Mastering Prepositions - English Grammar Class | Benjamin Weinberg | Skillshare

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Mastering Prepositions - English Grammar Class

teacher avatar Benjamin Weinberg, English as a Second Language Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

3 Lessons (58m)
    • 1. Prepositions With Over By

      16:15
    • 2. Prepositions On At In

      23:11
    • 3. Prepositions Of To For

      18:20
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About This Class

This one-hour class will cover the main prepositions in the English language. In almost an hour of compiled videos, you'll be able to learn more about Prepositions such as on, at, in, of, to, for. 

In addition, there are three different quizzes that go along with this short course on English grammar to help you succeed in your studies. 

Meet Your Teacher

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Benjamin Weinberg

English as a Second Language Teacher

Teacher

Ben is the founder of English from A to Z. He has been an ESL teacher and instructor for the past four years. Ben earned his TEFL / TESOL certification from the International TEFL Academy back in December of 2013. He has a wide variety of experiences in teaching English as a second language to students from around the world. Ben has taught English for companies and organizations such as Berlitz Inc., the Washington English Center, and the Huntington Learning Center. 

In addition, Ben spent a year living in Istanbul, Turkey where he taught English to high school students and also gave private tutoring to Turkish adults.  Continuing his adventures overseas, Ben recently lived in Medellin, Colombia and volunteered at a public high school helping Colombian students to impro... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Prepositions With Over By: All right, Welcome back, students to our last proposition lesson not the less not the last lesson in this course, but the last lesson in which will focus specifically on the kinds of propositions that come up a lot. So for our last proposition lesson, we're gonna focus on three of them, in particular with over and buy. And these can kind of focus more on. They can focus both on propositions of place and propositions of time. With over and by, they can focus on both. All right, So don't get too confused, because with over and by, they could be considered a proposition of place And also proposition of time. Now they have many uses, and in this video, we're gonna dive right into it. We're going to discuss the uses, and then I'm going to give an example or two for each of the main uses. Starting with with starting with with you see what I did there. So with it has five main uses the first main uses to indicate being together or being involved like togetherness. Um, so let me give maybe two examples the 1st 1 being I ordered. I ordered a sandwich with a drink. I ordered a sandwich with a drink. Okay, so that's being together being involved together. I ordered a sandwich with a drink. The other example that we could use the restaurant manager will be with you soon. The restaurant manager, the restaurant manager will be with you soon. Okay, so he'll be together with you soon. Okay. And the next one? The next uses used to indicate having basically substitute having for with where we would put having or toe have we would put with instead. So it's like a substitute. Uh, two examples I met a girl with, you know, having she's having or instead of having we put I met a girl with green eyes. Right? Or another example is people with a lot of money People with a lot of money are not always happy, right? Happy happiness does not equal money. Money doesn't equal happiness. So people having a lot of money or people with a lot of money are not always happy. And the next one used to indicate using OK, that's a little confusing. And no, but with can also substitute for to use or using. So I wrote ah love letter by using so we could say by using the pen you gave me, but instead will say I wrote a level, whether with the pen you gave May. So instead of saying here I wrote a love letter using the pen you gave me, I wrote a love letter with the pen you gave me. All right, so that's a substitute with can act as a substitute instead of having or instead of using and the next one used to indicate feelings or emotions, things that rile us up. Right. So let's say I am eating mailing you with my sincerest apologies. Okay? You're upset about something, and you want to say sorry. So I am emailing you with my sincerest apologies. Right? So you're showing your feelings. Your sorry about something. We don't know what, but you're emailing the person with apologies. Um, on the next one, the world will use another example example to He came to the stage with overwhelming confidence. So what was his emotion? What was he feeling? Well, he came to the stage. He's an actor. Probably. He came to stage with overwhelming confidence, meaning he was ready to do the job that he was supposed to do. He's an actor. He came to the stage with overwhelming confidence. And the last use for with is used to indicate you're agreeing with somebody or your understanding them. OK, so I'll keep this example simple. Are you with May? With me is like, Are you agreeing with me? Are you of the same opinion with me? Are you with me or not? You know, with me is like, Are we in agreement or are we feeling the same way? So you would say Yes, I am with you. Okay. You want to make your intentions clear here. Are you with me? Yes, I am with you. So you understand each other? You're in agreement about something. Okay, so those are examples for with