Maya for Beginners: Rigging | Lucas Ridley | Skillshare

Maya for Beginners: Rigging

Lucas Ridley, Instructor and Animator

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34 Lessons (4h 4m)
    • 1. Course Overview

      1:26
    • 2. Download Maya Free Trial

      1:18
    • 3. Interface Intro

      12:26
    • 4. Manipulators And Camera Movement

      10:51
    • 5. Rigging Intro

      7:16
    • 6. Rigging QuickRig

      3:14
    • 7. Prop Rigging Parent Constraint

      6:59
    • 8. Prop Rigging Pivot Control

      9:52
    • 9. IK vs FK

      5:26
    • 10. Bones QuickRig Skeleton

      5:13
    • 11. Bones Hands

      7:09
    • 12. Bones Joint Orientation

      8:42
    • 13. Bones Rotate Order

      6:48
    • 14. Bones Recreate Limbs

      5:17
    • 15. Bones Pole Vectors

      6:24
    • 16. Bones Hand Controls

      12:30
    • 17. Bones Reverse Foot Rig

      5:18
    • 18. Bones Foot Roll SDK

      11:58
    • 19. Bones Independent Toe

      4:58
    • 20. Bones Organize And Scale

      2:27
    • 21. Bones COG And Hips

      8:03
    • 22. Bones Spine CONs

      4:13
    • 23. Bones Shoulder Fingers

      9:35
    • 24. Bones Hands To Shoulders

      2:53
    • 25. Bones Hand Spaces

      7:59
    • 26. Bones Head Space

      5:50
    • 27. Bones Skinning The Feet

      3:43
    • 28. Bones Moving Joints Fix

      7:43
    • 29. Bones Skinning Spine Weights

      12:59
    • 30. Pose Space Deformations

      10:51
    • 31. Bones Skin Body

      3:41
    • 32. Fix Forearm Twist

      7:23
    • 33. Bones Head Blendshapes

      13:38
    • 34. Bones Cleanup

      9:50
24 students are watching this class

About This Class

Let's learn what it takes to make model's move! We will give our character real bones so we can articulate the model for animation.

Rigging is an essential skill even for 3D artists who aren't interested in rigging it is still required knowledge at most studios even to be an animator to have some knowledge of rigging.

This is the 3rd section in the Maya for Beginners series. I recommend starting with modeling, then texturing, and then this class. But if you're an animator just interested in getting some rigging knowledge or someone new to 3D with no experience rigging then you can just start with the class first if you'd like!

We will start by rigging a prop and learn about pivots and how to organize a rig. Then we will move on to the more complex character rigging.

By the end of this course you will have the skills and confidence to rig most anything and will be on your way to becoming a more advanced rigger.

Thanks for joining me and don't forget to download the scene files so you can follow along!

Download your FREE trial of Maya here!

