degrees. And now let's see what we have with Turn the Arnold or interview and hit play and nothing really happens. So why is that? If we go into the atmosphere fog, we can get to it back through the render settings and click this little button and there we go. That's read editor kind of. We can see it kind almost like a shader, like we had been shading things. And you can see it's going this upset and see the density is automatically set to zero, which is not very helpful. If you're creating this, you would assume that the default would be at some value greater than zero. But yeah, sometimes the defaults aren't what you want them to be. So if we increase this, we should start to see some fog and you see it start to illuminate right here. So now you kind of see it illuminate Let's turn us all the way up, and now we can get some fog. Check that out, and it's basically taking the shape of the light, so we need to adjust the light so that is a little bit broader. So it fills up this entire piece here, or you can just leave like this if you like. But I'm gonna make mine a little bigger, and there's a couple different tools we can use with the spotlight. I'm gonna click the spotlight, and I'm going to increase the intensity so you can see the fog almost feels like it's more intense fog by increasing the intensity of the light itself, and we can increase the cone angle so it's just spread that out. And let's also increase the pin number angle. And that's basically like the feathering of this, edging CEO hard. This edges of the spotlight now watch as we increase the penumbra angle. It gets a lot softer now. You can't see that hard edge, so it's super helpful. Maybe went a little too far, so we just dial it back a little bit. Now let's go take a look at the fog because it's it's just white, and that's fine. But I think could be look a lot more interesting. And I'm just gonna move this over just a touch, trying to keep both of these things in the scenes. You can see it update as well, so I'm just moving it over so that the light is kind of admitting from the middle of the doors and not from one end or the other. So now we have that Let's go back into the atmosphere and mess with that so the density is in a value of one. We could mess with that a little more. Um, the other thing I want to do is make this a purple color because it is a ah, you know, ghost alien type of a trap. We want, Ah, some more interesting color than just white. So you can change the color here. And then finally, the thing that's really gonna make this look amazing is by adding a texture to the density . You can see that we have this checker box over here. So you guessed it just like everything else. We can pipe in a texture here, so let's click that And the only thing special we need to consider about this is the fact that this fog is kind of three D, right? It is, ah, taking up space in three dimensions. It's not just on a flat plane. So when we look at what type of texture we want a map in here, we need to look at three D textures and 30 textures are just that. They're basically a texture that goes through a volume, you know, imagine, um, like putting, I don't know, glitter or ink or something in a glass of water. It's gonna create patterns in three dimensions, and that's kind of the same idea that we want to do here. So I'm going to create a cloud texture here as soon as I click that you can see it adds all this great organic texture to the fog and look so much more believable than the solid piece that we had. And of course, we can adjust the attributes of this cloud as well and increase it or decrease that. But yes. So this is pretty much how you create some cool looking fog coming out of your ah ghostbuster trap. So I'm gonna just tweak this stuff a little bit for one second. You can stop now or you can kind of go along with me and see how I'm gonna finish this out . You know, it's all about that kind of final 10%. And I like to get let's get that highlight on this 3/4 angle so we can kind of see the highlight of this. And let's also increase the intensity of the spotlight so that it's a bit of a stronger effect. And of course, we're gonna type in a bigger number here through something like 20 and see what happens. It looks a lot better and, yeah, that's already looking really, really good. Um, I love how quickly and simply you can add s so much more in my and with Arnold's tool set. So that is how you add fog to the Ghostbuster trap. And of course, you can animate all this stuff that will learn how to animate later on in another section. But yeah, that's that's ah, really useful. Looked at tool to add a lot of dimensionality and atmosphere to all of your renders as you finish them up and put the final polish on them. So in the next few lessons, we're gonna go back to the bones character model and kind of finish that one Oppa's. Well, I'm gonna show you a few more tips and tricks, and then we're gonna finish this whole section out with covering how are actually gonna render a sequence or final image out of Arnold and Maya. So thanks for watching, and I'll see in the next lesson. 