Mastering colour with Illustrator | Peter Bone | Skillshare

Mastering colour with Illustrator

Peter Bone, Designer, Author, Teacher

Mastering colour with Illustrator

Peter Bone, Designer, Author, Teacher

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26 Lessons (1h 14m)
    • 1. Introduction to Mastering Colour with Illustrator

      1:52
    • 2. Before you start

      1:47
    • 3. Important colour foundations

      3:28
    • 4. About colour contrast

      3:47
    • 5. Monochromatic colours 1

      2:15
    • 6. Using Global Colours & creating Tint Swatches

      3:17
    • 7. Using Color Guide & Select Same Color

      4:16
    • 8. Exercise 1

      0:42
    • 9. Analagous colours & proportions

      3:28
    • 10. Using Blends & Color Guide

      4:18
    • 11. More about lightness & proportions

      1:45
    • 12. Exercise 2

      0:30
    • 13. Contrast of Saturation & Using HSB Colour

      3:27
    • 14. Editing color groups – Mistakes & tips

      7:24
    • 15. About Hue & colour relationships

      1:44
    • 16. Contrast of warm & cool

      3:49
    • 17. Creating a Tetradic harmony

      4:14
    • 18. More about tetradic harmonies

      3:42
    • 19. Using global adjust & LAB colour to adjust colour temperature

      3:51
    • 20. Using Triaidic Colours

      3:26
    • 21. Working with contrasting hues

      0:33
    • 22. The contrast of complementary colour

      3:06
    • 23. Quickly tweaking colours you've applied

      2:03
    • 24. Recolouring using global temperature

      3:37
    • 25. Final exercise

      0:38
    • 26. Goodbye

      0:31
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About This Class

Do you want to create colour schemes with confidence? To understand why some colour schemes work better than others? Do you want to know everything that Adobe Illustrator can do to help you make better colour schemes? Obscure features like HSB colour, LAB colour, blends and Color Groups will transform your way of working with colour.

Mastering Colour with Adobe Illustrator will not only give you a deeper understanding of colour theory, but show you how to practically implement it with Illustrator.

Meet Your Teacher

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Peter Bone

Designer, Author, Teacher

Teacher

Peter Bone has worked in graphic design for 25 years. During that time he has taught thousands of people to use Quark Xpress, Indesign, Illustrator and Photoshop - at every level from complete beginners through to experts in their field. He has taught designers, marketing people, creative directors, writers, editors, illustrators, fashion designers and photographers for companies as varied as the BBC, the British Museum, Cond? Nast, Paul Smith, Price Waterhouse Coopers and The Designers Guild.