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Transcripts

1. Course Overview: Welcome to my for beginners, a course about rigging. This is actually the third partner Siri's, and you can take this part by itself because you also have all the project files needed to follow along. We'll start with a basic set up with the prop, which will use this hat. And then we'll get into more technical aspects of rigging a character and the fundamentals that you need to understand to be able to rig whatever you'd like. And in our case, it's gonna be this skeleton character, so we'll take it from scratch, and then we'll build a rig and controls so that we can animate this character in a later course. So we'll get into some more technical aspects in Maya. But it's going to be pretty interesting and fun because we'll have some creative solutions to very common problems will also walk you through some of the most common pitfalls to avoid and how to begin to think about what rigging is and how to approach rigging different types of things. And here's a great example of how to solve one of the most common problem areas in a human type of character, which is the shoulder and there's some really cool tools will cover in this course, and I hope to see their thanks for watching. 2. Download Maya Free Trial: really quickly wanted to show you where you can get a free trial of Maya. So it's totally free, and you can have it free for one month or what? I highly, highly recommend. If you are student right now, you can get this software free for three years. This is huge. This is so huge, right? Even if you aren't gonna finish this course right now, whatever take advantage of this. Um, definitely, definitely. Do this. It's a full version of Maya. It will just say every time you open up the scene file, it will say, you know, this is a student version, and that's it. But it's a full version of Maya. Definitely. Do this. If your students somewhere, um, I think you might have to have ah dot et you address email address or something to prove your student, our cinema, your student, I d but do that if you're a student at a university or school somewhere, otherwise you can get it for one month for free, and then you can move into a subscription basis and just pay each month that you actually use it instead of one big one big payment. So they might move the URL around. But I'll include this in the about section of the course, so you can just click the Link or Google Free Trial of Maya, and it should take you to auto desks website and you can download that they're now let's get started in the next lesson. 3. Interface Intro: welcome to this first lesson in Maya, where we're going to cover the interface. It's the first thing you see when you open my so it's good to get familiarized with it, and as you go through this course, you will become more and more familiar with it and comfortable using it. But it's a great place to start just so that we know what we're looking at, because it's easy to get intimidated when you're first starting to learn three d. I know I was when I opened up a program, and you see all of these buttons and all of these menus, and you have no idea what's important, what's not. And it just looks like some crazy alien interface and where to even begin with that. So that's why I have this lesson. You refer back to it, but it's also just kind of to ease your fears right, like you're not gonna need to learn every single little button and menu option here to be successful in Maya and use it. I'm gonna show you the things that we use the most, and in this interface I'm gonna show you kind of how to visually categorize these things, So you can kind of No Okay, I'm probably not going to use this so visually, I don't need to worry about kind of that chaos of all these buttons up here, So let's just kind of taken overall. Look at this. Normal When you open up, Maya, you're gonna get some type of a view like this and you can see down here that it says P E R S p and that tells us the camera view that were viewing in the view port. And that's what this middle section is here. This is called the View port and you can see the axes down here on the lower left. You can see why is up and Z is kind of to the left. And so this is where we're going to see everything that's happening in our scene and down here we have a timeline for when we start animating weaken, scrub this, we can play it over here. We can set it toe loop back several times by clicking that we can turn on auto key. Turn that off, change the frame range all of these things. But typically when I'm using this, I use it just like this. I scrub, I look and then I can change frame, range, clicking and dragging that or typing in numbers here. And these two numbers actually just mean the kind of in and out points of what we're looking at versus the whole scene, right? So you can see we can't can kind of adjust this and slide this around, but it doesn't change the first number, and that's why that's kind of the absolute values of the in and out of the scene. But we can temporarily change that kind of scale so we can see you know, a smaller scale of the timeline. So it's easier to scrub a smaller section if it's a very big shot or something like that. And if you double click it, it will jump out to the whole thing and maximize to the entire length of the frame range that you've said. So that's the bottom part, and you can see down here in the bottom left. This will be very helpful. As you're starting, this will display short help tips and tools and selection. So if I'm going up here and I don't know what this is and I hover over it. I'll get a tool tip that will pop up. But if you're looking in the lower left as well, it will say the same thing. So if you're a little impatient for the tool tip to pop up, you can just look in the lower left and you can see as I scrubbed my mouse through. I'm not clicking anything. I'm just hovering over. Everything you can see is showing me what each one of these tools is named and what they dio. And if you leave it over there, you know the tool tip will also pop up. So that's one quick way to figure out what all these little things do appear. Don't worry about what each one of them does yet we'll get into that later. But just know you know these air different tabs for different kind of sections, and these sections are also kind of related to these different drop down menus. Here, Maya tries to organize the menus into different disciplines so you can see modeling rigging animation. It's all separated into their own menu sets because typically, if you're doing one, you're not really gonna be doing the other and in a production. Normally this is kind of the linear workflow of how things are made. Anyways, first model something, then you rig it. You animated, for example you can't really animate something that doesn't exist, so you have to model it first. And if you're gonna rig it, then you need to rig a before animation. So it's just kind of they try to do it in a way, an order that makes sense for how you're gonna create things, animate things and render things. That's why these air ordered the way they are. And you can see that they change the menu options up here. But only after Windows. You can see watch windows. And as I change the options, Windows stays the same. So everything from file the windows is never gonna change. And everything after that will and a lot of these things. So I'm in the animation tab here in the drop down menu and I'm on the animation shelf here and you can see there's play Blast. There's different kind of options and a lot of those things are also here soon. See play Blast is here as well. That's the same icon. It's the same tool tip. So even though there's all these different buttons, they actually just put them in more than one place. So it makes it look more complicated than it is because the same option is put in several different places. So, for example, with play Blast, I could actually even right click on the timeline down here, and it's off the screen. But if you do this on your and your Maya, you can go down to the bottom. You can see an option for play blast again. So play Blast, for example, is in three different places. So you know, this is also another reason why not to get overwhelmed while these options, because visually it looks like there's a ton of him. But really, they're just the same ones over and over in different ways. You know, depending on how you wanna work or select options are menus or how you want to select tools . Then they try to give you a Zeman E options as you want to really, which is a little too much. Typically, you're only ever gonna, you know, use this up here or the shelf. It's whatever you're comfortable with. I find it kind of hard to remember what each one of these icons are. And then toe wait for the, you know, tool tip to pop up. Typically what? I'm going through the menu up here, and I'm not using this as much, but it's definitely nice toe have sometimes on a couple different things. Like, you know, in this course, I'm probably gonna make you know, a couple spheres just to show you how things work. We'll get into manipulating things in the next lesson. But, um, you know, besides that, I don't really use the shelf options all that much. So now that we have this kind of shelf option and some of these menu things covered, let's look at what's in between them. We can see this, you know, drop down money that we talked about. Then there's all these buttons up here, and they all do different types of things that were going to get into a lot later. So for right now, just know that you don't really have to worry about any of these things and will slowly cover these later. These aren't super super important and getting started, So we're just gonna skip them now for the interface. Don't worry about thes. So the next kind of thing. We want to look at our these different windows as well. So we have, you know, a blank window here we have blank window here. They have their own little tabs here. And then there's these tabs on the side. So again it seems like there's a ton of options, but it's it's really not. So, for example, with this tab, this can actually be, you know, close down by clicking it or double clicking at the Open it back up. But if you noticed here, this little button gets highlighted and unhygienic as we're clicking it. So is the same thing we were talking about earlier. The play blast. It's just a different way to select kind of menu options here, so you can do it from a pier or you can do it from this tab so you can see the modeling toolkit would go back to the attributes or we could select over here. So why this is significant is because if I create a sphere, this is gonna tell me the name. It's gonna tell me where it is in space Is it on is invisible and the history of the object and any inputs there are so I can see what the inputs are. So this is kind of a quick way to see what's the status of this object where it is. If I go to the attribute editor, I can kind of see this information displayed a little bit differently, so I can see you know, translate is all zero. If we go back to the Channel box, we can see that's shown here as well, just the same thing showing twice, like were talking about earlier. We want help simplify this stuff in your mind so you don't feel like that. You know, this is something different than this. It's not. It's the same thing. It's just in a different place. So just to kind of emphasize this again, I wanted to show you something that I use quite a bit. If you hold down space bar, you will get the hot box menu what my calls the hotbox menu, and I'm holding down space bar and I have all of the menu options available to me. You might be able to tell that is ordered the same exact way that the tabs over here ordered. So modeling you can see mesh mesh, edit, mesh, edit, mesh, mesh tools, mesh tools and so on and so on. You can see rigging, animation effects and rendering. That's exact same way this is laid out over here. So it's just a quicker way to get to. All of these menus is by holding down space bar, and I use that quite a bit. It took me a couple of years to get used to it and actually use it, because I think it does take a little familiarity with Maya to feel comfortable with this. But the senior used this. The quicker you'll be in Maya, and I would highly encourage you to use this instead of having to hunt around for stuff up here and changing menus. You can get everything right here by holding down space bar, so that's a pretty useful tip that ah, I think, will be useful even more later. Now that we know what the channel boxes and the difference with the attribute editor, let's jump over to this section. We can see the View Port has its own options and If you have over each one of these objects , you also get the tool tip. And so I won't go over each one of these because, to be honest there, not very helpful as a beginner starting out. These aren't really that important, but I didn't want to talk about the different views in Maya. So if I don't hold down Space Warner, just tap it. You can see I get multiple views and typically what you'll see. Just click this over here is something like this when you're just starting out Maya. So if I hit space bar again with my mouth just hovering over a different window, I'm not clicking anything with my mouth. I can jump into those views, and you can see what the views are by the camera name, top Y front Z Side X perspective. And so we can jump between different perspective use. If we need to see something top down and modeling, we can do that. So that's one quick way to divide up the screen as well. So if we wanted to revive the screen in a different way, we could go to panels layouts, and we can say two panes side by side. And that's what I had earlier that you saw, because this is the way I like to animate sometimes so I can get back to the perspective. You've just by hitting space bar and these kind of buns over here just kind of like short cuts to these different mo's as well. Instead of eating space bar, you can kind of jump through, and one of the last things I want to talk about is the outlier and outline er you're gonna have open and spend a lot of time and because it's basically a table of contents of what's in your scene, you can see that we have these different cameras that we saw earlier when we were in the kind of four view set up, and they're all great cause they're hidden. We can actually see them in the interface so we can see the the peace Fear one. And that's one way that we can select this object or weaken, selected just by clicking it left mouse clicking. So that's kind of two ways dislike things you, either through the outline er or through the View port. So that is a quick rundown on the interface. I hope you got you a little more familiarized with what you're looking at when you open up Maya. It's not as intimidating as it seems. And if you follow along with this course, you'll just pick up these things and so that I won't have to walk through each little button kind of in a dry way. We'll take a project based approach so that you'll get more familiar with the interface as we go along. So thanks for watching. And I'll see in the next lesson where we will briefly cover manipulators and how to move stuff around. And Maya, thanks for watching. 4. Manipulators And Camera Movement: welcome back, and let's quickly cover how to move things around. And Maya, there's a couple things understand, especially in three D. That's important. And so let's jump right in and cover that from the previous lesson. I still have this fear here. If you don't have that, I can just delete that. And we can go up here to this polygon sphere and click that you can also get to it by going to create pulling on primitives and sphere. One other thing that's kind of fun with these menus is you can actually tear them off so you can see there's this little option here if I hover my mouse just above this. And most menus have this. This one has it. You know, most all of these menus have this little option here. So if I knew was gonna make a lot of primitives, a lot of spheres or something, just as an example, I can just click that and I'll have this kind of menu torn off. So now I can just click this a bunch of times, and if I open up my outline, er, when does outline? Er I can see I made a bunch of Sears really need. Once I'm gonna shift, select all of those, blow it and hit delete and I'll select this fear here. I'm also gonna click and drag this out liner and let it over here and let go So little kind of docket in the window here Gonna close this menu that I had hovering and no, I could get back to it, you know, appear if I want. Now that we have this fear, you can see that there's these kind of squares and different things going on here. So let's take a look. The way that we manipulate things in Maya is basically through several different tools, one of which is you may have already seen by hitting Q. You can get to the select tool or you select it up here. It's just the cursor option. I can select the object here just by left mouse clicking. I can also select it from the outline or here. So we've got the object selected, but I want to move it. How do I move it? I can hit W on my keyboard to pull up the shortcut for the manipulator. I can also select it over here, you see the move tool is what the tool tip says, and you can see as well that in parentheses, it says W so we can also see the shortcut is listed there. So now with the sphere selected and if you notice even with even with the move tool selected, I can select different objects. You don't always have to have the select tool selected to select new things. You can have the move tool selected, and you can still select stuff so you can also click and drag to select things in a group. So now that we have this one thing, let's move it around. I can click any access and will be isolated to that axis on. Do that and you can see it's isolated because the axes manipulator turned yellow. If I click the vertical one, it turns yellow or the Z axis. It also turns yellow. So now I know no matter if my mouse is going up and down or something weird, that it's only gonna go along that access. But if I want to have a free movement, I can just click in the middle and move the thing around wherever I want it. The other thing I can do is isolate on two axes. And that's what these little squares are here that I can you know. No, I'm Onley, moving it in the vertical and X axis. I use a little. I used these quite a bit, actually, because in three D space it's hard to tell where you're moving something sometimes. So you know, it's hard to tell if that's actually vertically up or if I moved it back in space. So by selecting these, you can tell that I'm not moving it up. I'm moving it in the X and Z on this flat plane, this cred. And if you can't see the script for some reason, if didn't default to that, you can also turn that on here or turn it off. If it's distracting, that's just one of these little options appear. So now that we know how to move things around, let's rotate it so we're gonna e on the keyboard, and similarly, we can find it over here in this little tool box window, and you can actually turn off these options from Windows you elements, and you could turn off the toolbox. Now you can see that disappears. You find yourself not using those. It's nice to turn them off and you have more screen real estate for the view port. But for now, since we're all beginners and we're just starting out, let's leave that up. So I'll go back to the you I elements meaning user interface, and I'll go down the toolbox and bring that back. So with the rotation, it's very similar that we can isolate different axes and they turn yellow and we can click in the middle here and have a free form option. One thing to keep in mind is because we're working on three D. Watch the X axes if I click the SEAQ season and dragged the red one down. Now the red one is where the green one used to be. Did you see that? So I just undid it. So right now, the green one is kind of going around, and if I bring the X axes the red one down now that's replaced it. So who's to say which axes is which now? Because before I rotated it, the green one was down here, the Y axes, but now because I rotated Z the exit axes is down here. So this option, this kind of view that we're seeing is based on the object, right? Because the object is rotating, the axes are changing, and that's something very important to keep in mind because that will be important later in animation stuff. So just keep that in mind that because now we're in three D. These things actually kind of matter, and we can control them in different ways if we hold out E, which is a shortcut for rotation. If we hold Downey on her keyboard and then click left mouse click, we can drag to the world option. So now you can see the manipulator pop back to have the green going around here like it was before, even though the object is rotated. So what this is saying is we're now rotating based on the world axes, which never changed, right? So even when we move an object around and see, the manipulator itself is not changing, so we can always have the option, even if an object is rotated weird to isolate based on the world axes, we just need to change that by holding down E and clicking and choosing this option. If we go back to object, you can see it's still kept all those changes. And now, based on the Objects rotation, we can see that the axes air moving all around, and and so that's just something to keep in mind for later. So we get an animation. This this will be important, and I explain later in animation why that is important. So the other thing that that just for myself, I like to do as I like to only ever stay on the channel box unless I'm doing something very specific because you can see this attribute editor here. You can see it says, Actually, editor, right here on the side. It takes up a ton of room. There's just a lot of stuff going on, and we don't need it. And so I like to keep the channel box of them because now we can see the values. We can zero them out. We can click and drag them and then zero and zero everything out. This is way more useful when we're moving stuff around than the ash read editor. I'm also can slide that down to free up more space for the view port. So similarly to the rotation axes being different. The move axes can also be different. It's right now you can see even though the object is rotated, the axes are pointing relative to the world. So if we hold down W Similarly like we held down E earlier, we hold down W and left click. We get the same option, right world object. So now we can see it's following the rotation, so it's following the object axes now. So that's just two different ways to manipulate the same object based on its own. Axes are based on the world axes, so that's important. The final thing we're gonna talk about is the scale. If you are or you go over here and click the scale button or the scale tool and you weaken scale uniformly, we can also scale on axes, and that's pretty straightforward. So we've gotten this far and we haven't moved around anything. How do we move around? So we have an object. Now let's move around it. I want to zoom into it, how I zoom in I can mouse scroll, which I don't use that much But the other option I have is all down Ault and right Click and then drag my mouse and you can see I'm doing the same thing. I was giving it out, and this is why you need a three button mouse. Because now, if you click and hold the middle mouse button, I can pan around. And then if I still holding Ault, if I left click, I can rotate around an object. So with the combination of these three things, I can do all sorts of moves and zoom in on things and say, I get way out here and I can't really see what I'm working on. I can click and drag and select the thing. I can select it from the outline er and then I could hit F so it had F and I jumped back to the selection that I have, and now I'm free toe move around again and do all that. You can also get to that option from the View menu here and go to view frame selection. One other thing that's very helpful is look at selection. So, for example, if we're over here, I'm rotating around. I'm not rotating around the object anymore. And why is that? That's because my center of interest iss somewhere over here and I cant rotator on the object. So if I want to rotate around the object, I can go look at selection. So the position of the camera didn't change, but now it's just rotated looking at the selection, and now I can pivot around that object. So that's one way to help control your camera. And if your camera gets too crazy, you can always select it from here. Select camera, which is whatever camera this view port is will select. It can also select it from the outline because we know it's purse being. See on here pr SP purse perspective and you can see now we have all the values here, and we could just zeros out if things got too crazy. And of course, now we're inside the sphere cause we're at zero world space, and now you can see I'm rotating from some crazy point out there. I can select my object, it f and now I'm rotating around it and I'm back. So that's a quick introduction on how to move, scale, rotate and move the camera around. Thanks for watching, and I'll see in the next lesson 5. Rigging Intro: welcome to the first lesson on rigging, where we will cover one of the quick rig tools and discuss what is rigging, why it's important and why we need to learn it. Basically, if we're going to animate this guy and we have a model here, how do we go about animating it? There's no way to control it. It's just a bunch of, Ah, Vergis, ease and faces. We could maybe try to go in here and set keys on Vergis ease, and they'll be very inefficient if we just picked certain verte season trying to move them around. Try to create a pose you can quickly see we'll get off model, which when we're talking about two D animation they always have to worry about. And they had model sheets to make sure that you never got off model on the volume of the character was always the same each frame that you drew it on three D animation. What we need to worry about is not so much keeping the checked around model, but using the model that we have in a way that we can animate it, and that's what rigging is. It's basically adding a skeleton to this piece of geometry, so we need to add a skeleton to it. How do we do that? There's a couple different ways, and we'll start with the simplest way. We'll go up here to the rigging tab and will go to skeleton. Quick. Rig will open up a new window here, and you can see that we actually have just a one click solution here. And luckily for us, this model will work decently Well, with this, depending on the model you have definitely feel free to open up this scene and follow along . So you have this model and can play with it as well. Once we get going here, someone hit auto rig and it will say we need to choose a mesh first. So we need to select him and then click the button and you can see a lot of things just happened, and it makes the model look a lot more complicated. Um, you can see the outline or to a lot of things were added. There's a new icon over here, a couple of new ones. This purple one is a joint and that has all the joints in here and there indicated by these yellow pieces here that are kind of these Ah, triangles with circles at the end and right away you can see that there's ah few airs. You can see that it didn't place the elbow in the right place. The elbows more in the forearm here should be up here, but for our purposes. Just to get an idea of, like, what reading is we're gonna use this quick, Rick tool real quick for discussion purposes. So we've rigged this thing. So what happened? Is it added bones? And then it waited the mesh to these bones. And that means that each one of these vergis ease was giving a value to say, you know, especially in the spine here, where we have a lot of different bones together. This Vergis e here might be waited to this joint maybe 80% and maybe 20% of this joint. And so it will have a value of 01 which is represented by a color that will see later of a black Dwight. And it basically says, you know, follow this joint this much, So once we start moving this, it will be a smoother transition between joints. So let's grab the end handle here for the hand. And as soon as you start moving that around now, we can actually control the character. And you can see it's not ideal. Like I said, the elbows in the wrong place. But you get a sense of why rigging is important and how it's gonna work. We're basically going to create a series of joints. They were gonna wait the mesh to the joints, and then we're gonna need a way to control the joints themselves. And that's what these nerves curves are, and we haven't used them very much on the first modeling course, we used them a little bit, but we can use these as actually control guides that we can select and manipulate because just like we don't want to be manipulating the vergis ease on the mesh. We also don't want to be setting key frames on the joints themselves. We want all that key frame animation to be on a control, and so that way that we can actually go to show and hide the joints. So the only thing that we're gonna deal with, and so that we don't accidentally select the joints is just the control rig, and that's what all of these little points are. So we can start to see how we can manipulate the model. And we can also see, you know, the problems with the quick rig tool is you know, the the joints aren't necessarily exactly how we need them to be. We also have no fingers, and the foot is a little generic. There's no way to really roll the foot off of the toe or the ball of the foot in the natural way that that someone would walk. Currently, we can just move it around. But there's no way to pivot the foot off of the ball so of the foot. So we need to address that. And this is also I'm explaining all of this, the reasons why we're gonna make our own custom rig with joints A so we can learn the entire process because not every character is gonna be the same. You're gonna have, you know, human characters like a bipedal character like this. You're gonna have Quadra pads. You're gonna have aliens, you know, even props, which is what we're going to start with so we can understand some of the basic concepts of rigging, but I wanted to just introduce you to this real quick. So you kind of actually have something to play with very