24. "Bones" Displacement Maps: welcome to this lesson were real. Finish the bones character buying some texture to the surface of his bones with something called displacement maps. We've learned about bump maps and a previous lesson that doesn't displace the actual geometry. But in this case, we want to learn about a map that will add geometry at render time. So it will keep us from having to have very dense geometry in the scene. Because if we go up here and we go to display heads up display, let me just tear this off and we in turn on poly Count and you'll get this little box up here of numbers and you can see that we have 160,128 faces. And this is kind of the number you want to look at when you're calculating how dense is my geometry and we have 160,000 and you can get up to several millions. Ah faces worth of faces when you have a very dense piece of geometry, like a high resolution character for film and TV. So to reduce the amount of faces which slows down the machine and slows down the Render time. We can actually add geometry at render time and all that detail or under time. So we don't have to actually manage it and use it and see it in this scene. Because if we start animating this with several million's worth of Paul eons, it's gonna be very, very slow. And animators will not like to do that and which is usually, if you're a one man studio, that's yourself. So let's figure out how we can add some detail without adding any polygons in our scene. Okay, so let's first add the shader so everything has the same kind of bone color to it. So I'm gonna select everything just by clicking and dragging and then control shift clicking. Remember if you, if I was the shift, select this. It will dislike that or select it. And to add it for sure, I want to control shifts like so will always be adding. So now we have all that selected Let's right, click and add a new material. It will make a AI standard surface like we've done before, and in the color will discolor. Pick this color here someone go to color, choose the picker and pick this color. Now. Everything should be the same color as our bone and my look a little different here, and we're gonna just that later, depending on how accurate the picker was. But, uh, that'll get us pretty close for now. So we have the Shader. Let's open up the hyper shade and take a look at it. So I'll select one of the bones and I'll click this little button to map it out. And it's pretty basic. There's nothing coming in yet like textures or procedural textures. But take a look at this group. Every Shader has a group once it's applied to material. Sorry, once it's applied to a piece of geometry and check out these two here, and what we're gonna be concerned with is a displacement shader. So let's let's take a look at what that actually means. But first, Ah, let's just get this Shader in a good spot because it has all the default values. So let's turn on the Arnold or interview hit play, and again you'll see that we need a light in the scene. So let's go to Arnold. Let's go delights. Let's create a physical sky I want to click the dome light here and scroll down to the camera option. And let's turn that to zero so that the actual visibility of the Sky Dome will not be visible in the render. We could test that here to show you the difference. So I go back to Arnold interview and hit play. Now we can actually see our model, and if I crank up this camera now, you can begin to see the horizon, and it's not really useful. And so let's just turn it off. The first thing you can see here is the fact that the reflections are very sharp, so it's turning the roughness of the reflections. And to do that, we go into the estate and surface. And let's rename this to bone. Let's turn up the roughest of the speculator. So if you'll notice the head is still has the Lambert that we used to do three painting. So we'll also need to apply this shader to it that we've been making here. But let's do it after the fact that we figured out all of these values so that we can just duplicate it out and apply it with that texture. So we have this material, this material. It's looking kind of bony. It's has somewhat a shyness, but it's also a rougher surface, So the speculum highlights air, not super sharp. So it's a deep, decent spot. And let's just evaluate the color here is Well, let's first get this material on the head and make a determination if we need to change the color so I'll go to the bone and I'll say at it duplicate shading network. Now I'm just gonna Middle mouse drag this after I rename it to Bonehead and we're gonna Middle Mouse drag this on the skull and let go May or may not apply. If it's being finicky, then you can right click down here with its selected CIA son chilled to view port selection . Okay, now you can see you got rid of our texture, but we can go into our textures tab here, and we can see that we have a file one in a reference file and let's just see what these are. So the reference files from modeling that we used to model the character and the File one is actually our head shape color. This is are we right? Click on it. Here we can see the sample that is our head. So with the bonehead material selected here, let me just map these out by clicking the rearrange graph button here and we can see them a little better. Click the bonehead. It's middle mouse. Drag this file one onto the color so real quickly you can see that the color still isn't accurate Between the texture and the shader that doesn't have a texture. It's just a regular shader. But we're trying to match these two and color picking didn't work. So let me show you one other way to go about matching color here between textures. Let's open up the ah, UV editor, UV editor. And I'm just gonna dock the tool kit here and select the head so that we have the texture in our view Port of the tool kit. Let's go to the shader for that head. And I'm just gonna go to color of any of these and choose a picker. Now, if I hover over this, you can see I'm getting numbers here, a 1.85 and 0.65 So really, all we need to remember is 0.5 and 0.65 OK, so let's close this out had escaped. And let's select the bone material here and to get to different types of values here we can choose this and the numbers were getting it were an RGB zero toe, 1.0, so we can enter these in here and have the same color as the texture. So now you can see if we go to the Arnold interview that these two should be matching. Now I'm gonna turn on the three D manipulation so I can move around in the view port of the interview. So now these two are matching. Let's