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Transcripts

1. Introduction to Mastering Colour with Illustrator: Whatever creative field you're in, you can't have avoided working with color. Students often ask me how I choose color, what colors they should choose. And of course, there's no right answer to that. It really does come down to having confidence in your choice of color. The question is, how do you get? Now, of course, there's lots of amazing resources available online and in books that will show you great color schemes. But that doesn't actually help you develop your own confidence when it comes to choosing these things, creating your own color scheme. So that's what this course is about, has two anions. Firstly, to give you that confidence when choosing colors that work together. And secondly, to explore adobe Illustrator's amazing features when it comes to color. I'm pizza bone for over 20 years, I've been a freelance designer. And alongside that, I've been teaching initially professionals from lots of companies like these. And more recently, complete beginners who know nothing about design whatsoever. This course is perfect for you if you know a little bit about illustrated, but you want to know what it can do with color. Height can help you with color. And if you know a little bit about color, but you want to know more theory. So are working quite hard. You'll cover an awful lot that by the end of the course, you'll be really, really confident choosing colors at making the most of illustrators features to help you do. So, lots to do. I hope you're excited. Let's get started. 2. Before you start: Welcome to this course on color and Adobe Illustrator. We've just got a couple of things get out of the way before we can get started properly. The first one is a technical thing. If you look at my screen here, I'm using the 20-20 version of Illustrator. That's not particularly important, but what is important is the workspace I'm using. I'm using the essentials classic workspace. It might well be if you've never gone into this era at you are likely to be using essentials. And that's fine, but it doesn't give you quick access to what we'll be using, which is normally swatches and color guidance someone so switch to a central classic. The second thing is cultural. So of course, color means different things in different contexts. So if what I'm saying makes no sense at all in your culture, then please feel free to ignore it. Also, color is personal, so you might not like the choices I make in terms of color. And that's absolutely fine. But don't let that detract from the theory is that I'm trying to teach you. Okay. I'm related to that. Color does evoke feelings. So I'm not gonna talk much about that. In fact, I'm not going to talk about it at all because I'm much more interested in the theories about contrast in color. But if you are interested in learning more about that, I suggest you look into hela, hela, american psychologist, amongst other things, from the mid-twentieth century. He developed his only color theories based on feelings. And you can see on my screen here, this is his Kano model, which may be a little bit outdated and may be culturally not entirely relevant. Nevertheless, very interesting. So have a look at that. And yeah, but those things out of the way, let's get on with the course. 3. Important colour foundations: Start the course, we're going to go through a few color essentials. You may know some of these already. You may know them all. But it helped to just know that we're talking about the same thing in the same way. So believe it or not, color was around before Newton in 1665. But his invention helped to start to kind of categorize cars. So after his experiment with the prison, he developed the first color wheel. And the thing I want to talk about first of all, is, well, he tried to do is to mix these colors together to produce White. And he discovered that he couldn't do that. And we know now that it's because when you mix paint together or ink, if you're working in the world and print, the more ink or the more paint you put together, the darker it gets. So this is because it's what's called a subtractive color model. Next terminology is primary colors. So in the world of paint we have red, green, and blue. So these primary colors can't be mixed from any other color. But if you mix two of them together, you get a secondary color. And if you mix primary and secondary colors together, you get tertiary colors. The American painter Albert Munsell, developed his own color wheel. And this is based on what's called partitive color, which is the color that our eyes look for when they've seen another color. So for example, these are the primaries, the ones with the black stroke around them. And the color opposite is the color that we look to create. So if you've been staring at an intensely bright yellow and then you look away, the chances are you might see this kind of violet color so that it works for some people better than others. But that's the theory, is the color that our eyes naturally seek. So these ones are opposite each other. So this is an interesting thing that we will definitely come back to before too long. So a bit more terminology. Here. Top right, we have a pure whew. And if you add white to that Hugh, you get a tent. So the more white you add, the lighter it gets, and you end up with white. If you add block, you get shade. So the more black you add OCC, the darker it gets. So we'll call this saturation. So the more saturated it is this way and the valley or the lightness goes this way. So you can see the relative lightness in terms of white and black. We know those. But you also have relative lightness and darkness in terms of colors. So going from light to dark at the top, going from desaturated to saturated, left to right. The person we're gonna be talking about more than any other is Jana's, Ethan's, I believe AS pronounced right. Notice his color star. So what we've got here, white in the middle, block on the edge. And then we've got this central ring. These are the pure hues. Again, they worked with compliments going across. And then we've got shades here going to black, and we've got tense here, going to white. 4. About colour contrast: As I've said, club mainly going to be using, it runs theories as we go through the course. Let me say a bit more about that. As you will know if you've looked into color at all or if you've looked into illustrates it in particular, then there's a color wheel built into Illustrator as there is in other programs. But in Australia, is particularly good because it talks about the very specific color harmonies. So these are different ways you can achieve harmony with colors. And this is what it was all about. So let's go through a few of these. So complementary colors. You can see that the two colors are opposite each other. On the color wheel. Triadic colors. Three colours equally spaced on the color wheel. Split complementary colors that go across. But there's a slight variants to triadic colors, to pairs of complementaries. Analogous colors very, very close together. And finally, monochromatic color. Say finally, these are the ones that we were looking at. So if your experiences, anything like mine, you'll have seen these, you might have played with them and these will get you a certain distance. But very often you might look at something that I really like that you try and relate it to one of the color theories being offered and it doesn't quite work. That's certainly been my experience for a long time. So the last little while I've been spending more and more time on this and really digging deep into different theories. And to cut a long story short, it means is the person that's made the most sense to me. And certainly the person I'm able to kind of relate to you hopefully in a way that will work for you. So let's keep going and look at how we're gonna work with this. So Athens was trying to help you create contrast as well as harmony. And if we look at this, we look starting from the top, we've got the greatest contrast of color harmonies at the top and the least contrast at the bottom. So starting with complimentary and then triadic, and going all the way down to monochromatic. So I'm not saying one is better than another, but in terms of contrast, we have more of the top, whether that's at the bottom. So the question is how you can create contrast, that's good. And that's what I hope to show you in this course. And let me show you how we're going to do it. So in a series of videos, each one will go through a particular harmony rule. For example, monitoring monochromatic or complimentary colors. And we'll also look at one of Edison's is seven rules of contrast. So he wrote about a book that featured seven rules or contrast, for example, the contrast between light and dark, the contrast between complementaries and someone. So we'll take 11 harmony rule, one of it and suddenly the contrast will look at some examples. We'll look at tips for how to use them when composing illustrations in particular. And then finally, we'll look at illustrated tricks and tips related to that. So as we go through the course, you're gonna get more and more theory, get more experience using them. You can get some kind of structure to hang these different rules on. Your eyes are gonna get open to new ways of working and you're going to benefit by learning more and more illustrator skill. So there's a lot we're going to cover, but hopefully in a way that makes sense. But if you start getting lost, come back to here. So each little section, one homely rule, one rule of contrast, then examples and tricks and tips to go with it. So first one I was, we're going to look at is the simplest one, which is monochromatic. 