quickly in the first few minutes of opening up Maya in this scene. So take a minute and kind of play around with this. The other thing I'll also say, is if you notice something we're gonna discuss later. If you notice when we rotate the hands, follow the waste as it's rotating around. Well, let's say there's, you know, maybe a table over here that I want to place his hand on or a box or something. So let's just say there's a box here. So let's say I bend him over here and I wanted to lean on it. All right, So let's get his hand up here, and you can see how the waiting isn't necessarily great. It's it's flattening out his hand, Um, a really weird way. So, yeah, this is not ideal, but basically what I'm getting at is, so let's say we want tohave him toe lean on this. All right, let's say let's let's get him to bend his elbow a little bit so make him lean more as we lean him. The hand is following his body and it's not sticking to the box. So later in these later lessons, we're gonna discuss having different spaces, which are basically saying, What is this going to follow? What is this control going? Going to follow? Right now, it's following the rotation of the chest and the and the hips here. But what if we wanted it to stay here and in being world space, right? Be relative to the world, not relative to himself. So we'll discuss that later as well. How we can do that. But that's a quick introduction on to kind of what wreaking is, why it's important and also the reason why we're going to need to make our own rig. But if you want to just quickly get into Maya and look at how to rig something, definitely check out the quick rig tool. There's also a step by step process, which will do in the next lesson. Thanks for watching 6. Rigging QuickRig: So let me just run through the quick rig tool quickly and basically used the human figure we have. And instead of using the one click solution is gonna step by. Step in again. The quick rig tool is up here in the quick rig option, uh, from the menu here under skeleton. So we have the jumper selected and we need to create a character so he can hit. Plus, and now we have a quicker character. We can rename this if we'd like. And let's add the geometry by hitting the plus button. And for us in this mesh, it's gonna be an imperfect mesh. If you click on this question mark, it'll describe how it's solving this, to try to figure out where to place the joints basically, and you may need to choose a different option here, depending on the mess you have. But you're following along with me. You can just use this. Let's just take, create and see what it does. So, in the last lesson, I turned off the show joint, so I want to turn that back on. When I do that, you can see in the previous lesson where they misplaced the joints. We can see that they did it again with these guides. So the guides are basically saying, All right, here's where the pivots are going to be for these joints and when you can move them before they actually create the joints. So let's get this back toe where the elbow would actually be, and then we can mirror this on the other side. So it's It's symmetrical. So I just click the mirror button over here with this button in the user adjustment of guides, we can take a look at the knees and make sure the knees air. Probably a similar problem so we can move these up and mere that over. So you kind of get the idea with this same thing with shoulders. Um, you know, everything is not exactly perfect. It tries to do its best, but, um, that's always gonna be the best thing for you. So you have toe Use your judgment on where joints should be. Teoh place thes guides. So now we have that, and things are mirrored over. Let's go down to the next button here, which is to generate the skeleton and control rig. We actually only do the skeleton if we want Ortio skeleton and Control Rig. So let's do both and create an update. So now you basically have what we had in the previous scene. Except the elbow joints are in the correct place now, so you can see that it's not actually waited to the geometry yet. And that's the last step. So that's called skinning, and there's different binding methods that we can choose. But basically we can use defaults, and those will be pretty good. So now that steps done, we can actually manipulate the geometry here and again, we can see Ah, one thing that we can do in a future lesson is correct. The shoulder area the shoulder is always problematic because it's trying to, you know, follow this bone, and it's getting confused here in the armpit. It's trying to follow. Too much of the home is trying to follow too much of the arm bone, so that's the quick rig tool. In the next lesson, we're gonna create a rig for a prop for the bone skeleton that we will later rig as well. So I'm gonna close this out and I'll see the next lesson. Thanks 7. Prop Rigging Parent Constraint: welcome to this lesson where we will discuss rigging props and I really encourage you to open up the scene following follow along either with this video or right after watching the video on your own, because toe learn this stuff, you really need to do it. And I definitely encourage you to follow along with the scene files off included. So what we have is a hat, and it actually looks better than what it seems like in the view port. I've actually added shader and everything so that we can use this later. And if actually um, hide the ah sky that we have here, we can see that there's these little gemstones and it has this kind of felt texture And, um, it looks kind of cool. I think so. Anyway, just eso you don't think your rigging something that's not gonna be useful later. This already is ready to go for animation has all the shade, er's and everything that I've created. Ah, that is basically using Ah, a little more complicated network of shading than I discussed in Ah, the previous part of look development. But you can definitely open this up and take a look in the hyper shade. Teoh, deconstruct how I made that shader. So anyway, let's get on to rigging this thing. So when we think about rigging props, um, we need to think about how it's gonna be used and namely, this is gonna be on someone's head, probably. But it might also be grabbed and they might hold it in their hand. Um, I might need to be on the table, all these different types of scenarios. So again, we don't want to just leave this as it is right here and start setting key frames on this geometry as it is, we want to add control occurs to this as well. But we need to take into account the fact that there might be different pivot points, right? So if this is on their head, yeah, sure, this pivot point in the center might be good, But if we hold down D and we move the pivot over here, that might be best. You know, Let's say he's picking it up from this side, and he's going to throw it over his head or something. Um, or maybe he's picking up from this side. I need to pivot off of the table so that this in stays on the table longer, all those types of things. So how do we address different pivots like that? Well, there's one easy way that we can create a hierarchy of controls, that we can adjust that a little bit during animation. So let's first take a look at how this was created. We have the hat geometry, and then underneath that we have the gyms and the ribbon. So when we have this in the outline, er this type of, ah hierarchy, this means that these pieces are Children of this, right? So if I if I click these two things and I hit Shift P, that will unparalled them. Okay, so now it's no longer in the hierarchy. So if I move this, they don't follow around. Follow the hat. So what I need to do is either I can Middle Mouse drag them under the hat. Oregon Select. Let's say I can do from the View port or the outline Ergen Select one, and it's like the other and hit Pete that will do the same thing. Okay, so there's two different ways to do that. And the gyms air kind of special because they are in a group and they're in a group because there's just so many of them and it just helps to keep them organized and you can move them by themselves. Or if I needed to just where they were around the hat. That's pretty easy to do as well and how to group things. Let's just say again, these air all by themselves. I'm gonna hit Shift P. And how do we get them back the way they were? Well, we can shift, select all of them, and then we can hit command G to group them. And then I can rename that and then Middle Mouse drag this under the hat. So that's basically what I've already done to create this type of hierarchy that we see in the hat. But this isn't useful for actual animation. This is just kind of organized the model so it can be rigged. So let's take a look at this. So let's create our first curve control so that we can actually use that to animate with. I'm gonna go over to curves and surfaces. I'm gonna click the circle here. I'm going to expand it out so that we can actually see it. And typically you want your curves to be outside of the piece of geometry, so it's easy to select someone that expand it. So it's outside the geometry, and then I can just parent the hat underneath this nerve circle, which I can call hat control. The only thing that I don't like with this is that this selection highlighting is always on right. If you use parenting, the selection highlighting is on. So every time I select this, it's gonna be all these green wire frames, and it's gonna be difficult to see the model. So what I like to do instead and what is a little cleaner workflow is to use Constraints and constraints are a very important concept. Toe learn, and we have. So we've learned kind of a one idea of, ah, constraint, which is parenting. But there's also parent constraints, so we need to differentiate these in our mind. So let's go to Animation tab and we can see there's a menu button here that says Constrained. I'm gonna tear this off so we have different options here. We have parent point Orent scale aim all these different ones, and we'll go through them later. But right now, we're just concerned with parent and parent means both point and Orient Point just means translation. That means moving it, moving this thing around in space or the hat, Whatever moving things. Something in space Orient is rotation, or it means this. Okay, so parent is both of these in one button, so sometimes you might want to isolate and just have one or the other, but parents, both of them. So if you remember, when we parents something, we select the child first, and then the parent, and then we hit p. Okay, that's the order in which we select things. When we do a parent constrain its the opposite. We select the parent first and then the child, and then we click parent. Okay, rewind that and listen to that again, because that is going to be very important. And, um, you just need to commit that to memory. Um, because that that's the main difference there. That's the main point that you want to take away from this. So now than when we select this hat control the selection highlighting isn't on. It doesn't look like we have the hat selected. So if we try to move this, what do you know? It actually moves. Because if we scroll down the hat from the outline, er, you can see there's actually this parent constraint. There's a new item in the outline, er and it's called Perret Constraints so we can identify what it is pretty easily. In the next lesson, we're gonna add a little feature to this simple rig. So that will be easy to control the pivot. Thanks for watching. 8. Prop Rigging Pivot Control: in this lesson, we're gonna add a very important piece to this simple rig that will allow us to move the pivot around when we're going to be animating it. So let's close the constraint menu here. And let's add more, one more control here and before we do that, well, it's also at a group. When I rig, I like to add empty groups above the controls, and that just means that that will be a place for us to add constraints. Because if we look at the hat and we add that parent constrain the last lesson, look at the channel box. We have these blue dots here, right? So that basically means there's a constraint on these channels. So if we tried to animate this, it will add a blend thing, and it'll it'll be a little complicated, and it's not very clean way to animate. So that's why we wouldn't want to have the hat be where the constraint is happening. So let's delete that constraint. And from the outline, er, let's group the hat. Call this hat geo, and let's also create a group for the control. The control itself might need to be constrained later to like the head. So we wanna have a nem T group above the control as well. So we'll say Hat a control group. So now we can make this parent constrain to the hat control. But before I do that, I want to show you one more thing about the parent constraint. So let's say the let's say the controls over here and we want to snap and it's rotated and it's doing all these things well, and we want to snap the hat over here to the control and have it mimic exactly the position . Impose its and let's open up the options of the parent constrained menu and let's take a look at it. Currently, we do not have the maintain offset on, and because they were both at world space there, pivot were both at 00 It didn't really matter. But now that this control is not in the same place as the pivot of this one, let's see what happens when we constrain them. So I'll choose the parent and then the child, and then I'll hit apply now you can see it actually snaps the object over to the control itself. That's pretty cool. Um so if we wanted to let's say, have this pivot out here and we wanted this had to rotate from this pivot. Then we could do that. But we just need to turn on maintain offset. So now the parents selected and then the child we had apply, and it doesn't jump over, right? But now we have this pivot out here, and it maintains that offset. And that's what that means. Maintain offset Because these pivots are offset from one another, so we can choose to maintain that or not. So I'm just gonna undo this to get these back together in the world origin space here. And I'm also going to create another hat control and just follow with me here so that you'll understand why when it's like this and I'm gonna duplicate it and I'm going to bring it in and up just that we kind of see that there's two different controls here, Okay? And I'm actually going Teoh, put the pivot back down to the world space. You can see up here now it's pivoting from up here, and maybe we we want that. But for now, I think I would like to keep all the pivots. Ah, at world space. So I'm just turning on the grid up here from these options. And then I'm gonna hold on D and X and Middle mouse drag right over that 00 grid. Uh, spot there, someone on isolates like that. Now all of the pivots air in the same place. If you look at everything, the pivot never moved there for any selecting any of those. But I don't want thes hat controls to be even right there, Both Children of this group. I want one to be the child of the other and we can just pick one. Let's say let's say this is the main parent control, OK? And this is the child. And I'll just call this Yeah, like minor control or something like that. So if I Middle mouse drag that under here and I want to give this its own group as well, just gonna copy this and paste it in and call it group. So why did we do that? Okay, if we use this hat now that ah, this one will follow, right? Which is what we expect because it's a child of that So let's select the parent first, which is the main hat control. Here. Let's like the hat group and let's make that parent constrain. So now we move it. We have all of this together. But if we move this, nothing happens. Right? Why is that? Well, because we didn't constrain anything to it. Okay, so we have to think about the hierarchy of things. Turn the scratch off. So if we want this hat, always follow the controls. We want to choose the lowest control here. Okay? Because we know that lowest control is also gonna follow the parent of itself. Right? The parent had control up here, so let's just see what happens when we do that. Let's select the minor control. It's like the hat Geo group and constrain. So now when we move the hat, the main hat control, it does move with it just like it did before. But when we select this one, watch what happens now That moves as well. Here's the big take away your about toe. Uh, hopefully realize what this allows us to dio. Now we can change the pivot. Watch this. Let's say that the character is gonna pick up the hat from this side over here. Okay. From the left side of our screen. Well, it's It's awkward. There's no pivot over here, right? All the pivots on the center. But if we were to take this minor, pivot this minor control and move it to the center of this control. Now, we have a pivot over here, right? And we could just move that toe wherever you want that pivot to be. Check that out. Now we have a pivot over here and the guy could pick it up from this side, rotated whatever we need to dio. But if we didn't create this hierarchy, who wouldn't have that ability to slide this kind of hat around within the main control? Right. That's kind of what we're doing. So I want to show you real quick, one other anything. And this This video is getting a little longer, but I really want to show you this. So if we still like the control curve, right, right now, it's hard to see. Especially this blue background. We could change that by hitting All be like we've learned in previous lessons, but it's still I don't like this colors the dark color. It's hard to see. Let's go up here to the absolute editor and let's go down here to the object display. Let's go down to drawing overrides and let's enable overrides scroll down. We're gonna actually choose a different color for this curve. Let's do something brighter like that, Red and now we can also choose one for the minor control issues a different color, So it indicates that it's a minor control. Let's choose a yellow. So now we have something that's a little easier to see in control, and we have done parent constraints so we don't see the selection highlighting of the actual geometry. And now we have this hierarchy that we can move the pivot around if we like. And we made groups for the controls themselves because we are going to need to constrain these to the character's head at some point. So we want to have these groups above the controls as well, because if you remember why we did that, you can see now these air all blew it out for the geometry, the group. But because we didn't do it to the jump tree itself, the geometry is still clean, so we could still shift this around if we wanted. But we couldn't really do that with a hat because constrained. Let's just grab the hat Geo Group and try that and move it over here and see what happens. So now we moved over here. Let's say for whatever reason we wanted over there and then move that what? Nobody just snaps right back to where it waas. So that's what that means. When we see these constraints and these kind of blue boxes here, it means it's a no go right. You're not gonna be able to adjust this. It's constrained. And that's why we create these these groups above this stuff that can be a parent and hold that constraint so that that thes lower Children of those groups will have empty boxes here . For whatever reason, If we want Teoh move that around, we can and the same will be true for these controls. If if we parented the control to the head of the character, we wouldn't be able to adjust it on its head. Say, if you like, you know, tips it to somebody or something. Um, we want that constraint to live above it in the parent group. So definitely Ah, you know, let that sink in and we're going to create a more complicated rig with a character in these later lessons. But just wanted to give you that kind of prop rigging to introduce you to some concepts like constraints and grouping and hierarchies and why that's all important and just real quickly. I will also say I will usually group these together. So then just call this altogether the hat rig so that it's just very clean in the outline. Er, we have one thing to look at. I'll see in the next lesson where we will look at reading the bones character. Thanks for watching. 9. IK vs FK: before we get to regain our own character. There's a concept I need to explain. And that's the difference between inverse Kingdom, attics and Ford. Can a Matics or I K vs F k for short and I k. We have already seeing where if I select control and I move it around, all the other bones will follow that movement. Okay, that's inverse Kenna Matics, Meaning it's figuring out the motion based on the inverse of where the point is ending up, right? So that's one way to think about that. The other that we haven't seen yet is basically the origin of three D animation. This is how everything was animated. Like the original Jerry Jurassic Park. This was animated with Ford Cinematics. Now, if I wanted to put his hand on his head, I could just click it and put it on his head. And now his hand is on his head. If I wanted to do that with Ford can a Matics, What I would have to do is select the bone rotated up there, each bone individually, and I could eventually get it up there, right, same pose, but with two different types of rigs and you can quickly see the difference, right? If I especially with the legs, if I move the center of gravity or the cog and I move it down. His shorts aren't following first off, but his feet are staying in the same place, right? That's because those are in the world space. They're not following the route of the body so he can stand on the ground. If I do the same thing with Ford Kinnah, Matics, everything moves together, right, because it's all expecting to be adjusted from the's joints so I could move him down. Then I would need toe move both of these up and then move both of these down, and hopefully that would be somewhere on the ground ish. And this is actually how the original Drastic Park was animated. They didn't have inverse canna Matics back in the day. So this is kind of the origin of three D animation is with Ford automatics and still used a lot today because let's think about it another way. If I wanted to have a nice arc with the hand, let's say I wanted to rotate this like this right? Has a nice arc. If We're watching this joint, okay? It's it's following this arc because it's being rotated from this pivot away from itself. So the nice arc is he's throwing a ball or something like that. I want to do that with inverse canna Matics. I could bring the hand out here, and then I would have to adjust the elbow. Just try to stay back here and then move this down. And the quick rig is actually kind of a different type of inverse can. Max. I could actually use the shoulder here. Um, so it's trying to do a hybrid approach, but typically within inverse cinematics, you'd have to kind of position this thing and then reposition the elbow and constantly going between those two things to try to get that rotation like both are in hand. So there's trade offs for each one, right, and it's going to depend on what your character is going to be doing. Um, same thing if you know that we saw with the feet not being on the ground, that's gonna be the same thing with the hands in our earlier example of if his hand was touching a table on, he was rotating You know, this also isn't following because it's in the relative space of his chest. It's gonna follow his chest. His arms were following his chest. Right? Um whereas his feet don't do that. So that's the space that it's in. Um is a different component of I k right. It's a different opponent of inverse kin Maddox. So even though these both look the same, if we're rotating the chest like this, they're not right waken see why very quickly when we just like the rest and move it. We can't really do that if we select the risk of moving here. Um, it's not gonna like that. So that's the difference between inverse and forward cinematics and how it's going to affect your posing and animation later on down the line. What What we will dio is we will do an I k set up. And there are some rigs where you can actually, um, switch between I, k and F K. And they use very somewhat complicated math to figure out the vectors so you can switch and it matches the pose. But we're not going to get that far into it. That's an advanced topic that maybe I'll discuss in another course, so to keep it simple, I just wanted to show you what Ford can A Matic says, because, um, you know, this is for the history of animation and for your your full understanding of what rigging is an animation, you need to understand both concepts. But for our rig, we're going to focus on I k mostly. And that's how we're gonna build our rig. And the next lesson we're going to start to rig the bones character that we modeled and textured in the previous parts of this course. Thanks for watching. 10. Bones QuickRig Skeleton: in this lesson, we're gonna learn how to start to rig Bones, This character that we modeled in the first part we textured in the second and now this third we're gonna rig. Um, so we've seen the quick rig tool, but I just quickly want to discuss also creating things from scratch. So I go over to the reading tab. You can see we have all these different buttons, and if we go to the same rigging tab up here, these air kind of correlate to these buttons down here. So we go to skeleton, you can see create joints, has the same icon. Is that insert joints? Um, actually is even include over here. But, um, yeah, this I k one over here is this create I can handle, So there's a lot of the same tools in the shelf that there are in the menu, So you just kind of pick whichever one you want to use. I typically like to use the menu because I can actually read what they are. I don't have to guess at what each one these icons are or wait hover over them and see what the tool tips are. So we can pretty quickly create joints, and you typically want to do that a North a graphic view. And that means front, right side or top so we can hold down space bar, click in the middle here and we'll get to the front view. And then we just start, for example, drawing the spine joints. I could click here. And if I click here without holding down shift, it might not be straight vertical so we can hold on shift to isolate where we're drawing the spine joints and you quickly see we you know, we can't see that one behind it. So there's actually a nice kind of tool here that is X ray joints so we can see through the model to where the joints are so I can keep shift clicking and create a bunch of joints. When I hit Enter, they're all done. So we take a look at these joints. They might not be exactly where want, because we made them a North a graphic view. So what I can do is go to another side view or go to a different Ortho graphic view, and I can move them based off of their parent, But then everything follows. And then I can just kind of translate everything around. And if, for example, I get everything the way I want to and maybe one of these middle joints are not in the right place. Instead of moving everything above it, I can hold down D, which is the pivotal where we know of and just move that single joint. So that's kind of a quick way to start creating joints and understand how to manipulate them and move them. But we're going to use to our advantage is the actual quick Rick Tool, because one of the nice things it does is it also labels and names all the joints properly . So we're gonna use that just to create the skeleton, and then we're gonna finish out the rig on our own. So I'm gonna click the quick rig tool over here. We're gonna go to the step by step process. We're going, Teoh, add a new character by hitting. Plus, we're gonna rename that and then I'm going to select all the geometry and I'm going to add it. And previously we used in perfect mesh, but that's not gonna work on this one because it's mesh that has a lot of holes in it, you know? So it's gonna kind of spazz out if it tries to use in perfect mesh. So the one that I found that works with him is pulling on soup, and if we create, it takes a minute to think, and now it actually works. So experiment with different types for yourself if you're following along with a different model. But I encourage you to fall along with me so that it is consistent in your results. And if you have any questions, you can ask them. So I'm gonna move the joints where I would expect them to be for the pivots of the elbow in a mirror. Those changes over and we're going to need to create our own hand joints or sorry, our own finger joints later. But for now, let's just get the main joints in the right place, which is pretty easy to dio with these guide controls. So now that we've created the guides, we placed them where we want them to be. We can hit this little drop down menu over here to create the skeleton Onley because again we're gonna make our own rig from this point forward. So let's hit, create update and we have our joints and they're properly named. If we go into the outline. Er, if we go over here to the channel box, we can see Bones is the name of the character that we've already made. So it starts with that left up leg, and over here we see the joint bones, left arm, bones, right arm. So it has a nice, um, so there's a nice naming convention to it already built in. The one thing that might be a little distracting is helping the bones actually are. They're a little too big, like we can't see the spine that well, so let's close the quick Rick tool and let's go over to display and let's go down to animation joint size. This way we can control the joint size and are seen and place it where we want it to be. So now that we've created the basic rig in the next lesson, let's create the finger joints and then figure out a mere them over and name them appropriately. Thanks for watching 11. Bones Hands: in this lesson. We're gonna create the finger joints for the hands so that will have something to use their Let's go to the top, you holding down space park left clicking and go to top. You will use the create joints tool and we'll go over here and just start from the joint that we want it to be from. So we'll click here. Ah, hold down, shift, click and a whole downshift and click at the end. I had dinner. I'm done creating it. So actually, just going to duplicate this over to help speed up the process. And I'm hitting command d to duplicate. And right now they're not all lining up because we did it based on one. But