Maya for Beginners: 3D Modeling | Lucas Ridley | Skillshare

Maya for Beginners: 3D Modeling

Lucas Ridley, Instructor and Animator

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33 Lessons (6h 28m)
    • 1. Course Overview New

    • 2. Download Maya Free Trial

    • 3. Interface Intro

    • 4. Manipulators And Movement

    • 5. Intro To 3D Modeling

    • 6. Ghostbuster Trap

    • 7. GB Trap - Insert Edge, Extrude, Append

    • 8. GB Trap - Bevel, Normals

    • 9. GB Trap - Booleans

    • 10. GB Trap - Knob Motion Path

    • 11. GB Trap - Front, Merge Vertices

    • 12. GB Trap - Front, Doors

    • 13. GB Trap - Cord

    • 14. Topology - Line Flow

    • 15. Topology - Reducing Even Numbers

    • 16. Topology - Reducing Odd Numbers

    • 17. Bones - Image Plane Setup

    • 18. Bones - Box vs Edge Modeling

    • 19. Bones - Make Live Tool

    • 20. Bones - Sculpting

    • 21. Bones - Eye Socket Edge Loops

    • 22. Bones - Eye Attach

    • 23. Bones - Nose

    • 24. Bones - Cleaning Topology

    • 25. Update: Retopo Remesh Tools

    • 26. Bones - Mirroring Head

    • 27. Update: Mirror Tool

    • 28. Bones - Lattice Deformer

    • 29. Bones - Spine Wire Deformer

    • 30. Bones - Ribs Bend Deformer

    • 31. Bones - Sternum

    • 32. Bones - Right Side Body

    • 33. Bones - Mirror

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About This Class

Welcome to the first part in a series of Maya for Beginners. Take one or any of the parts in any order you wish! You don't have to take them in order or more than one to understand them all, but it will definitely help!

This course is for someone who has no prior experience and wants to learn Maya. If you have felt intimidated and unsure if you can learn 3D software then I have made this course for you.

My name is Lucas Ridley, I recently worked on films like Avenger's: Infinity War, Ready Player One, and Transformers: The Last Knight as an animator. I can remember what it's like to struggle learning 3D software because it hasn't been that long ago that I started. I will show you the most important aspects of the software through project-based learning in over 6 hours of content.

This first part is focused on 3D Modeling so you will have a foundation in the software and begin to feel comfortable navigating around. We will focus on two main projects while we learn by modeling a Ghostbuster's trap and a skeleton character 'Bones.' With these projects, you will have two models you will be able to show off your new skills. We will also be using these models in the next parts of this course's series. I will also spend some time discussing not only the 'how' to make models but also the 'why' we are doing it this way so you will be able to get an idea and model it yourself!

I am providing a Maya scene file for each video lesson so you can jump around or skip lessons if you'd like and use my scene files to pick up where you want in the course. Follow along with my scene files or make your own!

Thanks for beginning your journey with me. This software has given me a career in the film industry and I want to share my knowledge with you because I know what it's like to start. So let's get going! 

Download your FREE trial of Maya here!