5. Monochromatic colours 1: That kind of color harmony that we're starting with is the one that offers the least contrast. That is monochromatic colors. So as you can see a little description of the color wheel. No variation in here at all, just in terms of lightness, darkness. So let's look at an example. So here we got the very dark cloud and then the one that's much, much lighter against a light background. So what we're talking about here in terms of yeah, Hannah's kittens, different contrast or seven of them. The first one is the difference between light and dark. And there's a few examples here. So the one on the left here, you can see that the maximum contrast, there's not no color there at all, you could argue is just simply black and white or there's a tiny hint of cream. But if you imagine that's why that's kinda total contrast. And then some other ones you can see again, there's lots of contrast here between blue and the white background. But these two are a little bit more at the kind of thing we're looking for. You can see we've got a very dark green and a much lighter green, and you've got the white as well. So, but that is offering some really good contrast, even though the color itself isn't changing. When I say color, I mean the hue. And this is similar. So bear theory to go on here. If you look at this image on the left, what you're gonna notice first is the white square because it is the most contrasty against the black. So here we're just talking about values. So values between white and black. And of course, the greatest contract between devalues. Credit gives you the most contrast. So white against black. And here the example on the right, you can see against the black background or dark background than the white. Offers you the most contrast, pretty obvious stuff, but just kinda worth noting that we haven't thought of that before. And conversely, against a white background or a light background than the dark is what you're going to notice first. So again, back to this we saw earlier, you will noticed the blue, the dark blue, much more obviously than this one. In the next video, we're going to look at a couple of tricks you can use an illustrator for working with monochromatic colors, things to do with swatches, global colors, blends, and some other things besides. So let's get on to the next video. 6. Using Global Colours & creating Tint Swatches: In this document, I've got a square of this green color here, just a standard green picked from the default swatches panel. Using my selection tool, I'm going to hold down the Alt key or Option key, dragged to the right-hand side. Smart guys are on to keep these lineup. That's not particularly important when I let go because the Alt key or made a copy so that both the same. Now, these are both using that color. What I wanna do is get some tenths of that color. And if you've tried getting tense before, it can be a little challenging. So here's a good tip. Firstly, double-click on the swatch and it allows you to turn into a global color. So the difference is, when you're, you've got a color, isn't glocal. When you look at these, the colour panel here, it just shows you the breakdown in terms of CMYK or RGB hover it was you define that color. Whereas if I make it into a global color and press OK. Notice firstly the corner flush, the white point. A flush tells us it's global. And what that means is, or one of the benefits of that is that it now gives me t for tint as opposed to the breakdown. Which means I can say this one I want a 100%. This one I want, I need to reapply that color as did other. There we go. So that gives me, when I've, I'm gonna say 10%. Now, what you could do is make lots of copies of those, ten, 20-30, whatever, all add them into here, and that would be fine, that would work. But this way I'm about to show you is a better, I'm going to de-select that. Double-click on my blend to zoom in on that. Taken that blend till double-click. It brings up the blend options. If you've not used this before, this is a great creative featuring illustrator. Smooth color is the default option, but I've changed mine to specified steps and nine, that will give me nine extra steps between here and here. So I'll press OK. That just sets the tool up. And then I click once on this object, once on this object. And that ego, I have now got a whole range of ten's going from ten to a 100%. Great. You might think, well, they're there and you could sample from them. You could use the eyedropper. And that's what I do sometimes. But if I actually want them in here, well firstly, I'll gotta turn these into real objects because really the only two real objects currently are the one to the end. So to do that, I'll go object, expand. Because okay, there now all together, then I ungroup them. So object Ungroup. And then with my selection tool, I'm going to go to the dropdown menu in swatches and say new color group. So what it's gonna do is create a new group, colored group. You may know about these already, we'll be talking about in, in more detail later. A cult group from the selected artwork. Now does it want to convert the swatch to global whereas global already, so that makes no difference, but notice it does give you the option. And does it want to include swatches for tens? Yes, we do. So press okay. So there we go. There's a whole range of tense going from ten to a 100%. Really straightforward. 7. Using Color Guide & Select Same Color: As useful as global colors and tint and Swatches. Sometimes you want to apply things in a bit more of a random fashion. So in this exercise, we're gonna look at the color guy panel and we're going to change the colors of this pattern. I say patent, it looks like a patent. Actually, this is just regular artwork that's been arranged carefully. The only thing you need to be aware of what's going on here is that I've got a couple of different layers going on. This top one just hide the stuff around the edge. So we went to touch that one. Fact, I'll lock it. And then we've got background layer, which has got a white rectangle that gives these white areas than the rest of the artwork is on here. And we're going to be working on here. And then occasionally I might unlock the Background layer. Ok, so let's look at the, whenever the swatches panel, let's look at the colored guide panelists one here. And this would help if I selected a color. So let's suppose I want to change and are applied to the monochrome air so, well about shades of brown. Brown. Let's go kind of dark purple. So when you click on a color and you look at color guide, it should set that as the base color. And if, if you haven't done that, just click there. And now notice it's showing me different shades of that color. And that's because I'm on the monochrome harmony rule. That's what I've been using. Later. We'll look at this for, for other ones but clique or one monochromatic. It basically just gives us the standard tints and shades of the same one. That's fine. But if you want some more options, there's a great trick here, which is you go up to the options and new site colored guide options, and you can choose more or less steps. So I'm gonna go for, let's say, eight steps. And then you can have more or less variation. You will get less or more. And notice how it affects our peak loads or control of what you're gonna get. And then press OK. And now hasn't turned this into swatches, but I can kind of play with those. So just remember what we talked about earlier about the things you're going to notice in a monochrome artwork or B, what's the most contrast with the background? So the moment the background is white. So we're going to notice this darker area. So if we want to kind of replicate this somehow, we want to select that and make that pretty dark. So I'm going to select the group selection tool, which is, hadn't used that as great for selecting inside a group. So I'm going to click on there. You can't see that selected because I've got what I use an awful lot command H. What control h on a PC that's show edges or hide edges. So if I turn that back off, you can see this is harmed selecting one of those. And then great trick if you haven't discovered it, select same fill and stroke. So this will select everything in the document which has got the same finance stroke. So you can see all of those. And now this is where it's slightly dangerous shortcut to use aren't gonna do Command H can now be controlling or on a PC that hides the selection. So all that stuff is still selected is just I won't see it. Which is helpful in terms of seeing what might all work these guys look like. So let's try a fairly dark purple there. Yeah, that I think. Now what about here? So I'm going to click on this object. I'm not, I'm going to look over here and see that I have selected it. So I'm gonna go Select Same fill and stroke just to check that as working command H, yep, and back again. Okay, so I want that to be kind of less contrast with the background. So again, we're sticking in monochrome so I could go with a light, a tint. That light is still where I could go down this way, goes slightly darker. Sound that great without having to create loads or swatches, you can kind of play with it. And just notice how your eye is drawn more or less to these objects as I'm adjusting. So I think I went that as they get gorilla get less and less obvious. 