ah, the one I'm not going to duplicate. Is this because we don't want any rotations on our joint to start with? We don't want that. So let's delete that and create the thumb from scratch. So I'm gonna click here. I'm going to click here and click here. I'm not holding down shift because I want, um, it to follow the direction that I'm creating the joints. And so now you can see there's no rotations on the joint that we made there. That's just adjust these joints by hitting W on the keyboard and moving the joints to where they need to be. And let's learn about how to name joints where you go up here. We'd start naming joints from up here, but there's also ah, kind of a newer tool in my A called joint labelling, and we can add joint labels as we need them so we can actually show them as well. So we can kind of see how we're doing it. Or we could just follow along from that liner and or in the channel box. So from the joint from skeleton Menu up here, which we got to from here, that I just tore off, Um, we can get to it from joint labeling. I can tear that one off as well and just get rid of that one. That if that's what we want to do and we can add joint labels and this is the left, even though we're kind of looking at it from the front always. We want to call this the left. This is his left hand. So we're gonna use the left label But we also wanted to have the right pinky and finger Ah , names. So if I click the joint here and I say label Pinky, nothing really happens. Um, if we say show all labels, we can see that it actually did. Name it Pinky finger. Um and these have none assigned to it, but it didn't change the actual name of the joint, and that's different from the label. But we can say renamed joints from labels, and that will change the pinky finger over here. So it's going to name it the same, though, which is not ideal. You know, it's a center pinky finger for each one of these, and that's not accurate. So let's call it left. And let's rename that. So now, instead of center, it says, left pinky finger. And we can just also rename these with either a number or we can do it with um saying, you know, in joint or something like that, I'm just gonna do numbers for now, for simplistic sake so we could do the same thing for the rest of the fingers here, and I'll speed this up and I'll be right back. Great. Now we've labeled all the fingers. But there's also one thing I want to point out real quick. You can see that when we created joints in a straight line that go along an access that, uh is linear to X or Z, or why or whatever a za long as it's in that straight line. The in joints here are also line up. You can see these kind of cross hairs in the center of the joint indicate which direction the joint is oriented. But if we looked thumb down here and we look at this bottom one, that one stayed oriented to the world. It goes straight across when these air going down the length of the thumb, and why is that? That's because joints Onley get to point in the direction they're going next, basically. So because there's no joint out here that's saying, Hey, point in this direction, this joint doesn't know which way to point. So it's just going to stay in the world space, so it's just something to keep in mind for later. Okay, so now we have our fingers done and they're labeled, and we can just say hi labels for now, what we need to do is parent them to the system that we've already created. But before we do that, we need to get them in place because we gonna perspective you. You can see that we actually drew them on the ground there so we can shift, select them and hit W and drag them up to the actual hand. Weaken, go Teoh right view or front view. And we can try to get them exactly where they need to be. And it looks like the thumb might be not exactly lined up So we can go over here to the front view and do that from that view. Cool. So when we look at this from the perspective, you we can see that Ah, you know, it's not connected. Anything. If we were to rotate this joint, those don't follow along, obviously. And so what we can do is just select all of these apparent them. Before we do that, though, we want to go ahead and mere these over. Let's go to the mirror Tool will go up to skeleton mere joints and we click the little square to get the option box toe open up here and what we can do is say, search for a name. Ah, and replace it with this. And what we've already seen is that it's labeled everything with left and we want to change it to right because it's gonna were gonna mirror it over to the other hands, would have to recreate all of these things. And we need to choose the mere across which axes. And we look at this, it says X Y right now. And that is this direction for looking at this little icon down here. If we line up ex and why that's front to back, we don't want that. We want ah, side to side, which here would be like y and Z are. And so that's the one in the middle. So if we hit, apply with all of those selected, it doesn't work. There's too many arguments. So just, you know, using our brain, we can say, All right, maybe we can't have everything selected. Boom. We ah, you know, click one and it actually worked. Let's just go through these one by one and Mir them over, and then we can verify that they are in the right place by taking a look at them hitting f to focus up on it and make sure everything is named correctly and right pinky finger. Everything is named as we would expect. Cool. So that just saved us a ton of time because we didn't have to create that all over again. And now what we can do is select all the joints, the N joints themselves. We don't want to select these at the top. We just want to select the most parent joint, which is the one of the top here. And then we shift, select this risk joint, and we can hit peak. And it creates all those connections. We can visually see that. And now, if we were to rotate this joint, we can see that the hand actually moves as we would expect it. Teoh. And now it follows the form and the rest of the skeleton. Cool. So the next lesson we're going to continue to read this and take a look at some new rigging things 12. Bones Joint Orientation: in this lesson, we're gonna talk about something a little more technical called joint orientation, and to do that when you dislike the joint so we can see the Orient that they're in. So we currently can't really see that, so there's a tool to help us do that. But first we need to figure out how do we select all of the joints? Because we want to use that tool for every joint. So we go through here and shifting click and drag, select each one of these joints if we wanted, which I just made these two sets that look equally the same for comparison's sake, we're going to see in a second there not because their joint orients are different. So if I click and drag select this whole stack, you can see the outline. Er actually selected the top most parent of the group. So if I click and drags like that, that's not gonna work. One little script that we've learned in a previous lesson and, um, I think it was maybe the first or second part of the course is the select High Script, and we can tie that down here in the bottom left in the script command, and we want to make sure that it's set to Mel, which is my expression, language and select high means select hierarchy. And if we had dinner, we can see that all of a selection changed here. And if we look in the outline or now, we can see that we actually did select everything in the hierarchy. And that's what this whole kind of chain of things is called is a hierarchy. So we want to make sure we have everything selected to do that, and it's it's, ah, script we're gonna need to use over and over. So instead of typing it in every time, let's create our own for the custom shelf up here that we've been using for the modelling tools and whatever else. So it's go to the Mel script and will type in select high again. There's a space there between Select and dash Hi, and we'll select this and then we'll middle mouse drag it into the shelf and let go, and we're going to say that's a male script and now we have it. So it's a generic icon. You can change that to be a different type of icon If you'd like from this button here and navigate to a different one. Um, I'm just going to choose a different one that I have, and then we can also give it a ah label here, but because I'm using the icon that already has a label in the icon, I'm not gonna do that. But we could say we could do something like this. You can see why I'm not gonna do that because it, you know, goes over the top of the icon. So if you don't have an icon, you can just use that and to say, select hierarchy. So you know what the ah, the tool actually is for and for myself. I'm just gonna delete that. And now we click and drag these things. If we use that button, we don't have toe type it in every time down here. Now it does that for us. Cool. So now that we have that, let's let's do that for both of these. Let's click and drag them and you can see again we have that problem. So we just click our fancy little button we just made. Now it selected the hierarchy and Let's go to Skeleton Orient joints and will open up this option box. Now let's click toggle local axes, visibility. When we do that, we can see that all of these kind of axes pop up, and it's kind of similar to what we've seen. The bottom left here in the view port. Normally that shows us the world axes. This shows us the local orientation axes of these joints. You can see the one on the right has a very consistent orientation for all of the joints. They're all going in the same direction except for this top one like we mentioned earlier because it doesn't have ah joint above it to point towards is just going to stick to the world axes. We can see that to the right as positive X and y's up and Zia's forward. And if we look in the view port down here, that's how the world axes is oriented. So it's going to default to that if it doesn't have another joint to point towards. So if we take a look at both of these joints, they kind of look the same. Besides the fact that the axes, they're different, they're you know built the same, but if we select all of them, so we'll use the select hierarchy again. And let's go to the rotate tool and rotate this one. We're gonna rotate it to write in the Z axis, and they all rotate in the same direction, and it does what we would expect it to. Dio. Right? Cool. So now let's go to the one over here where the axes air not consistent, and they're not all going in the same direction. It's like the hierarchy go to rotate Tool and we'll go to the right with Z. And already we can see this is not behaving the same way as the other one, and it's doing a lot of crazy stuff. Why is that? Well, because we have everything selected and we're trying to say Rotate all in Z Well, each joint thinks Z is in a different direction, so it's gonna rotate all the joints in a different way. So even though they look the same, hidden within them is their orientation. So we want to make sure our skeleton over here, that we have the right orientation for all of our joints because that could prove to be a problem later down the road. And it's just the concept to be aware of when you get further into rigging that that is going to be a problem. So let's take a look at our skeleton here. I'm just gonna move these over a little bit and let's do the same thing for our skeleton. Now let's go to the bones Reference, which is the top note is just a locator to help us move in. Position it. It's not actually a joint locators air created from create locator right here. And that's just how Maya has decided to organize its quick rig rigs. So with that selected, I'm gonna induce like hierarchy. So we get all the joints. So when I toggle local visibility on, they all turned on. So now I can see that there's some difference here between each side and, for example, just looking at the hands one. Ah has why up one has wide down. So let's take a look and see if that's gonna really affect what we're gonna dio. In general, we want our joints to rotate and its main axes in the pot and a positive value, So let's just take a finger. For example. If we click on one of these finger joints and we rotate it down, let's take a look at the channel box. Currently, it's all zeroed out, which is good. If we rotate it down in the direction that fingers are rotated, we can see that it's at a negative 97. And we would like that to be a positive 97. Just for basically, it's a best practice really in and rigging that you want the axes that is gonna be Rose hated in most frequently to be a positive number. That's just kind of what an animator is going to expect. We take a look at the elbow. We can see that that is the case in that joint, and probably most of these that were built with a quick rig tool are going to be in the positive axes we can see here. That might not be the case, but if we jump over this other side, let's see if that's the same is true for this other side. So that is maybe not necessarily the case, so we need to take a look at that and see if that's something that we want to address. If it is, we can open up this tool that we have open and we can adjust that. So let's take a look. The fingers. Let's go click on this one and we can say, Let's have it negative. So negative to negative should make it positive. So it's that apply. We could see it flipped everything over here and now for your rotated. It should be positive. Cool. And we did have Orient. Children of selected objects are selected joints on, so it actually did everything below it as well in the hierarchy. So we can just go through and do that for all of these and hit apply and make sure that it is behaving as we would expect it. Yep, so it's It's a positive number. Cool. So that is part of joint orientation. We might have to revisit this topic again, as we are, rigging and discovering things aren't rotating the way that we expect them to. So lets the spine, of course, is a big one. That's gonna be, um, kind of as similar to the example that we used over here, so it's just shift. Select each one of the spine joints. And then let's rotate it and we can see that it is indeed rotating how we would expect it. Um, you're gonna just ignore the legs for now because we're gonna address that later. But in general, we want to see that all of these air kind of consistent in some way and are behaving as we would expect it. Teoh in a chain specifically for joint orientation. Thanks for watching the next lesson. We're gonna learn about rotation order, which is another important concept to understand when rigging and when animating. Especially. So we're gonna learn a little bit about why that's important for animation. Thanks for watching, and I'll see the next lesson. 13. Bones Rotate Order: in this lesson. We're gonna quickly look at rotation order, and it's different from joint orientation because it basically says which axes it's going to rotate first. Which axes is the parent axes, right? Okay, so if we take a look at this route joint kind of the hips joint, or what's commonly referred to as the center of gravity or the cause for short. So if we take a look at this and let's say we rotate it, we could see they were rotating it. Let me just hide the polygons here so we can see only the joints. And if I hold down E and I click and I go to gimble, I can kind of see what the rotation order is just by looking at the gimbal rotation. OK, and if we rotate X, we can see that none of the other axes are rotating with it. And if we rotate one like why we can quickly see that the X axes actually is moving now. So it's ah, child of that and same thing for the Z. We can see that it's not moving anything, so this is important because we want to know which axes is going to get in gimbal lock. Or which isn't because I think I spoke about this very briefly in one of the earliest videos of this course and the modeling course and intro to that about getting into gimbal lock. So basically, think about like, How does Maya supposed to know which axes is which, All right, especially when things are animated. So if we rotate, why say this person is doing a somersault and they do like a little break break dance move , okay? And they get to hear all right, and now we want them to spin around their arm. Well, how do we do that now? We've just lost our axes there. There's no way to do that. And what that will result in when this is animated is something called gimbal lock. So Maya will try to interplay between key frames and say, It's some of this one. It's some of that one. It's some of this one. It's some of that one. It's some of this, one of some of that one, and it will basically try to resolve this gimbal lock issue through animating these axes and kind of a wonky way. So that we go from point A to point B. With these two rotation key frames, it's going to spin around all crazy. So we want to make sure that whatever our character is going to be doing is that the rotation order follows suit. Meaning most likely this character is going to spin around right, And that's going to be one that we want. Teoh Um, make sure that the rotation is following along because let's say the character rotates around and now we want him to bend over. Well, now, now bending over is why. But it originally was e It should stay Z right in what these axes to follow the main rotation that this character is going to do for that joint so you can have a different rotation order for each joint up here. If we look, you know, this one is working like everything is following the main rotation that this joint will do . This joint will only ever do this right. It's an elbow, so it makes sense that the rotation order is such that everything should follow that main rotation. Okay, so let's fix this for the for this hip joint because it's not doing that when we rotate. None of these rotations are following it. So how we do that is going to the ash read editor, and for some reason, it ah, fell off over here, so I'm just gonna put that back where I would expect it. Okay, so we have Ashley editor open, and we can go down to the rotate order here so we can see Currently it's X Y Z, okay. And what we want is for everything to follow the just click another axes so I can see that this one is red wouldn't follow the X. Okay. And in this rotation order, you have to think about this backwards, which is the fun of rigging is, um, becoming accustomed to kind of things not being the way you would expect them to be for myself. At least I would expect, you know, the parent to be at the top because that's how hierarchies over here are organized. The parent is at the top. So you think you know the parent of this rotation or should be first? Well, it's backwards. So for rotate order. So the the last letter here is going to be the parent of everything. So what we want is we want the X to be the last one, so we can pick one of these two. So now if we rotate this, we can see that everything is following along the X axes and we can see what the secondary one is by rotating it this way. And then which one is going to get us into gimbal lock? So it depends on what you think this character is going to be doing is gonna be doing front flips or is going to be doing somersaults and he's gonna go to the side. It's kind of to you, but the main one we want definitely want Make sure everything is following that one because we don't want to get in gimbal lock when he spins around and looks over here. And then he looks back. And Maya has had to do weird gimbal lock thing to interplay between those two rotations because it wasn't the parent rotation that was being manipulated. So let's make sure that we have that. Ah, the X axes is one of the last letters here, so I'll just choose the bottom one. So we have Z y X, And the way to think about that is let me just make three groups. 123 And the way to think about this rotation order is we can even do it with the one we have over here X y z So that would mean Z Why and X Okay, that's how this rotation order is thought about in rotations. Okay, so just keep that in mind when you're going through this rig, and we need to look at what these joints are doing mostly right. And with a quick rig, it should have already done this for us, for the most part. And it does appear that that that is the case. And it probably did that one on this first hip joint because it assumed, you know, it's a it was a spine joint. And so the spine is most likely gonna bend forward and back. But we're gonna use this like a center of gravity control. So we want to make sure that it can rotate around and not, um, and have that be the parent rotation and not have this one be. So we've gone through this and we've set the rotation order what we wanted to be. We've learned about how rotation orders are important and what we need to look out for. So in the next lesson, we're gonna continue to rig this thing with the knowledge that we now have. Thanks for watching. 14. Bones Recreate Limbs: in this lesson. We're gonna make our own arms and legs because the quick rig didn't properly set up the joints to use with a Nike A system. And I'll show you how that works right now and why we're going to recreate them. So I'm just gonna go over to the rigging. It's like the I k handle. Click these two things. We're gonna go over this in more detail. But as soon as I do that, you can see that it rotates the foot out in a weird way. And also, if I do a poll vector, which I'll also explain later, um, it was also rotating it around there as well, and it's just not super straight. So we're gonna make our own legs and we'll start from scratch for the just on these couple of bones here, so I won't take too long. So I'm gonna delete these little things to show you why we're gonna We were gonna do that there's gonna delete the legs, and I'm gonna show the geometry so that we can see where we should be putting them. And I'm gonna do the same thing for the arms here. I'm gonna delete instead of deleting because we want to keep the hands on parent the hand. And then I'm gonna delete these two joints and I don't want to delete that one. Actually, yeah, that should be fine. So don't delete thes and the same thing over here. So now let's create our arms and we'll do the mirror tool again. So we'll have to do this one time. So we got to the top of you. So now, from this top view, we can recreate the joints that we need going to go over to the joint tool, and I'll just start clicking where we want to join some, put them in the center of the joint itself and guesstimate where the elbow is. The other thing to ah special with I K joints that you might want to consider is kind of giving it a direction. So we'll want maybe a bit of an angle here between this joint and this joint, and I'm just going to go ahead and draw this next one out just so that it has an area to point towards and hit enter. And then I'm just gonna delete that, and this is pointing in the right direction. So I'm gonna go to the perspective, you and see that this was drawn on the ground. So I'm gonna drag it up to where we want it and have to frame it up. And I think that's a pretty good spot. And now I'm going to select the hand and then this in joint and it p and now that's hooked up. And we'll do the same thing over here. I'm going to select the end arm and the clavicle joint here, and I let P So now we're already back to where we want it to be, and all we have to do is now rename these joints. So I'm going to say, in the same way that these air called Bones left shoulder. I'm gonna call this bones bones left upper arm, and I'm gonna copy that. You want to paste it here and then just sit, delete the upper part and call that lower. Cool. So I'm gonna select these two joints, and I'm going to mere them over when you go to skeleton mirror joints and same as before, we're gonna use those same settings and applies. You can see I didn't like what we did because, ah, we have multiple things selected. So let's one parent thes real quick. Let's shift P and it shift p with this one, and it shift p from the hand and well, just mere that over. And now we'll hook up the parents again. So click the hand and that at P and then click this and that and it p and we'll do the same over here. Now for the legs. Let's do the same thing and we need to pay attention around the feet. So even though this first part is the same, pay attention here in a second when we get down to the feet. So I'm actually gonna go from the right side so we can actually see the profile the feet a little bit better. We go to the center of the, uh, upper leg bone here, and I'm gonna go to the front of the kneecap similar to the elbow. We want to give it a kind of direction here that it should be kind of facing. Then it should go back towards the foot here, and I'm gonna go down to the bottom of the foot, maybe in the middle here and then hold down, shift and click out towards the end of the toe and had dinner. Now we go back to perspective. Mood. See, this was drawn in the middle of the front view, just holding down space bar again, of course. And now we can see that these are straight and lined up properly. And I'm not too worried about the fact that this bone is kind of offset. And ah, this is still kind of in the center of the foot, so that's OK, Cool. So let's rename these and then mere them over, and I'll see the next video where we will create the I K handles for these arms and legs. 15. Bones Pole Vectors: Now that we have the limbs redrawn, let's create the I K handles that we have learned about in the previous lesson. So let's go over here to the I K handle tool. We can also get it from skeleton, create Ike a handle, and we want to click the first joint and then the second joint that are gonna be the two endpoints, basically, so we can ignore the elbow here in this case. And once we do that, you can see an I can handle is created in the outline. Er, let's just rename that so that we can keep track of it. So now, with the I can handle selected, we can actually manipulate these joints pretty quickly. And it's pretty cool, except for the fact that you know there's no rotation here because the rotations not hooked up to anything, and we also don't have any curves to control this. So we need to create those in a later lesson. Let's move on and do the same thing for the rest of these limbs real quick. I don't see what happens when I use the eye K handle and I get close to the shoulder here you can see that it's maintaining its relationship up until the point that I get pretty close to the shoulder and it doesn't know which way to point the elbow. So that's why we need pull vectors. Let's create a pull vector now for the limbs. Let's use curves. You can use anything you want. You could use the locator. You can also use curves. And for this case, let's draw our own. So I'm going to actually use the poly modeling cone here. Click that and I'm just gonna reduce down the number of subdivisions so that it is more angular and it has. It's more like a pyramid. So that created I'm going to solo it out. So that's all we can see and maybe you flatten it down just a little bit. Now I'm going to select the curves E P curve tool, and I'm gonna go to the tool settings and make sure that it set the linear so that they're straight lines and I'm gonna hold down V. And I'm actually just gonna change the background so we can see the gray shaded here a little better. Hold down V and click in different locations of this and it's not showing up because we had it soloed something unsold. That seat actually see it being created, I know is being created cause I've done this before, but it's just good to see cause on this too. We need Teoh kind of maybe backtrack a little bit and go over different parts of the ah model a couple different times to make sure that we cover all of these edges. So I just want to make sure that not going on any diagonals as well So I'm just gonna go through this and create this curve, Gonna hit intern Allah That's done and I can delete the polygon. Now we're left with this kind of curve that is one solid piece and we can use for all of our pull vectors and a pull vector is basically going to be a constraint that tells that I can handle which way to point. So let's rotate this for to say, kind of like an arrow. This is the direction to be pointing from. And just for fun, I'm gonna move the pivot point to the tip of this hold down D NV and Middle Mouse Track snapped that, and I'm gonna hide the polygons here so we can just get the skeleton and I'm going to rename this curve tool left arm PV con. That means left arm pull vector control. Okay, so I'm gonna snap this holding down V to the elbow that I'm just gonna drag this back a certain distance. Maybe. Yes, 20. Something like that. Now I'm going to zero this out. This is a very important step because we want this to be zero world space. We don't want it to have any other values, because when we zero this out, we wanted to get back to the same point. So we need to go to modify, freeze transformations and click that now we have all these nice zeroed out things. So if you move it over here and we click and drag there and type in zero, it will get back to where we want it to be. Cool. So let's with this selected select the I K handle. And then let's go to constrain, pull vector and click that Now you can see that the pull vector actually twisted the arm just a little bit. And that happens because we don't have it exactly in line with where this needs to be, so we can actually just leave this at the elbow because we know for sure it's going to not rotate if it's lined up with the exact kind of middle there. So let's try that one more time with the poll Vector left there. So we'll go to constrain and pull Vector. And now you can see that the arm didn't flip or anything like that. So we can leave that there and then now hit zero and it will rotate a little bit. But that's OK, so let's just leave that at the front, Um, before Ah, while we're still getting everything lined up basically for the ah skinning process. So we'll move this back when we're done skinning the geometry to the joints. Also. Now, now that we have this, let's just demonstrate what it's actually doing. So when I used this and I get the elbow in here or really anywhere, if I just have the elbow bent a little bit, it's in a point in the direction of this poll vector. So it's a great way to control what's happening with the elbow cool Okay, Cool. So let's grab this and duplicate it out and do this for the rest of the joints and just want to say real quick to I'm going to zero