1. Course Overview New: Hi. My name is Lucas Ridley, and this is my new course, Maya for beginners. And in this section, we're gonna be learning about three D modeling. I have experience working on movies like The New Avengers, Infinity War, Ready Player One Transformers, Suicide Squad and I've worked on commercials for Clash of Clans. And this is the experience that you will be drawing from toe Learn this software and three D animation. There will be more sections to come as I complete them, but I want to start with three D modeling because it's kind of the basis for learning three D software. And in this case, it's Autodesk Maya, which is the industry standard for animation and visual effects. Every studio I've worked at uses this software, So if you're serious about learning Maya, but you've never opened a three D program or you've always thought it's too hard and too complicated, this course is for you. I go through step by step all the tools that are most important. This is for the complete beginner, someone who has no experience in Maya or any three D package. This is something that I wish I had before. I went to film school. I don't know if I even would have gone to film school to learn three D animation. If I had a course like this, and through this course, we're going to be doing all kinds of cool stuff and making all kinds of cool things. By the end of it, you're gonna have a level of comfort with the software that you will be able to do many, many things. You will kind of have a generalised background, and so if you get an idea, you'll be able to create it. And just this first section is about three D modeling. So come along with me and let's start this journey and learning a three D software package , which is the industry standard auto desk miles. You'll have access to every file that I'm using and then you're watching in this course. So if you want to skip a couple classes and move ahead, you will have the Miocene file to use for each of these video lessons. Thanks for watching, and I'll see in the course 2. Download Maya Free Trial: really quickly wanted to show you where you can get a free trial of Maya. So it's totally free, and you can have it free for one month or what? I highly, highly recommend. If you are student right now, you can get this software free for three years. This is huge. This is so huge, right? Even if you aren't gonna finish this course right now, whatever take advantage of this. Um, definitely, definitely. Do this. It's a full version of Maya. It will just say every time you open up the scene file, it will say, you know, this is a student version, and that's it. But it's a full version of Maya. Definitely. Do this. If your students somewhere, um, I think you might have to have ah dot et you address email address or something to prove your student, our cinema, your student, I d but do that if you're a student at a university or school somewhere, otherwise you can get it for one month for free, and then you can move into a subscription basis and just pay each month that you actually use it instead of one big one big payment. So they might move the URL around. But I'll include this in the about section of the course, so you can just click the Link or Google Free Trial of Maya, and it should take you to auto desks website and you can download that they're now let's get started in the next lesson. 3. Interface Intro: welcome to this first lesson in Maya, where we're going to cover the interface. It's the first thing you see when you open my so it's good to get familiarized with it, and as you go through this course, you will become more and more familiar with it and comfortable using it. But it's a great place to start just so that we know what we're looking at, because it's easy to get intimidated when you're first starting to learn three d. I know I was when I opened up a program, and you see all of these buttons and all of these menus, and you have no idea what's important, what's not. And it just looks like some crazy alien interface and where to even begin with that. So that's why I have this lesson. You refer back to it, but it's also just kind of to ease your fears right, like you're not gonna need to learn every single little button and menu option here to be successful in Maya and use it. I'm gonna show you the things that we use the most, and in this interface I'm gonna show you kind of how to visually categorize these things, So you can kind of No Okay, I'm probably not going to use this so visually, I don't need to worry about kind of that chaos of all these buttons up here, So let's just kind of taken overall. Look at this. Normal When you open up, Maya, you're gonna get some type of a view like this and you can see down here that it says P E R S p and that tells us the camera view that were viewing in the view port. And that's what this middle section is here. This is called the View port and you can see the axes down here on the lower left. You can see why is up and Z is kind of to the left. And so this is where we're going to see everything that's happening in our scene and down here we have a timeline for when we start animating weaken, scrub this, we can play it over here. We can set it toe loop back several times by clicking that we can turn on auto key. Turn that off, change the frame range all of these things. But typically when I'm using this, I use it just like this. I scrub, I look and then I can change frame, range, clicking and dragging that or typing in numbers here. And these two numbers actually just mean the kind of in and out points of what we're looking at versus the whole scene, right? So you can see we can't can kind of adjust this and slide this around, but it doesn't change the first number, and that's why that's kind of the absolute values of the in and out of the scene. But we can temporarily change that kind of scale so we can see you know, a smaller scale of the timeline. So it's easier to scrub a smaller section if it's a very big shot or something like that. And if you double click it, it will jump out to the whole thing and maximize to the entire length of the frame range that you've said. So that's the bottom part, and you can see down here in the bottom left. This will be very helpful. As you're starting, this will display short help tips and tools and selection. So if I'm going up here and I don't know what this is and I hover over it. I'll get a tool tip that will pop up. But if you're looking in the lower left as well, it will say the same thing. So if you're a little impatient for the tool tip to pop up, you can just look in the lower left and you can see as I scrubbed my mouse through. I'm not clicking anything. I'm just hovering over. Everything you can see is showing me what each one of these tools is named and what they dio. And if you leave it over there, you know the tool tip will also pop up. So that's one quick way to figure out what all these little things do appear. Don't worry about what each one of them does yet we'll get into that later. But just know you know these air different tabs for different kind of sections, and these sections are also kind of related to these different drop down menus. Here, Maya tries to organize the menus into different disciplines so you can see modeling rigging animation. It's all separated into their own menu sets because typically, if you're doing one, you're not really gonna be doing the other and in a production. Normally this is kind of the linear workflow of how things are made. Anyways, first model something, then you rig it. You animated, for example you can't really animate something that doesn't exist, so you have to model it first. And if you're gonna rig it, then you need to rig a before animation. So it's just kind of they try to do it in a way, an order that makes sense for how you're gonna create things, animate things and render things. That's why these air ordered the way they are. And you can see that they change the menu options up here. But only after Windows. You can see watch windows. And as I change the options, Windows stays the same. So everything from file the windows is never gonna change. And everything after that will and a lot of these things. So I'm in the animation tab here in the drop down menu and I'm on the animation shelf here and you can see there's play Blast. There's different kind of options and a lot of those things are also here soon. See play Blast is here as well. That's the same icon. It's the same tool tip. So even though there's all these different buttons, they actually just put them in more than one place. So it makes it look more complicated than it is because the same option is put in several different places. So, for example, with play Blast, I could actually even right click on the timeline down here, and it's off the screen. But if you do this on your and your Maya, you can go down to the bottom. You can see an option for play blast again. So play Blast, for example, is in three different places. So you know, this is also another reason why not to get overwhelmed while these options, because visually it looks like there's a ton of him. But really, they're just the same ones over and over in different ways. You know, depending on how you wanna work or select options are menus or how you want to select tools . Then they try to give you a Zeman E options as you want to really, which is a little too much. Typically, you're only ever gonna, you know, use this up here or the shelf. It's whatever you're comfortable with. I find it kind of hard to remember what each one of these icons are. And then toe wait for the, you know, tool tip to pop up. Typically what? I'm going through the menu up here, and I'm not using this as much, but it's definitely nice toe have sometimes on a couple different things. Like, you know, in this course, I'm probably gonna make you know, a couple spheres just to show you how things work. We'll get into manipulating things in the next lesson. But, um, you know, besides that, I don't really use the shelf options all that much. So now that we have this kind of shelf option and some of these menu things covered, let's look at what's in between them. We can see this, you know, drop down money that we talked about. Then there's all these buttons up here, and they all do different types of things that were going to get into a lot later. So for right now, just know that you don't really have to worry about any of these things and will slowly cover these later. These aren't super super important and getting started, So we're just gonna skip them now for the interface. Don't worry about thes. So the next kind of thing. We want to look at our these different windows as well. So we have, you know, a blank window here we have blank window here. They have their own little tabs here. And then there's these tabs on the side. So again it seems like there's a ton of options, but it's it's really not. So, for example, with this tab, this can actually be, you know, close down by clicking it or double clicking at the Open it back up. But if you noticed here, this little button gets highlighted and unhygienic as we're clicking it. So is the same thing we were talking about earlier. The play blast. It's just a different way to select kind of menu options here, so you can do it from a pier or you can do it from this tab so you can see the modeling toolkit would go back to the attributes or we could select over here. So why this is significant is because if I create a sphere, this is gonna tell me the name. It's gonna tell me where it is in space Is it on is invisible and the history of the object and any inputs there are so I can see what the inputs are. So this is kind of a quick way to see what's the status of this object where it is. If I go to the attribute editor, I can kind of see this information displayed a little bit differently, so I can see you know, translate is all zero. If we go back to the Channel box, we can see that's shown here as well, just the same thing showing twice, like were talking about earlier. We want help simplify this stuff in your mind so you don't feel like that. You know, this is something different than this. It's not. It's the same thing. It's just in a different place. So just to kind of emphasize this again, I wanted to show you something that I use quite a bit. If you hold down space bar, you will get the hot box menu what my calls the hotbox menu, and I'm holding down space bar and I have all of the menu options available to me. You might be able to tell that is ordered the same exact way that the tabs over here ordered. So modeling you can see mesh mesh, edit, mesh, edit, mesh, mesh tools, mesh tools and so on and so on. You can see rigging, animation effects and rendering. That's exact same way this is laid out over here. So it's just a quicker way to get to. All of these menus is by holding down space bar, and I use that quite a bit. It took me a couple of years to get used to it and actually use it, because I think it does take a little familiarity with Maya to feel comfortable with this. But the senior used this. The quicker you'll be in Maya, and I would highly encourage you to use this instead of having to hunt around for stuff up here and changing menus. You can get everything right here by holding down space bar, so that's a pretty useful tip that ah, I think, will be useful even more later. Now that we know what the channel boxes and the difference with the attribute editor, let's jump over to this section. We can see the View Port has its own options and If you have over each one of these objects , you also get the tool tip. And so I won't go over each one of these because, to be honest there, not very helpful as a beginner starting out. These aren't really that important, but I didn't want to talk about the different views in Maya. So if I don't hold down Space Warner, just tap it. You can see I get multiple views and typically what you'll see. Just click this over here is something like this when you're just starting out Maya. So if I hit space bar again with my mouth just hovering over a different window, I'm not clicking anything with my mouth. I can jump into those views, and you can see what the views are by the camera name, top Y front Z Side X perspective. And so we can jump between different perspective use. If we need to see something top down and modeling, we can do that. So that's one quick way to divide up the screen as well. So if we wanted to revive the screen in a different way, we could go to panels layouts, and we can say two panes side by side. And that's what I had earlier that you saw, because this is the way I like to animate sometimes so I can get back to the perspective. You've just by hitting space bar and these kind of buns over here just kind of like short cuts to these different mo's as well. Instead of eating space bar, you can kind of jump through, and one of the last things I want to talk about is the outlier and outline er you're gonna have open and spend a lot of time and because it's basically a table of contents of what's in your scene, you can see that we have these different cameras that we saw earlier when we were in the kind of four view set up, and they're all great cause they're hidden. We can actually see them in the interface so we can see the the peace Fear one. And that's one way that we can select this object or weaken, selected just by clicking it left mouse clicking. So that's kind of two ways dislike things you, either through the outline er or through the View port. So that is a quick rundown on the interface. I hope you got you a little more familiarized with what you're looking at when you open up Maya. It's not as intimidating as it seems. And if you follow along with this course, you'll just pick up these things and so that I won't have to walk through each little button kind of in a dry way. We'll take a project based approach so that you'll get more familiar with the interface as we go along. So thanks for watching. And I'll see in the next lesson where we will briefly cover manipulators and how to move stuff around. And Maya, thanks for watching. 4. Manipulators And Movement: welcome back, and let's quickly cover how to move things around. And Maya, there's a couple things understand, especially in three D. That's important. And so let's jump right in and cover that from the previous lesson. I still have this fear here. If you don't have that, I can just delete that. And we can go up here to this polygon sphere and click that you can also get to it by going to create pulling on primitives and sphere. One other thing that's kind of fun with these menus is you can actually tear them off so you can see there's this little option here if I hover my mouse just above this. And most menus have this. This one has it. You know, most all of these menus have this little option here. So if I knew was gonna make a lot of primitives, a lot of spheres or something, just as an example, I can just click that and I'll have this kind of menu torn off. So now I can just click this a bunch of times, and if I open up my outline, er, when does outline? Er I can see I made a bunch of Sears really need. Once I'm gonna shift, select all of those, blow it and hit delete and I'll select this fear here. I'm also gonna click and drag this out liner and let it over here and let go So little kind of docket in the window here Gonna close this menu that I had hovering and no, I could get back to it, you know, appear if I want. Now that we have this fear, you can see that there's these kind of squares and different things going on here. So let's take a look. The way that we manipulate things in Maya is basically through several different tools, one of which is you may have already seen by hitting Q. You can get to the select tool or you select it up here. It's just the cursor option. I can select the object here just by left mouse clicking. I can also select it from the outline or here. So we've got the object selected, but I want to move it. How do I move it? I can hit W on my keyboard to pull up the shortcut for the manipulator. I can also select it over here, you see the move tool is what the tool tip says, and you can see as well that in parentheses, it says W so we can also see the shortcut is listed there. So now with the sphere selected and if you notice even with even with the move tool selected, I can select different objects. You don't always have to have the select tool selected to select new things. You can have the move tool selected, and you can still select stuff so you can also click and drag to select things in a group. So now that we have this one thing, let's move it around. I can click any access and will be isolated to that axis on. Do that and you can see it's isolated because the axes manipulator turned yellow. If I click the vertical one, it turns yellow or the Z axis. It also turns yellow. So now I know no matter if my mouse is going up and down or something weird, that it's only gonna go along that access. But if I want to have a free movement, I can just click in the middle and move the thing around wherever I want it. The other thing I can do is isolate on two axes. And that's what these little squares are here that I can you know. No, I'm Onley, moving it in the vertical and X axis. I use a little. I used these quite a bit, actually, because in three D space it's hard to tell where you're moving something sometimes. So you know, it's hard to tell if that's actually vertically up or if I moved it back in space. So by selecting these, you can tell that I'm not moving it up. I'm moving it in the X and Z on this flat plane, this cred. And if you can't see the script for some reason, if didn't default to that, you can also turn that on here or turn it off. If it's distracting, that's just one of these little options appear. So now that we know how to move things around, let's rotate it so we're gonna e on the keyboard, and similarly, we can find it over here in this little tool box window, and you can actually turn off these options from Windows you elements, and you could turn off the toolbox. Now you can see that disappears. You find yourself not using those. It's nice to turn them off and you have more screen real estate for the view port. But for now, since we're all beginners and we're just starting out, let's leave that up. So I'll go back to the you I elements meaning user interface, and I'll go down the toolbox and bring that back. So with the rotation, it's very similar that we can isolate different axes and they turn yellow and we can click in the middle here and have a free form option. One thing to keep in mind is because we're working on three D. Watch the X axes if I click the SEAQ season and dragged the red one down. Now the red one is where the green one used to be. Did you see that? So I just undid it. So right now, the green one is kind of going around, and if I bring the X axes the red one down now that's replaced it. So who's to say which axes is which now? Because before I rotated it, the green one was down here, the Y axes, but now because I rotated Z the exit axes is down here. So this option, this kind of view that we're seeing is based on the object, right? Because the object is rotating, the axes are changing, and that's something very important to keep in mind because that will be important later in animation stuff. So just keep that in mind that because now we're in three D. These things actually kind of matter, and we can control them in different ways if we hold out E, which is a shortcut for rotation. If we hold Downey on her keyboard and then click left mouse click, we can drag to the world option. So now you can see the manipulator pop back to have the green going around here like it was before, even though the object is rotated. So what this is saying is we're now rotating based on the world axes, which never changed, right? So even when we move an object around and see, the manipulator itself is not changing, so we can always have the option, even if an object is rotated weird to isolate based on the world axes, we just need to change that by holding down E and clicking and choosing this option. If we go back to object, you can see it's still kept all those changes. And now, based on the Objects rotation, we can see that the axes air moving all around, and and so that's just something to keep in mind for later. So we get an animation. This this will be important, and I explain later in animation why that is important. So the other thing that that just for myself, I like to do as I like to only ever stay on the channel box unless I'm doing something very specific because you can see this attribute editor here. You can see it says, Actually, editor, right here on the side. It takes up a ton of room. There's just a lot of stuff going on, and we don't need it. And so I like to keep the channel box of them because now we can see the values. We can zero them out. We can click and drag them and then zero and zero everything out. This is way more useful when we're moving stuff around than the ash read editor. I'm also can slide that down to free up more space for the view port. So similarly to the rotation axes being different. The move axes can also be different. It's right now you can see even though the object is rotated, the axes are pointing relative to the world. So if we hold down W Similarly like we held down E earlier, we hold down W and left click. We get the same option, right world object. So now we can see it's following the rotation, so it's following the object axes now. So that's just two different ways to manipulate the same object based on its own. Axes are based on the world axes, so that's important. The final thing we're gonna talk about is the scale. If you are or you go over here and click the scale button or the scale tool and you weaken scale uniformly, we can also scale on axes, and that's pretty straightforward. So we've gotten this far and we haven't moved around anything. How do we move around? So we have an object. Now let's move around it. I want to zoom into it, how I zoom in I can mouse scroll, which I don't use that much But the other option I have is all down Ault and right Click and then drag my mouse and you can see I'm doing the same thing. I was giving it out, and this is why you need a three button mouse. Because now, if you click and hold the middle mouse button, I can pan around. And then if I still holding Ault, if I left click, I can rotate around an object. So with the combination of these three things, I can do all sorts of moves and zoom in on things and say, I get way out here and I can't really see what I'm working on. I can click and drag and select the thing. I can select it from the outline er and then I could hit F so it had F and I jumped back to the selection that I have, and now I'm free toe move around again and do all that. You can also get to that option from the View menu here and go to view frame selection. One other thing that's very helpful is look at selection. So, for example, if we're over here, I'm rotating around. I'm not rotating around the object anymore. And why is that? That's because my center of interest iss somewhere over here and I cant rotator on the object. So if I want to rotate around the object, I can go look at selection. So the position of the camera didn't change, but now it's just rotated looking at the selection, and now I can pivot around that object. So that's one way to help control your camera. And if your camera gets too crazy, you can always select it from here. Select camera, which is whatever camera this view port is will select. It can also select it from the outline because we know it's purse being. See on here pr SP purse perspective and you can see now we have all the values here, and we could just zeros out if things got too crazy. And of course, now we're inside the sphere cause we're at zero world space, and now you can see I'm rotating from some crazy point out there. I can select my object, it f and now I'm rotating around it and I'm back. So that's a quick introduction on how to move, scale, rotate and move the camera around. Thanks for watching, and I'll see in the next lesson 5. Intro To 3D Modeling: welcome to the first class and three D modeling and the reason why I structured it this way . To have three D modeling at the beginning of this complete beginners Siri's is because simply we need something toe work with later. So we might as well learn modeling upfront at the beginning so that we can use models later down the course and have an understanding of what modeling is and why it's important. So to get going, I wanted first to describe some concepts about three D modeling suit. You can begin to understand how to approach three D modeling kind of from a theoretical standpoint, so that you know what tools to use and how to approach whatever project that you come up with in your imagination and projects down the line and all that kind of a thing. So let's take a look, at example, that I have created all of these seen files that I'm working in our available to you for downloads. So this one might not be that useful, cause it's pretty basic, but it's gonna be made available to you to download, so you gonna fall along or open it up and dissect it and see what is inside. So I'm gonna show you an example that I made real quick so we can cover two important concepts. Hard verse, organic modeling. So when I first described this, you can probably already guess what it means, especially by looking at these two examples, and let me first quickly cover a couple little tricks that I like to use in my view port so we can look at this a little better. I don't know if it shows up in your video, but the edges of all of these polygons are not super smooth. They're kind of jagged, and they're not anti alias, as we like to say. Technically so, there's actually an anti alias button here that you can turn on for the view port, and it is this little one right here. If I hover over it and you can look at the bottom left and it says multi sample anti a leasing and then the tool tip will also pop up. So if we press that and you can follow along and do this near Vieux Port, you can see that this is just for us. That doesn't affect the final render or the model itself or anything like that. This is just kind of to make it easier on our eyes as we're using Maya. So I like to turn on anti a leasing, and I also like to turn on the and the inclusion because you can't really see where these lines and gaps intersect on this model very well. So if we turn on Amy Inclusion, watch this area right here where there should be lines popping up. But we can't see them because they're all facing the same direction. That's just how Maya's rendering it and the View Port Return Ambien Inclusion, which is this little button up here, which is just next to the anti leasing. We get ambient occlusion, which basically shows us areas of geometry that are close together and darkens those corners and in set areas. So now we can see that model a little bit better. Now that we have those two kind of view port options turned on so back to the topic at hand hard verse, organic models and modelling. And why is this important? It's important because we need to understand how we're gonna approach a project or model and the tools we're gonna use to create it. So let's first talk about what hard versus organic really means. So you can kind of get an idea from these two examples. Hard is kind of straight surfaces. They could be curved as well. You can see there's a cylinder here, so it has a rounded surface on that side. But there's patterns here. It's things, you know, mechanical things. Ah, you know, things that are bolted together and made by humans typically are hard services. So imagine a transformer here and the organic shape on the right. There's no pattern really here. You know, there's a lot of kind of swooping shapes, and it was made clearly not in the same way with the same tools that the one on the left was made. You can see there's two very different type of models here, and just to kind of drive this point home, it's probably already pretty clear with these two. Things are, but it's good to just drive it home at this early stage of learning about modeling. So I have a couple pictures here that I want to show you. Just take a guess at what this would be hard or organic models, and you kind of tell it's organic kind of shape. There's a lot of branches and fine texture and bark and leaves. And so, of course, this is gonna be organic and the type of tools will use to model. Something like this will be much different than modeling. Ah, hard surface like me wearing the Darth Vader helmet. It has some curve shape to it, but it's a hard surface. There's not fine detail and texture on the surface itself. For the most part, its glossy it's it's like a hard plastic. But if we're looking at this and looking at my hand, the hand would be on an organic model because it has very unique shapes. There's no pattern or uniformity to it at all. So it depends on what we're looking at in this picture. If it's my hand or the helmet on what's gonna be organic or considered hard surface and just as another example here, some more helmets that are all hard surface models and for a kind of more historical example, you can see there's both, and this is, well, the kind of statues in the middle in the foreground and the inset on these at the front of this building are organic models. They have musculature. They have, you know, flowing robes. And there's horses. And but when you look at the building itself, it has very flat surface is very smooth. There's no, you know, kind of organic detail. Unless you know, we look at the top of the columns, we can see the kind of floral patterns that are incorporated there. So this is again marrying those two types of models in one example. So this is also a famous sculpture that's in the Vatican, and you can see the robes and all. That type of thing would be considered organic. Even though you know, organic, you might think of like nature or something like that. You know, close can be considered organic because they have these kind of flowing, irregular shapes and the folds of the model and again. Lastly, we have both together where this kind of structure on top of the mountain is a hard surface . And then when we look at the rock, we can clearly tell difference between the pattern and the type of surface that this building is versus the kind of irregular surface of the rock. Okay, so I think we understand what hard verse, organic means and aumento mess with this little cluster handle to show you also that, you know, this is important to understand for later, down the road, when we're talking about rigging and animating, if it's a hard surface, we're probably not gonna flex from the middle of this object. It's probably gonna move altogether. And that's gonna, you know, affect how we're gonna do things later with rigging and animation. Whereas if it's organic, you know, this this thing could move all kinds of different ways, and we would need to rig an animate to reflect the type of organism this is or shape or our model. So it's also important, understand later on what this implies for other aspects. So in this course, now we're going to jump into actually making things. Now that you have an understanding of how to use Mayes interface and how we're gonna approach modeling, we're gonna make one hard surface model that we're going to continue to use throughout the course, and then we're gonna model an organic character, a skeleton guy, that we're gonna use to animate later and make a pretty cool animation. So fall along in the next lesson and we'll get to creating stuff now. Thanks for watching. 6. Ghostbuster Trap: welcome to this 30 modeling class where we will create a ghostbuster trap so we can start to learn the three modelling tools inside a Maya. Anytime you start modeling something you want to look at reference in case you don't know what a Ghostbuster trap is, you can just google it and find some images. And we're going to use this just as a template. Not really as an exact match that we're gonna try to get. But just, you know, there's ah kind of box here that has different knobs and handle on it and that kind of thing, and that's kind of the general kind of direction. We're gonna try to model this object in so we can start to learn some Maya, some to switch back to Maya. And any time you start using my if you want to set your project, this is something to remember from here on out. This isn't just some thing that ah, you know, you want to do Sometimes. This is, you know, from day one, when I was learning my until you work in a big studio, you want to set your project? Um, actually, well, big studios have their own way of doing stuff. But small studio. Maybe you want to set your project puta file will go down to set project. And the reason this is important is because any time you have, you know, later down the road you have textures, say you're doing a Kloss simulation and you want cash that out or all these other technical things that will get get into later. We need somewhere for Maya to save all those things to reference into the scene. So in my directory, I've made a my A folder, and I'm going to set that and it will ask you to create a default workspace. And typically, this just means, you know, it's going to save, you know, kind of unimportant stuff. Like what kind of you did you have open was a perspective or a side view. And you know what kind of preferences maybe you had for that workspace. So you just say, create default workspace and you won't have to do that again. You'll have to do the first time you set a project. We're also going to go the project window. The other option here under project, you can see project in gray. We only have two options we've already done Set project the project to set. So it's got a project window. I'm get all of these different folder options here. And if you don't see these names typed out here, you can go to edit reset settings and it should fill all of those out for you. And this will create folders like I mentioned a moment ago for cash is for images. And mostly we're gonna be using for scenes. Because when we save a Maya file, if we just hit command s like you would in a word, document or whatever just to save the file, it's going to save a dot in B or a dot in A and that's M for Maya and A or B, depending on if you save an ask e or a binary file. But that's not that important right now. Listens to accept and will make all these folders. So when we go to file, save school file, save scene and because we haven't done it yet, it'll open up this dialog box, and now we have this current project. It knows where a current project is, and we have all those folders that it had listed out. And any time we're saving a scene, we want to save in the scene's folder and you can see that it is under our project that I defined as Maya. And now I can name it whatever I want. And I can choose to be an ask your binary and it doesn't really matter to be honest for our purposes. Somebody named that ghostbuster trap and hit save. So now we have the project saved. And that way, if we need to move the project to another computer, it will have reference a path to the project settings so it'll know where the textures are or anything else like that. So let's get started and model this ghostbuster trap. So let's take a look at this reference, and we basically have a rectangle with a hand, a cylinder handle. So let's start with the most basic elements first, and then we'll add detail later because any time you do modeling, whether it's hard organic, let's start with the simplest shapes first in the ad detail later, we don't want to start with the detail on really anything, and that goes the same is true for animation. Most art you know, you start with the basics first, so let's create the rectangle and the handle, because those are the biggest, most obvious things. So in Maya there's a couple different ways we can create things. You know, we have this shell fear, the poly modeling shelf, and there are curves and surfaces here, which, you know, it looks like they have similar things. But the's air called Nerb surfaces, and these aren't very useful for modeling and animation. Um, they sometimes were used for kind of just to create controls on rigs, to create paths to revolve the shape around, um, or constrain a camera to a path or, ah, fly a plane down a curve path. Something like that. But for our purposes, we're not going to be using nerve services. We're going to be doing Polly modeling where we have vergis ease edges and faces. So let's create the rectangle. We can click this rectangle right here and zoom in by right clicking and holding down Ault and left clicking to rotate around. If you remember, we could also create that by doing the polygon primitives, and we could pop this off if we wanted to and create a bunch of these cubes, that's another way to do it. But now that we have this, we can go over to our channel box here and we can see we have a Poly Cube one and we can see it's called P Cubed one here. And it's also called peaky one here and it's highlighted. So we know this is what's highlighted. And I point out these things because, you know, we can translate this thing around, um, different ways, and that's reflected here. But there's also other options. When we pop this down, we can get subdivisions. So if we wanted more subdivisions weaken, go to subdivision with hyphen depth, and those will do different kind of dimensions on this, depending on if we need more jam a tree bull. Get to that in a minute. Let's first make the basic shape. So go with and I'll make this a little longer and a little wider and tall. So now we have something that approximates the size, and I'm gonna go and turn on the anti a leasing and the Ambien inclusion to help us visualize this. Also gonna lift this up and we can see depending on the with high, thin death. If I just change this to five and these two to that, I know the highest, too, that this anzio up one to be able to be sitting right on the floor, right, Because it's measuring from the center wherever our manipulator is, that's where it's measuring from. So if it's a high to two and this is in the middle, then it's one to the floor, right from where the manipulator is, we bring this down to the floor. It's gonna be a zero. So that's one way to kind of know how. It's calculating what these numbers are exactly. So we have that rectangle. Now let's create the handle. We can click the cylinder here and drag this up unit W If you don't have the manipulators selected yet, Unit E. To rotate this over and to get an exact we can just type in 90. You do negative 90 or 90 for us. It doesn't really matter right now, and we could scale this down, or we could use similarly these types of ash trees over here so we could reduce the radius or we could, you know, just scale it down the scale tool by hitting our and let's move this to one side and move it up. And then we can make another que a couple different ways. We could duplicate this one. We get command D, and now we have another one that we can scale and do all these things, too. But you can see when you duplicate just with the shortcut. You don't have that option anymore, right? We don't have that Polly Cubin put that we had here. So sometimes it's nice to just use the basic tools to make sure that we have this history here that later we can go back and change if we want to. So let's bring this here and scale it down a little bit. And let's talk about some ways to align things. So, you know, if we wanted to get this to be exactly on this edge, it might be kind of hard to use the manipulator, you know, back and forth there are a couple different things we can do to move things around and be very specific. Course would go up here and type in a number, but we could just be typing all day. And, you know, we might not get exactly visually what it looks like. So to know that we have snapped to that. We can use the snapping tools, but the snapping tools go based off of where the manipulator is. So, for example, if I hold down V on the keyboard, that means Verdecia is gonna snapped over to see And just to show you what were the components that we're dealing with to know what a vergis even is. Let me break this down even further. So if we take this square is gonna isolate it with this little button here, Isolate, select I right Click. Now I can see and change my selection mode. Toe edge Vertex protects face face or back to object mode, which is what we're currently in. We're in object mode. It's also denoted by this little button up here in the top left. If we go to component mood, we can click this button and again. You know, it'll show that if you hold it down or if you hover over it rather and you can see the different kind of components that we can select here and we can isolate those. So now we're selecting the lines. Or if we go back to this one and dislike the line, we get the vert asi. So now we can edit the basic components of all the polygons here. And if we want to do this quickly, we can right click and hold drag up and go toe edge mode Now and now we can adjust the edges, so that just gives you a quick idea of what the components are that make up a polygon. So I just went to object mode to get back in. So against, like, the whole thing, I