give them some displacement detail and learn about displacement. Someone zoom in here and I'm going to open up the hyper shade. I'm gonna dock the render view here inside the hyper shade so they work on the material and see the render happen in real time here. So we have the bone selected. Let's map it out and let's map in a fractal into the displacement Shader. So we know they're in the two D textures and fractal. So let's move these. So they're organized a little bit and just input the color in the displacement Shader and see what happens now it blows everything up, and we need to adjust this. So let's open up the fractal here and see it in the ah, the Ashley. Better on the side, right click and we'll see. It's just a default kind of things here. Basically, what's happening is on a scale of 0 to 1, or black and white. The displacement Shader is determining. Should it push Vergis ease out or in? And in this case, it looks like it's pushing them mostly out by quite a lot, so we can adjust the color gain to reduce that amount of everything being displaced. And you can see it's kind of all coming down now because what we want is just something subtle on the surface, right? So we don't want everything to be displaced out a large distance. We just wanted to be very subtle just on the surface, but the problem were contending with is that there's not a ton of geometry to move here. If we look at the actual geometry that makes up this bone, it's not many Vergis ease right, so we need to fear how toe add geometry at render time. So to do that, let's go into the Arnold tab here of this bone shape and let's scroll down and look at Subdivision. Currently, it's set to none. Let's set. It's a cat, Clarke, and that was just named after the type of math a Matich in. I believe that. Figure this out so as we turn that on, you can already see it has more detail. So let's go to none, and you can see there's no detail here. And let me just isolate this with the isolator region tool so that it updates maybe a little quicker. So you see, there's no detail now, Eternal cat Clarke and look what happens. We immediately get more detail and let me just turn up the ah color gain here so you can see the difference a little more. Obviously, so it is displacing it, but it's not very accurate. It's just a big block. So let's go back into the subdivision here by clicking on the piece of geometry and go into cat Clarke. Now you can see how much more detail is being added here because there's more jam a tree well, you can still see that. It's kind of tearing here, and what we can do is increase the iterations even a couple of times. So now look at how much more detail there is, and that's actually pretty good. We might need to add 1/4 but three might be enough. It depends on how, um, accurate you want this to get. Let's go back to the fractal shader here and just turn down the gain of this quite a bit. So now you can see we're adding a ton of realism at render time, and we don't have toe have millions of polygons, so you can just dial this in, depending on how much displacement texture that you want. So when you get close to this thing, it'll have a little bit of texture to the surface, and it will actually, unlike a bump map, it's actually displacing the silhouette. So if we getting close here, we can see the silhouette is not rattled all the way around, and how this is used in modeling is typically out of a sculpting, more criticism or intermediate type of ah thing to know, but out of a sculpting software this is what's used to add a ton of detail like pores and things at a very fine level. Um, even at a big level, like scales or something like that, Displaced displacement maps will be increasingly important as you learn more about three D . So what's left is to turn on this feature for every piece of geometry. But there's one way we can do that a lot quicker than having to click each piece as we've done. Go to its shape Tab Goto, Arnold, Go down here, Click Cat Clarke and go to Four Durations, which maybe I'm gonna just changed a three for now. So let's select all of the Geo and let's go to the Windows Journal Editors Attributes Spreadsheet. So now that we have the attributes spreadsheet open, let's go to the Arnold tab and let's scroll over where we can see the subdivision. So look right here we can see a I sub div type and ai subdivided orations, so it looks the same here subdivision type subdivision iterations. So it's this data just in a spreadsheet format and why this is important because we can click one scroll to the bottom shift, click and type in Cat Clarke and it inner. So now we've turned it on for all of them, and we can also turn the iterations to three. So I'm just gonna click the bottom one, click the top one and type in three, and it inner. So now you can see for the one that we had last selected over here, it's done all of that. So we've done it for every piece of geometry. So if we turn on the Arnold interview again, then hit play, we can see that the ringer view does take a little more time to render it all. So it's something to consider when you're doing this that it will increase the render time . But if you zoom in here, you'll be able to see a lot more detail. And if you've given your geometry the right kind of U V s, the detail will be pretty similar. Cross everything and consistent. So if we take a look at the phase, we can see that we haven't applied it yet to that. So it's open that up. Open the hyper shade. Let's map that out. Let's also map it out with this bone. Some just shift. Selecting these and then clicking The in N Out puts here and you can see that we don't see the fractal here, so we actually need to map the groups. So it's map. The group's out. Now we get the fractal. So let's just drag this fractal out color into the displacement group. Shader of the