this out Onley in the Z direction so I don't want to go back to where it's going. It's going to go back to Z. I'm gonna freeze transformations from here, and then I'm gonna snap it back to the elbow as we did before, so that we know that's ah, you know, it's gonna go back. We when we zeroed out later. So I'm gonna shifts like this and go through that and I would do the same thing for the knees. And I'll see the next lesson where we'll continue creating the controls for these i k handles. Thanks for watching 16. Bones Hand Controls: in this lesson. We're gonna create the controls for the hands and the feet, and we're gonna just only get partially done with the feet and we'll follow up on the next lesson about how to properly create all the controls on the feet. But let's get started on doing that now. So similarly to the last lesson, I'm actually going to, um, on hide the polygons here so we can see this again and I'm gonna drag this sort of the side so we could see a little better this time when creating Cube. And then I'm gonna go to the curves and services like we did last time. We make sure from the tool setting that were on linear so that it's straight edges didn't hold down V and click on each one of these corners so that we make sure that we have everything covered on the edges, Then my head in ER and delete the Cube. Now we have our curve, but because we moved over to the side, the origin is over here. So we have to do is say, modify center, pivot and boom. There we go. So let's show. Ah, let's hide the polygons again in courses. Show menu is just this show menu. I tour off here by clicking that and let's hide the polygons or more times So weaken Vertex snap with that, um, con selected for text, snap to the hand and let's just increase the size of that. Just a touch. And then, of course, like we did on the pole vector. Let's freeze the transformations because any time we hear this out, we wanted to get back Teoh this origin point and let's call this left hand con and let's duplicate it and drag it over here to the right hand by hitting W and then holding veto Vertex. Snap it and we'll just rename that right Cool. And if you remember in a previous lesson me talking about having empty groups with eso that we constrain these things, let's go ahead and do that now. So I'm gonna make an empty group from this, uh, hand area. But I'm also just going to for cleanliness sake, make it at this origin, and how I do that is by typing and group here, instead of hitting the shortcut command G. And we do that it actually has the pivot point in the center of the object that we're creating it from. So I'm going to copy paste the name here and instead of Khan, I'm gonna call it Group, and I'm gonna do the same thing for this side. So that way, if we want to constrain this con to something, will constrain it with the group and not the con itself, so that the con is still free to have animation on it and won't have the little blue boxes here that will prevent us from animating it. Great. So let's actually hook this up to the I K controller. So let's go to the I K left arm and let's focus on that. So let's select this object and we will command click the I k from the outline. Er, let's go to Control is go to constrain and let's use a point constraint. Let's just open that up to make sure they maintain offset is on. And even if it wasn't, it shouldn't matter because they're snapped to each other. So it's that apply, and you see that nothing looks like it happened. Besides, the fact that I can handle now has those blue little dots. Which means, of course, if we scroll us down, we can see. Indeed, it does have a point constrain. You can also see the poll vector constrained as well there that we did the previous lesson . So now if we move this calling around, it is what is controlling the ICA handle now. Perfect. So now we don't have to worry about the I handle. But how do we control the rotation of the hand? Because it's not rotating with this con anymore. Well, that's pretty easy. So let's go to the I Que con here, the hand arm con and let's shift selected the hand joint and go to Constrain Orient. And with that selected, we say maintain offset. All that's fine. Hit, apply. And now you can see that there's blue dots and the rotation of the joints. So now if we move this, everything still moves. But it's locked in rotation to the con itself. So now we can actually rotate the hand as we need it, and that works really well. Similarly, we want to make sure before we get too far that these rotations have the right rotation order like we talked about in a previous lessons. Let's go into the gimbal mode here by holding down E and going to gimble left clicking there and let's just see that it's is kind of working how we would expect it to that Looks like that will work pretty fine, actually. You know what? That won't work very well because if we bring the hand out in front and then we rotate it to be pointing forward were immediately in Gimble. Check that out. We do not want that for sure. Okay, so let's undo that. Get this back to origin and let's go to the rotation order and fix this. So we need to go down to the con here to rotate order. Let's choose this bottom one and see that that actually, uh, is not what we want either. Well, let's go to the So let's think about what we're doing here. We want the parent con to be why, Okay, so we want that to be the last letter in this order. So we want one of these two. So now we have what we need to call. Okay. And don't forget when you do this for this side as well, so we need, um xz. Why was what we did over here? So it's two xz why we're here. Cool. So I hope that gimbal things kind of making sense. Now you can see where a controller that we're gonna move around a lot everywhere in three D space. We need to rotate it, that it's going to need Teoh move with itself, And it looks like as you know, let's say he just has his hands at his side. Well, it looks like this isn't the bass rotation order either for that, because now we're in Gimble here, So let's choose the other rotation order that has y at the end Here, Z X y Let's just see if that works for us. Z x y cool. So it's bringing the hand down, and this is, uh, Well, we haven't talked that I can handle up, So let's use this one. This is part of rigging, right, like you do something and then you test it to make sure it's gonna behave the way you want it to cool. So, yeah, I don't think will ever really get while we might. I mean, this is the thing with rotations. Is you know, especially something that's gonna move in a lot of axes at some point, may very well get into gimbal, and there's only so much we can do to prevent that. So, like, there's an example of us getting into gimble there so you can have to pick your battles and where you want to address this. But I think for the most part, let's think about this. If it's down to his side, this is the most common thing. Let's do that. Let's have ZB that be the one. All right, let's let's rethink this here because in reality, most people aren't gonna have their hands out in front of them. And so we want Z to be the last one. So I think that works fine. And let's think about well, because you can't have to consider all the scenarios here in light of the most likely one J . So the most likely one is The hand's gonna be down here by a side and rotated like that. That's how most people stand. So I think that is probably gonna be the right rotation order. And it took, you know, just messing with us, thinking about it talking through it. How are we really gonna use this? Okay, Why? Ecstasy is what we need. The other one to be cool. Let's go over here. Why? Xz And let's do the same constraints with this side. Great. Now, always like this. Everything should follow along just fine. Great. So the other thing you might notice is the fact that the pull vector doesn't move, you know at all, right. Just gonna stay wherever it is. Well, there's one thing we can do with that as well. We can actually make groups for these and then constrain the groups to the hands, so they kind of follow along. So let's do that. Now. Let's select this and type in group. And let's just copy this into the group and do that for the other side and the end. The legs. Well, then let me have that done. Let's take a look at what actually will happen now, So let's constrain the group of this poll vector. So it's This one right here is gonna minimize these so we can focus in on the outline or what we're actually going to use. It's gonna be this one and this one FF here. It will open that up. So we want the group of this to follow this. So let's select this first and in the group of the poll vector and say Constrain, parent. Now we move this, the bull vector should follow. But you know, it's it's not ideal right now because we haven't seared this out. So let's zero this out. Now, if you remember from the last lesson why we left it here and will do zero this out. So it's back here, so now gives us some room. So when we do this, the poll vector should follow the hand in the arm and it will ah, what's with this back to object. The only thing that we might want to do is use a point constraint instead of, ah, rotation, because you can see as I rotate the hand, this thing goes pretty wild. So that's not really what we want it to be doing. We wanted to just kind of be in the area. We wanted to kind of generally be where we, um, are moving the hand, so we want a point constrain instead. So let's go to the group of this which is here and delete the constraint and use a point Constrain instead. So select the hand. Go Teoh the pull vector group command clicking it from the outline er and go to constrain point. Let's do the same thing over here. Great. Now when it's like this and move it around, we can see that it should be moving with it. And again if I zero these out, which should be fine now because we have constraint orientation of the hand joint to be to the con So it shouldn't really matter how far away this goes. So I zeroed out, You get to the hand stays the same, the joint stays the same So now we can have those out where they need to be. Now, when I move this, the poll vector should kind of try to follow along a little bit. And this is just kind of something that ah, you know, is a preference. You might not want that to take place. You might want to be doing its own thing. But, you know, the nice thing about having these groups is the fact that the constrained lives in the group. If I press select the controller and press up. I get to the group and I can see that these are indeed kind of locked here and the constrained. But when I select control, I can still manipulate control all around. So that's one way to organize this. So you kind of get some not animation for free, but just kind of like having organized so that when you move the hand, you know, the poll vector is not trying to stay in the same spot. Um, so in this lesson, we learned quite a bit about poll vectors make constrains and I K's And, um so I think we've done a lot. And in the next lesson, we're gonna take a more in depth look about the foot. It's actually one of the most complicated things we're gonna cover in this course. So, uh, let's take a entire video to definitely cover that and why this is important. Thanks for watching 17. Bones Reverse Foot Rig: in this lesson, we're gonna learn about reverse foot rigs and why that's important. So if we take a look at the foot down here and we clicked the I K handle and start moving it around, we can see that the foot just kind of does whatever it's gonna dio. Partly. That's because the pull vectors here still ah, at the knee. But even when we pull those out, you can see that the foot tries to stay pointed downward, and then we would have to maybe do something like this and and rotate the the joint individually. But if we think about how foot moves, it does a heel to toe action. So it pits from the heel and then pivots off of the ball and then the toe. So we need to create that type of a rig in our skeleton as well. So to do that, we're gonna create what's called reverse foot rig, and there's several different ways we can do this. Well, this is just the way that I like to do it. So I'm gonna go to the Rigging tab here and get to the joint's gonna go into the right view . So we can get a look at the foot. So now that we're in the side view, we need to enable the view of the polygons cause this ring is going to be based off of the shape of the polygons and the foot. So we need to create a joint. Basically, where the hell is gonna pivot from back here? And we need to go all the way to the toe and then we need to go all the way to the ball of the foot in the back up. So he basically made a reverse, um, joint chain of what we already kind of had built. And the only thing we need left to do is to actually get this in place because we made this in the kind of world position there. Let's get that there. And let's see Vertex snapped these to the joints that are there near. So I'm going to select this one. Hold down D and V and Middle Mouse. Drag it to the joint when it's like this middle wouldn't do the same thing all down D and V Middle Mouse drag and get it to the joint. Just make sure it actually went to the center there and it did turn off the show polygons real quick while I'm doing this to make sure I'm not Vertex snapping to the geometry when a vertex snapped the center of these joints. So holding down D NV, Vertex snapped that. So now what we have is a little joint chain that is going to behave the way that I described. We have a hell pivot here, right? We have a tow pivot and we have a ball joint pivot. Cool. So now all we have to do is rename this and rig it up toe work with the foot. So I'm going to rename this and I'll see you in 11 2nd So now that we have that renamed, let's smear this over very quickly with the miracle go skeleton mirror and we have all the things properly labelled so that it's gonna be named the right thing over here. Cool, Great. So now we have the foot rig built, we have the original and we have the reverse foot rig. Let's make the reverse foot rig display a little bigger, so select the hierarchy of it and go to the radius and increase that. So now, visually, we can tell the difference between the reverse foot rig and the original foot joint chain here because we want the I k handle to follow this reverse foot rig. So let's make that happen to the top joint. Because if we if you think about it, sure, if we you know where did you know point constrained this to this heel bone, then it would follow along like this, But when we move to rotate the toe, it would stay behind because it's just falling the rotation and position of this. So we want to constrain it to this end joint because we want it to be appear when the I can handle to follow this one. Right? So I do that and let's select that in joint and then the like, a handle and and go to constrain point constraint. Now we select the reverse foot rig and we move it around. You can see that it does follow, and if we move and rotate the toe joint here, it should follow as well. And you should do this every time that you make it constrain. You want to test that it's working it in the way that you would expect it to. So everything is, except for the the original foot chain here. What you going to see here that is not following long anywhere screen. We need to do that next. So let's select the enjoying here and let's or in constrain these original foot bones to the reverse foot rig of the joint in front of it. So the bone in front of this one that it should follow is the toe. So it's like the toe and then the original and go to constrain Orent. It's the same thing here, which is like the ball, and it's like the original and you go couldn't constrain Orient. So now we have the same behavior that we had before. Everything follows, except now the original foot rig follows the reverse foot rig, so that's exactly what we want. So if we were to make the Togo up and pivot from the toe, the entire foot rig will follow. Same thing if we pivot from the ball of the foot, the ankle and everything will follow as well. Great. So in the next lesson, I will create a control for this and show you how to do set driven keys to drive this foot control from one attribute in the ash read editor over here. So go ahead and create the same foot rig for the right as well. And the next lesson will create the nerves control curve here to control the foot. Thanks for watching. 18. Bones Foot Roll SDK: in this lesson, we're gonna learn about creating control for the foot and what is called set driven keys or S d case for short. So let's create the control for the right foot right now and will create a circle curve here by going to the curve shelf. And we want the pivot of this to be it. The ankles were gonna hold down V and Middle Mouse drag and try to Vertex snap that to the middle of this joint. Now that we have that, let's right, click on the curve and go to control Vertex and dragged that to the bottom. If we try to clicks like dragged that, we won't be able to cause trying to, uh, grab the ah I K and the joint. So let's turn off the visibility for that. And now we can grab that with no problem. Let's go to the right view and we can just hold on X and snap that to the bottom to the zero of the world space. Let's go back to perspective and now let's turn back on polygons and we can see where we need to drag these points to to create our control rig for the heel and the foot. So I'm just going to take a second to create my own little curve here. So when the one thing I'm going to do is just lift up the hell here, just a touch so that we actually have something to select when the foot is flat on the ground. Otherwise, the foot flat on the ground might be hard to see and select this thing. So that's why I'm just gonna grab the hell and put up. You can make any kind of design that you'd like, but this is just one little kind of variation I'm going to do so that I can actually see and select this control when it's flush with the ground. So that actually has something sticking up in the Y axis. So now we have that control. Let's constrain the joints down to that. So turn off the polygons again so we can see what we're gonna be working with and turn back on the joints and we in turn on the Ike handles as well. Cool. So we want all of this to follow this I can handle, So we need to constrain this. Ah, hell to the I K controller as well. So Okay, let's do that. So let's constrain the hell to the control. And I'm just going to change the color here. So it's a little easier to see, like we did before. Go to drawing overrides and enable that. And for the left side, I like to use blues. I'm gonna find the blue color and use that. So, like before we want to try to keep the rotation open on this joint, cause we're gonna use this later so we don't want to constrain the actual joint itself. So you guessed that that means we need to create a group for this hell so that we can constrain it in the group. So I'm going to click that, and I'm going to copy it, and then I'm going to group it. We can just use control G here. I'm gonna go left heel group, and now I'm gonna use that group to constrain to the hell. So I'm gonna select the control curve first and before actually, before I do that, I want to zero this out number before we went to modify freeze transformations. Let's do that before we start making constraints as well, so that when we hit zero on everything, it will get back to where we expect it to be. So with that selected, I'm going to actually just rename it real quick. I'm gonna say, Left, foot con, and I'm going to constrain that group to that. So I'm gonna parent to its parent constraints. So when we rotate this, it will rotate with the control and it will move with it. Cool. So now we need to hook up through set driven keys, the rotation of these joints so that we can have all of these different pivots. And so we have essentially three different pivots. We have the hell pivot. We have the toe pivot and we have the ball pivot. But I want to create a control that controls all of these from one. So let's go click on the controller. Let's go to edit, add attributes. We get a new menu and we can give it a name. Let's call it Foot Roll. And we wanted to be a float because it's gonna be a number and there's no minimum maximum right now. We can change all that later said Okay, So now you can see we actually have a new value here. The middle miles drag it. Nothing happens because we need to hook it up. So let's go to edit set driven key. So now we get another new menu. So the driver is going to be this controller. So we need to load this as the driver. Right now it's the driven, and that's wrong. We wanted to be the driver. So it's a load driver, okay? And let's select the actual attributes because we need to select which one we're saying is the driver of this object here and now we can select the hell and we need to add that as the Driven, and we want the Let's see which axes were talking about. It looks like Z, so we want the Z axis. We can see it changing over here, So let's say rotate Z. And right now, with the foot roll at zero and the, uh, rotate Z at zero, we want to set a key. Let's set a key. Now let's change the value of the foot roll to be something in the negative. Let's go. Maybe 90. Let's go. Maybe 60 and Well, let's just go to 90. Let's let's do something further than what we're gonna need it to be. So let's go to 90 and then under Rotate Z, we can actually double click this and get back to the joint or weaken. Select it there, and we can change this to be rotate 90. So it's a way beyond what we'll ever need. And now it's set a key. So what do we just dio if we go back to the foot roll and we Middle Mouse dragged us? Now we actually have mapped the rotation of that joint to a new attributes in our controller. But if you notice this kind of slows down when we're at the either end, and that's because the tangents are kind of busy ace blind. So let's open that up and take a look at what's actually happening in the animation of this connection. So go to the graph editor and let's go to the Left Heel, which actually has the animation and you can see. In fact, it is slowing down at the beginning and at the end. So let's select both these key frames and go do a linear interpolation So now when we select the con and we do a foot roll, it's gonna be a straight interpellation. It's not gonna try to slow down at either end. Cool. So now let's do the same thing for the ball and the tell rotation. So I'm going Teoh load in these joints as the driven, so we've already got the hell done. Let's load the driven of the left ball. Let's make sure the foot roll is it zero and let's set a key. I'm gonna make sure, too, that we're working on the right axes of this joint. So again it's gonna be rotate Z. Let's select Rotate Z and in it, a key. So now we have a zero position. Now let's go back to the foot roll and let's increase this to maybe, ah, 45 I believe, I guess. Negative. 45. And then let's go to the joint here and let's do the same thing here. Let's go 45 and it looks little signaling that cause what we're gonna make, we're gonna build in the kind of heel to toe action. I think that's too much. I think we actually wanted to be something like maybe 30. Let's Ah, with that selected let's let's choose 30 And I think that's probably closer to what we would expect. Ah, foot roll to be. So let's go to the con and let's change that to negative 30. And it changed the ah, the left ball because it's thinking that's trying to follow that. So we seem to get that back to 30 and now said a key. So now when we get a foot roll and we go back and forth, we can see that we go from a hell to it. To a flatfoot to now the ball of the foot starts lifting, right? The hell starts lifting up this way. So we have this type of motion. So now he gets to 30. It stops. So let's go to 30 or negative 30 and you could You could do this in negative or positive. It doesn't really matter which way you do it. It's just whatever you prefer. Um, I just chose, I guess, you know this is positive for me and the hell touched down there. So, um, let's let's go to negative 30 in the foot roll and then let's add in the toe for the driven here. So let's set a key on. Let's make sure it's the Rotate Z again. It is. Let's choose the Rotate Z and with the foot roll at negative 30 let's had a key. Basically, what we're saying is we want the toe to pick up where the ball of the foot leaves off. Okay, and now that we have that, we can rotate this. Let's see. Let's see what we wanted to go to because I think probably 90 is too much. I was do something. I mean, I guess we could do 90. Let's just do 90 because, um, kind of like the hell we will never do 90. But it's nice toe have, like the extremes. So let's go negative 90. And with that, we can rotate this up 90 and we can set a key now. The other thing we need to dio is to also set a key for the ball of the foot because we don't want it. We want it to straighten out here. We don't want it to continue to stay at this angle, so it's load back in the ball and go to Z zero. That out, and now we can set a key for that. And what we did is a foot roll from the heel to the toe. Check that out and it's all in one control. We don't have to Ah, you know, animate three different joints. We get that all in one control. I'm just sliding this around. We just need to fix the animation of these joints because they're also ah, kind of smooth transition. So let's go back to the animation editor graph editor. Let's look up this, Ah, control here. Let's just make that linear. Let's do the same thing for the ball of foot. We'll make that linear. And now for this attributes on the curve, let's make the positive the min Max nineties. So let's go edit. Let's go to edit at an attributes and we can select the attributes and say has minimum and has maximum. The minimum is gonna be negative 90 and the the maximum positive is gonna be 90. So let's say close, and now it won't let us go past those values. So now we'll go to 90 and stop. Great. So let's do this reverse foot rig set up for the other side. And then let's finish out the foot rig and create a separate control just for the toe. I'll see in the next lesson. Thanks for watching. 