could also go up here and click this middle button to go back an object mode. I'm gonna un isolate this now so we can go back to our model. So the next thing we need to understand is how to change where the manipulator is. So if I hold down V like I was describing earlier and I Middle mouse drag for click and hold off, Middle mouse, this is gonna snap, diverted. Sees you can see is trying to snap to the corners of the box or the vortices of the cylinder so. But we we don't want the center to snap. We want the edge to stamp to it. So we're gonna need to change where this center pivot is. To do that, we can hold down D. And now we get a different type of a manipulator here. And if we hold down V while we're holding down D, we can also snap the pivot to avert Asi without the object moving. Because we're just changing where the pivot is now. So if I let go of both now we get the regular manipulator. If this doesn't come back, you can hit W to make sure that pumps back. It would be the manipulator. So now we move this, the whole thing moves around. Now what weaken Dio is go and hold down V and middle mouse drag and isolate the up value. So we're only gonna go up and you can see it snapped upward. Now we can hold down the X axis and it will snap to the backside, which it seems like it has. So now we don't want this pivot here anymore. How do we get that back? That's not a big deal. We go to modify and we go down to center pivot, we click this now the pivot is back in the center and we can move the pivot around later again if we want to. But now it's there. Also, remember, you can see that the, uh, access here is yellow. So if I was to start middle mouse dragging, its gonna be isolated on this. No matter what I do, or where I move my mouse, if it's middle mouse drag. So, uh, you know, you just wanna make sure that you understand how it's isolating these axes as you click them. That's one thing that you know stumps. A lot of people when they're just starting out, like, Why can't I move this in a different access? It's because we, you know, selected that one, and now it's thinking, going to isolate that. So this looks very basic right now, but I want to give you a quick introduction into how to create things, manipulate them, snap things around, and in the next lesson, we're gonna get take this further and start adding details and learn a few more modelling tools inside of mine. So thanks for watching. And I'll see in the next lesson 7. GB Trap - Insert Edge, Extrude, Append: welcome to this lesson where we will continue making the Ghostbuster trap and learn a lot of new tools. So now we have the basic shape done. Let's choose one of you and a piece of reference to try to add more detail in. So let's go back to our reference and look at a view like this. So I like to move my view port to get a closer view of what the reference view is like. So it's kind of a 3/4 angle like this. Let's focus on this edge here where there's a lower level here and then it goes up and there's a bevel. There's bevel here as well, and then it goes out. So we have this higher kind of rim and a lower area here. It looks like the back area here is the same level as this edge here. So let's just focus on that any time you have reference and something that's kind of complicated, you know, break it down into its components and simplify it and Onley work on little sections like that at a time. So let's do this kind of edge here, so I'm gonna go back in And if I go into my face mood right, right clicking and going down the face nice like that and move it around. I can't really move this and divide this in different sections. So need edge loops here. And that's, you know, if we're going to edge mode right clicking and dragging up, I can move individual edges while we need more of those who need an edge here to get that border. We need to edges here so that we can divide this section in half, and it kind of have an angle between it. So let's ADM or Edges. So to do that, we need to go to mesh tools, Insert edge loop and when I like to do is to add tools that I'm going to use a lot to my custom shelf. So let's move over our custom shelf and go down to the mesh tools and hold down command and shift and then click insert edge loop and watch your custom shelf boom. We get a new tool here so that now we don't have to keep going back to this menu. And if you do this vaccine in the future or you just want to lead it. You can right click and go to delete. So let's click that. And if we click and drag this, we can kind of make these two kind of areas where we're gonna have the lower section and the upper section. And we have this angle here. So we need tohave to edge loops one here and one there so we can make this division Doesn't really matter where they are exactly. We can move that around later, but let's just get him in there now. So now we have those two edge loops and the other thing that we're gonna need to add are the edge loops of the border here. So let's go back to our insert, actually, tool, you can also, I'm gonna take you to get off of it, to just go to the select tool and but object mode and select the object. You can see the last selected tool down here, so if I also hold down or it so while I'm still selected on it. So let's go to the move tool. So now it's a de selected. I can go back to the last one by selecting it here or I can hit G is the shortcut to get back to that so it will do the same thing. So let's go the move tool and I'm gonna hit G on the keyboard, and it will go to the last used tool, which is the insert edgily tool. So if we wanna have this to be even on both sides, you can kind of try to eyeball in a little bit. Um, and that might be, you know, good for our purposes. But it's, you know, we're all about learning new stuff, so let's get more precise. Let's go to the tool settings here, which is next. This button will pop up the tool settings panel, and depending on the tool that we have selected, it will give us different options. If I change the tool here, you can see this menu will change every time I have a new tool. So with the edge in certain edge loop tool selected, which I can get to their there are G. There's a bunch of different ways, which is kind of the theme of Maya. There's a lot of different ways to do the same thing, so it's just whatever you're more comfortable with or is quicker toe work with for you. So now that we have this, let's go to the multiple edge loops option and I've said it to six and let's go to six. And if I click here and I drag, it won't matter because you were doing a ah equal distance from each other. So when I let go, you can see now we for sure have the same distance from the outside edge for these new edges that I made. But what if we don't want thes interior edges? If I go to edge by right clicking and dragging and keep in mind, you do need to have your cursor over the object that you want to change, too. If I was to do this up here and go toe edge, it'll change to this object, and we don't want that. We want that object to stay in object mode. Let's click this and go toe edge mode, and if I select this now, it's just going just like that one little section. But if I double click the edge, it looks like the whole edge loop. If it goes all the way around if it doesn't go all the way around, it wants, like, the whole thing. Um but okay, so if I hit delete now because I don't want that now you can see it still has a division here, right? There's got to be averted. See here, look, there's averted. See there. We don't want that Vergis e so I could go through and delete each of those vortices like this, but their own all the corners. And it's it's kind of stupid to have to do that. So it's undo this and get that agile it back, and I'll show you the right way to do it. So we're gonna edge loop. We will double click each edge and hold shift to select more than one edge. And now ah, hold down shift and right click and go to delete edge. And this is how you dilly edges from now and forever more OK, so use this because they don't get the verte sees as well. So now this is one solid edge. It's not still divided up in a weird way. Cool. So the next problem we need to deal with is the fact that these kind of faces here should be at the same level, right? They should be down here somewhere. And not just those but these here, Right, Because the we noticed in the reference this kind of back area looks like it's at the same level goes across this, you know, you kind of see this little edge here or, you know, even this is a better view. Look at this kind of back edge. It's flat here. And then it looks like it lines up to this flat edge. So it's more like this is on extrusion than anything else. And, you know, there's a bunch of different ways you could you go about doing this, we'd actually just like these two and extreme those up, which is probably the easiest thing to do. So let's go and do that. Conversely, you could extrude everything else down. Um, like I had selected earlier. And other fun thing you notice about my as I'm undoing its reloading in the last selections so includes that in its undo history, which is kind of nice. So we could extrude these down, or we could just extrude these two sections up. Let's go this method, because it's the less amount of things that we have to do, How much has always good in three D. So let's extrude these up. So to extrude, it's another tool, like we did insert agile Tool. But this one is in the edit mesh option here, and I'm gonna command shifted because I'm gonna use this more than once, probably. And to that point, there's a ton of options in here to do stuff. And this is why I like adding things to my own custom shelf because I'm not gonna use most of this stuff, right? We're not even probably gonna cover, you know, half of this stuff because you just don't use it that much. So I like to create my own shelf. Um, of the tools I use the most don't have to keep hunting through all these things up here. So I'm gonna click the extra tool, and I'm also gonna turn off this kind of tool settings here. So we get more view area space here, and so now we have this little window and that gives us options for our extrusion. You can also see those options here and the inputs kind of. Similarly, when we were, you know, changing the size of our original cube. We had that input down here. The poly Cuban put and it's still there, right? 5 to 2. Those are the things we changed in the previous lesson. And so it keeps all these inputs. You know, when we added those split edges what they call split ring, I don't know why they changed the type of language they're using instead of saying insert edge, loop, you know, for the tool. And now here they say they called a split ring so that this is the history of what we've done on the object you can see. We added, uh, edges to this. And then we deleted some. And now we've extruded it. So it keeps the history of the object. Um, there's also what will do at the end is delete all the history. So it's a lot cleaner when we're done with the model. So let's you know there's multiple ways to use this. We could just click and drag this. We could also you can see it changes with locals. You translated also, click and drag this you can see it also changes here. We could also change. The thickness is pretty similar to the local treat. Z translate. That is, um, does kind of the same thing. And if you're having trouble clicking and also you know, remember, if you're doing something like this, you can click and drag on it. Here. You can also middle mouse drag it out here, and if it's going too fast, it's probably because of this little pie chart thing, and you can change the speed at which it moves. So this is the slowest one. And if I needed to go faster, I can click that a few times. It goes up and we don't need it in this little window. It's actually also changing the one over here. You can see that if I change this one, or if I change that one, it will update the other so you can get it to in two different places. And this is gonna be super super handy, animating modelling. This is a very useful tool to get more precise so lets, you know, make the thickness something like that. Now the problem we've encountered is we have this kind of stair step look instead of a kind of straight edge the kind of Dagnall that we're going for. If we look at the reference, get a better picture. Okay, now we have a better picture. We can see that this is a slope. It's on a stair step. So how do we resolve that? Let's go about it and learn another new tool. So let's go to the face and let's just delete these faces. And also be careful you're not selecting faces through it. This is convey a common thing. You can see if I drag my mouse over here. I'm actually selecting things on the bottom side. And to double check that you can also just go into wire frame mode. Let's hit four on our keyboard, and now we're in wire frame. So going to kind of see through the object and make sure you're not selecting something on the opposite side. So it's Delete that, and let's go back into the shaded mode and hit five. You can also get to these modes up here by ta going through them. This is a texture moment, have texture, so that one doesn't matter. So now we have these holes that we need to fill. We'll go to mesh tools and go to a pin to polygon nobody command shift. Add that to my custom shelf. Select it, and now you can see there's kind of the's highlighted borders. I don't know if that's super obvious in your view, but this is a thinner kind of green, and this is a thicker green. So that's telling us where we can select And if we hold our tool out in the view port or, you know, if we look down here and the bottom left, it'll say, upended polygon to will activate the object, then click on the first border edge depend on. So let's select one of these edges and then just like the other. And now we have this kind of bridge that we made, and it lets hit, enter and do the same for this other side. And remember, if we had G, we can pull it the last used tool, and we could do the same thing and make a little bridge here. Let's hit G again and do the same for these holes, and you can see that we just have to do that for two edges and it'll fill in the third edge and it's a G again. Oops, I selected the wrong thing. So I just hit backspace and it again. Oops, see? And it's trying to assault. Go to another. Who knows why is trying to go out there. But I didn't pick up. I'm trying to eat that edge. So one thing I like to do is go to a view where there's kind of nothing behind this thing, right? So that's is pretty much the only thing I can select if you're having trouble with it and hit enter. And it looks like it didn't undo that that goofy thing that it did someone undo that hit g , Select the object, Select the edge and there we go. That's another thing, Teoh. Keep in mind, let me just hit backspace to undo that. These purple things air arrow. So it's telling you the edge direction. So if I select an edge, you can see the arrows are pointing in a certain direction. They're going in this direction. They're huge, so it's kinda hard to see. But, you know, I think that if I chose this one might still do it. But if you if you have a problem we have more than two or three edges, you know, Look at those purple arrows and see which direction is going in if you're having trouble making that work. So now we have this type of slant tar object. How cool is that? And we have this back area. Is that the same level as those? So in this lesson, we learned the insert Edgeley tool, The politics True tool, The upended Polly on Tool. We learned three new tools. We learned a lot and those air tools they're going to use over and over again. So in the next lesson, we're going to continue to refine this. We're going to bevel some edges and keep adding more detail. Thanks for watching. 8. GB Trap - Bevel, Normals: welcome to the next lesson where we will continue adding detail to the Ghostbuster trap. And this lesson we're gonna add some bubbles and add this kind of front panel here so we'll add more jam tree to it and details. Let's focus on this bevel for right now. So it looks like this is a pretty rounded edge, but that this edge maybe isn't as rounded as that one, but it it is rounded there, and this one is maybe a little sharper. So this could be because this is, ah, homemade thing. And it's not exactly, you know, um, exact machines as it would be if it were a real thing. So, depending on if you want to divide these bubbles up, you can do that and do them separately. I say we just to him all together so that it's, you know, a little quicker, and you can add more detail or do the bevel separately if you want at a later time. Um, the one thing I want to do before I do that as well, is to finish out this kind of bottom section. You can see that this goes down Teoh, a kind of footprint. That doesn't just go straight down to the floor. So there's this kind of inset area that we can do with the politics true tool and adding some edge loops and things that we've learned. So let's go to the uncertain actually tool. And I'm gonna go to the tool settings over here to make sure that we're back on a relative distance. And I'm just gonna choose one kind of area here and use that. And then I'm going to go to the face mode and select the all the faces. Whoops. I'm still on the insert. Actually, tool and I'm gonna turn off the tool settings now. So let's go to the face. Mood will choose Q or W, whichever to select faces and let four to make sure those were all the ones selected to go back to five. And now I will choose the politics true tool, and I'll just pull in a thickness a little bit. You can see we have keep faces together off. Let's turn that on, and as this goes in, it'll all go together. The only thing with this is it's also going up, so that's the only issue there is the fact this is going up. If we go to the front view holding down space bar, clicking and dragging from the middle, Um, you can see it's going up. We're gonna set that later. Let's just bring the thickness in. So it's not just the same. So that looks about right. It looks like there's it's actually goes in and maybe there's another layer here, So let's deal with that. Let's go to the front view and I'm going Teoh go the Verdecia mode and we're going to select all the bottom Vergis ease. I'll click W And then I'm going to hit X. Now hold down X on my keyboard and that will snap to the grid because I want this on the floor so it'll snap to the grid. Now let's add another edge loop. So we kind of get this bottom section out and do the same thing we just did. Let's go to face mode, select all the faces. Whoops. Again. I'm still in the edge loop mode, so, like you to get off of that, select all of the faces, go to the extrude, and let's just extreme this out. We want to keep faces together on as we did before. Let's have that somewhere between kind of the front and and insert edge here. Now we'll go back to the Vergis, ease, slick them and hold down X to drag them up to the floor again. So now that now we've created whoops. Now we've created this kind of inset kind of footprint here, and I wonder that before to the bevel so that we can bevel all of these together. Let's go back to this. It looks like this is fairly rounded at the bottom, so let's select the edges. We want a bevel start, beveling. We'll go to the edge mode. I'll select this edge and that edge this edge on that edge. So we're just going through and holding down shift to select more than one edge and let's see what we're gonna do down here. Let's do these corners later because it won't be as similar to these are kind of the same distance of an edge loop. So let's just do these top ones. So let's go to edit mesh bevel. I'm gonna command shift, click it to add it to our shelf, and now we can see, it's starting to bevel the edges. Now this one doesn't have a tool that pops up so we can go over here to the poly Bevel input and it'll pop it up for us here so we can change the fraction which is how far it is . We can change the segments, which we will need many more. And if you can see I'm clicking and dragging, not a lots happening is because the pie chart here is too slow. Let's speed that up so that I can add more sections here. Cool. So we've rounded those two out and the thing I want to do actually, is to move these closer together, some to go to the edge on a double click this you can see because now this. So this is a triangle. So in Maya, it only like squads everything in this model so far as a quad, meaning four sides except for this. So when I double click it and thats why doesn't select this edge loop because it stops here , um, on this triangle. So just be aware that mind is not like triangles in that regard. So now that I have selected, I just want to move this a little bit closer. So it's a more of an extreme angle and selected these edges again. Cool. Let's hit the Poly Bevel and we'll click on the input over here and let's hit T to bring up the menu. And let's add more segments to this, and that's looking pretty good. So we go back to this we and see also along this edge. It's not perfectly. It's not perfectly flat, so we get actually, add more bevel to these edges as well. So let's go to the edge tool and we'll double click this. And let's select all the edges, the kind of outward facing edges here of the object. I'm just holding down shift in, selecting him and gonna do these bottom ones later. Let's dese like those close all shift. Select this edge de select by holding down control to de select things. Sorry I didn't mention that. So double click that and going here. Select these control click drag. Dislike that and let's bevel these edges as well. We'll go back to Belle Tool, and that looks a lot better team to pull up the tool, and we can change this fraction If we want, it's add maybe one more segment in there. And so the fractional stop Based on how much room it has, you can see it's running into this edge here, so it can't go any further than that. And I think that's OK for us. But just know that in your case, if you wanted to go further, it can't go further than that edge. So you'd have to move this edge before you beveled so I could go further than that. So now we have a much nicer edge here. If you look at these because we didn't bevel this one, this one looks very CG very exact and hard. And this one is just a tiny bit softer and it adds a lot to the model. Okay, so the other thing that we run into here are a normal situation. Normals are how Maya knows what direction of face is facing. So if we go to display, we go down to polygons weaken, turn on face normals gonna pop this out. I'm gonna turn him off here and get in a second. So it's click face normals. And now you can see we get all these green little arrows. So that tells you which direction the faces, air pointing. And for the most part, they're all pointing in the right way. But I I bring all this up because it will affect how Maya views and shades the object in this kind of almost fake like shaded mode that you can see the view port. So I bring this out because I'll turn that off just by clicking face normals again. Close this. You can see this is kind of shaded in a weird way for click offer here. It's kind of, you know, there's this gray area here. It's wide. It's like what's happening here. This is this looks weird. So there's a couple of different things. Weaken Dio. And first off, we can clean up the geometry a little bit if we wanted. You can see here we have an issue that this has a face, so I'm in a meeting after zoom in on it and zooming out. Um, you know, this has a face. It's not connecting here should connect here, so there's no edge here, so it's like it's trying to drag this face over this thing without an edge. And so that's why this one is shaded weird. You can see it has, like a dark area on the top here, and then it's It's lighter here, but this one doesn't look the same way, so we get this hard edge. So if we go the multi cut tool, let's go to the mess jewels and will go down a mold multi cut and will command shift that added to ourself. If I click that, I can select, avert Asi and select another one and will cut this in half if ahead enter. So now we have room for that, too. Describe what's actually happening. If I select off a year, you can see it's still shaded in a weird way. We can fix that in a second. But before we do that, we need to add the geometry in here so it knows how to describe that area. So we're gonna multi cut tool. Let's do that to this side as well and hit. Enter Now if I go to mesh display and let me zoom in here so we can see this change, we got a mesh display and average you can see it changes the whole model if you go to mesh display, conform or set to face, I think is what we want. Now it looks right. So that's just one way to fix that. Now that we've set the normals to be to the face, we can see that we're kind of getting these hard edges here on the curved areas. My computer thinks I'm right clicking when I'm not, um, we get these hard edges here. You kind of see is Grady in from dark toe bright here on these stepped kind of colors. And to get rid of that, let's select the object and go to soften hardened edges. And when we do that, it'll soften and harden. The right edge is in the right areas. So now we do know have those weird kind of colored areas here that we were getting before. So that's a way to get around that and to get these smooth areas to look smoother. So we've done quite a bit in this lesson with beveling edges. So I'm going to go ahead and and this one here and the next lesson we'll start to add this detail of this panel to the object. Thanks for watching 9. GB Trap - Booleans: in this lesson, we will continue to create detail on this ghostbuster trap. So in the previous one, we did some beveling of the edges. Let's finish that up. But first I noticed that at some point my model got uncensored. You can see that it's not totally centered up here. So all I need to dio that happens is hold down space bar, click in the middle here, go to my right view and I can see that it is not lined up with the handle so I could just hold down X. And with the move tool selected, I can just snap it to the middle. So now that I can tell that it is centered up with everything and we're ready to continue so anything like that happens, it's no big deal. You know, just figure it out and snap it back to the center. You can, ah, you know, change the pivot if you need to all that kind of stuff. So I don't feel like you're always stuck. Are you know you can't Ah, you know, change something or whatever. It's you know, it's just a matter of getting comfortable with these tools and starting to use them. So one thing I want to do is add this type of a bevel here. Two more areas quickly. So and it looks like maybe that's what I did. I Middle mouse dragged this while the, uh well, I had the manipulator tool selected is probably how he got off centered. So just be careful about that, and you can always fix that. So let's select the edges here, right, clicking, going up the edge and we will go through and shift, select the edges that we would like to bevel and double clicking. It looks like I accidentally didn't have shift held down sold on shift and just double clicking these in these corners. I want to do the bottom corner separate because I want those to have a different kind of bevel and still this one as well. And this one and these might not be super clean because we're doing them separate from the sides. Ideally, we do these together because their intersection might be kind of dirty, so we'll see if that works at all. If it doesn't, we can just skip that and you know you can undo the bevel from earlier and, um, get back to that. So no, we have that selected. Got a bevel. And yeah, you can see on these corners if we don't do these together than their kind of wonky a little bit. We can always fix that if we need to. And it looks like I missed one edge here as well. So let's go back to Bevel and then let's go to the poly bevel input here that we created. We can hit t to bring up the options here if we like and resize this to make it more clear . And let's go to a higher fraction here and add at least one segment and it's gonna object mode so we can see that the select it looks like it did a pretty good job. Only thing we need to fix down here is this kind of intersection. So if you know you happen to do these bevel separately and there's some wonky thing like this, you know, this is modeling. This is ah, you know, creating things on the fly, making different decisions and then fixing things when they're not working. So we can do is just added a little multi cut tool here and we can add that edge in. We can do that to the bottom here as well, and it enter. And if I go to the vert asi mode here and zoom in here just so I can hit, have to have something to focus in on. We're so close to it that ah, it's kinda hard to see. Let's go to the edge mode and let's just delete these edges that we don't need. Actually, we need these in the center some control clicking and dragging those. So now I'm gonna go shift right click to lead edge, and now we have that. So let's go to the Vertex mode and just drag this up, and we want to make it precise. We can go to a camera view. That's Ortho graphic so we can see it in line with everything else and we can just drag it up So it's in line with this line here. We'd also vertex snap it holding down V, and now we know it's in line. We can see the ones down here also need to be fixed. I'm gonna leave that for now, and ah let you fix that. If you'd like, but that's how you fix, you know, intersection. Like intersections like that. It looks like that one needs to be fixed a swell. So I'm just holding down space bar and clicking in the center to get to the right camera and holding down V to drag that to the right spot and then going back to perspective with the holding down space bar dragging, clicking and dragging. So that's how we fix intersections like that when that thing occur when something like that occurs, Um, and again, that's just part of modeling being flexible because, you know, say you had a supervisor and now they want to add more bubbles, and you've already generally all this beveling. You know, things don't happen perfectly from one step to another, so you need to be able to adapt to know the tools well enough, Teoh, adjust the model as needed. And again, I'm just gonna leave that one now, for time's sake. It looks like we need to do that on every corner. But for time's sake, let's just leave that and let's look at these edges here. I want to just select the corner pieces and I want to. I want to go all the way to the edge there on the inside. So let's control click de select areas that we don't need and double check that we have everything selected and let's get this side as well. Just double clicking and in control, clicking it to de select. Oops. Looks like I zoomed out in the wrong spot. So one thing I just did. Sorry. It's a habit I'm used to using these tools, so we'll have to slow down here. Um, I'm not entirely sure what just happened. The view just went away. So the first thing I did was hit the bracket button on the keyboard, and so that will just go back to your previous camera view and so we can toggle between wherever the camera went. I'm not entirely sure I might have hit a which is Ah, frame everything. And you know who knows why it went that way? That is just part of working in three D. Sometimes, but you just hit bracket and you can get back to Thebes. Previous camera view. If you're ever missed where you went or something like that, um, things go haywire sometimes and Uh, yeah, if you know the tools well enough, it's not that big a deal to just get back to where you were. Okay, so we have those done. So I did those separately because I'm gonna go back to Polly Bevel here, Hit t. We could also do it from this menu, but I just like it just looks better to me to use this one floating one. Um, let's increase the fraction. And I did this separately because I wanted to do these separately, and it looks like we're gonna be prohibited by this interior piece here. So it's it's getting stuck right here. I can't go any wider than that. So let's undo this. We have a selection, and instead of remaking the selection, let's create a quick, select set. So that's just a way that we can get that selection back without having to redo that all over against. We'll go to create wrote on two sets and quick, select set. I want to say bevel edges. We don't even have to name this because we'll probably just delete it here in a minute and we'll say OK, so now we get unsolicited and we can say that selection for later. So it's delete these kind of edges here so that we can have a greater range in the bevel. And again, you know, this is may seem like tedious work, but this is just modeling. This is part of modeling. If you want to get into modeling Well, what's happening here? If you wanna get into modeling, this is just part of modeling. Teoh. You know, like I was saying a minute ago to kind of run into problems and then solve um so we have all those selected soul hit shift hold down shift and right click get to Delhi Edge. So now when we go to the bevel edges, I'll just go to select quick select sets bevel edges. Now we had it selection, so we learned something in that process of problem solving. So now we have that we could go back to the bevel tool and when we pull the fraction here, we should be able to go a lot further. Oh, no, we're stuck by those. So I think what we have to do here is because we're still stuck by this, these interior pieces we're going to have to create or did. Sorry, we're going to have to de select this line here, So let's just undo this and Control dragged that. So again, you know, any time I'm modeling something in my head, I have an idea of how it should work. But, you know, it's not entirely certain that's gonna be the case. So let's give it a poly bevel now. Here we go. So it soon, men, and let's see if we can increase the segments here and let's go to object mode and see how that looks. It's looking pretty good. So one thing you might notice is this kind of line here, and I think that's because we don't have the geometry here to support this area. So one thing we can do is go the multi cut tool and click here and go to the edge. It's missing. Do the same for this side. And now when we go to the object mode and and click off still there, maybe not as bad. So now we have the corners beveled here. Let's move on to creating the panel on the right side, so let's go and create. A new object will go to poly modeling shelf, create a cube and bring it up. Most things that ever start to get modeled in Maya. Start with a cube or sphere, something, something simple, and then you add complexity to it later. So I'm just using the scale tool to change the size and get it roughly in the right spot so we can just actually, we can do the same thing that we did before. So don't hold down D and V and Vertex snap it to edge to its farthest edge and then go back to the manipulator mode and then hold down the with just the normal move tool. It'll snap right to that face. And so now, also, when we scale it, it should scale from that face you don't have to worry about like going inside of the ah, inside of the trap itself. And this is important to do to have a separate piece, because when we add materials later, we want to have a different object you can see over here. It's it's called P cubed three, and we could start naming these things if we want to, um, to clean this up. But basically this is a separate object. We can see it and in the outline er so we know it's a separate objects so it can have a different material. Because if you look at the reference, this is a kind of aluminum metal, and this is like a painted black or something. So it's it's good to have those separated out. Okay, so let's go to the edges here. Let's right click gotta edge mode. I'll just select everything and bevel everything together. And if we go back, I can click it here. But I like to go back to the custom shelf. So he's everything a little organized and go to Poly Bevel. And let's just increase the segments to to and right click to go to object mode and clicking and dragging course to the object mode option here and letting go. So then we have that. Let's look at creating the the screws. Here we have these kind of semi circular, uh, ends that go in, and then this looks like a cylinder type of Ah, screw. So let's create this and show you one other tool called a Boolean. So let's go to the poly mauling shelf, create a sphere and let's just group all of this And so I'm sure selecting everything in the outline er and hitting command G and that will group everything we can call this trap or G V trap and to enter. And now I can within selected I can hit command h or Sorry, I can't control age that'll hide it. So now I can focus on what I'm working on here, you see, kind of graded out here, so we know it's hidden. And to get that back, we just hit shift age. Okay, so with peace fear, let's create it's ah, screw inset here. So let's scale this down Hitting our skillet down And I want to select all the faces on the outside here someone clicking Dragon, select all those faces I'm gonna go to the custom shelf and go to extrude and with keep faces together off I'm going to increase the thickness and gonna hit the little pie chart here to make that go slower. And I can actually look at this from a top down view holding down space, clicking and going to top view. I can see how far out I want this to actually affect the ah screw head here. So something like that, I think number go back to perspective and right click to object mode hit the are for scale and scale up and the why here, drag this down. And we want this to go in as far as we think. We need the screwed ago. So maybe pretty far, something like that. When get a wire frame mod biting four you can see it doesn't go all the way to 1/2. So, you know, because this is sticking out at least half its more pancake shape, we could actually just go ahead and do that with the sphere. Let's go into the right view and let's go to face mode, right, clicking on the sphere and going to face. And also, if that ever happens, we actually going to UV mode. And now you're in a whole new menu. You just hover back over the one. You are in the little grayed out here. It will go back to that menu, or you can just let go of right click while you don't have anything selected and we'll get you back to this. Let's go to the faces. Click and drag all the faces below the half. Here we can see this is kind of our ground plane or zero, so we can hit. Just delete on that for faces. You don't have to do anything special. You could just delete them with the delete button on the keyboard. Let's go back to object mode, and then we can scale us down, hitting our scale this down to be more pancake shaped. Now we can move this down to be something like this. We don't want to go all the way through, so we want to leave a little gap here at the bottom. Let's go back to perspective, holding down space bar and then let's have a five to go back to shaded and with the sphere selected here. And then this one selected, we can go to mesh. Bullying and bully ins are basically a way to subtract or add one object to another so that we have that done. We want a difference. So let's click that and boom, we have a difference and we have our screw so that super helpful. You don't have to model every little corner, and it's like, you know what these edges on a sphere. How do you actually even get that? So it's nice to have a bully, and every once in a while, they they can be kind of wonky, and you do have to select things in the correct order. So if I didn't do in that order, if I selected me que to get back to my tool. And sometimes my mind has a little buggy thing where I need toe, shake the View port a little bit or use the view port and it'll let me start used tools again so you might run into similar bugs when you're using it. Um, Saul, shift select in a different way. Now you could see it does the reverse. So you want to make sure you're selecting in the proper order and that you're using the right bullion. And that's why to tour off the menu here cause it's nice to have it case you screw up toe, you know, just go ahead and use it again and again so I can close that out. We have this made and now let's bring our trap back. And also now that we're looking at that lower, you can see it creates all this history when you do a bullion, you know, if we look at the input over here, we deleted the faces. So it says Delhi component, we extruded Ah, you know, it's combining the inputs from the two pieces and then you have this Boolean so it gets really messy. And then it creates these empty shapes and those air quite useless and can actually be harmful in the future. So when you do a boolean and you know you, you've done it and it's you know you're done using it. It's good to go ahead and clean up that piece of geometry and delete the history. So Goto edit, delete by type in history. You want to make sure you do not do delete all by type. When it says delete all, it means everything in your seen not just what you have selected. This is a very important distinction right now. These are not the same thing. Okay, To leave by type is what you have selected delete all by type is everything in your scene. We just want to do it. We have selected, so we're gonna go to delete by type and go to history thing. See, all those inputs are gone, and all those empty groups over here gone, so it's much cleaner to Dio once you do a bullion like that. So let's click this and it's shift age to bring it back and hide it and click this fear here and let's bring it over and rotated 90 degrees by clicking that, typing it in in the channel box. And let's Vertex snap of the pivot holding down D M v to the bottom here. So then we can vertex snap holding down V to the front face of the objects. And now we can slide around knowing it's on the front and because we have ah, Amy inclusion on appear we can see it kind of has a shadow effect around. So we know, you know, kind of where it isn't space a little better. I'm just gonna save real quickly because it's doing crazy things any time wise, doing crazy things that's good to save. And of course, you can follow along with all these lessons in the according numbered seen. So we're number four right now so you can pick up where we left off there and use the same model in the same scene. So I'm just gonna bring that up here somewhere and scale it down, and that works pretty good for me. So now we've started to add this panel and we can add a couple more details like these cylinders are something super easy to do. Let's just create a cylinder, bring it over, rotated down 90 degrees. So I like to do it here first, So it tells me which access I'm doing. It axes. I'm doing it over here. So then I know which one I need to type it into up there. The other thing I want to do is add more subdivisions to the caps. So I'm gonna untangle down the input here for the cylinder and go to subdivision caps and just say, You know, let's just say three for fun and the reason I'll show you here in a second cause we need to adjust the model a little bit. Drag this out, scale it down, move it