8. Exercise 1: If you'd like to work with this on your own, please do use the same artwork and create a monochromatic color scheme. So make use of the monochromatic color Guide and the group selection tool. Hide and show edges. Keep an eye on which layer you're on and which is locked. And remember, Select Same, fill and stroke. What I'd like you to do if you're up for it, is to create two or at least two different versions. So one with a darker background, so you're contrasting against that. And one with a lighter background and your contrasting against that. Best of luck. 9. Analagous colours & proportions: Following monochromatic colors, the least contrastive, all that kind of schemes, we have analogous colors, which again are not very contrasty. And that's kinda the point really, as you can see from the color wheel here. These are very close to each other. They go together very harmoniously. That's, that's the theory. And so if you look for harmonious color scheme without too much contrast, biologists is probably what you're going to want to do. Here's a couple of examples. And you can see here that they, colors do blend very nicely. But the contrast you can see here are to do with the light and dark values. So you can see here very light, very dark, again, very dark here, and so on. So we already talked about lighten dark values. So last time we were looking at more in terms of black and white, but of course that applies to color as well. More coming up on that in a second. So bear the light and dark thing. As we continue to look at the next subject, which I'll introduce after I've shown you something. So don't, don't look at the text at the bottom, just look at the blocks of color's. Compare this with this, with that kindness come back. So the idea here is that just a little bit too much orange there. Whereas this feels a bit more harmonious. This is all to do with proportions. Now, there's some writing there which you can feel free to go back and look, look out once I've shown you the next bit which is S. This is based on girders writings. So Gerta was writing until two years before it happens. And one of the things that Gerta was girders, It's amazing polymath interested in all kinds of things. Writing and color and painting and all kinds of music. And one of the things he wanted to work out with the relative lightness of colors. So you had a scale between 010, black being 0, white being ten, and the yellow being nine. So yellow is the lightest of all the hues and then going down not, I'm not sure these days whether you'd agree that works completely accurately, but just taking that with a pinch of salt for a second. We need to be using yellow in smaller proportion than say, violent because we're going to just notice it more so generally in design work, if you think about what will catch the eye, and I, for cultural reasons, red will often catch the eye, but nevertheless, the brighter colors are more likely to catch the eye. So the theory goes and it is just theory. So take with a Pinterest board. But in theory we should use these colors in the inverse proportion. So for example, orange has got a value of eight, whereas Blue's got a value of four. So in theory, you should use twice as much orange as blue. So does that mean I'm saying always you that of course not. But if you bear that in mind and hopefully through these next few exercises, as he kinda bear that in mind, that will hopefully help you make sense in terms of the relative proportions of different hues. Ok, so the contrast we're looking at now from it and is large versus small. That's why we're looking at the relative proportions. So that's something that he has a lot to say about. And we're going to look at it in terms of illustrator and see where that gets us. 10. Using Blends & Color Guide: We're looking here at the start of a pattern. There's a clever thing going on here so that whatever I've done here replicates here. And we're going to apply some analogous colors. So some of the techniques, you know, some you won't know. So these are all grouped, but again, using the group selection tool. So once I de-select first, I can select one of these shapes, for example, like that. And then if I want to select other colors, is basically different shade used. As you know, we can go Select Same fill and stroke. Now, I did that quite enough last time. And I was thinking really that needs have a keyboard shortcuts. So I've given it one notice command called, sorry, Command Shift Alt F on a Mac, on a piece of it will be slightly different. The way you do that is edit, keyboard shortcuts. And then you look at not the tools, but the menu commands. And you find it down there somewhere. And you can type in a shortcut. It is limited what you can do, I suspect on a PC it will be slightly more limited than iMac, but give that a try if you think that's worth doing. So, I'll be using that shortcut from now. So if I do that now, you can see there's some other examples of that color there. So if I pick a color to use, let's say, or light green for example. And then I can use my color guide, making sure this is set to Analogous Colors. And then I've got some different woods I can use. I further soup this up. So I've changed the options here to add even more ones that got plenty to choose from there. So then it really is just a case of, okay, let's take a sort of mid tone color here. Same shortcut, three keys and F In my case. And then go for something. I want to say midtone. I'm referring back to here. So that's lighter. So I'm looking for something a little bit darker. If I can. So darker green maybe or a blue depending on what colors are showing there, was to know you're out there sometimes is that once you've selected color, sometimes the option changes there. So now we have a slightly darker one here. Notice that little arrow in the middle tells me these are the main ones here, and so on. So I won't go through all of that, but obviously, you're aware of how that works. So I've got one that I've finished here. I've got a much darker background. And again, I'm showing you this because again, this is all in proportion. So this is the part of the largest area in the patent. So following the theory, looking at, it probably wants to be darker. So what I've done here is I've used my color guide, so I sampled these colors here. Same ones are still there as is the original. And what's lovely about the color guide, as we know, particularly if you end up with more tense and shapes to choose from, I can now just choose any of these. Yeah, I want to kind of accent, let's say the really light blue. So I could go for shade. And I'm going to try that. Selects the whole group and looks like looks better. Okay, so with the light greet that sort of really cyan one, if I was at a really dark shade of that. There we go, you can see that it's a bit cooler. If I wanted to try the green one. Like that. This is a really, really subtle differences. But all these colors in theory go but they've just got slightly different emphasis. So more charcoal, more green or p green, whatever the line. Okay, so that builds on what content already. So we're talking about proportions and we're talking about Analogous Colors. And then two more quick example before we move on to the next theories. 11. More about lightness & proportions: I'd like you to compare these two almost the same designs. This one and this one. If I go back this one and this one, I didn't know what she prefer, but you can probably tell what I'm proud to say. I would say this one looks so much better. And I would say it looks better because there's more contrast. R-i's are particularly drawn to these yellow diamonds. And we're drawn to them of course, because we've got the very bright over the very dark. But what we've also caught is a much more correct proportion if we believe Curtis theories. So that's why I would suggest that looks better. Whereas if we compare with this one, we've got loads of Yana yesterday at Lowes or contrast. But for me my eyes are a little bit overwhelmed one I see that. So I would say there's way too much bright there in that image. Whereas this, that bright yellow. Obviously it's still learn it draw our eyes. But I think it works in a much more harmonious way. And again, that just refers back to this. So again, it's just a theory, like all their stuff. Take it with a pinch of salt. The more you got an eye. Pardon the pun on the relative brightness of colors. And yeah, and how much you should use those in proportion to others. So that's that. And next, we're moving on to triadic colors. And another contrast. 