Bone. Aziz. Well, the bonehead. So now when we do that, you can see this is updating. It's adding a lot more detail to the head. The last thing you might want to do with this model is just at a piece of geometry here so that the light doesn't go all the way through the nostrils so that this is actually just black. So let's grab a piece of geometry and it's what it's actually we're seeing. It looks like, Is this bone coming through? So we could. There's a couple different ways we could resolve that. Let's take a piece of geometry just a plain Let's bring it up and we'll place it to block this piece. We could also put a lattice on it to help to form it and get it out of the way. But I think this is probably gonna be the quickest thing for us to dio just to increase that. And I'm gonna shifts like the head and parent it to the head by heading P. So wherever the head goes, it will go with it. And we need to add a new type of shader here that is kind of a utility type of a thing. To fix issues like this. Let's open up the Arnold render of use. You can see what we're about to dio and the hyper shade and let's right click and say, Add new material and let's choose a surface shader And this is in Maya Shader. So it's click surface shader and the default colors blacks. That should be fine. But when a surface Shader does is it has no reflections and nothing else, pretty much so. We know it'll be totally black there. Let's turn on the Arnold or interview preview button here by hitting play and take a look at that now. So it looks like what this is actually showing up, as is the light coming down into the skull from this direction. So it's not just this little piece of skull, but it's the entire back cavity here. So what we can do instead is place this in front of the eyes so that light doesn't go into the skull. And it depends on however you want to resolve it for yourself. But this is just one way to make sure no, like it's in here and that what we're actually seeing is going to be all black if that's what you're going for. So in this lesson, we learned about displacement maps using the displacement shader for Arnold and what surface shader czar and how to apply the subdivisions at render time. This is kind of an advanced topic, but it is very, very important. Very useful for any modeler. If you get into more advanced modelling techniques, you will use displacement maps. So it's very useful to know where that resides for the Arnold tab and for using the spreadsheet editor so that you can add it multiple pieces of geometry it once. So you're not having to select each one and go through and turn that on for each one so that that's it for the bones section here. We're gonna take a little look at lights and some rendering, and I will see the next lesson. Thanks for watching 25. "Bones" Glass Material: While we're talking about shading, I wondered briefly cover a glass material problem that you might run into on how to fix it . Basically, let's take this head and apply a new material and create a glass preset. So what of the Shader standard surface? And if I got presets and I go down here to glass and I'm gonna choose replace that's off screen here and you can see it kind of, you know, looks like glass now in the view port, you can see through it here. And if we turn on the Arnold render view, we can see that it does indeed kind of look like glass. And so that might seem like you're all done there. But the shadow is, you know, maybe too dark, like the light should go through this. The the glass a little more. So there's a couple different things you do with ah, glass surface. You can turn on thin wall, so it's gonna make the object to look a lot thinner. So it's a very thin piece of glass. And if you decrease the opacity, nothing's changing. And why is that? Well, that has to do with one issue here that if we select the geometry and go into the head shape or the shape of the head, it will be called. Whatever your piece of geometry is, and then shape shape is a technical term for a node that's common in my, um And if we go down to the Arnold tab here, you can see that we have opaque turned on. And this is the one little thing that you have to look out for when you're using a glass. Shader is to uncheck that so now even see that indeed there is no shadow. Well, why is that? And what if we want, you know, some cost ICS here and caustic SAR about refraction through material on do a surface. So that would make sense here in a second when I turn on a color for transmission. So it's turning maybe something to blue. Now you can see what would really be happening. This was a blue plate piece of glass. It would be refracting that color in creating this cost ICS ah kind of transmission on to the surface here. So the other thing to consider is if you remember, before we lowered the opacity, nothing happened. But now if we lower the a pass ity, you start to see through the subject the piece of geometry and the cost exchanges Well, you can see that the areas of different thickness have a different amount of cost ICS transmission on them. So that's one thing to just look out for when you're using glass preset to uncheck the opaque from the Arnold shape area here. Thanks for rushing, I'll see in the next lesson. 