over, moving up. Do all this fun stuff that you know how to do now and it's just scale it down and then drag it out and see how they're kind of far apart and maybe a little thicker. One really interesting thing is isolating where you're scaling from. This is something I use all the time. I didn't know years and later until I was using my S o into using why I didn't know that. So So say, want to scale the radius of this thing. You know, I could do this and then I could do this and I could do this and do this. And I'm not entirely sure if it's keeping the right circle shape. So, you know, if I don't want to scale in this direction but on a scale and the other two directions I'll have to do is hit control and click and use that. And now it's isolating those other two ones. You can see those. The red and blue things are going up and down, but the one I'm clicking on isn't is a huge, huge, helpful little tip that took me a couple years to figure out. And now you know in the first ah, you know, our of learning money s. So this is the benefit of taking these kinds of classes. You can learn what took me quite some time to learn. So the next thing I want to do is going toe edge mode. And the reason why we added these caps is I'm just shift in, double clicking them. Teoh to get the edge loops is if you look here, you can see it kind of has this bevel. We can actually bevel it if we wanted to, but ah, let's just have a little more control over it in our own way and scale lips scale these to edge loops and a little bit and it does pretty much the same thing. So now we've added that detail ourselves and we could even go further and bevel these two edges. Now that we've done the kind of larger move, why don't we just select these shift clicking, double clicking and then if we go to Bevel, I don't want to look super rounded out. Someone reduce the fraction quite a bit and right clicking good object mode Science kind of see, it looks a lot better. And I'm gonna duplicate this by hitting command D on the keyboard, the manipulator tool biting w and just drag another one down. And now we have those to red things that are who knows what they are on the sides go supposed to trap. So you also see we have another screw down here in the bottom, right? So let's just duplicate this command D and we'll just drag this down and over here and now we have that. So the next thing we're gonna do is create the knob here that's in the centerpiece, and you can see that has these kind of ribs around that is going to create a We're going to need a special type of technique to model that in a repeating pattern over a kind of curved surface. And so in the next lesson will cover that and add more detail to this. Thanks for watching. And I hope you learned quite a bit in this lesson. All right, See them 10. GB Trap - Knob Motion Path: Okay, welcome to this lesson where we will create the knob that we see here in the reference and I want to make this its own lesson because it's gonna use a very unique technique. And between the previous lesson in this Listen, I also added a few more details using the same techniques we've already learned. So I want to save some time and not, you know, hand hold you through every single thing if we've already covered that type of a topic and I'm gonna do that throughout the course so we can speed this up and, you know, having to follow and relearn the same things over and over again. So the things that I added were devils to the handle and to the kind of extension here. And I added another plate and these screws the only thing to notice and to remember, um that maybe haven't covered about devils. When I was making this, I was re sizing it in doing all kinds of things. Same thing with the this beveled edge here. And if I was to start to scale something that I've already beveled, the bevel itself is going to scale as well you can see the distance of those agile oops are getting further and further apart and messing with the bevel. And I don't want that right When I'm scaling something, I want bevel to be the same. So if you're gonna scale something, you probably need to go into Vertex mode and move the Vergis is instead of scaling this out , you want to move them So all the bevel is maintained. This is the same bevel distance that we had when it was this short of a piece. So it's just one thing to keep in mind when you're scaling anything that's been beveled. Um, that that's not uniformly scaled, I should say, because I was uniformly scaled that it's going to scale up, and it's all gonna get bigger together. Now that's what you want. That's OK, but just know that bevel is gonna get bigger if you scale the whole thing up together. So let's get into making this little, uh, kind of Nam here, and it's ah, non uniform shape as well. It's not a cylinder all the way around has this kind of point over here, So let's go and create a cylinder because we're going to start with the most basic things, and I'm also gonna group. You can see it. These screws also have these kind of black piece are what are going to be black pieces. Begin. Look, um, at the reference here. So I included those well, and then I group them, so I'm gonna just middle mouse drag. I'm shift selecting everything and middle mouse dragging that into the main group G B trap . And we can do that with everything else as well. It's just a shift. Select everything that we're not currently modelling and middle mouse track that and let go over the main group. So now we can select that and hide it with control age. And now we can look at this cylinder and what we want to do is pull out one kind of point. So I'm gonna delete some edges and before do that and start messing with thick the history of this thing. I want to add a cap here, and that's important for cylinders, at least because if you start messing with this thing and then later you want to add a cap , it won't do it because you've messed with a history of the object. So, you know, get this cleaned up first because you won't be able to change it a ton later. If you're messing with components like we're about to do so, I'm basically going to select DoubleClick and shifting shift and double clicking all of the edges. Wasson selecting all the edges here except for the one in the center. I just skipped because that's gonna be the one we're gonna pull out. So I'm going to hold on shift to right, click and go to delete edge. And then we have the point that we want and it looks like, comes out kind of far. So we can just click and drag this out. Something like that. And we can double click these and maybe just skill the men a little or what we could do is add some more edge loops here and scale them out. So let's go to the edge loop tool on our custom shelf. Click it. Go to the tool settings here, make sure we're on multiple agile Oops on Yeah, let's try four clicking here and it looks like it's kind of the same distance. I'm looking at the distance here with a distance here. It's maybe a little bigger. So let's go five. Oops. Just type that in click one time. That looks a lot closer. So now we have kind of remade those that kind of, ah, uniform distance Here, you can see it doesn't go all the way to the center. And this is goofy thing about cylinders. While we made that cap at the very beginning, um, because it wouldn't make these edge loops later if we didn't. But, uh, you know, that's just some quirky modeling stuff, and I'm tryingto help you avoid that in the future. So one thing we can do here is scale this out just a little bit. And, you know, we just did those two. So now it's not a flat surface all the way to the end. But, you know, again, it's no big deal. We could just we do things and then we change it back, and it's very adaptable, immune to be the same on your knowledge and application of all everything that you know for modeling. So you can kind of do whatever you need to dio, and you're not kind of constrained by the tools or the decisions you make, you just kind of go with the flow. So then we have the general shape of this thing. The big question is, how do we make the kind of a ribbed, Ah looking kind of cylinders here all the way around? And so we'll address that. First, let's deal with this. It looks like it's kind of a beveled edge here is kind of rounded, so let's bevel the edge first. So double click this. I'll double click that and let's look at that point has probably beveled to here. So let's go to Bevel and let's go the input here for Bevel and drag out a few more segments and then change the fraction a little bit. Looks like it's snapping around, so I'll just click the kind of pie chart here to go to a slower fraction and not entirely sure what's freaking out. So I just clicked here and now, Middle mouse dragging in the view port. So again, you're just gonna have to adapt with, However, if it starts acting, acting goofy and just we're out around that problem and not have to worry about it. Cool. So now we have that done. The only thing out would comment on is possibly using higher subdivisions at the beginning because now you can see there is kind of faceted here. It's not totally around all the way around. Um, one trick you can try is hitting three under keyboard, and that will smooth the model in general. And, um, hard service modeling. You'll probably do that at the very end. But you want to make sure all of your geometry is kind of accurate and stuff in this kind of Siris of lessons about the Ghostbuster trap trying to model things in a way that we don't have to rely on that and that we could be a little more sloppy with our geometry. But in this case, it works pretty well. So I'm gonna leave it in the three mode and ah, that kind of solve the problem of this not being around enough. And I can, you know, go between one and three to show you the difference. And if you two that's just kind of intermediate trust to show you, um, the one you had before, but because the run on top of each other, it's really hard to see. So mainly you're just going to use one and three to see the difference between smoothing something and not smoothing something. So we have that. Let's go back to one just cause we're that's how we're gonna model things. Let's add a edge loop right in the center of this thing that goes all the way around, and that's what we're going to tell these ribs to follow. So we need one right in the middle. Here. Let's go to the edge loop. Tool will go back to the tool settings and just drink this down to one. And that way it will just put one right in the dead center of, well, one right in the dead center. You can see I accidentally clicked a few things, and so I just didn't do go back to object mood and we're golden and I'll get off the edge of tools. I don't accidentally make more edge loops again. All right, so now we have this edge loop. Let's go the edge mode by right clicking and dragging up. It's like that edge double click it and let's go to modify. Convert polygon edges to curve and we'll click the little box on the end there to get the options, and I want to choose linear because I wanted to follow exactly where the edge loop is. I don't want to interpret late and get curvy, and so we're gonna choose Linear if right now and convert now, you can see we have a curve year that follows exactly the shape. So now with that, we have something to add the ribs, too. There's a couple different ways we could have gone about doing this. This is one way, another way is using MASH, which we will talk about later, which is used for motion graphics. And you use MASH to help you model some things as well, especially things that are patterns. But this is kind of Ah, try intrude method, and you don't have to rely on, you know, some new plug in thing that my, you know, has come out in the last couple years. That's can have its own problems. So it's good to just know how to do things you know, with the bare bones Maya tools and also get introduced to some new things. And this is also we're gonna hack kind of an animation tool to to use for this. So I'm gonna go to Poly modeling. I'm gonna make the one rib from a scale it down. Just gonna pull it over here so I can see it and scales all the way down at this, A little bigger dragon over here. So I can kind of see the size and see, you know, it doesn't almost goes all the way to the edge, so it's just scale it upto about there, and then it looks like these are pretty rounded at the top. So let's just go to hedge mode and I'm just gonna select everything and you can see, actually, if you shifts like things, it will decide like things you have selected. If you want to add to a selection and you're clicking and dragging over something that is already selected, it's gonna de select it. If you don't want that to happen, Okay. If you do know what that happened, you have to control and shift. Now we'll add to that selection even if you go over an area that you've already selected. But we want to do is control click and dese like that because we just want to bevel the tops here, and I'll go from the top down view heading space bar clicking and dragging order. Top view, hit after frame up and control. Click the centerpiece here. So will de select everything. Go back to perspective, move biting space bar and let's Go to the Devil Tool and what's increase. It's increased that fraction and bump up the segments. Yes, so we just haven't had on the slow mode here. So I changed that to now get Middle Mouse drag in a view port with that selected, and it will go a lot quicker. So it's Yeah, get into something like that in general. You tried. You want to try not to add Aton of geometry. You don't need it. And it's such a small piece and trying to keep it as light as possible. Okay, so now we have that piece and it's gonna sit in like this. But the big question is, how do we get this piece to go all the way around this object? We could click and drag and try to place, you know, duplicate one and try to place it exactly. But that's super tedious, and we want to try to use the tools to our advantage. So let's go to the animation window here. We've been modeling else. Go to animation and let's click the Poly Curve, Polly to Curve Tool. And let's shift, Click the cylinder. Let's go to constrain. We'll go down to motion paths. I'm just gonna tear this off. Attached to motion path. So what we have now if we click and drag the timeline, you know we're still in the modeling course. Don't get confused. Even though we're using the timeline and we are an animation now, we're using this to help us model. So what we've created is that this follows the path. If I select these two things and isolated here, you can see this and you can see it says 1 20 here. And that means you know, it's it's going over the timeline that we had. If this was further out, it would have gone to 1 94 whatever, but ah, because it was at 1 20 That's that's the length of the timeline. So that's what it's doing. It's gonna animate over the length of that. Okay, so we have this now, the thing we want to do is if you if you notice if you hit play over here, it starts slow. It speeds up, it slows in slow speed up. Slow in. Okay, We don't want that. We wanted to be a linear because we're gonna use this. Were hacking this, We wanted to have even intervals around this piece. We're gonna duplicate this thing around. And if it started slow here, we're trying to go. Even intervals will be a lot more of these at the beginning, and they will be further spaced out here. So you want this to go the same speed all the way around and the way we do that And again, this is kind of animation stuff, But when you learn three d, you need to know a little bit of everything to to create things so you can see we have this motion path. Here we have the curve selected. Now we have an output for the motion path, and we click that we can see the soul red dot and that means there's a key frame. And now that we toggle this down, we also have these red dots on the timeline that weren't there before So there's a couple different ways we can change the handles of this. So it will be the same length. Ah, the same speed through the whole length of this timeline. But Teoh, we could do it here in the timeline. But I want you to see it visually. Since it's the first time you're introduced to this stuff Goto Windows animation and we'll go to the graph editor. This will open up a new window and now we see a motion path, one you curve. And that's what we're looking at over here. Motion path one you value and you can see it start slow speeds up and in slow. So I'm clicking and dragging the kind of Vertex here, the key frame, and I'm selecting this one and I want to go and hit this straight line here. It's gonna straighten that out. So now we enclose this. We'll learn all about animation and graph editor more later. But right now that's all we need to know. So if we play this back now, it's gonna go the same speed all the way around. When this loops, you won't be able to tell difference with speed. See, now It just goes all the way around and there's no speed changes, and that's exactly what we want. Perfect. Okay, so if we go back to the animate tab here or under animation and we dio visualize, create animation, snapshot, open up the option box here and what we want to do is go the entire length of this thing. So add 120 because that's the time line Over here. We're at 120 go start to end. But also way could say Time slider, which will kind of automatically do that. So it grazed these out. But either one, it's the same thing. If you change this number, so will say, you know increment will be one. And then let's say increment to well, whatever. Let's just leave that default will say reset settings and, ah, make sure you were all the default. So this selected, we actually want to select the cylinder, not the curve, and let's hit, apply. So when we un isolate this now, when we weaken, see what we've actually made. So it made way too many of these things. So let's let's go and un isolate this and with the cylinder selected, Let's say an increment of two now. Instead, let apply. We'll take a second and now you can see these ribs. That looks a lot closer to what we need and what is showing up here. So the only thing that I would say is that maybe these need to be closer into the object like they're poking out too far. So one way we can do that. Let's sit on. Dio will go the curve and let's isolate it. All right, click and say Control Vertex, click and drag these. So let's hold on D and X and Middle Mouse Snap it to the center. So now when I scale this down, everything should scale from the center. Okay, so now when we do the snapshot, we go to visualize and it create animations. Snapshot, We have 2.2 on and again this. Could this value could be different for you. This is just based on the size of the thing that I made. So this will probably be different for you. I'm just taking a guess at you know what will be the right distribution for mine. So to kind of lock in these changes now you can see it's it's all the way around correctly to lock in these changes, we need to delete the history. So let's go to edit delete by type history. And let's select all of these Shift select Hit G and we'll Middle Mouse drag them out. And I just let go down here anywhere and let's delete that snapshot group. So now we have the ribs and we have the cylinder. We can delete the original one. We can also delete the curve because we don't really need all that stuff now. So now we could even just middle mouse drag and put this under the cylinder. Okay? And we can also see there's maybe an extra one here, so just delete that. So now we have our knob and we to place it in the right spot. Let's unhygienic the trap heading Shift age. Let's like the cylinder dragging out here and let's rotate it down. I can see it should be 90 degrees negative 90 degrees and X, and we can also just scale the whole thing down, and you can see because we parented the ribs under the cylinder. It's following along with whatever we're doing and this is called a parent and child relationship. And we did the same thing with the group earlier. You know that everything is a child of this group note. So if we move the group note, everything will move because everything underneath it is a child, and you can do that by middle mouse dragging things in the outline. Er, you also do it by selecting two things and then hitting P on your keyboard for a short cut . So there's different ways to do it. But ah, let's just get this kind of in the right spot. Let me drag it up. It looks like it's tilted to the side a little bit. And it has this black disc here. Some actually just gonna steal one of these disks here, Command D to duplicate it and also talking about parenting. You can hit shift P two UN parents something CNC it. Pop this out from that group and we need to scale this up and let's just bring it over here to the center of this thing. And now we can click the cylinder, make sure we just have a soldier selected and rotated, so it's kind of a an interesting angle instead of straight down. And now for later we have this disk that will be able Teoh color something differently. See if it goes, you know, almost all the way. So let's just do some like that. There's gonna eyeball that it's in the centre, close enough for tech snap. I do all that stuff if you want, but that is looking pretty good. The next lesson we will create this top structure really quickly. And ah, you know, you can do the same non thing here. You just duplicate this one out at those and, uh, you know, But the next thing we'll do is just finish up this model and complete the top, and we'll move on to a character in the next series of lessons about three D modeling. Thanks for watching, and I'll see the next lesson. 11. GB Trap - Front, Merge Vertices: welcome to this lesson in this next section, we're going to kind of speed model, this kind of top section where the doors will open in this front element here. So I'm going toe model this as quickly as possible and just kind of talk you through what I'm doing. First off, I'm gonna make a cube. Bring this up and think about extruding this along kind of center here just to make that kind of first element, Um, where the doors will open from. And if we look here, there's a ridge. There may be for now, I just want to do this flat thing and I'll deal with the doors later. I want to get this solid piece that goes all the way down here and they can come out that kind of thing. So I'm looking at where this meats the other spot, the proportion of how big it is relative to everything else. So these vortices right? Clicking and going toe Vertex should snap holding down V to the edge here. And same thing with these over here, some holding down V and I have the transform, so I'm gonna go to object mode, get back into that and drag this down. Look at the reference that actually goes all the way up to the edge of the handle. It looks like so again, snap these as well. Hold down V. And what, and drag over, See if we can get it. There we go. Same thing with the spots here. We wanted toe hit the floor or the kind of top of this thing. So I'm not gonna hold down space bar, click and go to right view or that reviews Fine. And then drag this up. It doesn't have to be exact. We could actually even just crashed this all the way through if we wanted, um, which is what I'll probably just do for speed at the moment. The only thing we need to worry about, though, is if we're gonna extrude this piece out from here, it does need to match the top. It looks like he's gonna come out of the top. So let's get that aligned hold space part, go to right view and get that they're The reason I'm not using V is because it's not registering which Verdecia to snap to. So in that instance, I just come in really close. Zoom in with my camera super close, and I have the manipulator tool selected from Why so I know that I can zoom in, for example. Let's say on these vortices and I don't have the manipulator tool. What I can do is hold down the middle mouse button and drag and a notes locked to that vertical access. So that's another way to do it. And onions even super close and get then even had a wire frame by hitting four. And there we go. Oh, my gosh. OK, there we go. Okay, hold on. Space bar Click Goto Perspective. You hit five and then we can extrude this Al. But first we need an edge s I need to go to my custom shelf Hit an edge in here, and we have the, um, the tool set so it does multiple loose. We're gonna turn that off, go to the relative distance and just gonna drag this somewhere in here and double click it . Go back to the reference it looks like it's pretty close to the edge. Drag this all the way here. When I'm looking at is this is gonna be extruded outward And if you can see my mouse that well. But this seems to be pretty far to the edge. Might have to move all of this as well. Drag this out. Just drag. Does it really matter? Let's drag it here and then go to face. Come on. It's like both sides and extrude this out trump tool window here So we get more screen real estate and I'm just gonna drag this out. And I think it goes, No, no, it's just on the inside. We'll go here. We'll select these faces and looks treated out just past the edge here. Looks true. It again, just past the edge. And then it looks like we'll extrude again and then scale it down. So it's hit G because we can just extrude again and then I'm gonna hit are to go to scale, scale this down to get that edge there. It looks a little more blocking than what I have. So bring it out a little more, maybe scale it back. That looks closer than we have the flat edge. And then this one comes out. There's a little corner here, so now it also goes down. So we can make an edge loop here and extrude out that face from this corner and this corner . So we need an edge loop that goes here and we need an edge loop that goes down this area. Kind of that would cross this axis there and there. And we're one actually pretty close with these. Let's see that distance I'm looking at, it might be. Actually, this one is pretty darn close. Only problem is, when we scaled in these, um these scaled and with it so we can scale these back out and it looks like we might have situation where we yeah, of the faces weren't kept together. That's why. So let's undo this. This is an important part of ah, extruding and keeping the faces together when you need it. Let's go back to extrude and keep faces together is off. E just wanted to take a second to show you where to change the defaults for the issue that I'm having with the setting the keep faces together on If we go down to modelling, we can say keep faces together and that's gonna be the default now. Well, let's save and that's that. So when I had extrude I turn on keep faces on now. So now it will behave correctly. And because I know we're gonna want extrude this next one fighting G instead of Skilling in on all the faces so that these edge loop stay straight. I'm just gonna grab these two edges and scale them in because I want to keep those inward edges straight. Because what we're gonna do now is at an edge. LaPierre. If those were crooked, it would follow it here, right? We don't want that. So to get an even edge loop on both sides to go back into the tool internal multiple edge loops and crank this up and there we go and then just double click All these actually want . That's the one we want to keep some just shift, double clicking all of these really quickly. And it may seem tedious, but it's a sure fire way to know that they were evenly spaced. It's only that last one shift, right click drag, delete edge. And now we have that kind of buffer that we can extrude this other piece from select these and you can actually see where I made room for here in between the last lessons, and I added this plate and we can move that later to match this with. So I'm gonna hit extrude again and make sure keep faces together is on. And because they're all going in kind of different directions, I'm going to use the slider here and just crank up the thickness. And now we can kind of play. Let's look at this is a flat edge that's more a triangle and same down there. So there's a couple of different ways we can go about resolving that triangle. Let's do a little multi cut. I think this is the right amount of distance. That's what I'm This kind of piece here could be pushed back a little bit. It looks like here. I don't really care about this face being a weird angle now because I'm gonna delete it in a second anyways, bristling at this gap here, making sure it's the right distance. All these little things add up, right? You know, again, we're just kind approximating this, but the little details are kind of nice to to hit, so I'm gonna delete these faces here in a second. But what I'm gonna do first is use the multi cut tool and just draw line between those two areas and create a new little triangle here. And you'll see why in a second, because we're gonna delete all the faces of top. So I'm gonna go to the face mode by right clicking, dragging to face. Go to Q or W. Turn this off and shift. Click these faces and delete them. We can also take those away. Delete those and it looks like I snagged a straight face here. And that's one thing. I just kind of Dubai habit. I, like spin around as soon as I delete faces cause I want to make sure I didn't do something like that. And if you're using four, you could also talk alone four real quick, and we'll see that kind of red area pop up as a selection. So then we're going to use the upend polygon tool. Click an edge in here. Now you can see the area, the arrows working a little better in which direction we need toe klik the edges. Once we get that flat plain, now we can hit enter. So we do have this kind of weird normal issue that we have dealt with before. We can address that later with the mesh display, um, options that we showed in a previous lesson. But let's just keep finish finishing up the model here when adjust these by going to the Vergis ease and clicking and dragging those and I almost want to scale those out. I think, as it's gonna be such a small amount of won't matter. But scaling Devils like I mentioned earlier is always a little dangerous because the bevel is gonna change. But because it's such I'm scaling advice, such a small amount of units on the inside of something like you would never really see that. Anyways, let's go back here, and we're seeing that this is below here and this goes in an angle. So I think this is more supposed to be up here but still below this area. And we can just like these and dragged those in and down because we're gonna crash that right into the other model, just for speed sake, you know, necessarily have to attach these things, and this needs to go way closer to the edge of control. Shift dragging because again if I were to shift shift select that. It will dislike that. So again, shifts shift, drag. It won't select everything. You have to control shift, select control shift drag to select that stuff. So ships like this dragon in I want to show you can see here remaining is the fact that, um because we didn't click that last, um, edge here it it didn't line up with this Verdecia. And that's something we can fix pretty easily and quick here in a second. So gonna get the multi cut tool and go based off of this. Where to see? Just gonna click this over here somewhere is going through the model. Look away from it. So there's nothing behind it and in her, And then I'm going to slip that in Vertex snap it by holding V and middle mouse dragging over to that vert asi. And now we've got it. And here's a new thing that we're gonna learn is how to emerge. Vergis, ease some of that shift. Uh, sorry. I'm just gonna click and drag select, So I know Have both of those vortices selected. We didn't go to edit mesh merge, and there's come a threshold distance of depending on scale that you're at it may or may not work, but you can hit, apply. And then you can see that the normals kind of change. They flash their for a second. So that makes me think that it worked. We can always test it by dragging ah, on edge or something around. And, ah, who thinks I have something clicked when I don't That's always fun. So to make sure this gets in line, we can, um, just drag this up for now. Let's see. Is there Ah, no, it's a straight line. So we could eyeball this or we could just delete this and redo the upended polygon thing. Um, so that we know it's a straight line, but ah, I'm not too worried about it. It's pretty pretty straight based on, you know, my eye. At least it's pretty darn close. Okay, now we have this kind of interior face set up. We can extrude that out, or we could model it on its own. It really depends on whatever you want to dio. But, um, another thing. I want to go ahead and do as just bevel all of these edges. So go ahead and also make this thing before I do that. So must, like this face extrude. And then I'm a skill in slightly in this direction and and in that direction, maybe and g again and doesn't matter. Keep pace is together on because just a single face. I'm just gonna smash that through. And we can also make it a deeper hole if we wanted to by doing the same thing here. So let's isolate selected this piece. I'm gonna go to the object mode. It's like that piece and go to isolate, select. And we can see we have a lot of faces here that we would need to extrude down. So that's something you can do as well to make that a deeper hole. But I think we're we gonna undo, isolate, select. And we can pick this up in the next lesson where we will bevel these edges, create the doors, maybe clean this up so I don't have this issue and, ah, in a later lesson, we're gonna make a cord for this thing. And yeah, so we're moving right along. Thanks for watching 12. GB Trap - Front, Doors: welcome to this lesson where we will finish up this front element and the doors, and I want to talk about this issue. It basically has a weird visibility issue. Just because there's one face around top of the other sues, you click one or the other, it will show the one you've clicked. But that's why when you don't have either collect and you look around, it's kind of a weird view. Let's ah, deal with that. We can isolate, select this thing like I was mentioning earlier and go to the face. And it's like these control shifts like those corners here, which are probably gonna be proved to be an issue. We can deal with those in a second control shift, select anything that we don't need it for, to make sure they only have that top selections selected and go to extrude and keep faces together. And let's just pull this down and see what we get so far, go back to shaded mode so we can see so that looks pretty good. I'm going to do that and maybe just scale these in a little bit. They're not right at the edge and then redo that and make sure keep faces together is on. And now Dragon. And so now we have this a little bit of a border there. Make sure I didn't undo. Not far enough back. It looks like Oh, this is the issue because these aren't Ah, these aren't following along here. So let's just drag it down for time sake, because we have we already have. Ah, the top area modelled. We un isolates like that. We can see we're good there. You just drag this one back up, actually, just Vertex snap it. So let's go to the front view. Actually, I lost my selection there, Some to go back to select that for the front view and we can hit w are starting to get four . Teoh, get the A sideways view and distract that back up to be even. Go back to perspective mode. Right click to go to object mode at five. Now we can see we have a deeper hole here, but ah yeah, let's go to isolate It's like that and of the main issue is it's it's ah, extruding through itself. So we're seeing the back side of the face is so we can just delete this face. There we go. And that solved the problem. We'll just drag this one down as far as we want. And on isolates like that, we can see this issue here with the internal peace so we can resolve this. You know, if we want Teoh depends on how much you're going to see this stuff. You basically don't spend a ton of time modeling. Things you're never gonna see is a big rule with modeling. Because if you work for for a studio or something and you spend all your time modeling something, no one's ever gonna see your supervisor is not gonna be too happy. So it's all about what the viewers going to see from the camera angle. And, ah, if you're working on a show or movie, they are going to tell you exactly what to model. Hopefully, sometimes that changes. You have to adapt to that. But so now we have this front element and let's kind of call this good. You pull this edge back a little bit is slightly annoying. I just shifts like that and four to make sure I have nothing else selected. Just drag that back a little bit. Five cool. We don't see that good object mode. And so now I want to take this element and let's see what we get. If we just bevel this whole thing, I think we're gonna have to select edges. But just for time's sake, yeah, I mean, it's pretty close. We're adding a lot of gallantry to this thing unnecessarily. So going to go back out and get a little more specific with the exact edges I'd like to bevel if we look at the reference, it's kind of all of these outside angles, our beveled. So just gonna grab those And, of course, the top edges here and let's see what we could do. We could do the bottom edges as well, and I'm choosing not to merge these. You could spend more time on this and merge the so they're not separate pieces, but for our time's sake, um, trying to keep the sit oral shorter and not keep going on and on. I'm just choosing to do what I thinks fastest for us, and you're still learning a little bit so cool. Now we're almost have all of our selections made just into good on this edge The search of the sedge sedge and this one, this one actually slept with that one. I want that Cool. You know, I'm gonna go ahead and grab that one. You got to do those. I think, uh, you know, it should be flush with it, but it's It's a much more pain in the butt to try to devil things after the fact, because the number of lines like where they meet won't line up, and it just creates a lot more work. I'm just going through this tumbling around this thing, making sure we have all of the angles, baby crap. This one, too. All the angles covered here. Now it's bevel this. So let's go to Poly Bevel. We also t to pull up the options here. And let's just add one segment and call that good and you can see the issue when we beveled This. Of course, Now it's not flush. We can resolve that in a couple different ways. You just pull out this edge. Um, because some both sides probably scale it. That's a little bit of a sloppy way to do it, but ah, you know, it gets the job done for speed sake that said, having emerge this stuff when you could do is go in and add a lot of extra edge loops here . Eso We could add one here and then we could delete faces and then merge. Vergis is where these points meat. That's how I would emerge all those together. But then, you know, since we beveled these and we have a lot of edge loops to Dio and I think for our purpose of just learning just beginners, you know, trying to discover what modeling is all about. Um, I don't want us to get in the weeds too much on that stuff. So we have a nicely beveled peace here, and we can just maybe extrude these two faces for this front plate element. So I'll go to extrude, keep faces on and sorry with the offset to try to bring it in just a little bit. And then let's hit g again and keep faces on. Just drag this out a little bit. Looks like that should be way closer. The edges. Something went too far on the offset. Let's go offset my points. You know, we could click this thing here and now we middle mouse drag will be a lot smaller, so that's probably the best option for us. So then we can have g again. So now we create this little separation of these faces. We can go back, extreme this out and see how far out it comes. Not super far. Seems like a really beveled edge, though, like super smooth. More than what we just did. So let's do that bevel AT T or somebody to go toe bevel edge first. And now we have it. We gonna increase the segments here now, um, need to speed this back up because it's I wasn't really working that well. It was going so slow. So now we have this element modelled. I think what I'd like to see, though t again fractions maybe is too much or we need more segments. It was kind of two faceted. You could see the edges a little too much cool. So that's done. And we can extrude this center face and looks like it kind of slopes and do it maybe from the top. I don't know. It depends on how how you how you view this image or what the reference you you find and use but going to the same thing we just did extrude keep faces on turned How this down so we can get a little more specific on the offset middle mouse drag here and center to get the offset in the ballpark. It's pretty small. Looks like it's kind of thinner, scale it in this direction, but that it's still the sinner when you drag it up a little bit. So pull this out. Just a touch, because that looks like what's happening in the reference. So it makes our bevel a little wonky because it's trying to get flat at the top here. And we could just delete those top edges so that it's more gradual. So might do that. Go toe edge. It's like these double click. It should go all the way around. Does right click go to delete edge. So now it's more of ah, more of a gradual. If you like this profile, it's going in there a little better. So now we have this plate extrude this again, So let's go to extrude. Pull this out extrude at g o. We need to keep faces together, though. Ah extreme that again biting G keep faces together, increase the offset here. It looks like, right, Yeah, yeah, let's go back here. G again, extrude again, keep faces together. Just smashed that down into this thing. I don't know how far it's hard to see from the single how far that thing goes down because somewhere like that and then we could just better bevel these edges and kind of call it a day on this stuff. And in the next lesson, I want to show you a very interesting way to model a cord, something that kind of has, like, an organic shape to it. And, um, even though we're doing hard surface stuff, a lot of hard surface things like mech type things have cords associated with him. So we want to make sure that, ah, we know how to do that if you're interested in the hard surfaced kind of arena. So just gonna increase the segments there, that object mode. So I'm going to see it and shaded, and it looks like we just have, like, a normals issue here. It doesn't know which way to poll. Another thing we can do is add some more geometry here with multi cut tool. And hopefully that will, ah, alleviate some of the normals problems because, as I mentioned earlier, my doesn't really like triangles, and we just created a couple there. Um, but if we put that down, we're gonna make another one, so I might just leave that as it is just to these two. Cool. So I think you know, if we go back through and do what we did in a previous lesson to resolve the normals issues with mess mash display, you just do that super quick said to face. So that actually looks pretty good just by going with the averaging the faces. If you wanted to get more specific with that, you can do that. But it's really just for our purposes in view port. When you create renders of this, those normal faces won't matter as much. But we got this done and going to quickly create the doors. Super quick, drag this up and vortex snap this to one side and then Vertex snap this to the edge and I held D NV to change the pivot, of course. And then I held V just to transform into the side here so that it will all scale from this point and again, I could I can use the vortex snapping here, warring, just kind of eyeball it cause they're, you know, anything mechanical is gonna have a gap there. So Aiken not exactly rub up against things. One thing we want to make sure is that these in the center are in fact, in the center. So let's go to the right view and had four. And now we can see the centerline of real down X. We can snap to the grid. So now we know that's right in the center, and we can actually just pull that back just a touch. So again, there's a little bit of a gap there, and it's right click object mode and five to go back in the shaded scale this down. So the door is more of a door size and bring it up to the top of this edge here said it looks pretty good. The last thing we need to do is, of course, a bevel. This thing just a touch. So I'm actually just gonna leave it on object mode and go to our custom shelf click bevel and I wanna go pretty small on the bevel and bring back the fraction. So it's just barely beveled. Just so it's not. Ah, very hard edge there. And then we're gonna do is duplicate this by hitting command D and what I can dio There's gold. In some ways you can do this, you could scale it and negative in this direction. So you go negative one. So it flips it around and then we can hold down Vienne. Snap it to this other side. So it should. I think we're snapping to the wrong thing. Is snapping to the bevel one of the Bengals instead of the the edge there. So let's go to the right view, have four and just snap that inside. So now we can see in the center here they're equally far apart from the middle. Might need toe just that touch. Um, let's look at this. Let's just bring those in just a little bit so I can click both of those and it are and then just scale from here, since just a small amount, that's not gonna really hurt the bubbles that we did just kind of close that gap just a touch. Cool. So now we have our ah Ghostbusters trap. Pretty much we can add these little rivets that we put up here. If we'd like, we can add this back element. You basically at this point, have all the knowledge you need to model this back area and in the last lesson here is could be very short. We're just gonna make this accord that can come off of the back of this thing. So I will show you how to do that in the next lesson. Thanks for watching. 