12. Exercise 2: Once again, if you'd like to work on the piece of artwork I was working on. Here it is. Again, you'll need your group selection tool to get inside the groups. And the Haida Jesus switched on. So you need to turn that off if you wanna be able to see what you're doing. And I'd suggest you try and create one or two analogous color schemes. And like ours, Trinity bear in mind the relative size of the objects in terms of how light and dark you're gonna make them. So, have some fun with that one. 13. Contrast of Saturation & Using HSB Colour: So here we have another pattern. As you can see, it's made of analogous colors. And use this orange color. I used the color guide referring to analogous. And then there are the colors I'm using that somebody had done so far. Notice these don't stick around. They, they, they can do, but if you click on all the colors, it can change the so-called base color and then these disappear. So for what needs to stay around here somewhere, what I do is I just get these two mixed up. Not sure. One, click on this little button here, and it saves that into swatches. So watch the eye. So there, there permanently now, which is, which is really handy. Okay, so on another layer, if I select the square there, which is white, if I use one of these colors, let's say, I didn't know the mid orange one. Term doesn't look great. But I'm gonna change it by adjusting the saturation. And you might wonder how I'm gonna do that, because when I look at colour here, it shows me into their red, green, blue, and that's absolutely fine as is CMYK. That's fine too. But look at this one, h b. You may have come across this before. It's a bit of an obscure thing, used to be in Photoshop as a color mode years and years and years ago. Hsb stands for HU, H for here that color itself. S for saturation, the intensity of the color. And B for the relative brightness. Darkness or lightness DID we've talked about already. So I'm not going to touch the here, that's for later lessons. But if I simply drag the saturation now, notice that I've got the same hue, but a much less intense version. And you can see straight away that looks so much better than it looked when it was white. So if I take the saturation all the way down to 0, effectively goes white. So you can kind of control what you want there. So just notice how that affects the other colors around it. So it gives us contrast. So this is really good contrast. It's not especially strong contrast, but it's something we haven't looked at yet. And it's another one on sit-ins ruled. So that is the contrast saturation. Also, just to tie this up with what we already know. If I maybe just tried different colour now, maybe stronger one. Again. Got back to tell you, I got mixed up the HSB this time. If I reduce the brightness, there's another one I like contrasts. Notice how much stronger, again, these colors look. So lovely contrast now turn to the lightness and darkness and look how it makes the colors pop. So another bit of theory for you is that colors look much more intense on top of Allah cutters as opposed to on white as we've just seen. So if I just kind of flick back and forwards, just notice the difference. They look like different colors, but they are exactly the same color. It's just, you're seeing them on a different background. If you're finding that interesting, the person I suggest you read is Joseph Albers, t's, dedicated his life to the interactions of cholera and the book is called The interacting with color. By albums were worth a watery. 14. Editing color groups – Mistakes & tips: In the last video, we introduced color groups. And one of the main reasons to use color groups is that you can edit them. So let's take a quick look at that and then step back. So once you've created a color groups, I have done here. If you double-click on a folder, open this up, and notice you get all the different colors here on the color wheel. So that's great. But what's even more interesting is that if you click one of these, you can drag around and notice all the colors change together. So the relationship between the color stays the same, but the huge changes. So this means you can recolor artwork. So that's great. Having said that, if your experiences only like mine, you are likely to fall into the trap that I'm about to fall into now. So hang in there. We'll fall into a trap, then get back out of it. And soon enough, new will be editing these things. Like they're the easiest thing in the world. Can that might be a slight exaggeration, but anyway, let's get there. So I'm gonna cancel this. So what I'd like to do here is put a background color on here. So this is, this is an object. Let's cut in white at the moment. Um, and I'm not using any colors here in this colour group. So what is likely to have happened to you in the past is as you go, oh yeah, I want to, I want to change this, so you select this and go, let's see what happens when I double-click on the colour group to edit it. So when I double-click, you'll notice the colors have changed. And what happens is it's taken the colors I'm using here, and then the colors in the color group here. And there is a mismatch because this color is white, wasn't in the color group. So it takes an awful lot of messing around to sort that out. So after many years of thinking, I don't know how that works and giving up for reasons I won't go into. I really had to sort of figure this out recently. So when I've done it and this is what I learned. So what you do if you cancel that? This is happening because there's a mismatch. So what we need to do, ideally is either apply one of these existing colors to that background, which isn't really going to work. Or we edit this first and add another color in which we then use. So I'm gonna do that quickly. So I'm gonna double-click weed, nothing selected. I'm going to add a color in another way I'm gonna do that is by choosing this little button here, the add color tool. And now we know about saturation. So on this color wheel We've got the here going around, but it gets less and less saturated as we go down into the middle. So I want a fairly desaturated color. So I can have one that's green, yellow, or purple, or blue via which I can use those words. And I think I want something round here somewhere. I'm gonna click ones. There's my color. It might work, it might not. We'll find out. So I press OK. And it asks me to save this color group yes ID. So now I've got that extra color. You still with me. And then with my group selection tool for this is grouped. Click on that, apply that color I've just used. Okay, it doesn't look great. But now fingers crossed when we select the whole thing. So would the black selection tool to select the whole group. If I was to double-click on there now, okay, we've run into another problem. When you double-click to edit, what it likes to do is randomly assign the colors. Now, if that's what's happened away to fix that is S. So the number of colors matches up. But in terms of how they are applied. To click on this little one. Here, you can say, rather than custom, you can say any of these. And whichever one you choose, it should line them up in order. So in other words, that's kinda got me out of that particular rabbit hole. So the little dropdown menu there, assault that OK, phew, right? So now I want to change this kind of pee green color that I just made. So if I was to go to edit and drag it, what will happen is they'll all move because they're all locked together. So that's what this little icon does. If I unlink them, then I could drag them around and that will be fine. But far more useful than this color wheel sometimes is this little done what you call actually, but it shows them in terms of swatches rather than on a colour wheel. So actually I clicked on the wrong one. That's the one I want to change. So I'm zoomed in, but hopefully you can see this background color will change. So Now, okay, so do we talked about saturation, we talked about the relative brightness. And also the here. I'm going to leave the here alone. But so I could say, OK, let's have less Saturation. And look at that. We can say it directly in the artwork. If you'd go actually, I've had a really intense color. If that went a lot brighter. So hopefully you're getting that we can really mess around with this. And it's a lovely creative thing today. So we can try to prove that. I can move that down a bit more. Now I'm thinking, I think that's probably okay, but now I wanna go back to my color. We'll just try saying, well, that's locked them back together again. And let's just move these around a little bit slightly different here. Or make them all a bit less saturated. For a bit more saturated. So sometimes you'll be working on them together as a group. Sometimes you're working individually. Sometimes you'll be working on a colour wheel, sometimes you'll be working here. So this can work really, really well if you zoom in and you just kind of mess around with the anyone as they're all linked together. Now we can just go in and just try looking at it, slightly changing the queue. So we just got a bit more contrast between these colors. For example, what about 1000? A little bit less saturated. So we're seeing it there, but we're also seeing on the artwork. You don't have to select artwork for this to work. And as you might have seen, if recolor art isn't checked and it won't, it won't update the artwork. So I'm going to just recap. When you're using color groups. Yes, you can double-click to edit them that make sure the number of colors you've got in your group are matched by the what is selected. And then once you're in there, if you double-click news that it'll drop down menu to line up the colors with the existing ones. After that, you using this button here to turn on and off whether they're linked together. And you're using this button to work on the color wheel. This button to work in terms of swatches, plenty to play with there. And there's still more to learn in future videos. So I suggest you have a really good play without and let that really sinking before you look at the next video. 