26. "Bones" Lights: welcome to this. Lessons were we'll discuss lights and the different types of lights. So we've learned a couple different kinds So far. We have the SkyDome in this scene, which we can see here, and we've also learned about the directional light and spotlight. So, um, I'm going to reduce the render settings so that we can see these quicker. So I'm gonna turn this off and go to the rendering tab, go to render test resolution and let's go even smaller, like 50% of the resolution. And it's going 50% based on what it's set here in the render settings. And we've been in this once before when we chose Arnold our interview here, and it's going based off of this number here where it should be. If it's not so that's where we can set that. But I can also reduce the camera, the sampling here. So I'm just gonna crank that down a little bit, and I'll explain that a little more later. But basically I want to make sure that I'm using the quickest kind of rendering to evaluate stuff that we have here. So one hit play now it should be a little smaller size here, and it's taking a minute to render. But basically all we haven't seen is a SkyDome light, so it's very directional light, and it's not super interesting. So how do we make more interesting lighting? Let's look and see what we have at our disposal. So let's delete the SkyDome light. And let's just start with the idea of a three point light set up. So that's in filmmaking, one of the most common lighting setups. So I'm gonna go over to the rendering tab here, and you can see we have different lights. Will basically never use an ambient light because it is not physically based. Ambient light, um, is a cheat, and so you can test mess around with it, but I would recommend never using it. Um, directional light is going to have no fall off, so it's also somewhat not physically based. We can go over here and see the different ash brutes that we have, which are just very few. So to be able to adjust these settings, let's open up Arnold or interview and see how we can affect this object. So this is pretty flat as well, and you can see that the shadows air pretty hard. So most lights have this kind of shadow softening effect. So we're and we're using the Arnold render. So we need to go to the Arnold Render tab in that light to change most of the settings. We can change the intensity here, of course, and that's fine and the color. But there's more settings down here mainly about this shadow kind of silhouette here, the hardness of this edge of the shadow. So if we're gonna affect that, we need to increase the angle, and by doing that, you can see the shadow gets much smoother. So that's one way that we can affect the lights. And most lights have this. You know, of course, I don't think the ambient light has one. You can see it's very noisy here, and that's because the samples air so low. So we got to increase the samples, and that just increases the render time. But it takes out all that noise. So now that's a lot smoother, and there's no kind of grainy noise there. You can also see that still sharp, where it is closer to the ground so you can see It's a sharp shadow down here and more soft towards the head, the further away from the ground. The object is so that's one way to affect directional lights. And let's just make this a little more three point. So the idea and three point lining is you have a key light, and it's usually your one of your brightest, if not the brightest. So let's use that and get a fairly directional on kind of a 3/4 angle. I'm going to reopen the Arnold our interview and make sure that's the correct kind of direction we're going for. And I'm just going to go to the light settings and say, This is kind of like a sun light, so I'm going to add a little color to it. Now let's go to learn about another light called an area light and an aerial light is kind of like what it sounds like. It's almost like a soft box. If you're familiar with photography, the only thing with area lights is they're very expensive at render time, so everything's about to slow down a lot, and you can change the size of them. So it's very nice to use but you're gonna pay for it. Render time. So I use these very sparingly. And also, whenever you're lighting, it's good. Teoh, isolate different lights. You can see what they're doing. Some gonna hide the directional light for now So you can see on Lee what that the area light is doing so you can see it's doing nothing and area lights. Ah, like most other lights besides the directional work on this kind of quadratic scale here. So we need to increase this intensity by quite a lot. We can also go toe Arnold and increase the exposure here, which would help us out. But you can see it has a lot of fall off like there's no light back here, and that's about how physically based renders work. So if you know about the physics of light, you know that they have a I believe it's a quadratic fall off, and you can say, um, change the decay rate here. So typically we're using a quadratic. You can change it toe linear, but I believe because we're using Arnold, it's gonna ignore all of that because Arnold is a physically based render. So it's assuming all of the physical attributes of quadratic fall off and everything for you. So again against the samples here, it's very noisy in the shadows so we can increase that to make those shadows a little softer. The other thing we can do is the other thing we can do is just turn off cast shadows altogether. If we just wanted to cheat this light and use it as a fill light, which is another term of light, we had the key light with a directional light. And now this is gonna be the Phil. So depending on how we wanted to use the fill light, we could say cast their shadows. But of course, that is definitely not physically accurate. You know, we don't get all this self shadowing in this rib cage. It helps define that area. So I'm gonna leave that on for now. And instead of using color here, I can also use color temperature. And this is just more accurate. It's based on Kelvin temperature, so that basically just means warm or cool. So gonna make a cool, uh, fill light here, and I'm just gonna reduce the exposure a little bit and then we turn back on the directional light. So now we have our Phil and we have our key light, the directional being the key light. I think the key lights a little strong, so I'm gonna reduce that down just a touch and maybe even rotated