13. GB Trap - Cord: welcome to the last lesson in the Siris of cream this ghostbuster trap. In between the previous lesson on this one, I just made this little back end piece here, and I just basically did that with all the techniques we've already learned extruded the top of it to make this little kind of a rim. And then I beveled all the edges and also added this little kind of a wing Hear. So I added edge loops here, and then I beveled those kind of corners there. And then finally, I made this little piece that sticks out the back. And this is basically a cylinder that I reduced the number of subdivision axes down to eight to make it more like a some kind of nut that you would have to screw in there. And then this is just another cylinder that I extruded out and then beveled all the edges to make this kind of port for the cord. We're gonna make in this lesson. So that's just an update on you know, some updates. I did that. You know, you've learned all these techniques already. Same thing for finishing off this other side. Based on the reference. You know, you've easily already learned how to do this little panel, so I'll leave that up to you to finish out the other side with all the techniques, techniques we already learned. Um, I also added a little, uh, thing here that I've seen some reference. It's just a cylinder. Beveled edges, same same kind of thing. So let's learn how to do this court. Let's first revisit the idea of curves we did in the previous lesson, and that's gonna be basically the template for how we're gonna extrude a cylinder over this curve. Let's go to a top down view so we can see kind of where this is gonna come out. I'm gonna have four to see through this thing. So now I can see where it's gonna meet. Down there we go. The curves and services kind of tab your You can also go to create and go to curve tools. You get the same kind of the tools here so you can see the similarities there. I'm going to the e p curve tool and open up the tool settings so that I can see that we're on three cubic. So it's going Teoh start inter plate kind of Ah, rounded edge there as after I go three points. So I'm going to hit X to line up on the grid and then I'm just going to kind of, ah, make a swooping kind of, ah, curve cord path here, and this is just gonna kind of trail off in the distance. You can make it be whatever you'd like it to be. But ah, and of course, I'm gonna have dinner. And then you can always add it this later I right click and go to control Vertex and then dragged these around if you want to change the kind of curves that you've you've made and we're gonna need to do that at the insert point here because it's not matching where it's going to be inserting. I want to go up here and lift all of these and then bring this one in and have this kind of secondary one. Make sure that it's going in straight. You can also rebuild the curve. If you didn't make enough points, you can see how it starts to kind of get a little jagged here. It's not like super smooth. So you can go Teoh the curve selected, you go Teoh curves and then down the bottom, there's rebuild in go the options and uniform you can set. The number spans all these different types of options, but that's kind of most common. Just apply. You can see how it curved out this thing here. I'm gonna undo it and then redo it and seconds. See it a little better. I'll zoom in here, so redo it and you could see how that kind of curves and finishes it out. But the only issue is now, when we get back in control of urgency, there's there's a lot more. Vergis is control, so it's good to kind of get this working before you add a ton of urgencies, that thing you have to control. If that's the case, you have a ton of Verdecia, as you can be on your keyboard and that turns on soft selection. Gonna hold be in Middle Mouse Dragon, the view port to increase or decrease that soft selection area, so that could be helpful. If you have a ton of points to drag around, I'm gonna do something like that and we can adjust this later as well, but roughly want to get this in the center of the thing. And, um, you know, when I have a shape that respects gravity and the weight of the cord and all that kind of good stuff So, um, we may need to get this on the ground soon or kind of a thing, but ah, you can mess with all that after the fact as well. But let's get to the meat of this thing where we need to extremely an actual curve over this thing are sorry extrude a ah cylinder over this thing. So turn that off. Closed that down. And so now we need to create a ah Polly model and I grab a cylinder and I'm going Teoh I know what have it selected because I just created it, but also because I could see in outlanders don't have to like, you know, visually see it over there to know that it's selected. So I'm gonna hold down, see which snaps two curves and middle mouse. Drag that there, that I'm gonna rotate this down and maybe scale it down a little bit and roughly get it in line with this thing. There's a couple different ways and extrude curves. You could you could, ah, grab a circular curve and do this as well. But then you would have to convert the nerve circle. Teoh Polygon, which is under modify, convert nerves of polygons. But let's just do with a plague. On first, you can see how that is done. I'm going to select the faces of the polygon. One hit be to turn off soft selection control. Click and de select the ones I don't need. I'm in a shift. Select the curve, Okay, and then we go to extrude. It's that extrude and you can see something happened, but not exactly what we wanted. It looks like there's a face now at the very beginning of this curve. Here in the center, maternal keep faces on as well, so we can see it. So if I hit five, you can see it kind of goes inside. That's because curves also have directions. I'm gonna go back and object mode strikes like the curve, and we need to reverse the direction. So if I go to curves reverse direction now you can see the end of the curve is considered down here so we extrude it. It's gonna go in that direction. Problem is, it's not really respecting the curve that we drew. So we need to go into the extrusion options here. Let t and we need to increase the divisions. And as we increase the divisions, let me just turn this pie will back to a normal speed. As we increase these divisions, you can see that it's actually beginning to make the cord. And that's just because it needed mawr information, right? So this lateral max out at 25 you can type in higher value we can. There's actually a taper value here as well that you could mess with and a couple other things. So basically, that's how you make accord. And the things to keep in mind is these subdivisions are based off the distribution of the CVS and the curve. So if we hadn't have rebuild the curve, the distribution here would have been not as accurate. You can see here. Ah, there are less. Um, there are less points here. There's less edges here because there's less points in the curve. If I go Teoh, let me isolate it so I can right click on it. Go control Vertex. You can see that there's a big gap here between these two. So that's the same. It'll be reflected in the edges of the cylinder. There's less here than there are over here. So just keep that in mind if we drag this overall kind of group. Um, you know, and that's you can still edit this stuff after after the fact. Until you delete the history, you can edit this stuff. So the other thing we need to dio we can see if we can go into the police cylinder and change the original radius and we can, which is a super nice thing about keeping the history as even though this was we've done a lot of things to it since we created a cylinder. This first piece of history takes precedence, right? So we can still have that. I was just gonna five so we can see this unshaded mode and the only one more thing I might do is rebuild the curve akin so that we get a little more definition here and the cord single curves rebuild and let's just create this up and then apply, and then we will probably need to increase the extrusion, the subdivisions, and it totally spouse is out. Then it turns black because, uh so this original one. Ah, sometimes this happens. So you want to keep in mind that you can't do more so divisions than you know, our kind of allowed here from beginning If we go Ah, middle most drag. So it goes back to the max default you can get by middle Mel striking. But if we keep increasing this and this edge year goes past this one, it'll flip the edge around itself. So then it flips all the faces inside outside. Get this black thing you've You've created too many divisions. So let's just go right before that happens. And now we have this kind of smoother looking curve and then we can also again go to the curve and push some points around. If we still want Teoh adjust where the the density of the edge loops are getting concentrated. Cool. So that's how you extrude an object. Make cord something like that. Most mech, um, and hard surface models have cords of some sort. And let's just ah, right before we sign off here, let's just make sure we get the Polly cylinder radius. Correct. Something in this neighborhood is going a little closer. 0.5 cool and then we'll shift. Select curve. I slid it. Go to the control. Vertex is like the end one had be and he dragged the sad a little bit and on Isolate that and just get that right in the center there. So there you have it. We have created the Ghostbuster trap, and we've done it with hard service modelling techniques. In the next series of lessons, we're going to cover more organic modelling techniques, and we're gonna create a character that we will eventually use to rig an animate in later lessons. We're also going to revisit this model later on and texture it and maybe do some animating on this as well. Let's see what we have in store for that later. But ah, great job and following these lessons, if you've gotten this far, that's quite an accomplishment, and it's a lot to take in. So just take your time and we watch these. If you have any problems and you know you can always pick up wherever just middle mouse tracking all this stuff into the top group. So it's all organized. Just, you know? No, you can come back. We watch this stuff and ask me any questions that you may run into because, you know, this stuff is not easy. And I admire you guys trying to learn this stuff. So I appreciate you watching and good luck. Thank you. See, in the next series 14. Topology - Line Flow: welcome to the first lesson on organic modeling. And then this lesson. We're going to take a look at something called topology. These air some concepts you need to learn before we start modeling our own character. So you know why we're doing what we're doing. So topology essentially means the line flow or the edge flow over a surface. So when we look at a modeling this, we see it in a gray shaded form. But what makes up this model this model is made up of? If we right click, we can see faces. Vergis ease and edges. Those are the three main things, and we kind of already know this from the hard surface modelling. But it's even more important to understand these concepts when we're doing organic modeling as well. So So let's take a look at the edge flow here, and we can do this by turning on the wire frame on shaded button here so we can see the object while it shaded. We can't hit for, like we've done in the hard modelling, but then we see through the object so it gets kind of confusing to see where the lines are . Has been hit five to get that back. Also, quick aside, if you want to change the background color hit all be. And I just like to keep it on blue because the default shader zgray so it's easier to see the model on that. So when we look at this, we can see there's a lot of edges and they're all going in different directions. You know, more simple areas. It's pretty straightforward, like the arm. It looks like a cylinder. They're just edges going across the arm, as you'd expect. But what happens when that needs to be attached to the torso? We get an intersection of edges here, and you can see that by this star, right? So if we look over here, all of these edges are intersecting with one other edge right? There's one edge going this way. One is going that way, but when we look at a star, we can see there's one edge going here when it's going there. When it's going in, there's a lot more edges intersecting at a star, and what that tells you is this is where the line flow changes and it changes because it's having to deal with other line flow, you know, intersecting line flow that's doing something different, and it gets resolved in something like a star shape. So the reason why that is conceptually is because you you have lines going in different directions that need to meet up and connect. And you also have lines or edges that are coming from an area of high density to low density. So if we look at the corner of the eye here, you can see that we have all of these edges coming from a larger area, and they need to go into a smaller area like the I. And what happens is you have to reduce the number of edges as you go in so that it syncs up with however many edges are on the inside. And so you can see that with something like a star again, right? And this area right here is what I'm looking at. So this really looks like a triangle. If we just pulled the subvert asi up, this would be like a triangle, right? Some to go back to object mode, right clicking. So we have this edge just dead ends basically. But they pulled out the vert asi so that it is more evenly distributed. Right? So that the edge Flo looks like it kind of goes around the eye. So we're doing organic modeling. The reason behind all this too. Is it? So this works for animation. We never read a form something. We need the edge loaded toe work properly. Otherwise the deformation is gonna look weird. And I'll show you what that means in another lesson. But just conceptual. We need to begin to understand why things air modeled the way they are right and to know how to look at how things are modeled. So then we can break it down in our mind and recreate it. So if we keep looking at this model, we can see Look, here's another star right here so we can see that if we take a look at the mouth edge flow This section here, all of these lines edges go around the mouth. And why is that? Because the mouth things the open right, So those edges need to be circular. Alright, then they go out and they go out further and further. And then the meat edges that you know it. No longer needs to go in a kind of circle around the mouth. It needs to start connecting to the nose and the eyes. So now the edges need to go up towards the eyes, and it needs to change direction. And that's where you get these stars, right? Where this edge that was now going up to the nose needs to be redirected into the eye. And so we get a star right here. And that's usually where you see those intersections happening. Okay, we can also see this with the eyes. There's kind of an eye mask area here, and same thing with the mouth, right circles going around and around and around. And eventually they need to change direction to start connecting everything else. So we get a star right here. Okay? You can see how about EJ flow changes. And now it goes down the side of the cheek here and up the brow. So this is what you need to begin to understand about topology and why it's important. And where we're gonna model things the way we're gonna model them. So they work in animation. So the next lesson I want to take you through some of the concepts of. So the next lesson I'm gonna show you how to take areas of high density to low density and how to make these kinds of areas. We can see it another one right here. So let's simplify this in the next lesson and learn how to do that. Thanks for watching. 15. Topology - Reducing Even Numbers: in this lesson. We're going to cover something that's really like a puzzle and that is reducing the number of edges like we saw coming into the eye. So we have an area of high density of edge loops into an area of low density, and we saw that was resolved right here in this face. Okay? And we're gonna learn how to do this, and we're gonna simplify it, and we're gonna use planes. So let's create a plane will go to the Poly modeling menu and click the plane. I'll let f to frame up on it, and then I'll let G to make another one. And of course, G is the shortcut for just doing the previous operation again. So but moved these kind of close together to make our job easier here in a minute and drag these kind of back in the center here. So the two planes we have have the exact same number of Edgell Oops. And so if we wanted to combine them and be pretty straightforward, we just need to merge these edges down, right? So that they would all line up perfectly. That's not what happens in modeling, especially an organic modeling, where you have an area of high density like the head that have a larger surface area. So there's more edges to describe it, and it needs to all feed into the eyeball or the eyelid into an area of, ah, much smaller area. So not all the edge loops can fit in there. So let's take this kind of simplified version here of these two planes and first will do this one on the left has 10 edge loops. And let's do this one on the right has eight. So trying to fall along if you can, because it will make a lot more sense because this can be very confusing. And you were probably gonna want a bookmark this video specifically to revisit because you're going to run into this issue again and again and an organic modeling, and you're gonna have to re remember all the time. All right, how do my resolve this? How do I, you know, combine an area of higher density of edge loops in tow? Lower. So, fortunately, this first example is gonna be the easiest type, so we have both even number of edge ellipse. We have 10 over here and over here. So before we can start combining edges, we need to merge. These two meshes down, we can see in that letter there's plain one in plain, too. So they're two different pieces of meshes. They're not the same. So you combine them. So shift select. So have both of them selected, and I'll go to mesh combined. And you can see that now there's one plane that we have selected and has both sides selected, so we know it's combined. But we have these empty groups over here. It looks kind of messy, and this is part of the history that my creates. When you do big operation like combined, you can see it has the inputs. Over here, there's there's the Unite One, and so to get rid of these empty groups, you could just delete them. But the cleaner way to do it is to delete the history which we've done before, So let's go to edit, delete by type and again, let's just do this one, not the bottom. When this will delete everything in this scene, we don't want that we want this top one to leave by type history and then that gets rid of those empty groups and cleans up the outline. Er And so now let's get to work. Let's go to the edge operation here, right clicking and dragging to it and click and drag these two edges that are kind of matched up together. And let's go to the edit mesh and I'm gonna tear this menu off and we're gonna go down to the merge option here, and there's a couple of ways you could do. You get it, emerge. Nothing happens. Why did nothing happen? Well, let's look at this tolerance value. It's It's Senate zero right now, But as soon as we dragged it up a little bit, that tolerance value is a distance. And when you increase the distance it's looking for, it's gonna start to find that distance so we can see it's probably these two pieces air like 20.2 units apart, so that's when it starts to merge them. So let's click and drag and do that for all of the edges down here, we get G to bring up the merge tool again and merge these down and again. You may have to increase that tolerance value each time you go. No, G and just increased tolerance so you can do more than one at a time. But you'll see as soon as you start to get where you know, there's two right next to each other that you don't want to be. Marge, you have to do them by themselves. Of course. So then what we do here? This is what the lessons all about. Okay, we need to figure out a way to deal with this. So how do we do that? Why can't we just merge, pull it over to see over and just have that be what it is? Well, an animation. When that starts happening and deformation is happen, you will get a gap. Here, you'll be able to see through the model, or this will bend in a weird way so that shadows and reflections will look very odd. So that's why, in modeling and organic modeling, you always want to have quads, and that means each face needs four sides. You never want to have a face with five sides, which is called on in gone. That's in G O N. And you don't want to have a face that has three sides, which is a try a triangle. So those are the parameters who need to work in everything has to be a quiet. That's why we can't just pull this over and call it a day. Because if we try to merge this here, then that would create a new edge for this face right here. And instead of this face having four edges now, it would have five and out, making it an in gone, we would have an edge at the top here and edge right here. And then three more side bigot five. So we need to figure out how to keep it to four edges so that each face is a quad. Okay, so with that understanding, we need to figure out how to resolve this. And this is very someone to the example we saw above. So I'm going to show you how to do it now, So I'm gonna show you how to do that. Now, let's select both of these and scale the men. So now we can merge all three of these vergis ease down. Let's merge these down and you'll see where I'm going with this here in a second. So we'll create some problems for ourselves, then we'll solve them. Okay, so now we can at least combine these two edges. So let's select those and it Gede emerge those no g over here to merge that. So what did I say earlier? We don't want triangles. And what do I have here have two triangles. They happen to be right next to each other. So what does that mean? That means we can delete the edge in the middle. Let's do that. So we've deleted this engine. A mill in the middle. It still looks like a triangle, but if we count the number of edges, it's actually four. There's one here, one here, one here and one here. That's four. So even though it looks like a triangle has four edges, so it's a quad and we can do We can make this look like a quad just by going to the Vergis is here and pulling this one out. Now we can see a little better that there are, in fact, for edges. So that's how we get down to reducing an area of high density of edge flow into a low density of edge flow and there's one other little tool I'll show just very briefly. What? We talk about this a little later as well. But if I wanted to resolve this kind of messy look to the edge flow here with a different tool, we could go to sculpting and choose this one right here. This is the relaxed tool. If I click this, I need to select a polygon Mashtal. Select the face. You can see everything kind of grays out. The edge flow does, and it's tells me I'm sculpting on this shape. This plane here, and what the relaxed old does is it will not change, not sculpt, on this Polly animal raise or lower it or to form it in any way. What it will do is relax the edge flow, and if your brush sizes too big, you can hold down B and Middle Mouse. Dragon will change the brush size so it's way too big. Just scale it down here with the middle my Alison holding be. And if I click and just kind of hold down my mouse and drag around, you can see it just relaxing the edge flow year so it makes it flow into the next area a lot more cleanly. And it did that kind of pull out force here, where this face, instead of looking like a triangle, looks more like a quad now and again. It just doesn't look like it, but but by its geometric components of its edges, it is in fact, a quad. That's how we do a reduction of edge low from area of high toe low. In the next lesson, we're gonna cover the more difficult version of this of odd number, and that will take a little more problem solving and puzzle solving. So some people find this very fun because it is like solving a puzzle. And other times can be very frustrating when trying to figure this out. So I hope this makes sense and how to merge areas of high density and low density. Let's move on to the more advanced problem in the next lesson. Thanks for watching 16. Topology - Reducing Odd Numbers: in this lesson. Let's take a look at the more complicated example of going from an area of even numbered to an area of odd number edge loops. So I'm gonna hide this even number example we've already done and create a new example by creating two planes and dragging them side by side here and than making one of them be nine instead of 10. And we can combine these as we did mesh. Combine at it Julie by type history, and I call this odd odd numbers and let's begin emerging these edges down. It's gonna go right Click and go Toe edge and my click drag. Select all of these and go to edit Mesh merge. And now we get to the issue. How do we resolve this one? This is ah, more complicated puzzle, and it's gonna take a little more problem solving. I'm gonna You can try this by yourself, you composite video and try to figure this out how to merge these lines down with no triangles and no in guns, meaning no five sided faces. Or you can, ah, just follow along and I'll show you the answer of doing it one way right now, so we need to approach this in kind of a different way. We need to resolve the issue back here, and then will be another solution here, so so need to reduce the number of edges back here. So then we can solve the problem up here. Okay, So I'm going to go to the multi cut tool, and I'm gonna make some new edge loops here. If I hold shift and click, I'll get to the middle of the edge. Handle hit. Enter. So I've divided this in creating and gone over here. So to resolve the in gone, I need to make this a quad again and create an edge here. And when we solve this problem, now we create another one that we have triangles here. Well, that's not that big of a deal. I can actually just delete those, so I'm gonna So I'm gonna go to these edges and shift, select them both holding down shift right click and go to delete edge. Okay, so now we have a new problem. We have an odd number still write. We have one going into two. So how do we solve this problem? Well, let's Whenever I'm problem solving, I just try to move forward and then see where the problem arises and how you fix it. Kind of at the last possible moment. Stay in this edge mode. I'm gonna merge these down and kind of forced the issue here. Okay, So what method do we have at our disposal to resolve this? Let's try pulling this over and merging these Vergis ease over here, so I'll hold down V and middle mouse drag. You can see I'm isolated to this translation so it won't snap. So let me un isolated by clicking in the center here and now it will snap. Okay? I need to merge those. Vergis sees that right on top of each other. They're not merged yet, so I need to go, Teoh merge After I click and drag both of them. I have to worry about the threshold cause around on top of each other. So everything's merge now, right? Except the problem is, we have a triangle here. So however, resolve the triangle well, we can try to make it a quad in some way. What's the easiest way to make something a quad? Let's try to add another edge loop. OK, so we get We could do this with a multi cut tool where we could go over to our custom shelf and use an edge loop and edge loop will show you the issue. Right. Naj Loop won't be able to continue at a triangle. So when we click here, it's going to stop at the triangle that indicates a It's a triangle and be Maybe this is how we're going to solve the issue. So I let go. And now we look it is it is a quad. We have no in guns and we have all quads. The only issue is that we had to add a new edge loop. So in a model that you have, it's fairly large. This could create issues. Appear somewhere, you know. Now you have, ah, higher density of edge loops up here. So you could be just pushing the problem up higher. But it's an area that you could, you know, solve. Let's figure out how to solve this and reduce this. Um, we've done this before, right? We have three and we're trying to get back to one. So let's scale these Vergis is down and select all three and merge them. We'll go to edit mesh merge. Now we have two triangles again. And how do we solve that? By deleting their center edge. Make sure I only have that someone selected holding down shift right clicking Go to delete edge. Now we resolve the issue. It's not super clean, right? Like it doesn't look super clean, But it is all quads, and we've solved the problem Now that this we could solve this much higher up. So all of this kind of oddly ah flowing topology won't necessarily have to be in the same area. And you could maybe hide this in like an armpit or somewhere that is not very visible to a model. So you could move this solution somewhere. The model that's not visible to the viewer. Um, but this is how to do the odd number kind of intersection thing and and deal with that apology line flow. So I hope you had fun figuring out this kind of ah problem solving thing. You can find these types of examples all over models. If you ever look at wire frames of models, you'll be able to see this all over you can see triangles right here. Well, not really triangles, but you can see where the edge flow changes. It looks like a triangle, but it's really a quad, right? It has four edges, so that's a quad. You can see where the edges it goes up and around, right. We can see how this starts to flow. This goes up in around like this instead of going straight through because we can see a star right here. We know there's an edge loop kind of change in direction here. See how this changes directions and it's near that star start to look at this stuff when you're looking at wire frames of models, you can kind of see the thought process and the reason behind they did it because so they did this because, you know our abs with center here. Maybe they need the apology. Be right for the bellybutton. Nor, you know, this Adam's apple areas kind of the river, you know, upside down version of this. All of this flows upward so that this person can have an Adam's apple and the topology will support that shape here. So I started thinking about models in this way and in the next lesson will begin creating our own model from reference that I'll provide so we can create our own character and keep moving along and learning how to model. And Maya and all the other aspects of my thanks for watching. 17. Bones - Image Plane Setup: welcome to this lesson where we will discuss how we're gonna use an image plane to create this character. And in this series, we're going to model this character that will later use for rigging and animation. So before we get started like we did on a hard surface modelling with the Ghostbusters trap , we need reference. And in this case, it's concept art that I drew based off of, Ah, you know, looking at some other art. And you always want to start with a piece of reference and you don't just want to look at it like we're doing in the hard surface modelling example. That's that's one way to do it. But the more advanced way to do it is to actually have this image in your scene and use it as a direct correlation with where you're placing edges and Vergis ease and faces. So in this lesson, we're gonna bring this image into my Oh, let's go over to Maya and let's create a plane. Any time you create a plane, the default is toe have 10 subdivisions, and when you start modeling, you'll quickly realize that the mawr subdivisions and the more faces you have in the scene , the slower it's gonna be. So there's no reason for this image plane to have this many subdivisions because we're not deforming it anyway, so we can reduce this down toe one. So it is just a single face, and then we need to map this image onto this face, and it's currently not the same dimensions you can see this is a square, and this is in a square, and you'll often runs that when you're using reference. Uh, you know it's not gonna always fit up perfectly, so we'll deal with that as well. So let's go to. So let's rotate this image up in the Z direction. We can see what the Z direction is over here in the bottom left, you can see it's pointing this way, so it's rotated up, and so it's facing front. So if we go to our front camera will be able to see this face, okay? And let's add this image to this was a sign this and you Shader, This is something new. We're going to right click on this and scroll down to a sign. New material. Okay, now we get a new window and there's a lot of different options. But for our purposes, we're gonna use the Lambert, okay? And because the default shares Lambert one, it always is in your scene. So when you create a new labour is gonna say number two. So let's just call this reference and I'll put S h d for shader. So we have all these different attributes, will change the color and we can do all sorts of things. Which, if I hit six on my keyboard, it's going to update a little better. Um, so now that I can I can show that color change and we change the transparency. There's all these things, but we want to map the image into this color attributes. So it's hit this little checkerboard over here, and we get another new window and I'm gonna choose file and then choose file. It creates a file note, of course. And let's just type in reference here as well, with an underscore to the file. So we know it's a file, and this might help us later. If we need to locate this or something like that, how to enter, Make sure you hit enter because any time you re name something and you try to map something into without hitting. Enter here. It'll say, you know, can't find this note because you didn't finalize this change. So any time you name something like this, you want to hit inner, So that's when you actually map in file, which we're about to do. It will know where it actually put it, which has reference underscore File one instead of file one. So let's go to image name will hit the folder and let's go to find the reference image character design dot Jay pek wide open. And if I right click on this sample little update, the little tests watch here. And sometimes if you're having trouble, I just hit space Bar to get the four of you up here. And then I had space bargain to get back to perspective. That was just an accident. Um, there is one bug that I found in this version of Maya, and every version of mine is gonna have its own fun hum sorts of bugs in it. You'll have to just kind of trouble shoot. But the textures should just pop up when you do what we just did right. We just signed the new Shader, and when we look at the color now instead of a checker box that has this kind of arrow box thing. If we click that, it will take us to that file known. So it's not showing up, even though we see it's registering here. It's not showing up in our view port. So it's it's six. Make sure we're in texture mode or you can also hit this button up here, which is the texture option. But it's not updating here, and this may not have him for you, but the bug I found in my version of Maya is you have to open up the hyper shade, which is this little ball Ah, icon appear, which will get into in later lessons. You can see when I open up the hyper shade. It finally, uh, made the texture reload. This again is a goofy thing in Maya. So if that has happened and we've assigned the Shader to this and you've loaded in the file , try opening up the hyper shade and so it'll kind of refresh the textures, so you might have to do that more than once to see if it'll you might to close and reopen it. And, um yes. So let's, uh, deal with the scaling issue. No, because this image is squashed it square right now, So go into wherever the file is and on a Mac, I just right click and go down to get info and on a PC. I think it's, ah properties somewhere. It should show the dimensions of the image. And on a Mac, it's right here. So 10 23 by 15. 39 So we can use that to scale this up. Let's go back over to the channel box by clicking this button appear. And currently this is ah at a nod scale. So I'm just gonna do one for that and 10 23. So my go 10 23 and it's gonna freak out because, you know, that's that's a That's a massive distance, as you can tell. But all we're trying to do is is get that ratio for right now. 10 23 15 39. We want to go in the Z direction we can see here. So let's type in 15. 