15. About Hue & colour relationships: We're going to just take a quick pause here before we go through the other color harmonies and different aspects of contrast, just to talk about hue for a minute or two. So here I've got rectangle, which I've just sample the plane red color from here. And looking at it in color guide, you can see that I've chosen straight complementary. Now we're gonna see what that looks like on the color wheel by clicking this little button here and then going to Edit. And we can see that complementary colors directly opposite the color wheel. The idea is that no element of one color contains the other. So not complimentary with an eye, as in they go together, complementary as they complete opposites. And the matter where we go around the color wheel, they will remain completely opposite each other. So that's complimentary colors. Split complementary colors, as you can see around going directly across the go slightly either side. And generally these are easier to work with as we will see. And then we have triadic colors equally spaced. They also give really strong contrast. We're also going to look at triadic colors, that's two pairs of complements. So as we go through, I'll refer to these other terms and it's just helpful that, you know, we're talking about. So we're very much now getting into the interrelationships between different queues on the color wheel and seeing them on the color wheel being out of work, that y is going to really help your use of color with illustrator. 16. Contrast of warm & cool: The next piece of Newton's theory to look at is the contrast between warm colors and cool colors. So the red and the sort of very, very desaturated yellow be warm. And then the green, the blue, and the blue would be cool. So just to look at a bit of theory on this, as you can read, since the 18th century, colors have been described as either one or the other. And so warm colors evoke sunlight, heat won't click cetera and cool the opposite. So it's a good idea when you're starting out on a composition that kinda think about it. Is it going to be more on the warm side or more or the call site. But inevitably if he is and complimentary colors or to try to colors or even tried it colors, then they're all going to be, you're going to cross over the line to our yoga, have a mixture of warm and cold, even if you weren't intending to do that. But now maybe a more aware of it. Bear that in mind. And we're going to move on in a second and look at a couple of tricks. Nelis tries to help you go from one to the other. Before we do that, a bit more theory about how you can warm or cool colors. So this will make more sense in a minute, but I'm going to just make a copy. Bright yellow swatch, and then another copy. And I'm going to select both of those and go object blend maker. And when you do this, you, you probably get this result. If you don't go object, blend, blend options, and choose specified steps and one. Now you might wonder why did that so it didn't make any difference, but it will make the next bet work better. So if you haven't used blends for blends used to be before Color Guide and all these other clever feature we've been looking at blends with the ways used to mix colors. So these are now part of a group. So with my normal black selection tool, if I click on one of them, I get the whole thing, which is why I need to deselect news, that group selection tool. And then if I select either one of these and change the color, then it will affect the blend. So for example, if I was to go to swatches and pick a slightly different color, say orange, you can see it blended the two together. So theory is as you can go back and read this at your leisure. But so if I, I'm going to kick this selected, go to my eyedropper and sample White. So when you blend with the blend with whites and git add white, then inevitably you are slightly cooling. Whereas when you blend with black, it's slightly warms it. When you blend or add a complimentary color. It reverses the temperature, so becomes warmer or cooler. If he had a warmer, analogous color, inevitably, the heat gets warmer and cooler and I'll just color. Inevitably, it gets cooler. So blends are great if you haven't played with him before this really interesting way of experimenting with colors. But I just want you to be aware why some of the things, as we do them in Illustrator, what is going on as we change the temperature, then this is what's happening as we affect. We make it lighter or darker at analogist colors or whatever. So that's the theory behind what we're gonna be spending more time on now administrator. 17. Creating a Tetradic harmony: What we're looking at here are two examples of triadic color schemes. They both happen to be using almost the same color scheme. So as previously described, these are two pairs of complimentary colors. So the bluish in the red and the British, and the kind of beige color. So I've sampled the colors from this one here. But I want to show you a way of doing it which is getting a bit more creative. So if I was to start and I'm going to just copy this one over here, which as you can see as one of the colors I would have sampled, let's say sample just using the eyedropper with the eye dropper. If you're sampling some, some artwork, often you have to use Shift and click. So let me just do that fully. So Shift and click. Ok. So if I wanted to kind of creatively create these colors, what I would do is go straight to here and creates a new column group. I could name it, but I would. And there it is. And now I'm going to double-click to edit it. And okay, so first of all, you might think, well, I want complementary colors. So I could go over here for complimentary. And I can go to edit it. And we can see pretty clearly what we've got there. That's okay. But then as you can see, we need kind of different shades of this. So what I would do is add some colors. So we can go. Now here, you might see like zoom in a little bit. This shows saturation and hue. This shows brightness and hue. So if you want less saturated, that you might go, Well, let's go. And a bit like this. If you want less bright than you could go. And little bit, unless you use the same tool. That looks C, I could do several other versions to another zoom back out. Sediment did the same thing here. Now, I'm just feeling it, but you see the idea that I'm kind of creatively work on these colors. So this gives me my first complimentary pair. And then to get the other two, essentially it's going to be going here and here. But it's going to be in one, in one case, a very, very dark blue. Go for it, kinda dark blue here. And then I want to really, really desaturated yellow. So back to here and something like this. So what I hope you're starting to see is how it can mix up all the things we've been talking about. The lightness Valley saturation. So again, the contrast or those things. And we're also using a particular color theory. So in this case, two pairs of complementary colors, which obviously are going to create good contrast, but also the lightness, also the saturation. And of course we can play around with these so individually, so long as this is locked or unlocked rubber, I can move this around and so on. Unfortunately, in this field you can only sit quite so well. So what I would then do, as you know, already come into here and then click on a particular one. So I'm looking at this one thinking, I'm not really sure about that. So maybe I might try and make it a little bit more saturated, for example, or changing the hue maybe a tiny bit. And you get the idea of what we might end up with. Alright, so that's one way of creating a tech triadic color system. I just say the other way is simply select the first one. Come up to Color Guide. And she's one of the tetrarchic ones not wear a pair. Tetrad. So that gives you a good start. Trouble is only takes you so far. So you would need to then come in and tweak it. 18. More about tetradic harmonies: As a creative person like me, you might well keep hold of things that you like. The look of whether there are things that are printed or things online, glide Pinterest or whatever. So these are a couple of examples of things I've stored away because I liked the colors, but I didn't necessarily understand why I like them. So I pick these two for two reasons. One because they are in that category. But secondly, because then I know a bit more about color, I can tell you that these two is the same red color pretty much. And they using the same color harmony as well, even though they look quite different. So let's get further into that to understand more about the relationships between the colors. So I've sampled this red color from here. And if we were to go as a color guide, you can see I've got it set up as TETRAD. So we're talking about tetrads and we're back here again. And you can see that the yellow color is directly coming from the green kind of is, but it's not quite there. So the way I would create this in terms of a color guide, I would color group rather, rather than creating one and an addressing it. I'm gonna just go straight