a little more. So with directional lights, it doesn't really matter where they are, so I can move this around and it's not gonna affect anything. It only matters when I rotate it, because a directional on is basically like the sun. So if you can imagine the sun, the rays air coming from a long distance So where it's positioned, point wise doesn't really matter as much. So we're also getting a ton of bounce light off the ground for free. So that's kind of acting like our fill lights. You can see we're not getting you kind of see some of the blue color here in the shadows on the scapula, but so that's basically the key in the Phil. And then the last thing we can do is add a rim light and just for demoing purposes, I mean, he's a spotlight which we've already used, but I want to go ahead and use it again anyway because as a rim light, it's kind of nice because we can direct it exactly where we want it. So it looks like I'm going to need to isolate these two first lights and turn them off so we can see what the spotlight is actually doing. It looks like we need to increase the exposure like we did, and now you can start to see part of the skeleton. Someone increase the intensity and it's really starting to work. And that's actually kind of a cool image just by itself. So one other thing we can do to place lights, especially the spotlights that I like to do, is go to panels, look through selected and it's upside down. But basically we're using the light as a camera now so we can use all the same things that we've learned to be able to position the camera and pointed exactly where we wanted to point. And then we can also see the cone angle here so we can increase the cone angle so that it shoots over a wider area. Now you can see that is actually hitting all of our model. It's also hitting the ground here and the shadow. The light is very hard. The right there. So as we learned in the directional light, we can adjust that by going down to the angle. But you can see we don't have the angle here. We just have the radius. Um, so that's not the same thing. Always look for angle. So here, up top, we have a number angle. So as we increase that, you can see it softens that shadow. And of course, we could go past 10. We could say, like, 15 or something, and it makes that a lot smoother. So now we have this very hard light coming. Ah, rimming this object. So now if we turn on these other two lights, we have our three point lighting set up. We have our key light, which is the directional light. We have the area light, which is the fill over here, which is giving a little bit of a blue color. And then we have our spotlight which is giving us our rim, which is adding a lot of highlights here, including this big one on the skull. So you can mess around with ease and adjust them like you wanna have them, But that's basically those lights and real quickly. I want to discuss mesh lights. So I'm gonna delete all of these lights or just hide them, at least for now, Who might use them again? Close this and mesh lights are something I'm still in the spotlight. You always want to be careful with that. And, C, we lost the, um, outline here of the cone. I think it's because it's too big beyond where we are. So you know, the way that we can tell is, says Spotlight one here, based on what her view is, hold down space bar, collect and get a perspective. You So Ivan hidden this group here called mesh lights and it's basically just I just took a bone from the leg, scaled it up and put to him back here rotated at 45 degrees. So mesh lights are something specific to Arnold. So we need to go to the Arnold lights option here, and I'm gonna select both of these and go to mesh light and you can see it only did one of them. So I need to hit that again and do that one as well. Separately, So let's see what we get. Just out of the box. They're gonna Arnold or interview and hit play and similarly, you can see nothing is going on. So what we need to do is go into the light which would get to from the outline, er we can also select it here. But basically it has the same properties as anything else. And like everything else that we've seen so far, we need to increase the intensity and the exposure. So it's just crank those up. So now we get a pretty cool light, except we can't see it. So to get the bone to actually be visible, we need to turn on light visible here. So now we have the bone outline and when you do that for both of them, So let's look at the intensity. We have a 10 and 10 on intensity and an exposure. So I'm just going Teoh, add those same values here on the other bone, and I'm going to turn on light visible. So now you can see this pretty cool light set up that ah adds a lot. I think to this character surrender and like the other lights, we have samples, you can see it's a very ah as this gets done rendering you can see it will kind of try to clean this stuff up. But for the most part it's really noisy here and this is part of the mesh light. It's part because the intensity is still fairly low so we can increase the samples here and just selecting it from the outline. Er so we can keep up the, um, Arnold render view here, scale this down. Just a touch and increase the samples here as well. And then I'm gonna turn on the directional light shift age and you can see these bones are kind of acting like a really strong rim light, which is pretty cool. So the one downside of mesh lights is that there is currently no work around for it to cast shadows from, say, a directional light. So now that we've turned on this directional that you can see that these lights themselves are actually casting shadows and and other cases, there may be workarounds or there are work arounds. Ah, through light, linking is an option or turning off cast shadows for an individual objects mesh. But in the case of an Arnold mesh light. There is no work around and you can talk to solid angle and they'll tell you the same thing . So that is a limitation of mesh lights, even though they're super cool. Um, just be aware that that is an issue. So So in this lesson, we learned about the most commonly used lights for Maya and hope to see in the next lesson where we will create a rendered sequence for this seeing the next lesson. 