39 there. And so this thing is massive now, Okay, and that's fine. But we now have the corrective mentions of this image, at least. So let's scale this back down to something more manageable. And now we have our reference image and is properly scaled to the right dimensions. And if we want to lock this in, we can just freeze the transformations. And what I mean is, you know, all of these numbers are a little weird right here. And if you want to have it be a little more clean, we just freeze freeze the transformations so that it will be one, Um, and all of the scale dimensions. Let's go to edit. So let's go to modify frieze transformations. And now you can see everything went to one and everything else is zero. Let's duplicate this and rotated in 90 degrees. And now let's go to the front view and let's just line up the drawing to be right in the center of our ah grid. Here are you know, we can see where zero and zero for X and y are, so we need to just center this thing up. So it's roughly in the center of the scene so that everything that we model can be symmetrical and mirrored over to the other side, so that's pretty good. Let's go to the other side, the one that we duplicated and rotated. So let me back up because it looks like we just we didn't do anything. So, you know, we move this one to the center, but this one is still rotated and agrees, and we haven't moved it in any direction yet. The reason we rotated it 90 degrees is because this is gonna be the side view. So we want to line up this image to the right to be in the middle. And sometimes, you know these these might very well be two different images. So you might have to create a new shader and applying to Shader with the new texture on it , just like we did already with with this one, you might have to do that again if you have a different image. And so let's go to the right view. And now we can see this one. I mean, CR come zero access here, and this is kind of up to you where you can kind of eyeball it. You might just going to split the difference and maybe look at the neck or the spine or something like that. But this roughly needs to be in the center as well. So if you wanted to kind of minimize the distraction of having this other image here, we can get our custom menu, go to the edge loop, and we could create an angel appear and we could just drag it over whoever we wanted it basically and hit V in the selection tool selected with Q. Let's go to face, and we can just delete that. So now all we have is this side of you, and we could do the same for this side as well. Um, it doesn't really bother me. And it might be nice to kind of have this in the same view were when we're modeling the front. So it's gonna leave that for now. One last thing I'd say about reference images is that when you're modeling, it's a little distracting. If these air selectable, you know, say you're modeling. Ah, Cuban, hear something like that to make the skull and you keep actually selecting the reference image. So one way to get around that is to click and drag select everything. And let's first put these in their own group and call him reference. So it's a little more tidy in the outline er, and then let's go over to the displays have over here and hit this far right button. When we do that, it adds these images to a new display layer. Okay, All that means is it gives us a little bit more functionality that we can turn these on and off. But it also means that we can template thes really easily or reference them. So with template, it will only make these outlines. But if we click this third button one more time, we get in our and that means reference. So when we click, we can't actually click thes anymore. So we can always turn that off again by hitting that But ah, let's keep that on our So when we start modeling won't be accidentally selecting the reference images. I'm just gonna rename this display layer reference, and it says it had already exists. So you might need to ah, add like a little suffix like a display or something like that. Okay, I'll see in the next lesson where we will get started modeling. Thanks for watching 18. Bones - Box vs Edge Modeling: in this lesson, we're gonna cover two of the main techniques for modeling used, and we're going to get started on the skull head. So two of the different ways to begin modeling something like this would be to go into one of your views, the front view of the right view. I'll choose the front view, holding down space and right clicking and going Teoh the front view and we can create a box . And this is called the box modelling method. So I'll drag this box up that I just made by clicking in the poly modeling menu and basically start to pull points around and try to match the image that we have. So we could go in here to our custom menu and start adding edge loops and pull those out at different distances. We could also extrude faces to try to get to the right kind of shape, but basically you want to use his few amount of lines to describe an area as possible. So you don't want to start just detail ng you know the lips or something like that. When you start modeling, you want to get the basic forms correct. First before you start adding any kind of detail. So this is how you begin and this is called box modeling. You start with a box and you just start kind of pushing points around. You can see what I'm doing is double clicking. So I know I get the whole edge loop that goes all the way around and that I'm just scaling it to try to match the outline of this character. Okay, so that's a box modeling. So what happens when we need to create the eyes or or start making this more round that or something like that? So I'm gonna hide this box real quick. I'm going to object mode and hit control H. And then I'm gonna go back to the front view and discussed the edge modelling method or point modeling. There's a couple of ways you can describe it, but it's the same idea. So I'm gonna create a plane and drag it up here, and I'm going to rotate it 90 degrees and I'm gonna turn the subdivisions to one. So we just have one face and I'm actually gonna go out to my perspective. You holding down space bar right clicking and are sorry not right clicking. Just have left left mouse clicking and then we'll go back to the front view. So you want to pull out so I could see that off of the image there. So the one thing we could also do if we can't see through this object, we could go to the shading materials here from the Ash Route editor and turned down the transparency of the share. This is assigned to any time that we have an object selected and we go to the actual editor , it's gonna pull up. It's it's different attributes. And there's all these different tabs up here, and the last one farthest to the right is always the shader. So if we select well, we have the display layer here. So if we turn off the reference of the display layer for the reference and I select that and I go to that tree, better we go to the far right tab. This is the shader for that so we could change the transparency and all that. Let's turn that back to reference and let's click the plain and let's turn the transparency down so we can kind of see through the object to make sure we're lining things up. And we could, you know, do the same kind of thing. Scale this, move it up And instead, you know, we can use the edges to extrude. So gonna get this to a place where I want extruded edge. I'm gonna go to right click and go to the edge mode and scale us out. And just like we can extrude faces like we did in the hard service modeling we could extrude edges. Someone had the extrude button up here. We can also get to from our custom and you where we saved it out and you get the same kind of attributes. You know, you just start pulling edges around and when you hit G, which is a very good shortcut that we've used a lot, you can begin to move really quickly in how your modeling something. One thing to keep in mind, too, is that often times when people begin modeling the only model one side and they cut their model in half. So to do that, we could go to the edge loop tool and we can go to the tool settings and turn on multiple edge loops and turn that down to one. That way, when we click here for the edge loop, we can see it's going to set it right in the middle. Okay, Turn off the tool settings here, and I'm gonna go to the face mode. I make you to pull up the selected tool, click and drag, select those faces and delete them. So all we should worry about now is modeling out this right side so I could go to this edge and extruded and pull it out and just continue modeling. And when we get to curve surfaces and things like that, we could go to the perspective mode and we could start, you know, pulling this around. We got object mode, Pull this out to the front kind where the forehead should be, and we can start pulling these things around. It's gonna edge mode, pull this back in. So this is the kind of edge or point modelling technique, so we can see we're gonna need some or edge loops here. So I'm gonna add those and we can start wrapping these edges around and extruding them as we need. So this is two different ways of modeling the box method, which we've already shown, and then this method and you're going to need to know both of them to be a successful modeler. Different circumstances call for different techniques, and you'll need to know both of them. So what I like to do, what I'm starting is used the box method, and then later I'll come back to this method. And if there's an area where it's hard to use the box method, I'll delete faces on the box, and then I will just use ah, new plane, and I'll also helping do that here in a little bit. So I'm gonna go back to the front view and do what we did on the face. So the other thing to keep in mind as we can also use symmetry, we can go to the tool settings here, and when we go, uh, we hit W to make sure that we have the move tool on. We can go down to symmetry settings here and the tool settings, and we can turn it on. We can click this little button and we can tell it which direction to be symmetrical and because it's not always that you, you know, want to go in. Um, I guess object X or World X is the same thing because we're modeling this right at zero. So it won't really matter if we choose object or world at this point, Let me show you what happens when you do that. If we go toe Vertex, we just select one over here. You can already see that as I hover over one, it selects the other on the other side and let me just turn off the tool settings here so we can get a closer look and turned that one down. So when I hover over, you can see this kind of blue selection here. So when I start pulling points, it's gonna be symmetrical. So that's also one way instead of having to cut a model down the middle and then just model one side and copy it and flip it over and then merge all overseas down the center. You can just turn on symmetry and work this way, and a lot of times I'll end up doing both where you know, I'll start out this way and then I can only get so far and then I'll have to resort back to ah, splitting it in half and then go back to this method. So there's a lot of back and forth, but basically, any time you start, you kind of want to just get the basic shapes down. So I'm gonna drag this down. You see, I didn't get all of the edge loop, so I'm going to click and drag and then control, click and drag everything above that bottom and hedge loop. Gonna drag this down to the bottom, and then I'm gonna scale this down, and then I'm going to start adding an edge loops where I see kind of the furthest point on the silhouette here. So if we look, we can tell we're gonna probably need one. And here appear appear, you know, here and also with drawings. You know, we probably need to be going to the inside of the drawing. This is a very thick line so we can adjust for that as well. Somebody put. So, yeah, I use actual tool, and we've got to turn off the equal distance here, so it's gonna relative distance turn back off tool setting. So we get a better view and let G to pull up the last tool, which is, incidentally, totally been using. I'll just click in Dragon here and make a bunch of agile Oops. So that we have some geometry to pull around. Otherwise, we don't have anything to work with, and it'll make modeling a lot more difficult. Um, if we don't have these edges, Okay, so with that done, I'm going to click drag, Select, and bring this up to the middle. Here are the sorry. The bottom of this skeleton head. I was going to start double clicking and scaling these out to match the silhouette of the skull. So the next lesson will continue working on the model head. And I'll see you there. Thanks for watching. 19. Bones - Make Live Tool: welcome to this lesson where we will continue working on the skull head in the previous lessons Since ah, you've last watched. I have finished following the outline of silhouettes of the concept art and now we can move over to the right view holding down space bar left clicking and going to write view and we can see this is still kind of a box shape and so we have a lot of work to do to pull the surround correctly. One thing you'll also keep in mind is the fact that this is, you know, there aren't any subdivisions on the face yet, so we're going to still work kind of in a boxy fashion for as long as we need Teoh that I'm gonna show you interesting technique we can use to try to sculpt. Ah, more rounded shape here. So I'm gonna go into my verte see mode here and just start pulling. Verte sees around him hitting B to pull on soft select Just cause I know the Vergis is around, it are going to need to be over there somewhere. And also I'm gonna remember that need to turn off self select and we're going to inside edge of this concept art, because the drawing lines are very thick, so we can also see where there's some discrepancy and where the actual top of the head was finishing. But of course, you know, these drawings are not perfect. And this is where the skill of modeling comes into play, where you need to be able to interpret art and understand shapes and three dimensions going from a two D drawing. So this is really the skill that's going to take quite some time to become proficient at. But again, you have to start somewhere. And so I'm going to speed this up for right now, and then I will see you on one second. So now we have this side profile done. Go over to here to the Ashwood editor and just turn down the transparency so we can actually see the object you can see. It has a lot of, ah kind of ugly shapes to it right now. It's not circular in any way, so I need to resolve this somehow, okay? And because we can see that it's just kind of doesn't respect the three dimensions of this object in any way like the nose goes all the way across. So we need to start dealing with that. And we can do that with adding more geometry here on the front because we can see there. There is none. So for us to resolve this, we need to add a lot of gallantry here. But the problem is, if we asked her, adding edge loops and click the actual tool, go to the tool settings could have multiple edge loops. And it's at a bunch of gentry here. It's all kind of concentrates up here through the top, and that's not really what we want, you know, we want to have the type of edge flow in topology we talked about earlier, where things can redirect and whatnot. That's where the edge technique works sometimes. So we could start with a just gonna do that. We could start with a, ah, just a new plane and start working that way. We could also just kind of rough in the shape here with that ah, topology that we don't like and then read. Apologize it, and I'll explain how that works as well. So let's let's go ahead and go with the method that we tried here and add all this topology . Okay, let's go in both directions here. So we have all this apology now, and when I right click and go to object mode, it's very boxy. Like I said. So one thing that weaken Dio is go to poly modeling and bring up a sphere because I know the general shape of the skull should be circular and I'm going to turn down the transparency again on the one we're currently working on and a sign in new Shader to the sphere so we can see that I'm gonna right click on it and go to assign new material. She's a Lambert, and now we can see that through. So turn this one out back a little bit because I can't really still kind of see where it is relative to that. So basically what I'm doing is I'm trying to create the form of the top of the head, you know, roughly, and it looks like the back is the only thing that's kind of messed up. Maybe so. I'm just kind of getting this in a general shape and want to go to the Vertex mode and I'm going to make sure symmetry is on which it is. And if you remember how to do that, go to the tool settings, get on the symmetry, settings and member we left that on from when I showed you how to do that. So what would be? And I'm gonna hit, hold down, be in middle mouse drag. So now I have a soft selection. So now what I can dio is dragged this in, and it looks like I need to go in quite a bit. So I'm gonna actually do a really big self selection back here and select more of those vergis ease. And I know it's going to do it evenly because, um, we have soft selection on so something like that, it's gonna drag this, maybe reduce the self selection a little bit trying this back. The idea is just to kind of rough roughly get a more circular shape and for for these top areas. So when I right click and good object mode to get off of that, select this object and then I'm going Teoh, actually select the sphere and go to this little magnet appear when we click this you can see right here changed from no life surface to peace. Fear one which is the name of this object here, which we can't. It's hard to click there, but you can see that the outlines turned green. And what that indicates to us is the fact that if we go to a component mode like Vertex and I click one of these and I start to drag this around, it's gonna snap to that sphere, and I can move this all around, and it's going to snap to this fear. You can see if we hit four. There's a lot of crazy stuff happening, though, because we have soft select on. So it's best not to use Soft liked with this method and just to individual points. But as soon as I touched this is gonna snap down so I can go through these and kind of get them, you know, in the general area of this fear, let me choose several of them without soft, select and see if we can do kind of more than one at once. You can see it. It doesn't really like that, so you will have to kind of go through one by one. And if you're click dragging selecting you're going to probably select things behind this. So you wanna be careful about that as well? So I'm gonna take a minute to Snapple of these points to the sphere just really quickly. I'm going to turn off symmetry. There's also a shortcut for it up here. Just turn that off and I'm gonna select everything from the kind of top portion here except for maybe this bottom row. Let's let's turn on six again to so we can see the texture. Yeah, I'm gonna turn on. I'm not gonna select that bottom row here and I'm just going to move everything. Let's say down. But as I try to move it down is going to snap it, so it's spazz ing out, and that's okay. Um, we can clean this up later, and the other method we can use is to use the relax tool. So gonna go to object mode. It's like this and go to the sculpting tools, go to relax and with a larger brush. I'm just going Teoh, click and drag on these, and we've kind of at this point abandoned the symmetry of the model and that's OK because we're gonna essentially read Apologize this thing and I'll show you what that means a little bit later. But we basically just kind of want to get the forms down. We could also later on do the symmetry thing where we kind of delete 1/2 and then mirror it over. There's a lot of different ways toe work, and there's no one right way. There's just, you know, you should know as many ways as as you need, so that when the time comes, you can kind of dip into that tool set and take advantage of all that knowledge. Which is why it's helpful to learn techniques that you may not use immediately, so that later on, when you run across problems, you can deal with that. So if we go back Teoh texture mode with six gonna hide this fear control each. I'm gonna look at this model. You know, it's, um you know, obviously a lot more around. And there's still some issues here, um, and back here in the corners. But for the most part, you know, it's a quick way to get a more rounder shape instead of having to pull. You know, Verdecia, Baie verte. See over. Um, you know, of course, the bad thing is there is a lot of janitor here that we probably don't need. And in the previous step, we could have just probably gotten away with a lot less geometry. You could also just reduce this stuff, you know, doing like, um, selecting like every other one and reducing the amount of topology here. So when a shift right click and go to delete edge and I'm gonna do the same thing in the front, I'm just gonna take out every other club's gonna take out every other edge and shift the left click, go to delete edge so we don't have to pull as many points around when we're editing things , That's, ah, one important thing to keep in mind. Early stages of modeling is to keep it as light as possible so that when you're editing, you're not having a pull a ton of points around. So I'm gonna continue to clean this up with the, uh, relax sculpt tool, and I will see you in the next lesson. Thanks for watching 20. Bones - Sculpting: Now we have the top of a head kind of looking remotely and like a skull shape. So let's move down the head and see how we can continue to refine this. And we still have the peace fear marked as a make live surface. So we need to turn that off. Gonna continue work. So let's turn on. So let's look more the sculpting tools that we have here. Let's Ah, actually, one thing also like to do is to duplicate out kind of the stage I met. Someone had command d, and I'm gonna hide this so that I can work on this without fear of having to undo, you know, 100 brush strokes or something crazy. I can just pull this from back up and continue modeling. So that's one technique I like to do is to kind of duplicated out to kind of save kind of where I met. So let's let's look at these sculpting tools and it's kind of, um, arranged by how likely or to use it. Basically. So we have the kind of classic sculpt tool where if we click and drag on it, it's gonna pull out points. And if we control Hold down. It's gonna push points in we hit shift, it's gonna smooth points out. So with one tool, we can do a lot of what we need to do on this model. And again, I don't have symmetry turned on, which is, you know, not a huge deal, cause later on, we're gonna delete this half and, um, this for right now it's just kind of for ease of use to kind of be an artist and work kind of more freeform. You don't always have to be super strict. So I'm holding down shift and smoothing these kind of corners out with the sculpt tool so that we can kind of bring in those corners and round everything off a little better on this kind of dimension that we don't have a drawing for, which is kind of this 3/4 dimension here. I'm just holding, downshifting, dragging. And so I'm gonna bring all of this stuff in and going Teoh kind of just smooth this stuff down on the corners. Mostly is what I'm looking at just to kind of generally get this stuff going in the right direction and undo that a little bit. I think because the cheekbone Oh, no. Sorry. Yeah, that's the nose. So we definitely want this part in because the knows the only part of the nose it should be poking out is obviously, um, in the middle of the model. I'm actually gonna hold down control and push this geometry in. So it's a little more aggressive of a brush. It's gonna push it in, push it in from different angles, and then I'm gonna hold down, shift and smooth that stuff out to try to get it back to a better shape. I'm just holding down shift and yeah, it's looking a lot better. Um, them from when we started, you know, pretty quickly you can get to a decent spot, um, without having to do too many crazy things. So Okay, let's look at this and knows issue here. So I'm going to grab it edge and I'm gonna hold down, get actually gonna hit B to bring himself select. I'm gonna hold down, be and just make it a small area. So crabs the ones around it and then go to this kind of a view. So I grabbed these and control click de select kind of the neighbors and want to bring this one in a swell. We're gonna use this, um, hit are to bring up scale and scale this kind of flat if you want this not to go past negative What, like this congee? Go. Um, we undo that. So it's a lot easier to see someone go past negative over here, right? I can go through the manipulator if we all don't are and click. We can go to prevent negative scale. Let's turn that on and see what happens. Get a straight line. That's a That's a really nice way to get a straight line on a model. I was gonna do that again. Here, keep dragging that. And then now we know that something like this over here who was selected through its own control click. That should definitely be way back. You know something in here, all right, because the nose should be a pre pronounced shape by itself, and it shouldn't be competing with the cheekbones, of course. So I'm just scaling stuff and bring it in so that we can kind of start to shape out this cheekbone area as well. So it looks like we're starting to lose some of the form here. I was gonna pull some of the stuff back out with the soft selects still on to make sure we're trying to maintain this shape, the role shape of this thing. I'm gonna go to the, uh, sculpt tools again. I'm just going to smooth out this area again. And you Do you want to be careful when you start smoothing? And there's not a ton of gallantry here to support this. I smooth this is going to start snapping this stuff back out and get rid of the work already Did you wanna undo that? And just maybe relax the model to bring in more geometry? Someone click the one we were familiar with already and trying to bring in some of this geometry from the right. Cool. So it's looking a little bit better and been kind of look at it from all different angles. So, like this, it's hard, kind, hard to see the shape of something if you aren't seeing it from a glancing angle. Meaning, you know, I'm looking on the surface. I want to see the profile, the silhouette of the surface to kind of see what's actually happening there. You know, here we can see there's Div it. It's kind of hard to see that did it when you're looking at it straight ahead. But when you go with this glancing angle, you can see that we've, you know, gotten rid of that shape, which is just a matter of pulling that stuff back out. We're gonna turn the peace fear back into a make live surface and then just pull that stuff out. Vertex by Vertex even though it's hidden, it will respect that make live surface so we can get that shape back. After all the work we were doing, pushing and pulling stuff around, it got rid of that shape. It's like that was a little too much, so turn that make life back off. So we've solved that problem and just, you know, constantly kind of seeing what the state of affairs is and what the next thing we need to be doing. So we've made some progress, and we learned about sculpting tools. I'll see the next lesson where we will start to model the eyes. Thanks for watching 21. Bones - Eye Socket Edge Loops: in this lesson. We're going to start to model the eyes, and we're also gonna clean up the model a little bit when we start modeling. It's kind of like a sculptor with Clay. It gets pretty messy, right? And that's okay. We're trying to find the form from the reference and kind of whittle away and build up on Whittle away again and smooth out so things can get pretty messy with the topology that we learned about Should be pretty, uh, follow the right kind of line flowing, all that kind of stuff. But at the early stages, you shouldn't be worrying about that too much and just kind of finding their form of it. So to clean up the model, I'm actually gonna delete the left side. So I'm gonna go to the front view, and before I delete the left side going to go to the edge mode and I'm gonna double click this kind of middle edge here, I'm gonna go to scale. And because we have the negative scale um, Ashley, it's set. If I let the whole down our and left click prevent. Negative scale is turned on. When I scale this, it's gonna flatten out that edge, have a hit w and then EC and hold on X It's going to snap this edge to the center line of the world here. So now I know if I go to my face mode and I select all the faces on this left side I just hit delete. And there might be some straight pieces that you need Teoh grab. But, you know, make sure you're not grabbing anything on the other side. So now we're working with just one side, and that's okay. So what we need to do is start to look at the line, flow a little bit more so we can start to define areas that we need to work on like the eye . So I'm going to scale this one in. Similarly, as I had done before, and actually, I'm gonna I'm gonna de select this top because I liked this fear that we had going up here . I'm gonna delete De selected those and then scale and, um, this just kind of the front area here and push it over because we know we want the nose tohave, you know, lines here. And if we look at the ah reference image we know we're gonna at the bare minimum. We're gonna need a line here to hold the inner part of the eye. And I'm doing this now because we need to look at modelling the eye socket itself and deleting part of the geometry already have, and using the edge modelling technique instead for right now. So I'm going to go back to the perspective mode and kind of take stock of this where the edge edges are and see what I need to pull over. Possibly. And I think we could maybe pull some of this over and d select to the top. I'm gonna go back to the front view. No, I have made that decision hit for to see that I have dislike of the back side of this thing the way that I want. I'm gonna drag this over and d select some of this stuff and drag it over, disliked the bottom kind of area and just trying to get this, uh, this edge flow to start going a little more down the model, as you would predict it. So we can smooth that stuff out later. But what I'm trying to get at here is, um, had six on the keyboard is we're going to delete these faces. Okay, So I'm gonna go back to the front view with this texture turned on so we can see the reference image. I'm gonna like the faces that encompass this eye socket and delete them. We could extrude them, um, if we wanted to. So another method could be, you know, going Teoh custom and extruding this in going we go to the perspective, you and we could, you know, keep faces on and kind of scale this in, try to make the the eye socket this way. But to me, it's just kind of to Messi, and I would rather just kind of start from scratch and focus on making one component of the school really well and then trying to just figure out later how to connect it up. So I just hit delete on that to delete it, and I'm gonna bring in. Um actually, I'm gonna work with the edges that we already have. So we grow the front view and I'm gonna grab this edge here, and I'm going to start to really think about the edges and pull this in and rotate it and get it, Teoh Point, that is somewhat representative of the outline of the I. And I'm doing like every other edge because I know the edge above it is going to follow. So again, you know, when you think about EJ flow, we're going to start to see areas get pulled in ways that we can't really resolve right now . So what I'm gonna do is actually just delete this face and I'm going to bring this edge over. Actually, I'm going Teoh, make another edge loop because I want to leave that inner edge s I'm gonna undo that super quick and just hit the edge loop tool. But I do know 1 10 edge loops right there. Somebody click the tool settings. Go one doing it in the centres. Fine. And what I'm gonna do is delete this face here and turn off all the stuff so we get a better view. So now I have this kind of free edge. Get in here now I have this free edge to start a different direction. OK, so I'm going Teoh, go to the right view to make sure we're kind of in line with where we need to be there. We can see that this is way too far back. I'm gonna push this way back, and I'm gonna do the same here. I know we can do that now, because we have that extra edge loop toe, hold the nose bridge. So now I know I can pull this stuff around and be roughly in the right spot and still keep that the bridge. I want to make sure that I'm not selecting that one. Um, the bridge, uh, edge loop. As I'm going through here, I'm gonna bring this stuff in and make sure we're kind of getting in the ballpark. A lot of modeling is a lot of back and forth, especially if you don't have a ton of experience. You know, this is a time consuming stuff, like most aspects of three D. I am that you are bound to learn if you haven't already. So this is just part of ah, modeling and learning. Three D is taking your time and trying to imagine this stuff and three d and making that, um, a reality here in the computer by pulling points around and so this really starts to stress . Um, how you interpret things in, ah, three d space because we don't have. Like I said, you know, it's not like we have ah, drawing from every single angle that we're looking at. We have to interpret based on the art what we think the ah outline of this should be cool. So we kind of started getting it in the right space, the right depth. And you can also see why we're trying to work with his few edges as possible because it makes the work go so much quicker. So here's another example of me wanting to split off from the current edge flow. So I'm going to click the Create Edge Loop girl, the tool settings in turn, relative distance. We can put this wherever I want it, which is right here at the top, right? I want an edge loop here so that now I can take this edge and extruded and just pull this out. I'm not worrying about everything above it right now. I just want to make sure that we're doing the I correctly at this time, and I worry about connecting everything up later. That's why That's why I taught that apology part first. So So you'd understand the fact that, you know, I actually just pull this. If there's, like, a straight lot of roughly straight line GTO extra again, there's roughly a straight line, you know, you can just we're gonna perspective mode to make sure I'm rotating this edge in the right direction. Um, if there's roughly a straight line like this in the design, you could just pull this edge out super far and then make edge loops later on, um, honest where where there should be. So just to move and work a lot quicker. That's one way to do it, So kind of wherever there's a kind of turning points in the shape energy again. Okay, G, it looks like we missed the, uh, the shortcut there. Someone had extrude from the menu. Um, but that's we just work a lot quicker to pull edges past. You know, you don't have to stop every little you know, centimeter to create an edge loop, you can You can pull things really far and then make new edge loops later. So when things start to turn a corner, you will have to obviously have more edge loops like this, but, you know, take advantage of those straight areas so that you can not have to worry about so much also gonna hold down our click left, click and go to components And now again, kind of scale up and down because before we're scaling up like object space, which was up and down in world so and component mode, you know, it's taking into account where the line is. So we're going up and down the line itself now, which is very, very helpful. Scaling things appropriately for what are our needs are at the moment. So just gonna continue to drag this stuff out and make one last Edgell appear extrusion, That is and cool. Now I'm just gonna select to this edge, and I'm gonna go to at it mesh merge, and it's gonna increase Teller. Still, those snap together and we have the outer kind of rim of the iron now, so that's looking pretty good, considering how messy it was before. This still probably looks pretty messy to your eye, but, um, let's look at it from the right view and get things lined up now, so I'm gonna go to the face mode because, ah, you know, I can't. It's harder to click the edge that we would be going for their. So this is gonna make things go a lot quicker knowing actually select this kind of middle edge here to get this going in the right direction. Cool. So it's kind of, you know, all about switching between views and again here. You can see where the two drawings don't really line up. They don't sync up with what the drawing has. So you kind of have to start to interpret for yourself in three dimensional space. What should be happening? Some hitting be holding down, be to change the the size of it here and just trying Teoh get things kind of roughly in the right area and Z space as well What we need to start thinking about two. So I'm just trying to get this stuff out of the way so we can actually mauled eye socket so I can see how modeling his ah, very time consuming and it is a difficult job. You know, I have a lot of respect for people who this is all they dio at studios is create models like this. It's It's not an easy job, artistically, and, uh, you know, technically it's quite challenging. So as I make changes to it from different views, you know, it's kind of like pushing and pulling it. I want to make sure that it's still roughly in the same area and may have to just kind of split the difference on how the two drawings are not lining up. So But what I want to make sure is that the general kind of that the general idea of the kind of teardrop shape is starting to take form and the eye socket. So let's just pull that there. Once we have this done to go to the edge mode here in a double click and you can see now we have this kind of entering extruded them all the same time. I'm gonna go the perspective mode and I'm going Teoh, see how well this stuff wants Teoh extrude in. I might just grab this from the center. We need to keep faces on together on and, uh, dragged the stuff in, and I'm hit our and scaled us from the center now and we can start to see us getting, um, the edges of this thing, this socket working g again, Uh, extrusion did not work, so I'm just gonna choose it there. And w just pulled a move tool and just drag this stuff back. So now we have kind of the general idea of this socket for the front view When I make sure that's ah, you know, we didn't have keep bases together on there. That's why I was double clicking. Um, it was not Ah, it was not going around the edge loop. So now when I double click, it will go all the way around. So I'm just gonna scale this stuff out. And don't click this scale this out so we'll start to see this. Go in the depth, right? Go inside the skull and pull that one back a little further. Cool. So we start to make the eye socket, and now we need to resolve how this starts to fit with the rest of the model. And we'll do that in the next lesson. Thanks for watching 22. Bones - Eye Attach: in this lesson. We're going to continue to work on the eye socket and figure out how to connect it to the rest of the head. Someone turn on the wire frame on shaded here with this little button. So we kind of see where the wire frame is. When you're doing anything like this, we kind of just made the size socket. However, we need to make it to follow the reference. Now we need to resolve how it fits in with the rest of the model. So the first thing I do is just try to line up where edges should meet. So we have one edge here and two edges here, so we know we're going to add an agile appear. So I'm gonna go through the whole model and look at that kind of thing and add edge loops where I see that there needed so that mind. I'm going to run through the model role quick and add edge loops or go to the absolute tool and add it. And as soon as I add an edge loop, I also want to try to maintain the shape that I have started create, So I need to pull it up. I can't just added edge loop and expect it to, you know, maintain the type of shape I wanted Teoh. Because it will just be a straight line to go through here and kind of lineup these edges. This will go to that one. It looks like we need one in here, soul hit G and add one there and then pull this out just to touch. And so then we got these two and then we have Maybe you need to hear it looks like. And then that one will go that one that one to that one. And one thing I also want to note is you want to try to maintain the edge flow like we're talking about topology earlier. You know, see how far away this edge like that? There was this edge that's going in this direction, and then it takes like a 60 to return, and then it starts going straight again. You don't want edges like this, right? You want them to line up with the edge flow, so they're all in a straight line for the most part until they're needed to be moved. But you know, there's no reason for these to be out of whack like they are, so you need to kind of rein the topology. And as you continue to tweak things and correct your model, I was gonna pull this one over as well. And I think eventually will have to resolve this issue over here on the nose. But I'm going to say that for another video when we're working on the nose right now, it's just focus on the eye socket. Try to get this stuff in the line. Okay, so now let's start at the top. And what we can use is the upended polygon tool. So because this is too far of a gap to try to merge these edges together, we need to create new geometry here. Let's do that with the upended polygon tool right here and just click here and click there and when it in er and I'm not gonna continue to, you know, go down the model in the same with same tool because we need every time I had enter it makes those edge loops. So I want to make sure that it's making those. So I'm doing it face by face. So Now, what do we do? We were faced with a triangle here. So what I would suggest doing is we haven't We haven't flipped the model over yet. There's something over here I would suggest doing is just running this edge loop with the multi cut tool clicking on Vertex here and just running it all the way through to the other side of the model. And now we have two triangles, one empty and one filled. So let's just take this face. Make sure on the face mode, click it and hit. Delete. Now we have a quad. Now we can use the upended polygon tool and make sure that we do not have a ah triangle in that area. And we're also not working with any in guns yet, which is good when it g and just keep going. And I will speak with video and I'll see you one second. One thing I do want to note is you know, you can't just take everything for granted. You have to be very precise with every over text. So, you know, I got to make room for this new edge flow so I gotta move the verge. Isi don't just allow the model to kind of be whatever it is you have to touch every single vergis e and make sure it's precisely where you want it to be at all times. So keep that in mind. All right? Now we have the eye socket attached to the rest of the head. I'm going to increase the transparency here, or I guess, decrease it really gonna slide over to the very end. You can see we have all this history now it takes a long time to get to the Shader. So one thing I can do to help clean with the model, so doesn't you know, I'm clicking and holding this and we're seeing the tab just scroll by. I'm gonna go ahead and delete the history on this so that you'll watch the tabs over here. Now it's much cleaner. Now it gets straight to the shader so that we can adjust this transparency and see it in ah , more shaded mode. And I'm a turn off the wire frame on shaded option here. And these edges air very hard for the mesh display just because we created them by themselves. So the normals air kind of Ah, a little wonky, but we kind of start to get a sense of the shape of the thing. And, as we've you know, continue to refine the model. We need to try to keep it on, you know, on model where we want it to be. So I'm gonna take a second to hold down shift and kind of smooth this area out. And I'm just gonna use the pool. I don't think we've used this when you're but the pool one, um, is very useful. They called the grab tool so you can just clicking kind of drag stuff around. And, um, this was very, very useful to just kind of get stuff in the right spot. And it looks like as as I do that we don't do that super quick. It looks like we, um the model got moved at some point, so I'm just gonna drag this back down. Let me look at the outline. Er or the You don't do that. Yeah, it's weird. I don't know how that, you know that happened, um, while it's recorded. So I'm sure we could do some detective work, but, um, you know, you just kind of Yeah, it looks like it got a little out of whack. Maybe when I was moving around at some point. Sometimes that happens when you're navigating and accidentally move something. If you have the move tool selected. So it's usually better to navigate around with a select tool. So you're not actually moving things while you're, um, uh, navigating in the view port. So I'm gonna go back to the grab tool, grab this stuff, try toe, match the silhouette of the drawing again and smooth stuff as well. Even though we're on the grab tool, you can still smooth things. That kind of modifier key works, um, with multiple tools. So I'm just kind of smoothing things and grabbing them on back out smooth. This kind of a hard edge there and can refine the shape of this eye socket to make sure it's kind of a teardrop shape because there's some straight edges here that I think could be slightly curved and brought in Do that, trying to get the the owners along with it. So you just have to kind of move around and we might need another edge loop in here. Um, I'm gonna go ahead and do that because this is a quite, you know, if you look at the distance between these edges, um, that's quite a long way, and this is actually good moment to talk about this slide tool. So, like if I like this shape of this thing, but I want to drag this edge down and you see how it's changing the shape of everything. I actually used the slide tool and there's a couple different ways you can get to it. Um, I like to just use the modeling tool set appear I clicking this little, but that we can go to the transform, constrain and look at our options. We have the edge slide, so we click that you can see it says slide now. And also when we move it, it's kind of maintaining that shape so we can just slide edges around if we need to to kind of make room for other edges. So I'm gonna slide this one down, just a touch and turn this off. So they were not having to deal with that later and bring in a new, um, Angelo up here with the answer, actually, tool and that way when I used the sculpting grab tool. I'll actually have something to move. I just want to move that in slightly. And I think my brush is too big. So must hold down, be in the middle mouse tracking the view port. Just gonna push that around. He had smooth just a touch here, Um, holding down shift and yeah, that's looking a little bit better. We can continue to refine this later on. Smooth out, kind of hard edges here. So it has a nice shape to it, and I'll see the next lesson where we will approach how to deal with the nose area. Here we look at the reference, there's ah inset there. So we need to deal with the nose in the next lesson. Thanks for watching. 