19. Bones Independent Toe: in this lesson, we're gonna create an independent toe control. If we take a look at the foot as it is now, we can see that we can have this control or the foot role. But let's imagine that we want the toad actually been backwards. Let's say it's kind of dragging back and we wanted to go that way like the toe is pushing off. There's currently no way for us to do that, so we need to create another control in here. So let's think about this. We have the So let's think about this. We have the foot roll here which is on the main control and underneath that we need the toe control to follow that. So you're going to have the toe control and we need the toe control to control the new joint. So for us to do that, we need the orientation to be open on this, and it needs to follow that right. That's what this arrow is here. So for us to do that, we need to create a group here for the toe con so that it is actually going under that group, and it's not a part of the uh, it's not being constrained from the toke on its being constrained from this group. Okay, so let's insert this group. Let's create the toe con and then we can add this new joint warrant, constrain it to this toe con here. Cool. So let's run through that. We can actually duplicate this joint here, which we already have set command D. And we'll hit F to focus up on it. Get rid of this constrain, which is what was going to the reverse foot rig earlier. And we don't need that. And let's just call this left football. I was going to say I and D for independent. I'm just gonna make a little underscore here. Do the same thing for this kind of in joint, even though it doesn't really matter. And so now, at this joint, we need to create a con for Let's go up here and create a circle. It's a vertex snap that to the joint over here, rotated up 90 degrees will be able to see it, and that's freeze the transformations, as we've done before, modify freeze transformations. Now it's creating group for it. And let's name the group and the toe control here. Just say left Toe Con and copy that pace that here they're just gonna say Con Group and let's constrain the group to this original joint. Appear Okay, so we'll take that one. It's actually the football here, which we can't see the selection highlighting because it's just right on top of the one. We duplicated it, but we know it's there. If we do the isolate select, we can see that's what we are actually selecting. And now it's select the Toe Con Group here and do a constrained parent constraint. So now when we do the foot roll, the Khan should be exactly in line with the kind of reverse foot rig and the ah original kind of foot toe There. What we can see. We have this this independent one isn't constrained anything yet. So just kind of floating out here by itself. So now we can actually constrain that to the con. Zero this out and let's go to the independent tojoin here. And it has all these 1 80 degree of things and they kind of cancel each other out. So just zero that out before we create this constraint so we can select the toke on and let's go to the independent joint and say Constrained or unconstrained. Now, when we do this, we can see that we have. The foot roll still works and everything is following the foot roll still. But what we now have is this extra layer of control. Or we have this extra little toe here which we could do whatever we want to with. It's pretty cool. So let's change the color of this and let's do this to this other side as well. And it's also just remember this for the future that the joint that we need to constrain Teoh the geometry that we need to constrain the joint to is this joint here independent. So seeing the next lesson where we will cover Mawr about cleaning up the rig and getting into some of the I K issues here and we're moving along quite well. Thanks for watching 20. Bones Organize And Scale: in this lesson. We're gonna organize the outline on the rig a little more before we move on, and we want to think about how we want to use this. Reagan's possibly scale it and what that means for our organization. So if we select the top most note here, which is that locator that the quick Rick Tool gave us, we were to try to scale the whole rig up. Let's watch what happens. Everything that we've created stays in the same spot, doesn't follow along and play nicely like we wanted or expected, too. So let's create Ah little organization overhearing that liner and a few constraints to help solve that. First, when you to select all the cons. So it's just command. Click them to get all of the cons together, and we can group them into one group. So Command G and I'll call that con group, and we want Teoh rename these groups with some kind of indication that it's actually a joined, so I'll call it J and T here. Let's put those joint groups under the bones as well. Now the I K handles can stay by themselves. They're constrained, and that's okay they can stay by themselves. And what we want to dio is constrained the con group to this because we wanted to follow when we scale up or if we move the rig around, we want to follow this main locator. Okay, so let's adjust that. Let's go to the Bone Reference, which is the main controller here. The route Control and command click the con group and go to control. Constrain will just tear that off because we're gonna do a parent and a scale. So we leave that selection up. And now when we go to the locator and we scale it up, everything should follow. And when we move it are rotated around. Everything should follow together. Cool. So the last thing that I would suggest that we do is just to group everything down and say Bones, rig is the main group of everything. We won't use that to translate anything but will only ever use this bones reference. It's just rename that to root. This is just something that I prefer to call. People will know what you're talking about more if you call that a route the route control . So now that we have that organized, let's move on to the next lesson and contain to create this rig. Thanks for watching 21. Bones COG And Hips: in this lesson, We're gonna take a look at creating an independent hip control. If we select what is currently called the hips, bones, hips, this joint here and we try to rotate this, it's gonna move the entire spine. And we want something that control the hips by itself without moving the entire body. So for us to do that, we need to split apart where the legs meet the spine and create our own hip joint in here. So when it hide the polygons for now, I'm going to go to the rigging menu here, select the joint, and I'm just gonna make one down here at 00 and hold down X and click, and then I'm going Teoh, drag this up and hold down V and Vertex snap it in the center as well. Currently is constrained to the Why, actually, So I'm gonna select in the middle there to make it unconstrained. Hold down V and middle mouse drag there. So I'm gonna call this bones hips. So now that we have this rename two bones hips, let's rename this joint to bones C O g or center of gravity and let's unparalled the legs from that joint. So I'm gonna click both of those in hit shift P and then I'm going to select this new bones hip joint here from the outline er and it P. So now that we have that, we can see that if we were to move this bones hips joint, it will actually Onley control the hips. And that's what we're looking for. And now we have the CEO G spine here, which will move all of the upper body. So now we just need toe connect these two pieces and we could do that several different ways. And I'm going to do it with apparent, uh, just to keep everything nice and neat. So I'm going to select the child first and then the parent, and then I'm gonna pee. So now we have this extra bone that lives inside of this joint, and it's kind of hard to see they're connected, but they are are indeed connected. So let's create our own controls now for those. And we can do that with our own controller here and the curves menu. I'll just create a circle here and all Vertex snap it. And again, it's constrained in the wise will just select in the middle here to unconstrained it on old V again in middle mouse drag. So I'm going to unhygienic the polygon so I can kind of see where the hips control needs to be kind of constrained. Teoh, when I go into the control Vertex option here and just turn off the joint selection here from the top so that I can select the Vergis ease of this curve is gonna bring that Ford to make it to help it make a little more sense to us when we're trying to control it. So with that done switch in and out of, ah component mode to get back to object mode, I'm going to rename this to hips con and I need to make a CEO g con. So let's make a new a circle for this And let's drag it up here, gonna turn off the polygons one more time and I'm gonna vertex snap this to the joint and we need to make this look a little bit differently because it's in the same places, the hips. So a good way is to just make it bigger, and so that that would kind of be the primary one that we're gonna want to select every time that we selected. I'm just gonna make this one slightly larger. And now, if we show the polygons, we can see that and D that's probably gonna be the one we're going to select the most, because the hip joint is really are the hip Khan is really a secondary control. So I'm going to constrain the joint here to the hip condoms, gonna turn back on joint selection. So I'm going to select the main con and then the cog joint and just parent constrained that before I do that actually need to zero this out. It's of course, always the practice we want to try to follow. Do that for the hip control as well, just heading g to redo the last command that I did, which was freeze transformations. So I'm just gonna name this cog con, And so now we can, with a selected select the Cog joint, and we can constrain it with parent constrained. So if we just test that real quickly, and I can just 00 r make that all one accidentally scaled it just a little bit we can see that it will follow now and it will rotate and everything. And now we just need the hips to control the hip joint there. And we can do that by selecting the hip con again, just like we've done. And for this one, you know what I'm gonna dio is and I'm going to Onley constrain the orientation so we make sure that we stand model. I don't want to translate the hips. Well, on second thought, this is kind of a cartoon character, so it might not be as important to stand model. So let's just go ahead and do both parent and orient our point and Orient. So we'll do a parent. So let's go to constrain and parent. And now we can actually move this joint and rotated as well without it affecting the spine . Now, if we were to move this, it's not going to move the bottom half. So a quick way to do that is actually to constrain this and or group it we could. The quickest way is just a group. It, uh oh are sorry to parented. Um and so when one moves, the other moves, right? So that's definitely one way. And I don't like that way. Just because it looks like, visually, I don't like seeing that they're both selected like this. Um, when I when I like something, I want to know what? That's all I'm selecting. I don't because if I do this and I as like both of them, it's hard to tell. That's what I've done. So, um, I like Teoh do parent constraints, even though it makes like for a few more nodes here, Um, that's just my preference. So you could either parent it or you could do apparent constrained to a group of the hip con, which is kind of my default for the reasons I've described. So I'm gonna do what we've are kind of familiar with and going to parent constrain to the, uh, con here. And then I'm going to try to keep this organized and put all of this under the Con group and the outline er and so any time that I do anything on my rig, always want to kind of test it and make sure it's doing what expected to dio. So I'm going to do that for everything again and make sure everything's scaling as I expect it to, and the hips have their own control and I can move them so it looks like everything is working well. I'm going Teoh, you know, change these overrides and then we'll be done when you go down to enable overrides. When I changes to a yellow and I don't really know, we could do it another yellow. It's really up to you how you want to color these things. So in the next lesson we will continue reading this and maybe look at ah, finishing up the spine and the head. And then we'll move on to creating spaces for our hands so that they can move with the body or the world. Thanks for watching. 22. Bones Spine CONs: in this lesson would create the controls for the spine in the head and the same process is going to be followed through with the clavicles. Here is what as the fingers. So let's take a look at what we're gonna dio. We basically need to constrain the joint to a con. So it's created con by grabbing a circle and then just Vertex snapping it to the joint Let me turn off the polygon. So when I vertex snap, it will choose the joint to overtake snap to instead of the con, rotate this and 90 degrees so that we can see it from the side. And then I'm going to rename this spine one con. I'm gonna duplicate it twice and has change these names. Oops. And I'm gonna vertex snapped these to the spine joints above it. So if we were to constrain the cons as they are now, ah, constrained the joints to the cons, each individual joint would rotate, but it wouldn't have this overall effect of rotating together because their Children and parent relationship here. So we need to reflect that in the cons themselves. So we need to parent each one to the one below it so that similarly, when we rotate the cons, they're all going to rotate together. Okay, so now that we have them in place, let's actually go to component mode up here. Let's click this little button and let's select all of the control Vergis ease here and will just slide them back. And then let's scale them down. And if scaling down has worked for you, just make sure you're in component mode here. Let's hold down our and go to component mode, and that way you can scale each one down individually. And so now let's go back to object mode by clicking the button up here and now we can just constrain each one Teoh each joint to the console, select each con and constrain it to the con before I constrain them. I want to make sure I'm freezing the transformations as well. It's freeze transforms, and each one should be fine above that. So now I can select the con and then constrain. So now we select the spine cons. I can rotate the entire spine. If we have all these selected, I can also isolate it each spine joint. But typically, when I'm animating, which will get into in another lesson and part of this course, selecting all the joints together or all the cons rather together. So now we have the spine done. Let's put that into the con group. And the other thing I want to make sure is that the spine relationship maintains, you see, when we dropped it in there, um, because we had them all selected it, actually UNP Arent id them. So we just want to select the top one and middle melts, track that in, and now that's properly in there. So the other thing we want to make sure is, you know, test the entire rig out. You can see that the joints no longer follow, so we need to make sure that this spine con group is constrained to the cog. So they all follow the cog as the you know the joints or should be doing or were before we're creating these cons. So let's group these command G and I'll just call this spine con group, and I'm just like the cog and command click the spine called Group In the Outline er and parent constrained that now you can see that they do indeed follow and everything works as we would expect it. Thanks for watching this lesson. And the next one, we're going to do the same thing for the shoulders and fingers. And I'm gonna move on to discussing how to create different spaces for the hands. Thanks for watching. 23. Bones Shoulder Fingers: this. Listen, we're gonna follow the same procedure we just did for the spine, and we're gonna do that for the shoulders here as well as each one of the fingers. So let's create cons for the shoulder, and we can create a another circle. It's Vertex. Snap it to the joint, holding down V metal melts, drag and let's turn on the polygons. We're going to see where the model is so we can make sure that we are going to put this in a place that we can actually select it. So let's hide the polygons again real quickly. And let's turn on the component mode here and let's move this over and actually let's rotate it before we do the component mode so that we can make sure that's in 90 degrees. So let's go to 90 degrees, and now it's going to component mode and just move all of these over because we want to leave the pivot in the same place for the shoulder. But, ah, we we don't We want to be able to select the con over here. Let's turn back on that. I kind of get an idea. Maybe where the shoulder con should be so that looks pretty good. I'm gonna go back to object mode, and then I'm going Teoh, duplicate this and then turn off Paul Leon so that ConvergEx snap it to the joint holding down V Middle mouse drag to rotate this around and 180 degrees. So it's in the same place that I'm gonna freeze the transformations on both of these. I'm gonna go to modify, freeze transforms. It's like the other one hit G, and I'm gonna rename this shoulder left shoulder con Cool. Now we can constrain these joints to the cons themselves. So let's like the con and don't select the joint and go to the constraint menu over here. And let's parent it through the same thing for this one. So now when we rotate this, the shoulder should follow. We could also move it around if we wanted to, but, um, we probably won't do that very much since Ah, that's anatomically inaccurate. Unless your shoulders out of socket. So let's do the drawing overrides very quickly. Let's make the blue will make this one red and let's make sure it's following the rig. So let's go down to these cons. Let's first put it in the con group. And then let's move the cog here yet, but we can see it's not following. So we wanted to follow this top most, uh, one here, So we can actually just put both of these in the group together, since they're going to kind of both Follow that top spine someone, command group, those I'll call that shoulder con group, and I'll select this top joint. Ah con here, then all command Click the Shoulder Con Group and it's just parent constrained that. So now when we rotate this, the shoulder cons should follow along with the top spine. Cool. So let's do the same thing for some of the fingers over here. The fingers are gonna be a little more unique in that if we try to constrain a con to it, we're gonna get negative values. So let's just do that real quick to show you what I'm talking about. I'm gonna turn off the polygons so we convert text snapped this nerves curve there, we're gonna do what we've been doing where we modify freeze transformations and then we're just gonna constrain Pericles, train the joint to the curve. So we do that now. When we rotate the curve, you can see we're getting negative values. And why is that? Well, it's not, actually. Ah, the axes of the of the curve is not correct, um, relative to the joint orientation. So if we look at the joint and we delete this constraint from the outline er that we just made, we can see that it rotates in the positive axes. So we need to figure out a way to transfer this position. Teoh the curve. So let me show you one way that I've found to do that. If you're not worried about having negative values, then that's fine. This is kind of like, ah, very particular thing Teoh want to make sure is correct. It's not all that important, but, um, you know, as we're learning, we might as well try to dive a little deeper into this stuff. So I'm just gonna hit command you without anything selected, and it's gonna create an empty group, which is gonna be called annulled. Let's, um, constrain that group without an offset. So it jumps over to this joint Allied, apply. And now you can see that we have all of these values of the joint in that group. So if we delete that constrain now and we create a curve and just for speed cycles to the same thing, let's get the curve over there without an offset will constrain it, and then we'll delete that constraint. Now, watch what happens when we parent this curve into that group that has the same values someone a middle, metals drag it in. And now you can see without doing anything at zero everything out over here because they're sharing the same value. And a child of on object is thinking I'm a zero wherever I'm parented because, um, you know, I'm gonna follow my parent, not following the world. So if this parent has a bunch of world values in it, then it's going to zero out the curve. So because they're in the same place, the child is gonna be zeroed out. So now when we do this, we're going to get positive values in the nerves curve. So that works. Let now all we have left to do is just to make this curve look nice. So we're going to control Vergis ease and I'll turn off select joints so that I can select the curves and I'll make this into something that's a little bit more usable. So we'll rotate it kind of in line with a joint, scale it down and move it above the joint. So it's easy to select. Now I can constrain the joint to the curve. I'll turn back on joint selection and I'll click. Parent will make sure the maintain offset is on, but shouldn't matter because they're in the same position now. So if I had apply without maintain offset or not, that shouldn't really matter. So now we rotate. We have these positive numbers in the direction that we would typically be rotating this in . So let's do that for the rest of the cons and I'll see in one second. So now that we made this other con and it's now going positive, we need Teoh parent it under this one, because now than we rotate this 1st 1 it doesn't follow. So let's parent, this whole group under this con, so that now when we rotate this con, he'll move the rest of the finger cool. So let's also do that for the rest of the fingers and the other hand. And then we would group all of these fingers together and then constraining them. Teoh the con here So that now when we rotate, the fingers would follow ous well, so I just quickly wanted to take a look at the right hand because if you if we take a look at the joints themselves and rotate them down and see, we actually have negative values over here. So our tactic isn't really gonna work, Um, that we used previously. So we need to adjust it just slightly. So what I've done is set up the same situation here. So we have the con and all that kind of stuff, and when I rotate it down this way, we can see it's negative. So the simple solution of that is actually to just rotate the group above it 180 degrees. We're just spinning it around so that it is rotating in the positive now. So let's take a look at the thumb, because that's actually, you know, 180 degrees is easy when it's ah, very straight along this axis. But when it's off to the side like this, how do we flip around this group by 180 degrees because we take a look at it. The why is that? 27 point. Some odd crazy number. So what we can do is actually take advantage of a little kind of expression. Here we can say plus equals one e and had dinner, and it's gonna add 100 80 degrees to whatever value is there. So now this should be in the positive as well. And this cool I'll see in the next lesson where we will continue creating the rig and make a new space for this hand control. Thanks for watching. 24. Bones Hands To Shoulders: in this lesson. We're going to fix an issue that we have when we move the shoulders here with hands, so we rotate the shoulders up, we can see that shoulders air moving as we expect them to. But that is just kind of stretching the hand. Hand's not moving with it. We would expect it to move, at least in this direction, right? We would want the hand to go with that and go over here, maybe not rotate up with the arm that be something different, but just at least be drawn inward when this is rotated up. So to do that, we need to point constrain the group of this. The left hand group that's remember why we're always creating empty groups above controllers is for this exact reason. And just as an example, let's just say we parent constrained that real quick. The problem with that is, if we rotate this, it's going to go all the way with it, and that's gonna be a big problem in animation. If we just want to make small adjustments in the shoulder and then the hand is going crazy and following it from this large of a distance and rotating like that. So that's not really when you think about how you're gonna be animating it, you have toe build your rigs based around that. So I just want to show you why we're not going to do a parent constraint. So if we did appoint constrained with this, that actually wouldn't do anything, because on we're gonna try that real quick just to show you, you know, it doesn't do anything. So if we do a point constrain, it doesn't do anything. Because if you think about what's happening, we're just changing rotation values Point constrain is all about translation, and this is pivoting from over here. The point itself is not moving anywhere. If we moved it, it would go. But we're gonna mostly be rotating the shoulders. And so we want toe pick a point that's right here for the hand to follow. So we need to create that ourselves. So let's undo all this. Let's create a locator and call it the left shoulder point Constrain something. You know, that makes sense. Announced Vertex, snap that to this pivot point, this kind of part of the shoulder and we're gonna parent it to this con someone had P. So now when we rotate this, we have a point that we can use to at a point constraint to to from this hand. So let's select that locator. And I'm just gonna copy that for now so we can duplicate that here in a second. So I'm gonna select the locator that I'm gonna ah, command select the group and choose point constraint. Now, when we do it, check it out. The hand kind of floats and keeps the orientation it had with the arm, but it will follow the shoulder. Now that's pretty cool. So let's do that with the other side. And I'll see the next lesson where we will add another level of constrained to the hand where we can get it back. Toe world. If we wanted Teoh, I'll see the next lesson. Thanks for watching 25. Bones Hand Spaces: in this lesson, we're gonna continue to add different spaces for the hands to follow. So currently we have it to follow the shoulder, which is gonna be kind of default setting. And let's add one so that when we rotate the spine, the arms will follow the spine rotation. So when we go back and forth, the arms would kind of swing around and they wouldn't be stuck going in the same direction that they are here. So let's get to the locators first. And let's just hide those for cleanliness. So I'll just go control h toe hide those since we don't really need those. And if we ever want to get back to him, we could just frame up the left shoulder Khan and school that down. We can see those locators right there is. What we want to do is add a constrained to this same group, so let's cool it down and let's select the top spine joint first. And then let's go to the left hand group and create a new constraint. So go to parent constrain, and if you can tell, we actually have this point constrain here and now we have a parent constrained notes. So we have to. We have this one and we have that one, okay? And they're both activated on the group itself. We have this kind of blend parent going on and when you just ignore that for now. So let's take a look and see what happens when we rotate this. Now we can see it does indeed follow the spine, so it's pretty good. We rotate the shoulder, we can see that it does not work, so that's no good. So we want to make sure that they're both working in conjunction with each other, So we're going to need to add another group above this hand. So let's undo that so that we get rid of that constrain. Okay, great. So let's add another group of of this. So I'm just gonna type in group again, so we'll be in the same spot and it looks like it's trying to go half and half between maybe something that was in the group. I was probably the constraint. So when you type in group, um, it's trying to find the center pivot of whatever you're you have selected and because the constraint is just needs to be said that it's somewhere in the world and that 00 is gonna. The group that we just made is, um, come trying to split the difference so we could just, uh, hold down D NV and just snap that back to the hand. Doesn't really matter, but it's just kind of nice to have everything you know around about where it should be. So let's just say Left and Chest Group and let's make the constraint on this group. So let's go to the spine joint. Let's select the left hand chest and we'll go to Constrain Parent. So again he's like this con. It should rotate around is fine. And of course, now the pull back pull vectors kind of following a little bit just cause we did appoint constrain, it's not gonna rotate around, but anyway, um, that's, you know, you have trade offs. You have to pick your battles on functionality here. So now when we use this, it should still follow. So that's what we need to hierarchies here in the left hand grip so we can have separate the constraints out and to do two different groups. So the one thing that we need to do is add a follow group here on the con, so it's easy to control what it's following. So let's go to the channel box here and we'll go at it and we'll say, Add attributes and will go to a minimum. And instead of these ah colors here, we can type in whatever we want. And let's just say shoulder and then let's say chest and let's add another one. Just click anywhere in here and then we can say world cool. So let's add a name up here and we'll just say follow and lets it ad. So now we have this kind of follow, Ah, item over here and we need to add a set driven key to this so that from this controller we control which constraints are being activated. So right now, let's figure out what we have. We have the or following the chest and the shoulder, So any time that we're following the chest, I think we also need to be following the shoulder so those would work together. Okay, that shoulder would always be on. If the chest is on. It's not one or the other. They would always be on together. So let's just call this the chest follow So we'll go to chest. We will go to edit set driven key like we've done before, and we'll load. The driver will go down to follow. And then let's select the constraints. So I'll go to this constraint first and load driven. And let's go down to the aspirate that actually controls the, uh, constraint. Here we can see that it's set at one, so we know it's on. So let's key that now we can see this little set driven key key frame pop up. Then let's go down to the chest. Constrain load that as a driven and go down to the spine. Three is one advantage of naming everything is weaken coming very clearly. See where the constraint is on this attributes. So let's key that as well. We can see that pop up here. We know it's keyed, so we now know that with this controller, the follow chest is as it should be. Okay, so let's go to the shoulder now, and we're gonna want to turn off the chest. So let's select the chest. Let's go to that and hit zero and key that now let's go to the shoulder and we'll load the driven. Go back to that ass tribute here and we'll leave that on one and it key. Cool. Now we have two different options. Now we have the shoulder, so the spine shouldn't affect it following or not. And that's the case. But it is still following the shoulder here, which is what we want. So now we have this kind of nice control. We could go back and forth without having to go deep into the rig and figure out where the constraints aren't all that stuff. It lives right here on the con where we want it to be. So let's do the final one of the world space. Let's switch this toe world, and then let's go to the driven and let's turn off the point constraint of the shoulder here so we'll go to zero and let's keep that. And just for good measure, even though this one is already off, let's just load as a driven and key that as off as well, it should already be off. I'm not sure why it's not. It's a little suspicious. Hit that zero on the key. And so the hand should now stay where it is, and that's what it's doing. Cool. So now we have a controller that we can affect the different space that we want it to be in . And the only thing to keep in mind is if we start to animate this, it's probably gonna jump around. So we just need to typically, you know, stick with one. Um, just to make our lives a little easier when were animating. So, um, I'm gonna do this to the other side, and then I'll see in the next lesson where we will continue to finish out this rig. Thanks for watching. 