27. "Bones" Render Sequence: welcome to this final lesson where we will cover how to render a sequence in this scene. I have animated a camera called the Master Cam. I've also animated the lights, which you can see by clicking on the light preview here and kind of see them flick around and off in this. Listen, I'm not gonna get in town. I animated this stuff. You can, ah watch the animation section of this course to learn about animation. But in this one, I want to explain how to render entire sequence of until this point, we've only been rendering Arnold previews from this Arnold render view preview by hitting play up here and we see a single image. But in the case of this scene, we have a animation and we need to render out this entire timeline. So how do we do that? Let's look at the render settings. And I'm just gonna leave this timeline here in the middle at the point where the lights actually turned on and I'm gonna go into the render settings and explain a few things. So this is the render settings button up here and we get the window, which you might be a little familiar with now. We've opened it a few times and we want to make sure that we're all in render using the Arnold Render because that's all the shade er's and everything we've been building with. And the first thing we want to look at is ah, everything on this common tab is kind of important. So let's run through it. Basically, we need to name the files so you can see the file name right now is just set to whatever the scene name is appear. And we can delete this and right click and say, you know, maybe the camera and these little tags will name it based on that. And you can see when I least like that or hit enter. You can see it says perspective. And so we could do our own little tag and say, Skull, skull had lighting, and then you could add a tag as well. After that, I was gonna leave that for now, and I'm gonna enter so that it takes that changed. Now you see, the file name is this, but how eso the whole reason why were were rendering out image sequences and not a movie file is because this 100 frames depending on your computer and you know the type of animation, your rendering and lighting and everything it could take days I've even had renders take weeks. So let's say you take a week to render an entire sequence, and one frame of that is messed up. If you had rendered out a movie, which is a single file, you would have to re render that entire thing or have to rent out that one frame and then do all this editing stuff. In the case of image sequences, you can just isolate the the frame number that you want or the chunk of it, and re render out those frames if there's an artifact. If the render failed at some point and it's much easier, much better to use image sequences, and that's just the standard, that's what everyone does. So in the case of rendering an image sequence, you need to take these files, bring them in after effects. Ah, Premier, I believe, handles image sequences as well, and then it will interpret the 24 frames a second, which is kind of the common things sat down over here that Hey, this image sequence frame 1 to 100 which we can see here, is meant to be played back at 24 frames a second. So every second there will be 24 frames shown right, So this is one second 1 24 and in after effects or premiere, you can look up how to import an image sequence and then import these images into those programs and render out a movie a dot M. O. V or whatever that kind of video file that you would like to have. But when you're using three D, you are dealing with image sequences, so that's why we're choosing a file name for an image sequence. To get this sequence out, we need to say frame animation extension is not a single frame. We do not want a single frame. We want multiple friends who you want. Name dot number dot extension. So name means the final name we've put up here dot number means the number of the frame down here in the timeline because each one is gonna be obviously unique. And then the extension, meaning the image format that we're choosing. So we click that we can see it changes up here the file name again. And now we have the frame number and the extension of the image format we're choosing. E X R is a floating point format, which can have multiple layers in it and very high dynamic range 16 or 32 bit images. If none of that makes any sense, click J Peg and don't have to worry about any of that. Um, that's an eight bit image, and that's fine. Ah, you're probably not going to doing a ton of, you know high and compositing if you're new to Maya. If you're coming from a compositing background, then you know all Buddy X. Ours already, probably, and you'll want to choose that one. But you're totally new. Just choose J. Peg, and it's probably familiar that with, like, taking pictures and stuff, it's the same idea. So now we need to tell the frame range so we can see down here on the timeline. It needs to be 1 to 100 and we need to choose. The rentable camera is the wrong one. Right now. We want the Master Cam, which is one that's animated, and then we can choose the dimensions that we wanted to be in and for me. I'm just going to 7 20 and the larger it is, the longer each render is gonna take. And you kind of preview how long each frame's gonna take by using their older interview. And we hit play down here in the bottom left it says rendering. But once it's done, it will have a number here, and that