23. Bones - Nose: in this lesson. We're going to tackle the nose, so turn off that. So I get a little more screen space here and I have my wire frame on shaded turned on here and I turned down the transparency so we can see through a little bit. But basically what we're trying to do is create a triangle here where we have a lot of quads and we are probably also going to need to build this out a little further as well. But first, let's try to get the line flowing here that will help support this type of ah nose shape because it looks like the indication here is the fact that this is going in and it's kind of a hole here. So let's grab the multi cut tool and one of the front view just so we can kind of get it better view of what we're doing and let's create a new edge loop here and go down this way . But if if we went straight across would create a triangle, so let's put a point out here and then continue down and let's just keep going and do the same thing over here. We don't want to create a triangle by connecting this one sold point. Point a point there in just go straight across and had entered. Now we need to solve this problem. We basically just need to connect these two things. So that creates two quads here, and we'll do the same thing here. So we may need Teoh. Add another edge loop. You can see that this kind of edge flow is kind of like a ah reverse C shape. And if we tried to create a new edge loop, it will reflect that. So it's going around like that. So let's put another one here and kind of go back to perspective mode, because we're going to need to pull this stuff out to help support the nose. Some goto Vertex and let's see, let's just pull this stuff out. Just gonna scale this and hold down are to get back to object mode, skill the stuff forward, pull it forward, and I think we'll probably also need some more geometry overall here because it's it's stretching so much to try to reach, um, so we may do that. We also just pull these back instead of having those be the front ones we can just use. These is kind of the in betweens and pull this one back as well. So you call Constant just kind of reevaluating like What's What's the best way to do this? You know nothing is set in stone when you're working like this, so you just kind of keep going forward and finding out where the problems are and trying to fix those problems. So I've got something like this so far. I think we may need an extra edge loop here because it's stretching so much. It could also put an agile appear and pull this over so it kind of squeezing this stuff down. And it's just kind of get this in the ballpark right now and try to work as quickly as we can and go back to the front view that looks like this stuff is down pretty low. So I'm gonna turn back on the slide, um, function here from the modeling menu and transform constrain to go through surface slide. Since we're using Vergis is and let's see, we just slide this stuff around. Let's go back to perspective to make sure that's working. Yeah, it's going to stay on the surface, which is kind of what we want. We don't want toe change the shape. Just Yeah, we're trying to get these, um, edges where we want them to be. So select all this and go back to perspective, because invariably will select things behind it and just kind of move all this stuff up. Um, same thing for these. I think all of these need to go up and he's probably gonna go out. Let's see, we're kind of just switching back and forth between views to make sure we're kind of going in the right direction. And in general, when you're doing modeling like this, you, anywhere that you put lines closer together are going to help define an edge, and they will become more clear. Ah, in a minute. But that's kind of the reason why these air closer closer together than, say, the other one there, you know something further away. So I'm just trying to move this stuff over to match the outline of the black area so we probably could use an extra edge loop here. When I try to hold off, I try to, like, delay adding geometry as much as I can because it does add just so much more complexity. And, you know, as we're pulling points like this, it's just that much more stuff that you have to deal with. So try to avoid it as much as possible until the last possible second and say, You know what? All right, I need an extra and you next for edge loop here. So just getting this stuff around, probably speed this up and I'll see in a second. Okay, so now that I have that kind of matching the silhouette now I need to deal with this kind of a thing. So it looks like this stuff needs to be a straight line, right? So if we're looking at the front view, we can see from this vert Asi up to this for to see should be kind of a straight line. So this is the furthest point out, and this is back on the face. But we go into perspective mode. We can see that's not really the case. Um, and again, you know, that's part of the difference of these two drawings. This point should really be over here somewhere, I think. But You know, the drawings don't really reflect that. So we have to interpret for ourselves. Where do we really want this nose? And how big of a nose should this actually be? I think the front one is a little too large. If we were to do this one here, it would be a massive nose, Right? Like, look, look at this in profile. Or like, 3/4. The the nose cavity would just be massive. So I think the side view is more accurate. And what I'm a dio is Ah, cut this off sooner with the edge full that we made instead of it going down so far. Um, let's just cut it off here instead. So I'm going to go back with the multi cut tool here and make those adjustments. So let's see, we what? We did waas qui out of this line and we can see where you created this corner. We just want to move that up Teoh for this. Let's see for this line to be here. Let's imagine this is the right corner here, so this needs to be pulled over here to this corner. We make that first. So let's say This is the This is the corner Kind of a thing. It's gonna hold it. So this is just kind of the problem solving. You have to dio when you're modeling. So basically rerouting this one down to this corner, so this one would dio Well, but we want that. Yeah, right. We we just need to get rid of these or no, you want to keep those things gets confusing for me, too. Let's just delete test and see where we get. Yes, sometimes when I right click, it doesn't really enjoy that. Okay, Still, eat this. Still eat this. Okay. Yeah. Okay, so this we just need to add an edge loop here, basically and call it a day. Yeah, Let's bring it. Yeah, let's do it here. So we're just do what we did earlier. Where is bringing it up? A level so that now we can bring these vergis is kind of more in line with this. This edge here, right. All these we go into right view should be lining up. This should be that the silhouette, right? Or in theory. And you know, we might We might do this and see, like, design wise that doesn't work. But I always like to start with falling the references close as possible and then working back from there. If that's not, you know, if it's not looking right, deviating from the reference after you give it a shot so well, so we're in the neighborhood, right? Like we're in the ballpark. So what? We can dio if I go to face right clicking and dragging group, I think with the multi face or something that would be selecting Onley faces here. So we basically now have these faces that will kind of create than those cavity. So if I extrude this go click on the extrusion tool keep faces together and I said WD pulled the manipulator tool and just drag this back something like this. Maybe I'll rotate it, scale it down because we want this. This should kind of continue and shouldn't just cut off here, so I'm trying to rotate it. So it's kind of like this, right? That should be It should kind of be the opposite. So there's an internal triangle here. This should continue back like that. That looks right to me. Okay, so from extruding, we still have that kind of this face we could just get rid of, because this is going to go straight through to the other side and this is gonna be a hole there. So I'm gonna delete those, and we're definitely gonna need more edge loops on the inside here. Teoh support this. Let's get the edge tool and see with EJ flow where that puts thes edge loops, we need one. So So let me just talk about the super quick. So if we hit three on her keyboard with this object selected, it's gonna go in tight kind of this like fake smoothing so we can see it rounds off all these edges. The issue is, if there's not enough geometry in an area, it's gonna kind of collapse down. So if we add geometry here, grab the edge a little again. Put one on the inside and we're going close to the front of your close. The edges. We wanted to test support. This front edge is that when we hit three again, get out of the tools Little show, it's ah, it's much thicker here than before, right? And if we keep refining this and adding edge loops here to support, um, that you can see it starts to build out that front edge a lot more. Now you can see it's way thicker right than what we originally started with. So heading three on the keyboard and smoothing might help kind of show where you're headed in that. In that sense, I don't like how thin it is, how like the nose bone. So we need to address that some undue. I just want to show you the hitting three and what that means and why I'm putting agile. It's where I am. Go back to one. I want to make all these changes before add those at edge loops and all that support Sony. I want to make this thicker. This face, these faces basically, um, I was going to scale them and you can change. Um, what you have selected by holding down command and right clicking and say to Vergis, Ease, let's go to Vergis is. And if I had W and hit control and middle mouse drag, it will kind of scale these vergis ease away from each other. So that's one very, very, very, very, very handy modelling tool tip. Um, it'll save you a ton of time. If I was try to use the scale tool and do that, it would be a nightmare because they're all this occurred, right? They're all going in different directions. And the scale tool is not going. Teoh, um, follow each one of those directions independently. It's gonna do it all together So again, that some middle mouse dragging with the move tool while holding down control that is a huge it took me. I didn't know that for many, many years, and, um, it was has been incredibly helpful once I figured that one out. So, yeah, we wanted this to be a lot of thicker, and we just need to work on the shape of this thing. But this is the idea, right? We now have this kind of nose cavity mapped out, and ah, we can start refining this. I'm going Teoh, clean this up a little bit. Just kind of move these points around and probably tried to have, um, a bit more this follow this type of a silhouette. Bring these points out. But for the most part, this is you know, this is the technique we just made the nose and I think what we'll find two does. This might be a little too much exaggerated, like too far out. Um, when you look at this from any other angle in this side kind of looks like a duck bill. But this is all part of modeling. And, uh, I'll see the next lesson where we will continue to refine this model a little bit. Thanks for watching. 24. Bones - Cleaning Topology: in this lesson. We're going to clean up this area of the nose in between the nose and the I hear that's kind of stretched out. Doesn't have enough geometry here, So I don't know that I'm gonna show you any new tools or techniques. Um, so if you're not super into modeling, you might just skip this because I'm going to just kind of figured this out as I go along and clean this area up. Um, but if yeah, if you're into this kind of thing, you just want to see me work. Um, let's just kind of continue on here. So the journal idea is that, you know, most Jumper needs to be evenly spaced. And if you look around the model, you know, things were within the same ballpark until we get right here and there's this massive gap, and it kind of goes back to what I was saying. We hit three on the keyboard, and things start to get stretched here quite a bit and pull mawr when they're further apart . Um, so we kind of just for tidy steak need to figure out how to clean this area up, So I'm gonna dio is actually just delete this like these faces. Sure didn't delete anything behind the head. Um, and kind of reworked this area. And because we need Teoh have enough janitor here. We're always gonna be fighting this if if we don't deal with this now. So we might as well address this here before we get too much further. And before we start to mirror things, mirror the face over because we don't want to have this on both sides. So you know, there's a couple different ways to approach this. I think the star was way too close. Like, you can see, we have a lot more edges here than, um, then we do back here. So maybe move the star further back here and we might need to create a few more edge loops in here or create another circle type of a deal. So let's take these edges and go to the edge mode and we'll extra does. I hope you keep faces together and keep in mind, we're probably gonna connect those two at G to extrude again, keep faces together and go there. This these two are going to connect, and then looks like we have one more. This one would go here. Yes, let's do that. Will just extrude another time. This is on and yeah, so that this is the issue, right? Like we're, um we're going from three toe one here. This is kind of bunched downs he can't see. It's super well, but we need to figure this out and because it looks like this should flow here. But we have an extra couple of edge loops here. So in trying to resolve this further up the nose or down the nose, it depends on really what we want to do. I think I might go further up just because we don't have a ton geometry in here. I think this could stand to get moved over, like, over here. So let's first make another edge loop. That would probably probably going Teoh reduce at the top of the head somewhere. Well, yeah, Let's go ahead and set that up here so we can continue. Let's make one edge loop. At least we know we're gonna need So you see, that goes all the way around. So let's de select the part. We want to keep going to hold down control and drag and click. And let's just say we're going to resolve this and reduce this lineup here somewhere someone a shift click and go to delete edge because the sedge went all the way around up into the nose. And we don't want that. We just wanted on the bridge here. So we'll just have to remember up here. We need to resolve this later. And you know what? I think we could probably do this again. And let's move this edge over. If I select this one and then, um, double click up here, it'll just select that distance. I'm gonna go to the modelling tool and choose the transform Constrain, or we could, uh yeah, no, over here transcriptions Train, Do you edge slide? Use the manipulator and just move that over here. And the same thing for this one. Really double click and move this over to make room for another edge. I think we need another edge. This is such a big area year. Go back to component mode, holding down R and go to components so I can scale this skilled. Ok, that's weird. Oh, it's trying, Teoh, Come along the edge or something. weird. Someone turn that off now I can do it. Um, so I'm just trying to kind of get everything organized to see. What do you really need to do here? May need to add some geometry here, so, yeah, just pulling the stuff around, seeing what we can get away with and what we don't need to address. It looks like we have one extra edge. And I think it's kind of too close to, um make another one. So you're gonna pull this one over and I think I'm going to dio I might just delete that one altogether, which let's see where that one leads. If we don't look like this, that's that one. So that's kind of weird. That's starting on the inside and going around. I guess those are getting reduced here. You can see inside the nose. That's another place we could hide things on geometry, terminating and stuff that we're never going to see. Um I mean, that's that's actually a pretty good possibility, but yeah, I don't think we don't think we need this one. So I think I'm actually going to do a big no no and just ah, delete this edge here and we're gonna happen in gone back in here. I'm gonna make it be this one. We could I mean, we could we could fix this, but let's just be clean about it and just say do this, right? Something we've done everywhere else. Now it's not in gun, but, you know, if you're pressed for time or something, like, no one's ever gonna look that far up their nose. Hopefully, um, so let's start to emerge these down and see kind of where we're at their. So I'm gonna go to the mesh emerged tool and increased tolerance, g increase the tolerance and we might need to add geometry here. So remember we were gonna have a star somewhere we had went down here is right next the nose, which was no good, because in general, you want to try to put the star where there's not a ton of deformation or things happening . So I think that's pretty good. The one thing and what we could do is put some supporting geometry around the bridge of the nose around the nasal part here and maybe one down here, and I think that's it. So let's extrude this edge out. And don't worry about keeping keeping faces together cause it's a single face. Let's just put this over here. And it g again extreme that went out over here wrote that come down in the ballpark. Cool. Now let's just go back to merge. And I was gonna tear the sauce. We can keep this up. Merge! That's emerged. This is merged. And this whatever you said she No, the tolerance is not far enough. Hope maybe not merge Tolerance. Oh, I guess these two aren't need to go first. Maybe merge. Now, let's merge these. Yep. That was it. Okay. Now the issue is we have two pieces of geometry going into one area. You can see we have three inches here and two over here. We could maybe at an edge loop. Let's see what this looks like over here. We could maybe imagine had an edge loop here. I don't really know how much that's really helping us. I think we could probably just get rid of this one. Italy, the edge, slide this one down? Yeah. I mean, I think that's good. And it's just bring these over so we can emerge them down, and I think we will need to add some geometry. Um Ah. Just track selecting those to make sure there emerged. Um, this distance is kind of far apart, so I think one ad What the heck? Let's just add some geometry here, see where it goes all the way around. Is that useful? Yeah. Look, look how big of a space that as we can move those over. But maybe that was the issue. Let's leave it for now. We can delete it here later or reduce it down. But I think we need it for this kind of cheek area. And the last thing I'm gonna dio is kind of pull this stuff around. I think instead of this kind of what's giving this the duck bill Look, from this view, let's evaluate this. So like like a duck bill, I think it's the fact that it swoops up like this and it should kind of be the opposite. Should be curving down. So let's ignore the reference and kind of remodel this to not be a duck bill. Let's move this down. So this is kind of like more in line, um, with me and do this and just go over to see I'm going soft like this stuff with B B l Doumbia Middle melts Drag. Pull this out, I think in general, just as a skeleton, even though this is a cartoon like the nose was way too big and profile right, Like like the bone and actual skull is like much further up in there's cartilage that finishes out the rest of the I think I think that's what was throwing me off. So that's just yeah, clean this up and then I think we'll be good. So he's gonna come around this off, and I might even do a quick, um, pass with the relax brush. And yeah, I want to see how this is like a dividend. I want all this stuff to be the opposite. I wanted to be kind of be bulging out down into the more than those terminates to give all the stuff of volume. Here. You'll hear the word volume a lot and modeling once you get into it. That's, um, of a concept in a big deal. Trying to maintain volume and describe describe a volume accurately, um, is a big deal, so okay, I think I lied. There's one more thing I'm going to do as well is, um don't go that far with it is you mess with this more later. Yes. See how I mean? This stuff is too far apart. Maybe I want this here. You just Yeah, do something like that. And I'll smooth this out to get rid of that David here. But in general, that's kind of Yeah. See, outside Grounded out. Doesn't look like a duck Bill. Now, kind of more. Looks like a skull. I think that's just my interpretation. And yeah. So the one thing I like about it is I think I'm going to put more edge loops here to help support this edge. And I think we have a room for it and do the same on the inside here. And what I'm looking at basically is, you know, we have no edge loops from here to all the way back, and we really want to support this front edge. So if we, like, selected this when this these needed doesn't be pulled up, slide this up. Cool. Yeah, I think that's ah working a lot better. And if you know this one could, Maybe Anyway, that's a journal idea. Cool. So I think we've done a pretty good job modeling the I modeling the nose, and we're not going to do a job, mouth and all that stuff in this. But the concept is the same, right? Like, you could kind of don't delete this bottom half and to make a jaw here. Or you could did what we did for the eye and just do it horizontally and do edge loops here , you know, go around and around and it'll be a circular thing and then end them like we ended this corner here that you'd, you know, make a circle here and then pull them to this corner or whatever corner, however, for you in the mouth to go out and make a mouth. But, um, yeah, I'm gonna hit this with the relaxed brush and kind of even this stuff out, especially this stuff back here needs to get relaxed a little bit. It's too close together, and not even so I'm gonna hit that and then I will see the next lesson. Thanks for watching 25. Update: Retopo Remesh Tools: welcome to this update class for my 2020 and we're gonna discuss the remesch and read Apologize Tools. Is there pretty handy new additions that actually were around in 2018 And I'll show you how to access those if you're working on an older version of my like 2018 as well. So I just created these couple of spheres here to demonstrate these tools, and what I want to do is just use the bully in. So we have some geometry that's not ideal, especially to kind of any deformation. Ziff, we wanted to start to create this as, like, a character head or something like that that we want this mesh to to form. We don't want all these in guns that were created by the Boolean operation. So I'm going to delete the history to get rid of all those empty groups we had over here. And now I'll have to do is you know, remesch are read, apologize. There's they're used for different things. So if I remesch, it's gonna create a ton of triangles and because of the second tool, that's actually OK, we could use this. Let's say if we're gonna start sculpting to have some more geometry toe where we could actually pull things around a little bit more. Now, those kinds of black, uh, kind of areas are just artifact of the view port. You know, we could shade that out and smooth those out as well if we were going to sculpt, you know, bullet years or something on this. Um so it's very helpful to quickly take a simple object that has very few polygons and give it a lot more geometry so that we could start to use the sculpt tool on it. So you might say like, Well, what good is this? Because now we all these triangles and we can't, you know, use this for animation. We have to read, apologize, and that's gonna take forever. Well, that's what the second tool is about. So let's click that and go back to the Poly. Modeling and reach apologize. So now we have quads, and we can actually use this for animation. And it's even if we don't like exactly how it's set up now, we could This would be a much better mesh to read, apologize from if we want to do the traditional manual method. We also have access to the, uh, the settings of these. You can find them here if you wanted to adjust exactly how it is inter plating. Um, you know, it's not a perfect tool, and that's why you need to know how to do this stuff manually, just in case it doesn't do what you wanted to do. Um, you need to be able to know how to do these things manual. But it is a nice addition. So if you want to have access to these in your own Maya 2018 all you have to do is actually type in in the mill script down here. Uh, Polly Remesch with a capital R. It is important to have the capital are there, and it will remesch it. Now you can see that this is much different from the default settings of the other tool we had. But again, we can get to these settings here, and we can increase that or decrease thes settings to get something more similar to what we had in the default settings. If we clicked the button here. So the same is true for re topo. We could just type in Polly re topo again with a capital R and the semi colon and then hit Enter. And again we have something Reach apologized in the quads that we could use an animation or uses a base. And so this is really good to prototype and quickly it a rate and not have to worry too much about your topology at an early stage. But again, let me emphasize that it is important to know you know how to do this. Um, manually. The other tool I want to demonstrate is the symmetry tool. So I also show this in a separate lesson. But just in case someone isn't, you know, watching this update and watch the other I would have. This is a separate lesson, but because this tool created non symmetrical geometry, a quick and easy way, and there's no line down the center here, quick and easy way to make this symmetrical is to click this symmetry button here. Now we will need to adjust the settings. The default didn't do what we wanted to do. It it was on the symmetry of the wrong access. So we can do is just change these settings here, and it will take a second update, but that's basically creates a seemed on the middle and it's somewhat ah, symmetrical. You know, again, the importance of knowing how to reach apologize manly manually is that, you know, the given take care is that now that we've created triangles, so you're going to use these tools back and forth, and this would most most be helpful win. Your, um you have symmetry on in your tools and you want it to be selecting the same Vergis is on either side. So now you know, now that we're starting to move things around, it'll actually mirror from one side to the other. But the disadvantages Now we've lost that nice quad to have triangles there. So, you know, we could go back and forth between these tools. Used the re topo again on this, and it may not. You know, we got rid of the symmetry again, but now we have quad. So it's a given taken again. It's very important to know how to do this manually. Eso that you're not constrained by the tools not doing what you want them to their really just for convenience sake, Um, it's very important if you want to become a modeler to know how to do all this manually. But I wanted to show this quick update and demonstrates Ah, couple new tools in my 2020. Thanks for watching. 26. Bones - Mirroring Head: this. Listen, we're going to mere the face over and connected back up and kind of make some finishing adjustments on it. So I'm going to hide the reference for now, and I'm gonna go into the front view. I wanted to line up this middle edge cause through the modeling it's gotten, um, off of the middle. So going over the edge mode, double click the center one and get off of component scale, holding down our go to that room in our world and scale this down and it looks like it's snapped pretty well. But I'm going to hold down X and just pull it over a little bit to make sure it's right on zero here in the center. And then So I'm going to close this. I'm going to delete the history real quick just to make sure it's clean. I'm going to duplicate this. I'm going. Teoh, freeze the transformations and scale this negative one in X, and then we have a copy and a proper skull head. The only problem is it's not connected to each other, so we need to first combine the meshes mesh combined, and now we can delete the history here to get rid of those empty groups every year. And that liner and let's go to Vertex mode and we're going to select the Vergis. Ease down the center, my hip for on the keyboard. Make sure not selecting anything on either side. It looks like I grabbed one here and one there. For the most part, everything is together. So now we just need to go to and it mesh merge. And the distance threshold should really matter because they should be around top of each other for increase that will start to merge. Neighbouring vergis is that we don't want to be merged together when it fire on the keyboard, pulled the shading, and I'm just gonna run through another relax, tool sculpting tool to Now that these center ones are, you can see where when use the relax tool and it's on edge like it's terminating that. It won't relax. Eso No, I'm saying relax that way. Really? Relax. Um, so now we get the these centerpieces to relax, Relax. I don't know why I was saying that that was weird. Um, Okay, so I think I turned on, uh, steady stroke. What? I just turned on. Yeah, sometimes when im right clicking, you can accidentally go into those menus, and it can be Okay, well, let me back up. I need Teoh. Turn on symmetry here as soon as we mere something we definitely want to make sure we're marrying stuff All the tools that were using. So under the tool settings, we should go to a symmetry and turn on World X. We can see that this is the X axis and we hover over this thing. Yeah, we should get the dot on either side here so we can see where it's doing. The symmetry, knowing that these centerpieces and everything we do on the mesh now should be in symmetry mode. Otherwise, we'll have Teoh a mere one side over again with the other. So I'm just going through and hidden these mainly the center points that we couldn't get to earlier when it was not me eared. And I'm just gonna cash going Teoh produce the brush size here where I'm going in the center. Cool. It's looking a lot better. This is such an easy way. I don't know what we did before this. You had to just individually pool points around an eyeball trying to even stuff out like this. So I'm gonna grab the kind of engineer brush that is pulling the points out, and that works just as well as the grab brush. Just kind of in a different way, some pulling things out, that I'm smoothing him and, uh, just kind of going through and seeing where, when I'm turned rotating, I'm looking at the silhouette. See how there's this little debate here. I'm gonna go find that and brush that out, maybe past where it should be, so that then I can smooth it like that. It looks like it's it's smoothing a little too strong, but it's pretty. All in all the models, pretty close to what I had in mind. There's some goofy, um, little things going on with the shape in general, but, I mean, for the most part, we just relax this area. They're soldiers. It seems like there's too much density here trying to bring all that dense mesh from the top of school down around the side. You can see here where we connected when we're adding those, um, nose bridge loops, and I think I'm going to adjust. I shape a little bit. He turned be for self selection and just it's once you get to this stage, it really is kind of very, very small tweaks at this stage. Um, I'm not making huge adjustments, but I wanted to get more of an ah, asymmetrical I and I don't want it to be super super symmetrical on the eye shapes. So I'm just gonna holding down shift smooth some of this so it rounds it out again and, um, hold control. Just push that in. For the most part, this is kind of what I had in mind. Um, some of this stuff isn't working. I think so. It's going to avert asi and really get specific with what we're doing. So this looks like a pretty hard edge here, and I think we were to use the smooth sculptural. It's going to collapse it too much because the, uh, there's not enough geometry there. So I'm gonna turn off, be and really just pull individual points around. And this is modeling and three d for you if you've never done it. This is what it's about. Getting very specific with individual points. Yeah, it's like there's none around this here like this. Like the the front is too flat. Tournament? Um, yeah, yeah. I feel like the same is true here. Like it's a smallest thing, but that needs to be just the suggestion of occur without looking like a point. But I'm gonna continue to tweak some of those things and maybe experiment like, let's get to this stage and I'm sure God and save. Let's get to this stage. It's kind of fun to try different things, right? Like what if we, you know, wanted put horns on him like it's ah, little devil skull or something or, ah, you know, exaggerate that cheekbones a lot more. You know, this is a time to kind of experiment and see how far you can push things. That's actually kind of looks cool. So, uh, yeah, like we you know, we were following the reference pretty close. And now, you know, feel free to kind of get creative and see what what you come up with. That's the end of modeling the skull. For the most part, I'm gonna kind of continue to refine this on my own as I encourage you to do as well, but, ah, in the next lessons, we will continue with the rest of the body, and we will learn maybe a couple of new tricks. And, um, also how to mirror the body, the ribs. We're gonna be interesting. I'm going to go over some deformed vers, which we haven't talked about yet. So look out for that. And, uh, hope you enjoyed this kind of a lesson getting, ah, kind of a cool skull out of out of this. I think it looks pretty cool. All right, I'll see you guys next lessons. Thanks. 11 more thing real quick. I want to touch on before we close out. This lesson is so saying in this example of, like me pulling out the cheekbones if we hit three on the keyboard to do the kind of auto smoothing thing we can see that we lose a lot of that shape and the sharpness that kind of make the cheekbones look cool. I think, um, and I think the contrast is kind of cool, like everything else is smooth and the cheekbones air kind of more jagged. So to maintain this, um, shape, we need to add more jam a tree in here, and there's a couple different ways we could do that. One of the ways would be to select faces here to make sure we have symmetry on. We can select faces here and kind of choose the ones that are facing out like that. And let me just save real quick before I do a bunch of crazy stuff. We can extrude here and turn on key places together and just let's do like a small adjustment here. We'll just bring in the offset just a little bit. So now when we hit three, these are much stronger edges, right? Like it's not collapsing and rounding off a Muchas it waas. Now you can see this kind of harder edge, so just keep that in mind, like the closer edges are together when they're rounded out, even though these air kind of just in line that these air kind of supports. Basically, when it starts to smooth, there's more geometry here. It has to deal with, so it creates a harder edge when it's when we do the auto smooth kind of the thing. So you can go through this and do that on, you know different, Um, faces. Like here. We could try to do that again, and he faces together on Offset Bring it in and three. And it just makes everything a little sharper right around here, which I think makes sense for the cheekbones. But I just want to touch on that real quick before we close this lesson out. 27. Update: Mirror Tool: in the previous lesson. You learned how to do this manually, but I want to show you how to mirror the geometry with a quick tool. And Maya, it's right here. It's called the mirror geometry. Across an axis, we click it. It will just do it for us and one click. But I want to impress upon you to not get ah, lulled into a false sense of accomplishment with this. Because sometimes this might not work. Or, you know, you were working on a very old version of Maya or who knows what. You need to understand how to do these operations manually. And these tools up here are merely for convenience. And to be a good bottler, you need to know how to do this manually first. And that's why I wanted to show you how to do it manually. First, to see what's happening on behind the scenes and to appreciate one click tool like this so it has some options here that will pop up. If it doesn't pop up for you. You can get to the tools of this by selecting on Polly mirror netting t um, which should bring up the the menu settings here. You can also get to them. You know, if you just scroll down after selecting the input, you can get to the settings here as well. So after the fact, we could change the ACSI that at the access that is Ah, um, being mirrored on. And you can see it's doing its best to merge the geometry across an access where there used to be geometry of the back of the head was there, but now it is merging it a z best that can. This also works for, um, jump tree across an access. So let's say we had later on we're gonna make the bone arms. And let's say we had an arm over here. This will also work. Ah, for separate geometry that catches is it will make it one mesh. So if I'm near that, you can see if I select one or the other there. Now the same mesh. The way to get around. That, of course, is to go to mesh separate. And now we have two separate pieces. If we wanted to rig these arms separate, um and you can tell even now it gives it a bit of our history, So I'm trying to rotate it and it's not affecting the object. As you'd expect. It's changing the topology on it. So you know, of course, what we would need to do to solve that is to go, to add it to the by type history. And now when we do it should rotate just fine. No, it does not. What we need to do is unparalled it from this group here and believe that group so now should rotate just fine. Um, again, this is a perfect example of why you need to know how to do this stuff manually in case there's quirks like this, because these tools really are just for convenience sake, and you need to understand how to do everything manually. In a worst case scenario, if something's not working the way expected to, you could always revert to doing it manually. So thanks for watching this quick little update. I'm using my 2020 right now as an update video, but the symmetry tool has been at least as far back as 2018 so you can use that throughout the course as well. Thanks for watching by 28. Bones - Lattice Deformer: in this lesson. We are already done with skull. Before we move on to the rest of the body, I want to show you a former. So I'm gonna hide that reference again. And we've completed this head and I'm going to clean this stuff up just a little bit. Ah, command clicking this stuff grouping it. And what I want to show you is the D formers. So you can get to the former's from animation menu and also the modeling menu. It's exact same menu that you'll find in each Something's gonna tear this off and with head clicked, I'm going to go to Lattice. Lattice is like the classic D former that you're gonna see a lot. Use a lot. Probably. Um, there's a ton of reformers here, but, um, I really, honestly only use maybe four. These, like very often, um kind. Everything in the bottom half here is just editing eso Really All the a lot of forms here on the top half and then editing existing performers that you create is all down here. So let's create a lattice, and it is what you know, you would think allowed us to be It's kind of this grid shape here we can go and change the subdivisions, just middle mouse dragging and, um, cranking those up. But ah, yet in general I use lattices for very large changes. So in this case, when I looked at this head, I thought that a proportions weren't super great like the foreheads, a little too big. So instead of going in here and having to, you know, turn on symmetry and get the maybe the soft selection tool and, like, go really big and, you know, move stuff around that way I prefer to use a lattice, and we can edit the lattice by right clicking on it in going toe lattice point. If you try to do that and from the geometry, it's really hard. Ah, well, I just did it, but sometimes that could be a little wonky, cause it'll keep thinking you want the geometry behind it. But, you know, that's why I click on the edge where there's no geometry. I'm just gonna get that back an object mode to So now you can still use the soft selection on a lattice, Of course, so it be and all that stuff still works. But Um, yeah. So this is, you know, one way to just kind of squash down the proportions and get things kind of in a better spot . Um, then maybe what the reference had or, you know, if you won't make a kid like skull has different proportions, a supposed to an adult, you know, this would be the way to go. So yeah, that's one way to do it. And those air lattices One quick thing else wanna mention is the fact that, you know, I've made these adjustments, and if I move the head, you know they're gone. So you have to make these adjustments inside the lattice and and the geometry has to stay inside the lattice so away to kind of keep thes edits would be to one delete the history like we've done before at it really by type history. You know, we get rid of last and keep the change is the other thing that I want to do because it's so early in the modeling phase here. We might not want to keep these changes later, After we see the proportions of the body, maybe those proportions work better. So what I would do is shift. Select both of these and Middle Mouse. Drag them under the head. And again, that's called parenting. We've done it before, many times, but now we move the head, the lattice will go with it, and so will the changes. And if you want to see the lattice, we can just go to show and turn off the former's here and now we can keep going and have those have that history kind of still there, and we going to leave the lattice later and get back to whatever we wanted. But yeah, that is the lattice I'll see in the next lesson where we will discuss some other kind of interesting techniques to create the spine and ribs. Thanks for watching. 