26. Bones Head Space: in this lesson. We're going to create the head space, and I'm gonna explain why that's important because similar Teoh similar to the shoulder set of that we created we're gonna create a set up like that for the head. So if we look at the controller I made between the previous lessons, just continue the same methodology that we use on the spine. And I've created a net control here and it rotates the neck. But we need to make sure that it is parented to the spine. Otherwise, just turn off polygon, see and see the joints. It's not following the spine, so we need to parent this to the spine. But if we did that for the head, which I had created a con here and I moved the control vergis ease up above the head and the skull. So it's easy to select, and I've place the pivot right at the joint center here. So if you were apparent the head to the neck like we've done with the rest of the spine, then the rotation of the head would be dictated by that because it's a child. So if we bent the spine over the character would be looking at the ground, but we didn't rotate the head to be looking at the ground. What if we want to keep the head rotated up? So to do that when you to create a space for this so and we can't use parenting? Okay, we need to use constraints. So it's UN parent. This with Shift P and let's constrain the head here to a point up here. So we wanted to always follow kind, kind of like the shoulder. If we were to point constrained to this, it wouldn't matter, because the point itself is never moving. We're rotating the neck, and it's actually the point above it. The joint here that's moving. So it's created another locator like we've done with the Shoulders and let's Vertex snap it here to the neck. Oh, are really the top of the head joined here, and we can just call that the head locator constrained. And let's parent that to the neck heading P. And we can point constrain that, because we do know that we always want the head itself to follow this point. But we don't want the head con again. We don't want that toe have all the constraints, so we need to create a group for it. So we'll hit command G and we will get the center pivot up here by holding down D and V and Middle mouse dragging, and we'll just call that, uh, the had con group, and we're going to constrain the Head Con group with a point constrained to this locator. So it's like the locator than the Head Con Group and go constrain point. So now when we rotate the neck, that should follow along. But you can notice that the head itself is keeping its upright orientation. Same thing off week. Rotate the spine all the way down. The head itself is going to be pointed upwards. You can see it's It's like a serving tray, like someone, a waiter coming to the table. They don't want to spill everything out when they bend over and set it on your table. They want to keep the tray, uh, upright. So that's a way to think of this and why that's important. So now let's create a space so that if we choose to have it to be that way, that the rotation of the head follows the spine. We have that option. So let's create a new attribute. Here we'll go to add attributes with the consul acted will call this A followers well, and it will be in in, um and we'll say, body or world. So add those two in and hit OK, and currently we're on world because it's staying upright. It's not following the body. The orientation isn't pulling the body, so it's choose world. And then let's select the attribute here so that we can actually select Centrum and Key. You have to have an attribute selected to be ableto set, the set driven key. Let's load that it is the driver it follow. And then we need to create a constraint and orient constrain to this locator. So it's select the locator and go the head Khan and go Constrain Orient. So now what happens is it should follow the rotation of the spine, and that's what's happening. Cool. So now that we have that the head Khan is actually following the bodies, let's change that back to body. Let's select the constrain over a year, and it's the warning constrained that we just made. And let's load that in as the driver. It's like the head locator constrain over here and let's set a key. Now let's go back to the head, Khan. Let's switch this back to world. We want to get to the actual con itself, not the group select world. And then let's select the Ah Warren constraint again so we can set that to zero. Basically turned that off and let's set a key there. So now it should be back to following the world space and staying upright. But if we want to switch it out now, we have it on this control itself. We don't have to go hunting inside the outline, er, for the constraints. So now all we have to do is just to parent this into the con group here. So I'm going Teoh Middle melts. Drag that into the con group. And again, let's just double check that everything's working. Every time we do something, we need to make sure that scale and move and everything is still working. That appears to be the case, so I see in the next lesson where we will begin to parent and skin the actual geometry to the rig. Thanks for watching 27. Bones Skinning The Feet: and this lesson we're gonna begin skinning the model to the rig and skinning is a process by which we parent the bones to the rig and several different ways we can do straight parents. We could do constraints, but for skinning that is actually a very specific term. And there's entire menu appear just for skinning. So we bind the geometry to the joints, and we'll get into that a little bit later. But I want to start a little more simple. First, let's go back and let's go down to the feet and let's start from the feet and move up along the body. So when we look at the feet and we look at how we've set up the rig, it's pretty. It's pretty straightforward. It's pretty basic right. We have two pieces that are gonna move, so for that reason, we can just parent this to the rig are to the joints itself. But we want to make sure that we choose the right joint member of this joint that we made that we have this individual control over, so we want to make sure that we re parent it to this joint. It's called left football I and D, so I can copy that. And I can just hit zero on this because you right back out and I can actually search for that in the outline. Er, if I paste that in and we should see something pop up, if it doesn't immediately pop up, you can just toggle this down. And if that wasn't already all the way down, a quickly to talk of the entire hierarchy is to hold down, shift and click. That'll toggle the entire thing, and we can see that it's down here at the bottom, all right. It's hard to see because it's right on top, another joint, so it looks like we don't have anything selected. But But if we use isolate, select, we can see we do indeed have a joint selected. So with this geometry selected, let's command click in the outline er on that joint and had P. Now, if we move this control around, it's actually moving the geometry. We can test this out with the foot roll rig that we created as well that it is indeed moving cool. So we're basically going to follow that same method throughout the rest of the body so we can find these joints and apparently geometry to the joint. The corresponding joint. So now he did the rest of the foot and we have the foot roll for the entire foot. Now I'm just gonna turn off the joint so we can see the geometry now a little bit better. So check that out. We actually have the geometry working, and it's following along with the rig as we would expect it to. It's pretty cool. So now we're seeing do that for the rest, and we can go through here and had P. It's like the child first on the parent had P and then always kind of like to check. Everything is working and the kneecap might be something. Ah, let's let's see if that needs E on the top joint or the bottom joint. What's parent both of those up and see how the knee responds. We might need to do something special with that. Let's find out. In general, we were gonna need to fix the knee. We might need to do this. This might come up a couple times in this rig, and there's a couple different ways that we could solve this problem where the joints, the model is crashing into the joint above it when the angle gets too close together like that. So let's go ahead and fix that. All right, I'll see the next lesson. Thanks for watching. 28. Bones Moving Joints Fix: in this lesson, we're gonna fix the issue. We ran into the previous lesson. We were learning about skinning and binding the geometry to the joints where the the bones themselves were running into each other here on the knee. And let's think about why that's actually happening. If we take a look at our rig and we look from profile view on the side scrolling down space bar left clicking and then ah, dragon dropping my mouse over the right camera there for they could look, let's consider what we've created here. We created a joint whose pivot point is out in front right out here. So if you think about this like, um, the hinge on a door or something and this bottom bone was the door, it's going to swing from this pivot. So this is going to swing around this way. You can see pretty quickly that this edge is going to smash into this one, so let's think about what if we brought this pivot in, I brought it closer to the middle. When it swings, it will take ah much greater distance of swing for it to the bones to begin to hit each other. So that lets how we're gonna fix this. We're gonna move these joints in, and hopefully that helps you kind of think about how and where to place the actual joints themselves for their pivot points to work with the model. Cool. So let's go to the skin menu up here and we'll go down to move skin joints. And when we click that, it kind of looks like nothing happened. But if you look over here on the left, you can see Ah, the icon that's selected over here is the last tool used. But it's also the current one, because if we went to some like this now that's blue. So we know the blue is, ah, what we have selected and this is the move skin joints tool. But it kind of looks similar to the move tool, but it's specific to joints, so it's click and drag. So we have both joints, the left and right knees, and then let's make sure that we are in the world setting because we want to push this directly backward in world space. So let's click and drag both of those joints back as we do that you can see the geometry begins to move. So it's UN parent those first. So I'll just go up here and look click the geometry and hit shift P and do that for both sides. Now we go back into the right view and we select the joints and d select the geometry here . So I think that's still ah parented there. So I un parented it. So I'm clicking and dragging both the knee joints that left in the right. And now I can get back to that tool just by simply clicking this icon over here. The last moved last used tool. So if I hold down W make sure I'm in world space, and then now I come of both of these joints back and I don't want to go past 100 80 degrees . They should still be, um, in front of vertical because otherwise the the joints will start rotating and flipping around. They're not gonna be sure which way is forward. If we go past 100 80 degrees, some walkie things could happen, So she's gonna leave this right in front of vertical, all right? And I'm just thinking vertical, you know, look at thes grid lines. I don't want to go past this vertical. I don't want to join to go past. Um you know this for imaginary vertical line from one joint to the other. Cool. So now let's repair in these, um, pieces of geometry here and take a look at what we've made. Ah, the changes we've made. Just gonna apparent this joint to the bottom one. Sorry, I'm gonna parent Thea skuh Patella bone is what it's called to the lower leg bone. The shinbone. So now, with that change, you can see we can move the leg up a lot higher before they start to run into each other. Looks pretty cool. And that might be enough for us. Um, you know, it's kind of Ah, turn off the joint so we can see. I'm gonna go to show and turn off joints here. You know, I'm not. That doesn't really bother me as much as the other One was very obvious that they were breaking, you know, going into each other. Um, and we could still maybe do some fixes here, but I think for the most part, that this is working pretty well now and now. all we have to fix is patella bone and the way that we could do that. They're so several different ways we could do that. But what I think I would like to do is to do a set driven key. So I'm going to click any of the attributes over here so I can access the set driven key menu here from the edit menu. And now I'm gonna load that as the Driven. It's little is the Driven. I'm just gonna select all of these attributes here because I'm not sure which ones I'm exactly going to effect yet. So then I'm going to Okay, let's think about what we want to drive this just so that we understand how and why how to think about this. Sure, the controller right is what's controlling that joint. So if we use this as the driver, what what would actually be the driver? You know what I mean? If you start to think about this because it could bend in all different types of directions , right, So be much more difficult to use this as a driver. Let's think about the joint. Let's show the joint when we move the foot control. What's happening to the joints? Okay, the joints aren't actually moving positions there, simply just rotating right, so they get a different rotation value. Let's let's have it be straight. Let's look at this bone. You know, we basically have zeros on the rotations. There's this little 1.766 whatever, but basically the rotations there. Zero. So now let's lift this up. Let's take a look at the rotations again. Now we have a big value on Rotate Z, right? So we could use just this one value to use as the driver for the set driven key instead of the controller. Which is kind of would be very difficult to use that, as the driver of that makes sense why we're choosing the bone instead of anything else. So let's load that it is the driver Ellen's choose Rotate Z, and we'll set a key. And now let's move up the leg, the foot rather toe, whatever kind of, ah height. You'd like Teoh kind of like to get a like the max. You know, the most change in the shortest month time and then all I have to do is just move this in the position that I'd like it to be in somewhere in here, to stay in front of the knee joint and maybe push it in a little bit. And now let key there. So when we move this up and down now, the patella bone joint stays in front of the knee. It's pretty cool. So go ahead and do that for the other leg. And in the next lesson, we will move up the rest of the body and finished skinning the model. Thanks for watching. 29. Bones Skinning Spine Weights: let's tackle our first actual binding of geometry to the joints. What is known as skinning in this lesson, and we're gonna do that on the spine. But first, let's let's start from where we left off. We have the legs done and we need to get the hips done. So the hips are gonna be pretty easy because we have our own hip joint here, which is controlled by its own controller. You can see that we can start to play with our rig a little bit there, and all we need to do is simply just parent that to the hip joints. So again, uh, it's like the child first and then the parent at P. And now we have the hips will move along with the legs, and it's convey very distracting. Let's get to this point to just start playing with the rig like this. Um, everyone does it. So if you get distracted for like 15 minutes and you just do that, that is very normal. All right, so let's talk about actually binding the geometry to the joints here because we have a lot of spine joints, and how do we approach this all right. The easiest way for us to do this is going to be come to combine the mesh of the spine joints. So there are individual pieces anymore. Now that we have this kind of done and we like where they're at, we can do that. So let's go find them. Let's select one and hit F in the out liners. We can find all the spine joints here is going to shift, select all of them and go to the modeling menu up here. Go to mesh, combine. And now they're all one piece. And we have all this nasty history here of all these groups. So begin with the spine still selected, go to delete by type, go to history And now we get rid of all those nasty groups now in its spine. And let's begin selecting the joints that we want to include on this binding. So you want the hips because we have Ah, this little bone down here, The tailbone, basically that is below this route joint here, this cog joint and I was gonna open up Thea Channel box here so you can see the names of things and we can see it's it's constrained to the controller. What were you expecting all that stuff? But just you can see the names here, Um, so we could start here, but we're gonna leave out this hip control that we just, uh, added to the hips, and we want I think, this tailbone to follow this hip rotation here. So we need to include this joint to start with the hips. All right, And then we can, uh, hit queue. So we get this select tool and shift, click and drag and select each joint of the chain. And as the bottom one turns white, you know, you selected the next one, right? So everything up to this one has been selected. It can be a little confusing on what you have selected, so just make sure you pay attention to that. So we basically want to select all the joints that are included in the spine. We don't want to select the head joint cause we'll do that later, and that's gonna be just for the head. So we'll leave that one. And now the last thing we select is this geometry. So let's go to the rigging menu here and go to skin and look at the bind skinned options. Let's walk through this. There's a lot here, but it's really not that complicated. The only thing you really need to look at is what we're gonna bind to. We don't want to bind to, Ah, the hierarchy. We want to make sure we bind on Lee to the selected joints because in the hierarchy there's the shoulders, the clavicles, the arms. There's a lot of things in the hierarchy, but we just want to make sure we're we're binding to the selected joints. That's why we made that selection. And then all this default stuff is pretty, um, pretty good out of the box. There's no real reason to get into this stuff. Um, it's a lot of crazy math. Um, and it's It's not Morris getting into front of beginner level. Um, I rarely change that stuff. Normalize awaits blah, blah, blah. That's fine. Um, we distribution is fine. And the next big thing, Really. The second big thing you wanna look at his Max influences and that means how many joints do we want to be able to influence? Avert asi? All right, do we want Let's say the neck joint appear to possibly influence this bottom Vergis e Absolutely not. That makes no sense. We don't want five joint spilled influence, one vert asi that might make sense on like, um, I don't even really know what, like a finger. Some I don't even know when that would make sense. Um, but, um, so we want to reduce this. We really we just want like to right? If you look at the distribution of joints, you know, the distance between them dictates how money influences you're gonna want. I would think, um, so you do like two Or maybe even three would make sense. Um, I'm just gonna stick to to for now, And that's really all you want. And the resolution is basically the size of the weight maps, I believe. And we could just crank that up a little bit to 5 12 That's pixels. And yeah, and then we're ready to go. Let's just hit. Apply. So it's gonna think for a second, and then it's going to de select everything to enclose this. Now select all of our spine controls here and take this for spin, and it looks like it's working pretty darn good. So we actually have deformation is happening. Um, on the job tree. This is a totally new thing, right? We haven't done this before. We haven't done binding of geometry to joints. So now we get to see how the geometry two forms along with the joints deformation, right. We get these kind of pitches here, and that's OK, because it's kind of that the extreme, um, levels here And also, this is something to think about. You know, the density of joints. This is kind of the trade off, right? Like for a better kind of faithful interpretation and deformation here, we would need a lot more joints. But the trade off is how many controls do you want to use when you're animating? Do you want to keep track and animate? You know, 10 controls in the spine? Probably not. That's may be overkill. And when you're animating, you're gonna want, like, not enjoy that. So, um, you know, this is another example of what to think about when you're rigging. How many joints do we really need? How many controls do I want to give it? The animator Will they hate me if I give them a ton of controls, and it's useless because they're all they're going to use them all together. And is there another way to get around this type of, Ah, wonky deformation? And and actually there is. And that's something we're gonna cover in the next lesson. So now that we've bound the geometry, let's take a look at what that act is actually doing behind the scenes and how we can affect that. You know, we can see that there's the sharp edges here when we deformed this in a drastic way. But you know what's really dictating the influence over the geometry, right? If we look at the tailbone, it's not. It's not totally moving 1 to 1 with the joint, right? Like if this was moving 1 to 1 that should be pointing over here, right? Should be pointing the same axes as the as the red, um, ex rotation here, right? But it's kind of lagging behind. Well, let's try to figure out why that is. So there's something called weights right, and it dictates how Verdecia is going to follow a joint and member We did. The Max influences that, too, so we know that on Lee Ah, two joints can act on avert ISI. So let's open up this thing that we can actually see what I'm talking about. Let's go to skin and with the spine selected. Let's go to paint skin weights. And this is another big piece of the puzzle here when we're talking about binding joints. So when I click that you can see now we have this kind of black white representation. We can actually change that down here to use a color ramp if we want. And what this is saying is, and and this is also shows why it's important to name your joints because now we can see which joint were actually selecting here, right? This is very important. So I'm just gonna go back to black and white for a second and and I'm gonna change this size. The brush, the brush is pretty big. I'm gonna go down here to stroke and G Oh, yeah, point to Yeah, that looks pretty good. And what weaken Dio? There's a lot going on here, right, But and is this typical with my It's not as complicated as it looks. We have the mode is paint the pain operations replace, and the value we're gonna paint is one. So we're going to say 100% follow bones hips, right. This is a joint we have selected. This is the the joint we are affecting the geometry on. Right? So if we start painting here, you can see it turns a brighter white. That means 100% right. That means this thing is gonna follow 100% this joint that we have selected. So I'm gonna paint this entire little lower tailbone joint because I know I wanted to follow the hip joint 100%. It's a whole solid piece, right? So it's just paint this whole thing, just clicking around and painting it. We can also get a more accurate, more faithful look at what the paint values are by going into the color ramp. We can see now that you know, white is gonna be 100% and so this is still red. So we could really go over this a bunch of times and make sure it's it's actually 100. Um, where the other black white map wasn't really giving us that I was just giving us a kind of a larger interpretation of these values. Okay, so that's that's good enough, I think, for our purposes. So let me go back into our manipulating. I just hit W two. Get the tool up here. The move tool and, um, Haiti to get Teoh rotation. Now check this out. Now it moves 100% right. It's following exactly where that hip joint is moving. And that might not be, well one. Because now you can see this intersection. It's pretty rough, right? It's going to crash in and to form a little bit, so we might not want it to be 100% but check. But you get the idea now and why this is important and how we can affect the weights all along the spine. Let's hop back in here for one second. I'm going to use the ah last used tool option over here to get back and from the bones hips . The other thing that you can dio um, which is pretty nice, is go to smooth and then just flood and watch. Watch this over here, just gonna get flood. And this is not a good example. I think typically what will happen is, it will smooth out these hard edges. So let me, um, let me let me find a better example here. Let's go to the Koch here and let's see if that will just happen by default on the default values. Yeah, everything looks like it's pretty are it's smooth, quite a bit. But if we had a harsh values here, Um yes, we have the paint tool. Let's go to our place and I'm just gonna do that right. So now we have 100. It's pretty harsh. It's not a smooth edge. Let's go smooth and then hit Flood. Now you can see what the flood dual does. It just softens those edges out. So I could be very, very useful when you're painting, and it's hard to get kind of precisely what you're looking for. And you can also, of course, paint that on. But ah yeah, all this stuff looks like it's already really smoothed anyways, so it's gonna be harder of to see that kind of a change here. But that is the paint skin waits tool, and in the next lesson, we're gonna take a break from this rig and look at another rig and how the paint skin weights work on more traditional human rig and how to do pose space deformation. Thanks for watching. 30. Pose Space Deformations: in this lesson, we're gonna learn about Post based informations. But first I just wanted to show you a more typical example of using skin paint waits to affect the model, so I'm going to select the joints as we know we need to dio got our custom menu and select the hierarchy of it and then select the geometry and go to skin buying skin and just use the default that we had before. It will think for a second. And now we can take a look at the weights that we get just out of the box. And for this example, I'm just going to be manipulating the joints themselves instead of the cons. Or true, we would do if we're properly rigging this. But for speed, I'm going use the joints so we can see that it's pretty messed up and unusable. So let's take a look at a ah opposed. Let me just let s on my keyboard to set a key to make sure that we save the default post because we're using the joints. We don't actually have zeroed out ah con that we can use and know that if we go to zero that it will go back to default pose. If I were to start manipulating this and then try to get back to default, I wouldn't really know where that would be because it's not zeroed out. So that just gives you an example of y zeroing out. Your controllers are important if you ever want to get back to the default post, I'm just scrubbed forward here and then I will ah, crank this shoulder up and you can see because I have the auto key on over here that it automatically set a key for me because it was keyed once than any time it's moved on another frame, it will automatically key it. So we basically have this range. I'm just gonna drop the timeline down so we can scrub the whole timeline. Here. We basically have this range, and now we can work on the skin painting the skin weights. So with the jump tree selected, I'm gonna go to skin and go down to the paint skin weights and nothing happens. And we have the X on the brush because we need to go to the tool settings first to get them . So now we get back to this familiar scene where we have the black and white and we need to see the shoulder so it's scrubbed down into the name joints and go to the left shoulder. Now, instead of going back and forth between the rig and the paint skin waits tool. Now all we have to do is just scrub the timeline and we get this range of motion. If we didn't do this, then it would be a major pain to have to constantly switch between these manipulators, putting it in position that we want it. Then go back to the paint skin, waits tool, then select the joint, then Goto work on it and it would be a major pain. So this is, ah, much easier way to deal with that. Let me just delete that key frame because we don't want that. I'm sure I clicking on it and going to delete. So I'm gonna select the paint, skin waits, tool and the geometry. I need to have the jump tree selected for that to ah kind of register, and I'm gonna get back to the shoulder. So now you can see why it's important to set those couple of keys, those two key frames. So now we can just stay here and go to different ranges of motion and affect the rig and the skin painted skin weights. I'm gonna go to this most jacked up pose here and make sure on replace and let's take the value toe one. And as soon as I start painting and see, it has a huge effect and it moves the Vergis ease in a pretty big direction, all right? And that this is just really rough just to show you how the tools work. So I'm gonna go back to smooth and then flood this and you can see how it greatly smooths out this region, right? Makes it much more smooth. So let's deal with the armpit here. We actually take the, ah, replace tool and actually go to a value of zero to kind of erase these values. But the opposite of of what you'd expect toe happen is happening where you can see that the instead of going back into the body, these verte Cesaire going further away, they're going up to the bicep. So that gives us an indication that when we're painting a zero on this. It has to replace that value of something, and it's replacing it with a joint that is already having some kind of influence on it. And now it's just giving it greater influence. Um, the more we tell the shoulder is zero. It has to replace it with something. So announce what my guess is it's saying the bicep. Now the bicep is getting more influence. So now we can go to the left arm bone and see if that's the case and we can see that is so . Now we can actually do a zero on this and what you'd expect it's happening now. The armpit is going back into the body, so this is kind of one way to troubleshoot and see how the joints are affecting the skin and, ah, the weights. So now we have ah, you know, decent kind of situation here, and we can smooth this out as well. I'll click smooth and flood this out, but the shoulder is still little wonky, and there's a very interesting tool that we can use called post based deformation. So I'm gonna get out of the tool settings here and with this arm post Still up here, we can, ah, kind of get an idea of how bad the deformation is. The shoulder should definitely not look like this. So let's go back to the default pose and let's select the joint that's going to be influencing that area, which is the shoulder or this upper arm joint. And let's go to to form post based information. And for this tool toe work, we want to make sure that we actually go into our Windows settings and preferences. Plug and Manager. Make sure the plug in is loaded for this. So I click on that and then you can scroll down to probably near the bottom. It's called Pose interpret later dot bundle. You wanna make sure these air checked on loaded and auto loaded, so that will make this tool actually work. So we need that first. So it's open of the pose editor and we get this new window and let's play around with this . Let's turn on, oppose editor and say create, oppose, and by default, I don't have the ah, the neutral poses being created. That might not be the case for you. Um, I did that online and I'm having a hard time finding how to, ah, get back to the default. But basically the default should be that it will create neutral poses here. If it doesn't, you can just do that from poses. Add neutral poses. So now we have a neutral pose. So it's basically saying, OK, this is home base. This is where headquarters is. You know where we're going, Teoh Always refer back to This is a good pose, right? This is the default neutral pose. So let's scrub forward and find the jacked up pose, which is up here and now. We can create a pose to fix this, OK, and it's basically going to do all of the set driven key stuff we've learned. It's basically do that on, ah, deformation level, right? It's gonna set up all that stuff behind the scenes. We don't have to touch any of that stuff, so let's create a pose with the joint. Selected will go to poses, add pose and open the option box and all that's final say add pose. And now we get the option to name the pose. I'll just say shoulder fix is the name of this, and this is an important deformation order thing here. Right? So if we say automatic, it may or may not choose the right one. So this is a very important menu, and you might need to play around with this because when I have been testing this, I get some very undesirable and useless results when I choose the wrong one. But in general, the way you want to think about this is what is the order of deformation is that I would like I would like number one for the bones to deform the geometry. That's number one number two. I want to correct that, right? I want to correct that deformation. So that has to happen after it. All right, So we need to choose something that's like, Post or after I've figured out that for this example after works. So I'm gonna say, create pose. Now we get this edit button is turned on its red, and we can see it's named after the joint. And what this means is isn't currently with this edit button on. We can select the bound mash to that joint and affect it and change it, and it will remember it based on the pose of this joint that's affecting it. Okay, so I'm in the sculpting tools, and I'm just going to quickly try to fix this a little bit. I'm gonna bring up the shoulder or bring in the armpit, and this is going to be very, very rough. I'm just gonna go in here and hold down, be in middle mouse drag, try to smooth this stuff out. Just a touch, bring up the center. Same thing on the ah sides here. Just want to bring all this stuff up, and then I can go through and smooth it real quick Holding down shift. If you've watched the first part of this course, you'll have some knowledge of the sculpting tools. So for the most part, this looks about a 1,000,000 times better already. Just in that couple of seconds of, you know, messing with this pose. So what we can do is save this by turning off editing here and click this button. So I'm gonna say, stop editing when I click that. Okay, So what? It's gonna dio as we scrub back through it should remember all of those changes we made. So any time that the arm gets back into that pose, it's going to fix it and it feels like there's muscle here, right? It feels like there's a trap trap. Uh, trapezius for you with this muscle is, um, and the deltoid here, right? It feels more fleshy and that this is organic and there's things moving under the skin like muscles and bones. So this is a really, really cool way to build in these deformation into the rig. So that will happen every time you animate the character and those poses Cool. Thanks for watching this video. And in the next lesson, we will jump back into finishing up rigging bones. So we'll have a animate herbal character that we can use in the later part of this course. Thanks for watching. 