will be the timer basically will say, this took a minute, 25 seconds or something. Some just gonna leave that going So maybe we'll said here in a second. So the next things we want to be concerned with are the sampling numbers in the Arnold Render tab. This basically means quality, okay? And it divides it into different aspects of Orender. But the main one you want to concern yourself with is the camera one, because this is multiplied multiplies each one of these ones below it. So it's kind of like a global setting. So let's take a look at that now. Now that we've have a render done, we can see it took 35 seconds, but we have all these fireflies, and that's ah term called for an artifact where there's basically all these kind of dots and it doesn't look maybe terrible right now. But keep in mind, this is gonna be an animated sequence. So these little dots here, which are gonna zoom in so you can see all these little dots in the background those air gonna move every frame so it's gonna look noisy as hell, um, in an animated image sequence. So we need to address this and the quickest way to address it. But it might also be the most expensive for your render time. Meaning you're under time's gonna increase is to increase this camera settings. So let's crank it up to something like six and see what happens. And let me let me also just say, Let me create that back down to two. Let's use this crop region tool. So it goes a little quicker. It's just choose a region. Let's me choose something with a little bit of the skull in it as well. Let's choose this region and let that run. So it's gone one second and it's done. My clicked a little snapshot button down here and now we have this snapshot saved So when we make any changes, we can come back to and compare, and we can get off of it by clicking the lie down here. So now when we crank this up to six, we can compare it to with what we had earlier. So now that took 13 seconds for this little region. When I click another snapshot and I'm just gonna click back and forth between these two and you can see the difference by increasing the sampling, we're starting to get rid of those fireflies. It's not perfect yet, but it did a great job pretty much. And I think for our purposes it's going to be good enough. There's some other things we could get into the weeds a lot on this, but as a general overview, you can increase the sample size here, and it's gonna help out a lot. If you want to evaluate this stuff further, look up light decay. And this is basically happening because this object, the skull, is so close to these lights that the indirect light is creating all of these kind of speckled e indirect bounces off of this object that they're just too. This is just so close to this object. But, um, that's, you know, not really. For this, uh, course, it's kind of an advanced topic. So for our purposes, increasing the sample size helped a ton. So now we can go to the render tab here were under rendering. And if we've sent our project here, you can also see under the common tab that it should be having the right file path. Right? This is what I set up to Maya. I set the Maya folder here as the, um project folder, so it's automatically finding the images folder in there. So that's also the important important part of setting up the project. And just one more thing real quick. I want to cover this other tab. Gov is tab. This is if you are an advanced composite er and you're trying to learn three D. This is basically the different kind of render layers that Arnold uses. So if you click built in, we have all these different aspects of Orender and we can isolate them so we can activate them. So it'll be included in any xar because we're using J. Peg. It's not gonna have anywhere to put him you have to have any ex are selected for a Avi's toe work. So basically, let's choose diffuse indirect speculum her, and that's that's probably fine. And then if we choose that older interview one more time and we get off of these snapshot view here and play now, what we have if we go appear in top left, actually have each one of these. So these air basically passes that in compositing you can control each one of these elements of the render, and ah, that speculate past actually looks pretty cool by itself. Um, but anyway, so if you're into compositing ah, you'll want to know about these things for our beginner purposes. Do not worry about it. It's ah, it's kind of advanced. And, um, you probably won't need to do that stuff until later. Basically, if if this render preview looks pretty good, that's all you need. And that will get you, Um, what you want out of the J peg here. Okay, so we have all this stuff sets. I'm gonna close that down. We're happy with this. I'm gonna close this. I'm gonna go to render and go to render sequence. Open this up make sure it has the Master Kam double check. It says the right frame range. And you can also put an alternate output file location. Sometimes I like to select the images file as well, just to be redundant and that definitely put it there, right? So sometimes I'll do that. And then when I hit render sequence and close, what was gonna happen is it's going to start to go through each one of the frames in this window so I won't be ableto work in Maya from here on out until it's done. But, ah, it'll do without a watermark. If he used the batch render option, it will create a watermark, which I can't show you now because it's already rendering. But, um, that's pretty much it. That's how you render sequence in Maya. And I really appreciate watching this course and congratulations that you've gotten this far and hope to see the next sections where we're going to cover a lot of cool stuff like reading an animation and, um, get into some more fun things. So thanks for watching, and I'll see in the next section. Alright, thanks. Bye