here. This weren't actually crater color group. But unless I press okay at the end which I won't do it. But if I editor, you can see that the yellow is pretty close. You want to see that in more detail. We can go there. But of course the green isn't. So you'll know enough now to know that well, okay, we can see that we've got a really nice contrast. It says complimentary with red, so it couldn't be more contrasty. So then what can we do? Of course, we could make it darker, we can make it less saturated. We could move around a little bit. So that's exactly what I'm gonna do. I'm gonna unlock these, select this one. And then I'm going to do is our community's HSB sliders. Normally that would be RGB just because we know Analysis to change their brightness so I could do that. That'll be one option. I think actually what I'm going to do is to using this view, try reducing the brightness a little bit. You can see it pretty close to that. And then just tweak the here little bit, make it a little bit cooler, and there we go. So what we're seeing is we can start to hopefully recognize things as to try they call triadic has all G2 or complimentary. So there's a lovely mixture there. Go back to this view. You can see that it varies slightly from that, but the pattern will guide us to the right relationship, okay, or cancel them. And then sticking with the same color here. Now, this might be less obvious. There's actually quite close to the previous ones we looked at. So if again, I stick with the same relationship for this time as you can probably tell, and this is what I hope you're going oh yeah, I know what he's gonna do. Which is great because you're starting to see and be able to use it. So of course, we're going to make the blue much darker. So remember that this little button here, and we can drag that, just unlock it first. Drag that down here. And that gets us the dark blue. And then in terms of the yellow tone, what you going to do in your head, yes or no are you gonna do? You're gonna reduce the saturation. So again, we can drag that down here and we end up with something that again, it's got the same relationships in terms of where the hills are. But by adjusting the value, by adjusting saturation which we spent ages and it'll begin to recruit. You kinda know why we're doing it. So for the same color, we get two very, very different results. Even though we are using the same relationships between the hues. 19. Using global adjust & LAB colour to adjust colour temperature: This work, as you can see, is monochromatic, lots of blue. So basically it's all cool. So if I wanted to make this a bit warmer, selected it, and I'm using the color guide. By default, it's showing tints, shades. But in this little drop-down menu, if I choose warm and cool. And also while I'm there, colored guide options. And let's have a few more steps. And notice how many options to go here in terms of making it warmer. So for example, I could try that. We'll try this. I think you get the idea. So this is one nice, easy way, whether I need to create color guide, whether it needs to create anymore swatches. You can just play around with that. And you'll inevitably code from warm to cool or cool door. If that's what you want. Another approach you can use, which I think you'll find it a little bit more interesting, is again, to use a color group. So I've selected this brown color and I want to make this a bit cooler. You can see with ice creams, you might want it to look a bit cooler. And I'm going to of course, make a new color group as we did in the last little demonstration. Again, that's only got one colour in it. I'm going to double-click on the little folder editor. And I wanna show you down here. This little drop-down menu. You've got global adjust. Inevitably there's only one color selected, but watch what happens when I reduce the temperature. So literally as we reduce the temperature, it gets cool and the color gets cooler. So they go green. You get down to kind of equalize and eventually down to blue. So really, really nice way of doing that, that's using the temperature slider. So I'm tempted to stop there because that looks great. But another option if I bring that back. So 0 will more or less there is, this other option. Doesn't want to stop just talking 0. Lab. Now, you may have come across LAB color in Photoshop is one of the column I, which in fact is the column either the Photoshop has all its calculations under the surface, whether you're anology Bayes CMYK, really it does in a lab. Labs got a massive wide color gamut. And, and the way it handles all the columns, L for lightness. And you've got a, which you might see is a mixture. It's kinda scale from green to red, that's the a, and the b is a skull from blue to yellow. So as we go towards this side on a and b, the colors get warmer when you just go a little bit more control. So if I drag that to the right, because he would get a bit Rhoda. This way. You say it, goodness, that's getting ready, won't actually wanna go cold in my, so that's, let's try that. So you've got these two different options. So we might play with this later in another video. But notice how much control I've got there in terms of the bringing the colon. So by going to the left gets cooler, like going to the right, it gets warmer. I might so that the row where I am today, but I think you can see that. And then also we've got the l for the relative lightness and darkness. Ok, so loops in this couple of videos three different ways. Well, we can make things warmer or cooler using the temperature slider under here and using lab under here. And we'll set previously using Color Guide. 20. Using Triaidic Colours: The penultimate contrast, contrast we're gonna look at is the contrast of at least three differentiated heaters. So at least three colors. So I thought that would be a good time to look at the triadic color system. So as I've tried to explain before, triadic is almost the most contrast you, there isn't tons of colors complimentary, which we're building up to is the most. But this is very contrasty and it's really hard to work with. So I suggest this is a good example, or quite rare example of how to use it kind of in its fullness. So here you can see Cetacea I design a while ago. And I took the colors actually from the London Underground cheap system, as you probably know if you're aware of that. So I can't claim to have been using this theory. But if we look at it, currently, selected select Color Guide, we tried to, and you can see where we're pretty close. So with a bit of editing in terms of the, particularly the Hue there. So if I just do that and just tweak that a little bit. So notice if we go further to the right becomes redder. And then you would start back at the beginning if you're using that slider and again, the balloon pretty close so you know how to do that. So that's quite rare example because these colors really are very contrasty. And I mean, if you were to go into it, a children's toy shop, you'll see this all over the place because kids in particular really appreciate that amazing bright contrast. As adults, we don't appreciate that quite so much. So you want to buy that shirt. You can't actually asked it's sold in total about five copies and its lifetime. Feel free to look at societies six.com. There's a shameless plug for me. I don't like terrible, right? Let's look at a more realistic example of tetrarchic colors done well, this is by an illustrator. I really, really like cooled Leonov, a letter. You may know already. Have a look at her and her work. She's, she's very good at using colors. And this is typical of a work. But I think this is a really good piece of work because of the way the colors are used. So again, if you're like me and you've looked into these things and thought into how these things work. And you're starting to see some patterns. I hope this doesn't appear to have any levels, but if we look more carefully here, sample this color previously so it will become n. You can see the green and the purple are triadic. And if we go in and edit, watch like we've seen before. If we were to lower the brightness value of the green, for example, throwing some other ones around it. And the same with the purple, then we're going to end up with, yes, it's very bright contrast in terms of the huge, but also very contrasty in terms of the lightness contrast you can turn in saturation. So where ticking lots of boxes in terms of these different buttons, contrasts. Which is one of the reasons why I think this is such a good piece of work. So you start to see how they come together. So even a tricky one like triadic to work with by using the other contrasts as well. That could work really, really well. 21. Working with contrasting hues: While you are working with very contrasting colors, they can be really, really hard to look at. There's no doubt you're experiencing now as you look at these different swatches. But notice here a little bit easier to look at because there's a consistent color in-between. So when you have a neutral or more or less neutral, shy, you don't tend. It can be much easier. And it's even more the case with the last one here, with the black hair. So by breaking out the space between the brighten the contrast and gave that can really, really help. 22. The contrast of complementary colour: The final one of instances contrast we're gonna talk about is that of