29. Bones - Spine Wire Deformer: in this lesson in the following lessons, we're going to speed things up a little bit now that we have ahead done, and we're going to focus on the spine. So on high the reference and I'm going to grab the reference in the head and command, click them an outline er and pull them both up so that the feet are kind of on zero here, this is Ah, the world space. Where we have the grid turned on, we can turn it on and off here. So what I'm gonna look at now is the spine. And I want to make one spine joint and then kind of populated all the way down the spine. And we're gonna do it in a similar way that we did on the hard surface, Um, modeling with one little extra trick. So I'm gonna make the one spine bone now with the cylinder, it's Ah, click the cylinder from the shelf and I'm just gonna drag this up just so it's kind of in the neighborhood and go to a front view holding out space bar and left clicking there, and I'm gonna add some subdivisions here, maybe 10 and maybe on extra cap on the end that we can't see, which is the top and bottom. And I'm gonna scale this down. Need some typing over here instead of it registering as a short cut. So I just need to click, like to just click here, Um, t get that off. So skills down and go to the edges. DoubleClick, the center edge here. So we're right in the middle. Turn on self selection. Hold down B and middle mouse drag I like to control and the top one so that, you know, if we were to do this in the middle, it's gonna scale this down, up and down vertically. And I just want to go from X and Z the horizontal axes. Someone hold down control, click the Y axis and pull this end Something like this. Then I'm going Teoh, go to the object mode, actually. Go to the edge mode. Double click the top and the bottom edge Here, turn off soft selection in bevel this and to be increased, the fraction maybe give it one segment is the amount. See how that looks. That looks like a spine bone to me. I might delete this edge here because it make If you look at this, it makes kind of a hard edge here, which I guess is okay. If you don't like that, you could just delete this edge. It's the fact that these two are close together or what we could do is go to modeling, turn on transform constraint to be a surface slide on edge slide and then just scale these together so it kind of moves him down away from the edge there. Cool. So we have one spine joint. Let's go to the right view and hit f to frame up everything. And now we need to create a curve. So I'm gonna go to curves and surfaces, click on the E P. Curve tool, and I'm gonna start kind of down here somewhere just to give us some room to go. We don't want to start this motion path thing that we're gonna do right exactly at the starting point, because the ends of it can get kind of wonky how it interprets the rotation and direction of where it's aiming the thing. So and plus the hip bone's gonna be its own thing, right? Like this is gonna be its own piece here. So I'm just doing this. Teoh given ourselves a little advantage, and I'm gonna click in the middle of where the spine has been drawn. Just keep clicking all the way up and in here How to kind of just guess where it is. And the middles appears in the middle is probably here ish and reverses back. Inserts coming back this way. And we're money in this right in the base of the skull. Cool. I'm ahead. Inner now we have a curve. So I'm going Teoh attach this like a motion path like we've done before in the hard surface . So I need to go to animation. Constrain. Go down to motion passed. I'm gonna tear this off cause we're gonna need this again in a little bit. I'm gonna say attached to motion path and you can see that it's ah is not pointing the right way. So we need to go to the treat editor and go over to motion path and start messing with these basically and try to figure out which way it needs to point to be up. So there we go. Front access. Why? Up access X and now it is traveling down the spine bone. And we kind of wanted to start in here. Probably. So the one little trick that we're gonna add to this before we do the visualizing um step that we did previously down here create animations. Snapshot. We're going, Teoh. Set it as a flow path object. So when I click this, you can see it already. Let me undo it. In case you missed that, when I click the flow path object, it's gonna adult lattice. We're not going to see it cause we have showed of formers off from the last ah tutorial. So I'm gonna turn to former is back on and click flow path object And now you can see it kind of conformed to the curve a little more so this will just kind of automatically give us unique shape to each spine joint. Even though their exact same cylinder, their position along the curve, is going to change their shape. It's a really nice way to very quickly get some variation age each of these joints. So I'm going to click this and go back to visualize and create animations. Snapshot, open up the menu here, and we basically need to set the increment based on the distance that we need to kind of intersect each one of these. But actually, before we do that, we need to change the motion path. If I select the note here we get. These are key frames at either end, and I showed this very quickly. Ah, and again, we're going to get back to this an animation. But if we get a Windows animation editors graph editor, we can see that it starts slow and it in slow. And we wanted to be a consistent speed so that when we set the interval at where to create a new cylinder that it's consistent, right? We don't want a bunch down here and a bunch of the top they need to be consistent. So we're gonna set that toe linear by clicking the linear tangent handle there, and that's all we need to do. And we'll learn more about graph editor and tangents and all that kind of stuff later. So now with that said, we just need to set this interval at an appropriate interval with our cylinder selected and hit apply and we can see already that we have an issue and that at some point along the curve it starts a twist someone had on Dio We scroll. This will be able to see where that happens. So this is a goofy thing that Maya does where it doesn't know what the up accesses if you're going vertically with the flow motion for flow path tool that we used. So the quick way around this I found good perspective is simply to rotate this thing down 90 degrees, so that is no longer so that is no longer vertical. And now when we scrubbed, we'll see that it's not twisting anymore. So it is doing what we expected to do. It's still deforming it, but it's just not freaking out twisting. So now we can, uh, head apply. And, well, I mean, of course, that cylinder selected and had applied and we'll see that, you know, they're too far apart, so we can just start downing this down seven and they're still too far apart. So when I hit on, do it actually undo on. It depends on where your cursor is. So I head on due here. It actually made it back to eight So I need to hit undoing the view port for that to work. Let's go something a lot less like five. And that's getting pretty darn close, actually. So it looks like we're gonna need, like, five and change on this. Still, like 5.5 apply, and that's pretty darn good. Actually, it looks like a spine to me. So now we can rotate this thing back up. It's got the curve sort of curve in the outline er and turn this zero. It will bring all this stuff back up if we go into our right view. And it freaked out. Um, so now that we rotated back up, it still freaks out Twitter twist some of these pieces. So we're gonna need to bake that down before we, um, rotate that back up. So let's go to the snapshot. It looks like we made to at some point, so yep, that's that one. So let's select all of these spine joints. We'll group them, and I'm gonna hit shift Pito unp Arent We could also just middle mouse drank it out of this snapshot group. So the group selected I'm going to go to edit delete by type history. And now I could just rotate this group back up so we can go 90 here and protect the curve back up just for fun and sitting if and now we have all the twists out and we have a spine Now, the one of the interesting thing Weaken Dio is Ah, in case we want to adjust all of these together is do a wire to former So let's learn another two. Former I'm gonna hit six here just to see our reference and I'm going to hide cylinder and these lattice control each So the wire tool is kind of our The wired of former is kind of unique. We need to select the curve than go to deform and go to wire and it'll stay down here in the bottom left select shapes to reform and press enter So we need to select all of these shapes. So I'm going Teoh shift, select all of them and then hit, enter select wire curves and press enter to finalize the operation. So now you just like the curve and had dinner. And so now when we when I sleeps like this, so I can kind of right. Click on it a little easier and go to control Vertex When we select ah CV in here, we should be able to move the spine. And this will just give us the ability. Teoh, adjust the spine later and modeling if we need Teoh and so that each one of these pieces aren't independent from each other. So that's one really quick way to be able to adjust the spine, which is gonna be nice, because I can't really tell if this is actually a good path that was actually drawn here. Remind to adjust things a little bit. So this will give us that freedom. Awesome. So we learned about the wire to former and how to model things quickly along a path. Thanks for watching. 30. Bones - Ribs Bend Deformer: in this lesson. We're gonna learn a few new to formers and create the ribs of Mr Bones here. Um, so we have our reference. We have our spine we ever had. We turn off performers if you want, but we're actually gonna need those in a second. So just gonna leave the diff formers visible so we can see the lattice and everything else . So there's a couple different ways we could make the ribs. We could do box modeling where we create a box and we start extruding, um, one of the faces here going to right, click and going to face, then going to extrude, start pulling this out at G, start pulling that out and do this kind of a thing, right? Make a rib Go this way. Actually, um, that's one way, um, but I want to show you the former that can do this. And so first, we just need to make a long kind of tube. That would kind of be like a rib, I guess. Or ah, box. Really? So let's grab a new box. I'm just clicking up here in the poly modeling shelf to drag this up and going Teoh stay in perspective mode just because this is gonna take a couple of different views. So I'm going to increase the subdivisions by going to Poly Cube and let's see which direction we want it in the depth. Just crank that up, and then we're gonna will we cannot Oh, I don't know why it's ah stuck to the that one direction there. That was weird. So just grab this in the scale, it and Z and maybe will increase the subdivisions and the other axes as well. So you'll notice, like when you start scaling something and you try to do this stuff, it goes crazy. So the proper way to do it, which it's kind of annoying there has to be a proper way, is to use the depth values here. So once we do that and then we make changes, it should work just fine. So that's one little goofy thing about working with my up. Okay, so maybe increased the subdivisions here. I'm just trying to give us enough geometry so that when we apply the two former, um, minute three old correct look when we apply that a former change that's too little too boxy don't try to say is when we applied the diff former, it will have enough jump for their and topology so it can curve properly. Okay, so it looks good. And so now when we go to the deformed menu, go over to nonlinear, I'm gonna tear this off. And these deformed MIRs are super useful and probably the bend. A former is the one I use the most out of all the former's combined. So even lattices or whatever else, and we'll learn about these others later on, probably in rigging. Um, but yes. Oh, nonlinear. These are super, super useful and very simple. Um, you can go through an experiment with ease. Basically, when you click one, it'll create kind of like this to former. Let me isolate Select these so we can see it by itself. It'll create, like, this little d former handle thing, and you can see it over here on the outline, Er and it's just gonna usually go up and down like this. So even though our our piece of geometry is horizontal, um, it won't really care when you created initially. So if I was to start to crank this one up um, you know, it's not gonna be working the way it should. So you know, you just simply rotate the former down tow line up with what are objects you have. And then once you start adjusting it, it should work as expected, and it's it's super cool. And, um, you know, there's It's pretty simple, but there's, you know, handy controls like this. And if you wanted to save this and not have a deformed, were, of course, click the janitor here and go to edit to lead by type history, and it'll save that out and delete the deform er. But we don't want this to former, and I encourage you to just play around with the other ones. They're all useful in their own way, but the been performers just I mean, it's it's classic. It's hard not toe. Use it on every project. So I'm gonna go back to isolate, select if we go over to the bend and put here and I'm in a middle mouse drag here in the view, poor like I was doing earlier. You can see it's bending in kind of the X axes direction, which is not what we want So we need to rotate this thing. Check this out. You can just kind of experiment in play. And you'd animate this rotation. They could do crazy stuff, but any for our purposes were using it for modeling to help us kind of dial in a rib. So zero out those crazy values and get back to being more serious about this. Um, So, yeah, I'm gonna put this around 1 80 and the why? And then it seemed irritated down 90 the X. So we have a rib kind of, um, the been to former you can, you know, translator around as well. So that will, you know, just kind of where the point it's scaling from animals has these inbound things, which I don't think will affect us. Um, as far as, like, the maximum they should be at because they look like they're already toothy maximum, right? Like you can see the little green dot here. Hopefully. So, if this was a super long thing, you might need to extend the bounds. Um, but we're gonna use the bounds for is to kind of help, maybe adjust. Let's see, let's scale this thing up because this is like too aggressive of Ah, curve right And we could, you know, reduce this here. Which is partly what will dio. But we also need toe may be scaled a former up because we want this to cover a greater area and let's turn back on. Let's turn off. I isolate select so that we can see the reference. In general, everything is really too big. It's good to the front view, holding on space bar left clicking in the center and, um, choosing from view. So when if you tried to start to move this stuff, it's gonna get all crazy and this may be the kind of affect your going for, But what I like to do is parent the handle of any two former under the geometry you're applying it to that way. When you move the geometry, it should move with it. You can see the handle ends here are all moving around with it, and the pieces is maintaining its deformation and shape. So the reason I'm doing that is because the ribs kind of come down like at an angle like this, right? And so we basically just need to kind of figure out where this, uh, d former needs to line up with the ribs and we can kind of move this around and do all this crazy stuff, but in general, it looks like it's all way too big. Something to scale all this way down and let's see. Let's let's look at this 1st 1 It looks like this first one's kind of like that ish, and this can kind of get us in the ballpark. And then we're gonna continue modeling in our own. Um, that looks pretty close at three. I think maybe just the size of everything is to ah etc. Um, yet it's not round enough. Depends on a union of the shape of the rib that you want to create. But for me, this is kind of, um it's too Ah, uniform, right as a square. So we need to break that up. So I'm gonna select to face here, and it's like to face over there. So when I double click, it'll go. Between the faces I selected. I'm gonna do the same thing here, The bottom part. Have those faces, and I'm going to control middle mouse. Drag them so they'll move relative to their, um They move relative to their normals, which is the direction the face is facing. So I'm gonna be and hold on control again and just kind of push that. I think he might be the wrong thing to do, because I think these normals of these things there are those faces air going in the wrong , wrong direction. So go back toe one. Yeah. Just looks like this stuff needs to be fixed because there's all crashing into itself. And so I'm going to turn on the edge, slide, transform, constrained here something and just slide this stuff between. That's for eking out. And it looks like I can't undo that now, which is always fun. So you get to see, like, real time What modeling is all about a skilled us down, Actually, you know, what I might do is just delete this until the edge and ah, use the multi cut tool. Yes, this is was modeling. Sometimes Maya is not kind. Some holding down shift to get to 50% and just remaking all of these. I wish I could remember what this went into. Let me let me back up and see what that wanted to that star. Okay, so selling downshift. I want to go. 50% want to end on that one. Enter. And we need to fix all this stuff as well. This is part of Ah, modeling is when Maya freaks out, doesn't let you undo. You know, you just kind of roll with the punches here, and that's this. And is he pushed back? Sure, for the bottom as well. So you know, you don't have to do exactly what I'm doing. This is, um, just kind of my best guess as to what would make the best shape here, you know, kind of rounding off the corners. The box. Actually, I want to do the control of middle mouse drag here because they're all kind of going in different directions because it's a semi circle now. And you could make these adjustments before you applied the bend d former, which might make all this easier. But, you know, if you didn't have that decision made before you started, it's no big deal like I'm showing you. You can just kind of keep going with stuff and isolated. It was controlled little mouse dragging my three, and I mean that looks kind of like a rare bone. I think the middle here is probably too thick still, but I like this. The difference we get, you know, um, get back toe one. I think these all of this stuff is too narrow. Maybe someone else like that it be. Are Skillet in this direction a little bit in that direction. Just making these little tweaks to get it back in the ballpark of, ah, proper rib shape. Something like that. But you get the idea, and the been to former is still applied, so we can just that later. I think we need some variation here on the vertically as well. So I'm just gonna grab these vergis ease and scaling down, and why, maybe increase the self selection. Do that 1st 1 I want to go further out here. I like that. It's to the object space. Um, So what I did just there is holding our and left clicking, you know, same kind of deal have been doing You can change the the acsi of the manipulator. So, in general, this is kind of a bone shape. All right. Scare the front view. Kind of looks like a rib to me. Um, but yet you can keep messing with this. But this is the general idea. You could even, you know, extrude these faces make the ends more bony looking. But I think for a rib, this is kind of, you know, it's a pretty simple shape. So one thing you can do now is to actually Ah, once you finalize this, you could just duplicate this out and then just kind of slide it down. Let's go back to the front view, slide this stuff down, and then kind of keep making tweaks to each one. Um, bore, you know, instead of it being the copy that you're dragging down, leave the copy where it's at because it doesn't have the d former with it. So we've made that copy, and it has its has been to former, but it's not gonna do anything because it's ah, you know, it's not connected to it. It just copy that just for copy sake. And it didn't actually make the connection. So instead of dragging the copy down, what we drag this one down and then we can continue adjusting each one with the bend. A former so we can go back to the bend a former change the curvature of this one a little bit. But I think you know, for our purposes, let's go to the side of you and see what this is looking like. Course were way off. Um, and I'm sure the drawing is has not accurate whatsoever. It's kind of even hard to tell which one's a rib bottom. That one. This one. So I think it was, like in here somewhere. So it looks like they're all two big in that direction because they need to connect to the spine. But you get the kind of general idea here, and we just want to have, like, an interesting shape. And, um, yeah, so this is you know, another thing we could do is add another been to former. So we have this copy. We could even do it to this one as well. But we click this one and go been to former, and any time I have a new been deformed, I just crank up the curvature so I can see which direction it's facing. So then I know which direction to adjust. Uh, the handles here go back to perspective looks like it's collapsing. The volume of the the thing that my hopefully it's just because of how much I'm curving it . Let's do something like this. Maybe move. It's this away. Go to the right view, something like that. Then sometimes I'll just delete it and see what the difference isn't. Undo the deletion. Sorry, my arm is hitting my scroll wheel on my tablet, so I think it looks better with the two former. So I'm just going to minimal strike that onto itself and go back to perspective, and then just keep refining this stuff. You can see where because that been to former, we collapse the geometry. Here, let's go back to one. Choose faces, pull the stuff out, kind of keep modeling doing what we've been doing. Just making sure we're getting the shape that we want with everything. So, yeah, and the next lesson we will continue modeling this stuff. But ah, for now, you can just do this for this right side and will mirror everything over here in a layer lesson. So don't worry about doing it for both sides. Just focus on one side. So right now I'm doing the right side and I'll probably model all the right side. And then we get mere everything over to the left in a later episode or video. Um, cool. I will see you guys, then. Thanks a lot. Bye. 31. Bones - Sternum: in this lesson, we will model a sternum very quickly because I think we may need another rib. And before we make in the rib and figure that out, I want to make the sternum because it's it should connect. You know, there seems to be kind of a gap here and the art reference how all this stuff works here in profile. So it's just seemed like a large gap. So let's go ahead and Marla sternum, and we'll figure this out on the fly, going to do some box modeling. I'm gonna go to the right view, and I'm going to go Upali modeling shelf, Click the Cube and dragged that up. No, I'm just middle mouse drag now that have isolated that vertical axes and just get in line here so that we can do some box modeling and scaled down. And I think it'll probably end up connecting with the collarbone somewhere again. I don't know if this is all, um, medically accurate, but, um, yeah, for our purposes. I don't think it really matters all that much. It's a cartoon type of ah character. So want to get to a point where I can grab this face and then go back to the right view so that now I can extrude the face here and I'm gonna try to go on even distance. You know, this section to this section, maybe, like, almost like a descending thing. But, um, we want to make sure, too, that each rib is getting its own little section here. So I wanna make sure I'm doing that on a scale us up a little bit. Anytime I rotated face, um, it can start to lose its volume a little bit. So was to make sure whenever I'm rotating face or edges that it's maintaining its volume. And I'm only trying to go in these two axes. Um, not trying to, ah, grab the middle one here because I could get it off of the get it off of the kind of sinner where it's aligned to the center. So let's do one more after this one. G more time. Get this in line. I think that's kind of in the ballpark. Go to the edge mood. It's gonna make this kind of more around it as it goes down. Probably gonna need an edge loop in here somewhere. Drag this up. Maybe divide this one because it's such a large distance trying to find a custom tab on the edge. Look, Tool, something like that. And I'm gonna component mood and double click on the edge. Now it should be a little more in line with where I'm trying to scale it from, although it's hard to tell how the axes air oriented, that's close enough. Cool. So this doesn't look like much right now, but, ah, we can use this now That's we know where it's positioned and profile. We can kind of adjust this now for our from view. So I think the general idea with this is that the places where the ribs connect are going to be the widest parts get back to objects space cause we're going straight across. So something like this. And so we need to add a lot more edge loops in here to help connect this stuff and actually undo that one and wait until we get the bottom done. So, yeah, I think we may need, like, one more little small rib up here. It's hard to tell that his collarbone we could model that really quickly as well And maybe this is going too high. It's, you know, again, it's just reconcile ing Um, the artwork with three D. This is This is the hardest part of modeling always. So don't get discouraged. This is as hard as it should be and is for everybody else. So yeah. Okay. So I'm just going in here and having edge loops and I'm clicking, dragging on the ends on squares. It tends not to let you connect the loops. So I'm just control clicking areas where I don't need it And scaling thes down. I think I'm in May be the wrong at Yemen. The wrong axis there. Skilling these down a little bit and yeah, just going through. And it looks like to me that we're gonna needs one more, but yeah, it's another thing. Of course we have at our disposal is, uh, extrude. Oops. Shift double clicking should get you the agent loop of face extrude this inward. That's freaking out. I'm just gonna scale it. Maybe pushed these down closer to the rib that it's inserting into and get this one a little more and line Same thing with this one down here. Hopefully you kind of get the idea of what I'm going for visually at this stage, That's component and hope. Um, I just move the edges. You can see how moving between the different spaces pretty quickly, you know, one tools not always gonna work and gonna be your catch all you gotta adapts pretty quickly and not get too discouraged about. You know something not working when you expect it to. It's always just problem solving. I think I grabbed the wrong edge. So you're not just in the, uh, kind of front view? Do we wanna make these little in between parts that we want to do it in the side view as well? So I want to make sure we're adjusting those in every way. And and you can tell right now. Um, you know, I'm not really paying attention to the reference at all, actually. Just turn that off because, um, I got kind of the idea of what the references is trying to do, and that was enough for me to try to make it work now in three dimensions. So if it three on the keyboard, that's what kind of give me an idea of how much further. I need to go with adding geometry to support this volume, which is, you know, you can see it shrink quite a lot when you have three, because there's no geometry here supporting this. So we'll need to add edge loops here. And I wait to do that because it's it's a lot easier to select edges when there it's just, you know, this whole thing instead of this being divided into two or three edges. So trying to get always when you're modeling, trying to get the kind of big the big stuff done and worry about this smaller stuff after the fact on on Lee at geometry when you need it. Otherwise, you're gonna create a lot more work for yourself, and it will make you a lot slower and you'll be more frustrated. So don't do that. Um, okay, just trying to make sure everything is lined up as well. And you know, the thing with this is like when you model something, it's not done, especially with this stuff. So in general, the idea with this stuff is that we're going to, um, have all the bones floating just to give ourselves are kind of Ah, a cheat almost so that we don't have to worry about all these things intersecting perfectly . It's a cartoon, so you know, that's that's and it's a skeleton. On top of that, it's not like something. It's, Ah, believable that we see walking around every day. So, um, that's why you know, I think it's fine to have this shift stuff. That's why I think it's fine. Just have this stuff just floating in space next to kind of the joints that it would it would be connected. Teoh. Um, so I'm not getting too caught up in that. I don't think you should, either. This is just kind of a good exercise with a good goal in mind to help facilitate learning this stuff, because then I know for me if I don't have, you know, a goal in mind, it's a lot harder to motivate myself to get going and learn something new. So that's kind of just the idea here. So don't be too hard on yourself when you're modeling this stuff and, ah, being super specific, that stuff will come later. The Mori model and I hope that you continue modeling or doing something in three D and that you find this stuff that you started doing, You know, you might not show anyone anyways, cause ah, you do it. You know, the longer you do it, you'll do better and better. So you only want Teoh Ever show your best stuff? So don't get too caught up in making everything perfect just yet because you're still learning. And it's okay to not be, um, you know, 100% perfect on this stuff. It's just kind of the practice of going through the motions and getting comfortable with software, and ah, and then later on, getting more serious about it and that taking a little more time. But at this stage of the game, you don't want to frustrate yourself to the point where you're not gonna pursue it any more . So try to keep it fun for yourself here and go easy on yourself. So I'm just kind of going through the model and trying to do the last little tweaks before I added in geometry. And let's also look at how this works. Let's just take because I'm just thinking about the scapula are the ah of the scapula, the collarbone. So just to kind of block something in super quick to see visually the weight of this stuff . I think we might be good. The collarbone might take up enough room that So what I'm thinking Is it going to point from the sternum to the shoulder and holding down control there to scale and that it kind of isolated access that we've done before? So I think three is actually fine. So let's continue with this and, Ah, finish out the sternum. It's gonna hit one. And the first thing I'm going to try is just throwing down edge loops in the exact center. So we're gonna go to the tool settings over here after selecting it and go to multiple edge loops and then just choose one, and that will put it right in the center, over whatever edge loop that we click. And if we had three now, it should be a little thicker and have more volume have to queue to get off that kind of wire frame thing. Yes, So this is good. I think the proportions of this thing I can use a lot of work. Um, which I'll do in between the next video, but the other thing, we could do real quick. And when I say proportions, I mean, like, you know, this one is way bigger than this one would be nice to have it and even kind of fashion Ah, in descending order. So I'm probably moved this gap down closer to here. So this one is a smaller kind of chunk, and this indentation is maybe too big or this one needs to be more so That's what I mean when I say proportion stuff, you know, having this stuff all work together as one piece, and I'll continue to refine that stuff. But the last thing I want to mention is also considered doing a bevel on just thes edges to help kind of support this and also maybe even give you the option of not using the kind of auto smooth feature in Maya Go the poly bevel on hit t crank up the fraction Probably. Yeah, we're limited by something by their summits hitting some edge loop somewhere. Oh, because this is so close together. So the fraction can only be that big. Um, we could space that out like, hit on, do here in space. Out. But I think this is pretty close to what I had in mind anyways. What's it? Uh, actually, let's go hit three now. Yeah, and that kind of made this edge a lot, um, sharper and stiffer. And if we actually use this than three mode, weaken, see how much sharper this edge can be? Might spazz out here get to zero, but yeah, so you can make this a super sharp edge, depending on how close those edges are together. I just was all up to you and something You kind of change on the fly here. I kind of like it closer to the maximum to kind of keep bony idea here. Kind of smooth edges a little bit, but thanks for watching. And in the next lesson, we will kind of continue doing the rest of the body. I'm going to spend the time in between these lessons, kind of finishing out the sternum and making it look a little bit nicer. That's just pulling stuff around. And, um, yes, it's coming along really well. Pretty much from here on out. The most complicated thing is probably gonna be the hips and maybe the hands and the feet But, you know, the armed arm, bones. I'm imagining us duplicating most of this stuff. And, um, yeah, we're gonna speed this up. A zoo. We go here. Thanks for watching by. 32. Bones - Right Side Body: welcome to this video where we will model the right side of the body. So I'm going to speed this video up, and it's gonna be mostly just watching me work because I'm not going to talk. Um, not going to show any new tools. I've taught you everything you need to know to be able to model the rest of this skeleton. So I don't want to bore you with me rambling on trying to fill the time. So But I did want to record me doing it just so you can only see it if you're interested in that. If you're not, you think you have a good handle on everything. Skip this video and watch the next one where I will show you how to mirror the right side, the left side. And you can just model this in your own time. But pretty much it's just going to be box modeling. And I'm going to do extrusion. XYZ and I might use thescore opting tools a little bit to make kind of the end of the joints here and bevel Cem uh, edges of the box to round out to make it more bone shaped. That I'm going to use a cylinder here for the hips and kind of Ah, same idea for the hands and the feet. I'm going to generalize the palm here so we don't have to draw her model, you know, 20 bones in the foot in the hand palm. So these are going to be pretty general shapes since this is a cartoon and not atomic Lee. Correct. Anyway, so if you feel you have a good handle on this skip this video if not, I'm going to speed this up. Now, if you're watching in a player currently two times or 1.5 times you went when I was slow it down toe real time because I'm to speed this up for you and ah, Siegen. At least follow along if you're interested. If not, no biggie. And I'll see the next video. Thanks for watching 33. Bones - Mirror: welcome to this final lesson where we will mirror the right side over to the left. We have finished using the reference, and the two things I didn't model were the little ribbon bow tie thing here and the hat. And you know how we have all the tools basically to model those things yourselves, if you'd like to do that. So what I want to talk about before we mere this over is a little bit about rigging. And any time something is rigged, a character that is typically it's put in an A pose or T pose a meaning. The arm is rotated out here to the sides of the hands over here, or t pose. The arm is straight out in this direction, and that's what I'm going to suggest. We go ahead and do before a mere it so that when we mere it, it will be on the other side. So I'm going to select all of this geometry control shift, selecting it and I'm going. Teoh hit command G and it w to pray with manipulator. It's down in 00 so we need all down D, and we can also, there's ah said holding down V. There's actually a central oId snap to rejected center, which is kind of Ah, a newer snap tool in Mile. So I'm gonna hold down D and Middle Mouse drag, and it's going to be in the center of that bone. And that's what it means by the projected center where we dragged that. It's gonna be in the middle of it, so we wanted to rotate from there. We can hit F while our cursors over the outline er, and that will frame up where that group is that we have already selected. We can call that arm are for right. You can see unnamed everything here within our at the end of it, just so we can keep it straight on what is on the left and what is on the right. So, no, we have that group. It's hard to select it right, like the group is just kind of invisible. Let me turn off snap, and when we select the arm, we can't really select the group because it's not visible here. The group is kind of invisible, and we can only find it in the outline when we hit half and we can see that everything's parents it underneath it. There's one way that we could get to it, though. If we select one of the Children of that group, anything in here that we hit upward on the keyboard, it will go up one level, which means that we'll get to the group. If we were to do that again, we would get to the main group. You can see how this changes in the outline or here. So again, if we select something in here, we can see this is kind of gray, meaning it's we're selecting something inside that group. But if we want to get the group that it's a part of, we could just hit up on the arrow and now we have it. So let's rotate this out 90 degrees and let's also rotate it 90 degrees. This way it will make it for a lot easier to rig in later down the course. So that looks pretty good. Now we have to do is mirror everything over, um, but before I do that, actually, I'm going to go ahead and delete the history on these objects that have d former still on them, some to go and it daily by type history. Cool. So that's a lot cleaner. And we can amir everything over. Next thing I'm gonna do is actually group the leg. So when it command G and before do that, actually, the foot is in its own group. I can see that over here. So when I select everything I can see, it's these four things and this group. So I'm going to command click everything here and put all that into a group and have that be leg far. And so that is on the world center. And I'm going to get this right arm. I could I could group it again, which could be the easiest thing to dio, um, and call that arm world and, um, world meaning just that 00 on in the world. So we have this. We have the forearm. Looks like it's an empty group. Let me look at this. We might need to delete some history. Yeah, that was just an empty group. Um, I think it's because we just grouped everything under this arm. So I got rid of the forum group, which, uh, was never named here. We can call this I don't know which one is which. But ah, the two bones in the form are the radius and the ulna I could never keep track of Ah, which one is which, though. So I'm just gonna take a guess There. So then we have the world group. We have the leg and we have the ribs. And the ribs are also in the world space. And I think you can kind of see where I'm going with this and that we can group everything and rotated our scale it in negative one someone group, these two as well. Just call this collarbone are and I'm gonna select all of this, and I can also group it one more time and say right side and I can duplicate this now and call it left side, and I can scale it in the negative and want to be very exact with it. So I'm gonna type it over here. I'm gonna say negative one, and now we have it on both sides. So we have a complete model now of the character. And the only thing that we can go in and change now is it says are on all this left side group. So a quick way that we can rename everything here is going to modify, search and replace names. So now with ah this dialog box open, we can simply just say underscore R and underscore l. So we're gonna search for underscore our or a place with underscore l and let's just do everything and apply. And you can see it changed the left side to have the l here so we can see that even everything in the group everything below it also has l on it now. So that saved us a ton of time. And that's a very useful whenever you're marrying things over to have the right names before you mere it so that you can do that easy kind of search for a place. So that wraps up this section on three D modeling for the Complete Beginners Guide to Maya here. And I just went in this with the last couple of things that probably change or update. With this, I might adjust the hips a little bit there little thin and not wide enough. And a little too, um, kind of basic. There's not a ton of interest here like it hasn't one line all the way through here. So might change that. The feet are a little big. I might change that. Um, other than that, I mean, it's a pretty basic model, and I think it looks pretty good for our purposes moving forward. And I think we're gonna have some fun with it. Basically, also want to give you an idea of what we're gonna do with this model Later is we're going to texture it. We're gonna give it some, uh, ds and day Los Muertos. I'm gonna butcher that the kind of ah coloring here on the face with flowers and those kinds of designs. We're also going to procedurally texture the Ghostbusters trap and we're gonna rig this thing so we can animating a scene later on. So those are all the things we're gonna do now that we have a good understanding of modeling in the next section, we're going to cover U. V s and shading and texture ring and how those things all are kind of interact. And also don't feel like, you know, if you were watching this with the complete Siri's, don't feel like you have to follow this in order. If you want a jumped animation jumped animation and you can look for the correct file name up here for the scene that you want to start in and just go ahead and start animating or doing any of the other sections, it's You don't have to necessarily follow, you know, one after the other. Um, if that's how you how you would like to watch it, But yeah, I look forward to seeing the next sections where we will continue to chip away at our knowledge on Maya. And, you know, uh, just yet Congratulations on finishing this section. All right, Thanks a lot.