31. Bones Skin Body: all right, we're back and we're working on bones, and we're going to finish up some of the more simple parts, and then we're going to address an issue with the rotation of the form in the next video. So and this one, what we can do is go ahead. And I would encourage you to apply what you've learned from the post based affirmations. To do that to thes spine joints and make them more around it, right When they're in these kind of bent over and bent back poses, you go in here and say, you know, make this, uh, kind of be more of an arch instead of these kind of, Ah, very angular deformation is here. You could make that much more smooth with post based affirmations, so definitely encourage you to use what you've learned now. And you can do that in both directions, right? You could really make this spine look a lot better and kind of have the best of both Worlds have very few controls, but also have nice deformation. So let's take a look at what else we have to do. We need to get the chest working with the ribs So if we take a look at the joints here, we can see that where these connect up with the spine is the base of this joint. And they all connected this one. So we can pretty easily just parent all of those to this one joint. So I'm going to select all of these and I'm actually going to hit F in the outline or because I'm pretty sure all the ribs Oh, yeah, it's separated by left and right, so we can choose both of those. And then the sternum was holding down shift and clicking. Now we have everything, and now we can shift, click The last thing that we want a parent, everything to and then hit P and it should all go under there. So now let's test that. And now it is indeed working, and the sternum and the ribs are all following the spine is pretty cool. Nice. So now let's take a look at the collarbone and the scapula back here. I think we can just pretty easily parent those as well and test out that we could see that it doesn't deed work pretty well. They all pivot kind of from a good position, I think, and I don't crash into each other. So that's looking pretty good to the same thing over here. And, you know, pretty easy. Parent on the Bicep is Well, the one thing that I would maybe consider is let's see if we have the same thing. Problem with knees that we had on the, uh on the elbow here. So let's see. We have arm. And indeed, part of the form is crashing in. If we bend it like this, you can see this. This big piece here crashes in, so there's a couple different ways we can resolve that. Let's finish, uh, parenting all this stuff, and we'll get back to that. It's apparent those, let's make sure this is all working. And then we just parent, of course, all of the respective ah, finger joints to the bones here and I'll let you finish this out. And the next lesson we're going to fix the forearm and will be pretty much almost done with this except force. Ah, few kind of, ah, cool character stuff we're going to do for the face on the head. So I'll see in the next lesson where we will finish up the body and then we will work on the head. Thanks for watching 32. Fix Forearm Twist: in this lesson, we're gonna fix two issues with the forearm. The 1st 1 is the same issues the knee. When we move the hand, we can see that this bone crashes in through the elbow. So we need to adjust where the joint pivot is rotating from. So let's select both of these joints, and we'll actually on parent all of the bones first so that they don't get all wonky and ah , go everywhere. So all had shift p after selecting them. Which Willen parent them. I'm going to select both of these joints and I'm gonna make sure I'm on the world move manipulator option here, and I'm going to go to skin move skinned joints. Now we can see we have that tool selected and we could just move this pivot forward. Let's go to the top view, Um, Space bar, left click, Top view Let go. And now we can see kind of relationship. I'm looking from here to here, and we don't want to go on this side of that right? If I was to draw a straight line from here all the way through to this joint, I don't want this middle joint to go past that line. So I need to stay on this top side of that line. That imaginary line. I'm gonna drag these Ford just until that point. And now I can go back and parent all of these up again and test this out. So what? We have been parented. I can select the hand control and you can see it works much, much better. And I think that is a reasonable amount of crashing on this rig Teoh to be able to put up with. So I think that's fixed that issue. So the second issue we want address is the fact that when we rotate the wrists reflect the hand control here and we rotate the wrist. The form itself does not rotate. So take a second and look at your own forearm. Rotate your wrist, right, Rotate your wrist just like I'm rotating this and look and feel of what your actual form bones air doing that This is called the Radius and the ulna, and you'll notice that they twist that thes two n joints are stuck right there, stuck to the either end of this hand bone. And so when they rotate the hand rotates. These should stay stuck to the ends of that right, twists around each other there, and they kind of pivot from back here cause these stay stationary. But these ends follow the hand. So let's create a rig that will do that. So let's think about it. We need to have something for these to follow. All right. It can't follow the hand control because the pivot of the hand controls in between them. We need something that pivots and or is Ah, exactly where kind of center of these two ends are. So we need to create something new for that to happen. So let's create to locators go to create locator and we can turn on this little option here , it says snapped a projected center. So I'm gonna click that, and with W I'm gonna middle mouse drag and now the middle mouse drying. It's constantly trying to find the center of whatever object I'm middle mouse dragging in, so I'm gonna try to get it somewhere towards the end of the bone here, and I think that's good. I'm going to duplicate this and I'm going to Middle Mouse drag into the top center of this bone. And now I'm going to name those radius Aim, actually and all. No aim. And I'm gonna parent those under the hand control here some to select that and it p So now when we rotate this, we have to pivot points. Let me just turn off the polygons. You can see we have to pivot points here that rotate with the hand con that aren't in the center of it. That's very helpful. That's what we need. So now let's take a look at what we can do to kind of get Thies to constrain just to those points. If we were to do liken orient or apparent constraint, that's gonna do the entire bone and we don't want that. We just want it to pivot from this end back here, we can turn off this central. I'd snap thing now we wanted to pivot from back here and point towards those locators. So we need to learn about a new constraint. It's called the aim constraint. It does exactly what you think it would dio someone open this up, open the option box and let's take a look at this real quick Any time you see three things like that's three empty boxes or three boxes with numbers in them. You can reasonably assume that it means this is X. The middle one is why in this Z and you remember that based on the translate X, y and Z up here, my will always put these in in that order, right? Whenever you're kind of seeing it in a dialogue box, of course, the rotation order that we learn about earlier that's something totally different and weaken set that order ourselves. But when you see it in a menu like this, you can reasonably assume this is X. This is why and this is Z, even though it doesn't say that here, that's what these three boxes indicate. Okay, so what this is saying is the aim vector is one. It's in the positive wa x right x y z So this is X. So if we take a look at the bone and we see which way is pointing positive X, that is the arrow the red arrow is pointing, right? So that's correct. We wanted toe aim in that direction. So the default is correct. The up vector is why positive? Why this is That's fine by me, and that is pretty much all we need to make sure is oriented correctly. So let's select the locator first and then the joint and instead apply. Now let's do the same for the other will select the locator and then the joint and I'd apply. And now let's rotate the risk on and we can see like I just get super excited over the simplest stuff. I love this stuff. We can see that this is actually rotating around each other in it, and it looks kind of frickin believable how bones rotate. I just love stuff like this. Now you can click a couple buttons and then you've recreated what a human does. Um, so that's pretty awesome. So the next lesson we're going to address the head and how we can add a little more expression to that model. Thanks for watching 33. Bones Head Blendshapes: in this lesson. We're gonna clean up the head the first time you take a look at the neck. If we click on the net Control and we rotated around, we can quickly see that it doesn't follow the neck joint exactly 100%. So this is a case where we need to go in and adjust the skin waits on this part of the geometry. So what? The jump tree selected will go into skin paint, skin weights, and we need to open up the tool settings here so we can see the bones neck, and we can pretty easily see that this is pretty great out and it's not 100%. So we want to attribute this on 100% to the neck joint. So a quick way that we can do that. We could paint that, but let me show you one other way. Now that we have ah, little more knowledge of how things work, let me show you one new way. I'm gonna go to the Verdecia option here by right clicking and dragging over the Vertex. And I'm gonna select everything that I want to follow the neck joint. I want to undo that because it's trained us like the neck joint. Someone click this little button that says Don't select joints. I'm gonna try that selection one more time, and now I'm going to go into the Windows Component editor. And if we drag this out, we can see smooth skins over here. And what this is is a table telling you exactly the influence of each joint. On each of these vortex, we can see a Vertex with a number, and it's basically saying it's 50 50. Um, for most of these, we can scroll through and see all of them. But what we can do that is much quicker than painting because we know we want them to be. 100% is just click the top one and then shift. Click the bottom one and now type of one and very quickly. Now, if we go back into the paint skin waits tool here and go to object mode, right clicking, going to object mode, we go to the paint skin weights, trying get to from the most recent used tool here. You can see now everything that I had selected is totally white because it's 100%. So let me go into the tool real quick, and I'm just going to smooth out this neck joint so you can watch this get smooth here over this one joint when I flood that and then we smooth that out. Let's go back Teoh con the comptroller of the next joint and see that it is 100% controlled by that joint, right? That's pretty close to what we want. We can adjust this more. We could, um you know how that be a smoother transition. So it's not over one joint, but you get the idea. This is a pretty cool way to go through that spreadsheet. Instead of visually having to paint things and not entirely know if it's 100% on that one joint, we can just tell it. Hey, you're 100% your 1.0 ah, going to follow that joint. So now we have that resolved. Let's let's actually now constrain the head geometry to this head control, because we the way we rigged it up, we know the head control already works. Just the Heggem tree isn't hooked up to it yet, So let's find the had jumped tree in the Outlander biting F, and we can see there's also that plane back here. Um, but let's make a group just for the head. So I'm going to hit Command G and call us the head group, and I'm going to constrain the group to the head control. So select the head control first and then the head group and then go to constrain Parent Constrained. So now we can see that the head is indeed constrained to that control. So kind of magical. Part of what we're gonna learn in this video is about blend shapes and what blend shapes. Our blend shapes are basically a way to deformed geometry based on a sculpt. It's kind of like post based informations, but it's a little different. Posts based affirmations came after blend shapes, blend shapes historically came first, and then they develop post space deformation. Actually, fairly recently, Um, but blend shapes is kind of the original D former right, and it's very useful still. So let's duplicate out the head and we'll drag it over here, and I'm just gonna delete the eye mask here because we don't need that. We just want the head geometry and going to drag this over, and I'm going to shift select the original head. I'm go going to go to deform and go down to blend shape. It's the 1st 1 Open up the option box And let's name this buffer B s for blend shape, all right, and all. That's fine. And will it create? So what this is is basically going to be the intermediary between the original head and all of the blend shapes that we're gonna make over here. Okay, they're gonna filter through this one thing so we can turn this on. We can see now we have an input of buffer B s over here on the inputs so we can click that and we can see has head one, and that's named for the geometry. This is head one, and we can turn that from a zero to a one from middle Mouse drag in the view port and turned up the one. So watch what happens just real quick. So you kind of get an idea of what this is gonna slight some vergis ease and it be, and I'm gonna yank them around, and now you can see that it affects the geometry. So why is this important? Because it looks like it's doing Why don't we just do this directly to the thing? Well, the difference is we could do this and then on the blend shaped buffer B s here, we could just turn it off. So what we're gonna do is apply those types of deformation to the buffer head and they're going all filter down instead of having to turn on, you know, 20 different things. We could have one controller through the buffer head so we can turn them all on her off if we want to. And it's just a nice kind of way to organize blend shapes. So I'm going to duplicate this head out again, and I'm gonna move this over a little bit so we can tell it's it's not the buffer blend shape. Actually duplicate this out a few times, and I'm basically going to model on these different types of poses that I want. So in the most obvious case, I think would be to trade a blink. So I'm going to go to edge mode and I'm gonna double click on an edge here. I'm gonna hit be to turn off soft, select. And I'm going to select the kind of middle and the inner one. I want to do that on both sides and I'm gonna hit, be to turn on soft, select and just kind of scroll that out a little bit. And I'm just going to try to make a blink real quick. So I just scale that down and I actually turned on Ah, down here holding down our left clicking I can say prevent negative scale. So I just bring that down and not have to worry about it going through itself So it will stretch the textures that something you need to be aware of. So the textures air obviously going to stretch. But you know, that's that's the price you have to pay for this. Ah, deformation. So now what? Weaken Dio. We could have the blink. Let's have maybe let's even have it be a wider I. So let's make that same selection and expand the ah so we can scale this up. I might even just go straight up and down and maybe increase the soft selection area here. Go straight up and down and maybe de select some of this so we can scale in towards the bridge of the nose a little bit. So now we have ah, wide eyed. We have a blink. We can make a new brow shape. We could do a lot of different things. Let me just choose these two and I'll drag them up will be limited by kind of a texture, a little bit here to change the brow shapes. It'll be a little more challenging because we're kind of fighting against the shape of the texture that we drew. But it's still definitely possible Teoh affect this stuff and just kind of taking a look at all directions here to make sure it's kind of, say, staying true to form a little bit. So basically, what we can do is when we have a ah, a point that we like. Let me just I'm gonna duplicate one more and have an angry face. So now we have four different models that we can select all of them at once and now apply as a blend shape to the buffer head. So let's go back up to to form blend shape and we'll call this expressions and before we do that. Actually, let's call this blink wide. I highbrow and angry. And I'm gonna do one more just for fun and want to call that extra. And I'm gonna select all of these and shifts like the head and call these expressions. I m ahead apply. So now what's happened is on the buffer blend shape. We have this input called expressions and we have each model represented in an animate a ble layer here. So now we can get the head toe actually animate, and we could use multiple ones of these together. So it's pretty cool. And we're gonna learn a little bit more about how to animate thes and ah in the animation part. But it's fun to just play around with this stuff, and you could separate this out. You could have, you know, do one blink for the left eye, blink for the right eye and separate. You could go really deep on this stuff. You could have a ton of blend shapes. And this is how in big feature films, how they create different facial, different facial expressions, and they can have, you know, 100 of these things arm or even to capture what a human face would do. So play around with that and then I'm going to I think, at this stage of the game, if you've made it this far in the course, I think you can go back and create your own attributes. Goto add attribute, and then create a set driven key of the expressions. Right, Set driven key. And I'm gonna leave that up to you as homework to make a set driven key on. Ah, add new attributes to the head control. All right, that is gonna be the homework for this. I feel like you made it this far. You should be able to do that. And if you can't, then you need to go back and re watch the set driven key lesson and then you'll be able to do that. So just toe to bake this in your mind, I want you to have to do that yourself. Otherwise, I don't think he will learn as much. So we can hide all of this stuff and we can always come back to it and change these models as well. Okay, but they're all in this head group, so we can just group them together and call these Bs from blend shape and just hit hide. So go through and make those set driven keys. And in the next lesson, we're just going to clean up this rig so it's gonna be ready for animation and then we'll be done with this part of the longer course here. Thanks for watching. 34. Bones Cleanup: In this lesson, I just want to talk through a little bit about what the final stages of rigging are. Before we begin, I wanted to include this update about how to include the head and the scale, because since we've created the entire rig, there's one little piece missing to make the whole thing scalable. At the beginning, early on we included all the cons in a group and then we scale constraint that, but we miss the geometry that had because that came afterwards in a later lesson. Let's include that now. We can click the Geo of the head and hit F and outline or to find it, and we can see that it's under this head group here. The head group is only parent constraints. It's parent constraint to this con, so it's not going to follow the scale of anything. We need to include a scale constraint on this head group. Let's select the bones route, because we wanted to scale relative to that, and let's select the head group by holding down Control and left clicking, and then go to Constrain under the animation menu here, and we can go down to scale. Now we can see that we've added a scale constraint to this group and when we scale the bones route, the head will follow. Let's get into the rest of the lesson. In this course, super congratulations that you've made it this far. If you're listening to this video, you're in the top one percent and I wouldn't think most people even get this far. It's a technical topic, but it's invaluable. It has to be done in animation, like you can't animate things without rigging. This is incredibly important and even if you don't want to go into rigging specifically, it's important to know as an animator or as really any other specific tract in the industry, whether it's games, film, commercials, or whatever it is, having any background in rigging is very, very valuable. Even though I'm strictly an animator, usually at my studio jobs, I find myself having to rig my own things. Let's say that the rigor mess something up or you have a scene where you need the prop to be built a certain way and the rigor is way underwater. They have too much work and they can't get to it, it'll take a week or two for them to get to your request. If you have any knowledge of rigging, you can just do it yourself and keep going and keep moving and work fast and be very valuable to a studio job if you have just a little bit of generalists knowledge like this. This last lesson, I just want to go through and tidy everything up so that this is ready for animation and you understand what an animator will want. What an animator will want is to not see any joints. There's a couple different ways we can do that. Because we used parenting, we can't just straight up hide them because it would hide the geometry that the joints were parented to. For example, if we just hide this joint, it's going to hide all of the geometry there. We don't want that to happen. Real quick, I just want to add this part in. You could actually hide the bones, it's possible, but it's a little tedious. You can select a bone, go into the attribute editor and then go down to draw style, and you can choose none. It'll hide that joint, but you'll have to do it for every joint in here and go to draw style, none. Another way would be to actually go through the spreadsheet that we've already learned about when we were adjusting the skin weights on the spine. If we go to Select and we go all by type and then choose the joints. Let's go up to the Windows, general editors and go down to the attribute spreadsheet that we've gone to before. Now if we go over to All, we should be able to get to the draw style over here, under joint. Let's scroll through this and see if we can find that option so we can affect all of them at the same time. Over here we have the draw style, and we can select all of this and go to the bottom and shift click the bottom, and type in none and hit "Enter". That way we have hidden all of the joints through the attribute spreadsheet. One other thing I wanted to do was to show you the fact that when we're animating this thing later, we may not want to give the animator access to all of these controls, namely the visibility and the scale controls. You can actually hide controls from here, we could select the scale controls, go to Channels and scroll down to hide selected. We can get rid of those because those aren't going to be useful for the animator, they're not going to scale this control at all. It's actually just getting in the way and making this area more complicated than it needs to be. We can also get that stuff back by going to Edit and going down to the Channel control and we can select which ones we want keyable and nonkeyable hidden. There's a long list of other attributes that we don't actually see there, and the ones that we hid were the scale. We could select those by shift clicking them and moving them over into the keyable, and now they're back. That's the way to control what's actually seen over here and to tidy up your rig in the case that you don't really want to show the scale for most of these controls. The other thing that we can do is get rid of the locators, we have a bunch of locators there. There's one nice tool we can go to Select all by type. Let's just tear this off and let's choose the IK Handles, and let's hide all of those, Control H. Unfortunately the locators, you can't select them from here. We can just select them from the rig, we know where they are. There's one on the head and then these couple on the hands here and the one on the head, and I think that's all if I'm remembering correctly. That one's fine. Let's hide those with Control H and we can also get rid of the curve. I don't know if you remember, I never really addressed the fact that from the modeling section we left this curve available to edit. In here somewhere there's a spine curve, we can just delete that whole thing. We can tidy that up and for the most part, that's all you need to do. But one really nice thing to do is to put all this stuff on a display layer. Let's grab everything that's not a con. We can grab the, actually we can just do it from the joints. Let's select all by type the joints again and then we can even select the spine. We can see what's not selected and go through and select this stuff. Let's hit the head and we got everything, we just want to make sure that no controls are selected. Then we'll go to the display menu over here. Here on the bottom right, you can click this far a button and it'll take any selection that we currently have, and I'll add it to a new display layer. I'll click that, and what this does is we can say NoTouch, call it bones in case there's multiple rigs in the scene and you can see the name and we can turn everything on and off really quickly. But what's more useful is to turn this to R, which means a reference. What that means is, I can't select this stuff when it has the R on, which means a reference. The other thing the animator is probably going to do as soon as they open the scene is go to Show and turn off joints. That's how they'll control whether or not they see the joints, and for your peace of mind, you'll know that they aren't going to be animating the joints or the geometry themselves. If they want to, all they have to do is just hit this R button over here and now they have access to that, that's pretty cool. We can hit "R" again, and now we're back to that mode. I do just want to say a final congratulations on finishing this section of the course. It's a lot to cover, and this definitely isn't an exhaustive rigging course, this is definitely just meant to introduce beginners to it. I think it's done a pretty good job but there's always more to learn and that will never change, that's the one consistency. I don't care who you are, there's always going to be something to learn. Just keep that mindset and keep going forward, and I look forward to seeing you in the next part of this course. We'll continue learning 3D animation and Autodesk Maya. Thanks for watching.