complementary colors. As we've talked about already. That is the most contrast you can get between two colors that are opposite each other on the wheel. And this is another one elephant Leonov, a letters, illustrations. And you can see that this is the red color I've sampled. And when we look at the color guide, I've got complimentary showing. And you can see it's pretty close. Well, so notice we've got these other ones that if you pick one of that was the cottonwood party be there anyway. But just sticking with that one. As you know, we can just adjust that grain by unlinking, just dragging that down, they'll say something like that. So again, sticking with what we've already learned about, we adjust the lightness or just the saturation and so on. Again, we've got a little bit of the saturation there and a lot of desaturation here. So it's probably coming from that side there if we wanted to get into that. So that's a fairly straightforward one. If nonetheless striking sort of finish with. This is another example of one of those things I've pulled out and thought, oh, I like that but I couldn't immediately see how it was done. As you can probably see, I've sampled the dark green color here. The complimentary is gonna get us some of the why that Cepheid make this a little bit lighter. Gets us this caution. Peachy red color. Now, in terms of the kind of orangey kalos, the reason I'm showing you this is that if we think about this grade, we know the relationship between the green and the red goes straight across a very contrasting. But if you imagine going a third of the way around the circle, you'd end up somewhere like that. So comparing these two, you get massive contrast, but far less with this. So you've got kind of interesting mixture there. It's almost like it's analogist compared to the red, but it's rarely contrasty because it's a third of the way around. So it's triadic see kinda getting the best of both worlds there. So if I bring that up a little bit, you can see what's going on there so that for me it looks great for you. Might not look quite so great beacon, see why I'm doing it right? You can see the relationship between the different cues as well as the, again, the lightness, the darkness, the contrasts of saturation. So it bringing out all these different things. And just to refer finally to one of the things we talked about right at the beginning of the proportions. Notice how the lighter Hughes, and obviously the, the white is used in far, far less than the dark. Because again, it really draws. All right, so this, I don't know who designed this. If you're watching, please get in touch. But it's a really strong example as is this other one. Really good use of contrast. 23. Quickly tweaking colours you've applied: Now we spent all this time looking at it in his theories of contrast. And we've looked at different color harmonies. Now we're going to look at some lovely tricks that you can use to re-color something if you're not quite happy with it. So in this example of this very analogous looking drawing, all the artwork is selected. I've hidden the anchor points so that you, you won't see anything. So these are put together using a color group. This one here. So if I double-click on here to edit it. Now first thing that happens as we know sometimes is that they get out of water. So if I just put them back in order by saying Hew forward, that's where we were before. So one way you can deal with this and say, okay, well, let me, I know I want to use these colors. I want to use them in a slightly different way. He might have tried this already, but a lovely trick is this little button here. It randomly changes the color water. Say just press that as many times as you like and look at those lovely different examples. I mean, that looks really interesting to me. So that's one way of doing it. So it's a bit more random, but it will appeal to you if you're the sort of person that doesn't quite know what they want until they see it. So that's one really good option once you've set your color group up. The other one is this one. This randomly changes the saturation and brightness. So again, you can adjust until you get something you want. Let's suppose you're happy with that. When you press okay? It will ask, do you want to change the group? And if you say yes, then of course it will have edited that. So what you might want to do before you do that in real life is to select that and duplicate the color group first. That's possibly what I should have done before, but that we got that is that's two ways of applying your existing color group, but in a slightly different way. And in the final video on this, we'll look at a couple of other ways of changing colors quickly and intuitively. 24. Recolouring using global temperature: When you've applied your colors by means of colored group, there are three other ways we're going to look at that. You can change the colors this time in slightly less subtle ways. So again, the artwork is selected and I've hidden the anchor points. I'm going to double-click on the colour group. As you know, sometimes it changes the color order, so we'll just do not to make sure they all line up. Okay, so the first of these three ways is in edit. So long as that is locked, you can drag any of these round. And notice how the relationship or the colors stays the same. But of course the Hughes will change. So in this case we've got a fairly tetrarchic thing going on. But you can see that the colors are completely different from the ones we've chosen. So that's one way to do it. A second approach is, and you'll notice I've thought, close that down previously. I've now open that back up again. And you can see I've got the other color groups here. So if we go back to assign and we pick, let's say, this color group, notice how these colors now become these. And again, using this drop-down menu, you can choose how it applies those colors. And even more than that, you can say, for example, if I want the green not to go to read, but to go in a different color. I could drag it down there and it goes to brown instead. So there's a certain amount of control. You've got. To be honest, it's, yeah, it's not the most intuitive, but nevertheless, that's the second way you can apply a separate color group. And then pretty my favorite approach of all is this one. We took a brief look at this earlier. Back in edit and fight. Let me just go back. I'm going to go back to where we were before, right the beginning. So double-click. So if we started off with this one, and then we went to edit. And we've looked briefly before a global adjust. So if you use global adjust as well as adjusting hue saturation and so on. As we saw before, when you adjust the temperature, I think we did it before. We just did it with one of these colors changing. But notice, now, if I drag to the right hand side, notice how everything gets warmer. So this has changed everything, this changes the relationship. So we end up with here, if you look at this, we've got something complimentary going on here between the bright pink and the background color, which is interesting. Then we'll, we've got this kind of much more analogous things going on. Now I wouldn't have come up with by myself necessarily. So just with the same registered, they recover off. You can see now a kinda similar, but it's getting quite interesting. Again, we can take it further and they've become more and more analogist. So end up something like that, which might not be what you want, but it's good to know that it's there. Similarly, we could have gone the other way. And of course everything gets cooler, so gets bluer. So you can use any of those things in combination. So for me, I really quite likely as once I'm there, I might go back to the thing we looked at a second ago, which is just to what those locked together. Just drag any one of them now and just try that with a with some different colors. So there you go. There's plenty of ways of working, building on the theories you've already got. But now really starting to play with them in a way hopefully that you can control and understand. And most importantly, have a lot of fun with and get some really, really good creative results when. 25. Final exercise: So finally, I'd like you to bring together everything that you've learned, either on this file or one of the previous files or anything that you've got that you'd like to work on and create a tetrameric version, a triadic version, and anything else you want to try and just to cement the different techniques you've been learning. So use any of the things that we've done in any combination. And hopefully you'll just start to get more and more comfortable and find your own approaches. So go for it and I'd love to see what you've come up with. So please do get in touch and let me see. Okay. Or less. 26. Goodbye: Well done, you've made it to the end of the course, so congratulations. And I hope this is just the beginning of you learning more and discovering more and keeping on discovering and getting better at using color. It's one of those subjects you will never get to the end or there's always more to learn, there's always more ways you can use it. So I hope that's a continuing journey of discovery for you. So I'd love to hear and see what you've been up to. So please do get in touch, show me what you've been creating and good luck with that. So all the best.