next I want to jump to Over which has four main uses. So for over the first main use is to indicate movement from one place to another, going from one place to another. Um, so I'll do one example here. Come over, Come over. It's kind of like a request, even. Right. We talked about that in a previous lesson. How to make requests. Come over to my house four and That's another proposition. There are a couple here over 24 Come over to my house for dinner tonight, right? Obviously, you're coming from another place. So you're moving from one place to another. Maybe you're just at the gym. Maybe you're at your own home, but your friend tells you come over to my house for dinner tonight. All right, That's our first use. The second use is used to indicate movement downward going down. All right, Uh, so the example I want to use in question form. Can you bend over, bend over to do the dishes for May? So you're going down to do the dishes. So maybe you're bending over the sink, for example. You know, doing the dishes, washing them, making them clean by bending over to do the dishes. Okay, that's a pretty good example. You're moving. You're moving downward. Bending over. Okay, Next example are sorry. Next use used to indicate more than an expected number or amount going over a certain amount of money, for example. Ah, so this amount of money, this amount of money is way over our original estimate. Okay? So talking about and expect more than expected amount of money. Something that's extravagant. Maybe so. Talking about something that's more than the original estimate. Sorry. Estimate. Right. So indicating more than expected number or amount of money, for example. And last one used to indicate a period of time, Right? A year, A month. A day? Over a year. Over a month. Right. So let's do two examples. I worked at that bike shop for over Ah, year. Right. I worked at that bike shop for over What's the period of time? Over a year. Okay. And another example I want to use. She did not. She did not sleep over there. Over. Where did she sleep? Over there. When? Well, this past month. Okay. Okay, So there was a pretty good examples that we have here for four different uses of over on the last one. By is a proposition. We use four different ways, okay? And I'm gonna some nose up. Um, the first use for by that is to indicate proximity. Proximity means how close, right? How close you are to somebody else or how far away you are from them. All right, so it's used to indicate proximity. Uh, i'll give two examples here can I sit? Can I sit by your side? Right next to you is by. So you're right next to a person. Very close proximity. Can I sit by your side Or another example? The post office is right by the bank. Post office is right by the bank. If it's right by the bank, they're going to be very close to the proximity is going to be very close. So the post office is right by the bank. So indicating proximity how close you are to someone or something. Or maybe you're far away from them. We don't know. Maybe you're further away from them. So by estimates, proximity, The next use is to indicate the person institution doing something. But in the passive voice, we talked about that the beginning of this course. But the passive voice is gonna come up with propositions. So you're indicating the person, the institution or an object doing something, but in passive voice, let's give you one example or two. Let's see the microwave. It was fixed by who? This isn't passive voice, right? Isn't that pretty? Cool, guys? So the microwave was fixed by the mechanic. So normally you would say the mechanic in act. If it this was active voice, you would say the mechanic fixed the microwave, but we can use by in passive voice. So instead, is the microwave was fixed, Remember? Simple passed by the mechanic. So the mechanic, the subject comes at the end rather than at the beginning. Um, the next example is the flowers. We're because there's more than one delivered. Oh, By who? The postman. All right, so same thing that the postman delivered the flowers. That would be active voice boat. We can use by to indicate the person or the institution doing something in passive voice. So by is a proposition that we can really use for that. So the flowers were delivered by the postman where the microwave was fixed by the mechanic . Pretty simple, right? The next use is to indicate an action with the particular purpose. Why are you doing a particular action? Um, let me give one example. She finally she finally broke the triathlon record. Triathlon is like a mixture of racing, swimming and other activity. I believe she finally broke the triathlon triathlon record by pure effort. You know she works so hard, she put in so much effort that she was able to break the triathlon record. But how did she do it? By pure effort. She worked hard on it, so she didn't in action. She broke the triathlon neck record by pure effort. That was the purpose to break the record by doing what pure effort doing that good. And our last one for by is indicating a means or method a way of doing something, essentially a means or method to do something. Um, So I came. I came to the office by using the New York New York City subway. Right in the subway. Is the metro in New York City. So how did you get to the office? You did it by using the New York City subway. Okay, so your means of getting to the office where you work, the method that you use was the New York City subway. Public transportation. All right, so that breaks down with over and by pretty well. We have a lot of uses for with over and by. The key thing to keep in mind my students is that thes propositions are very important, but they can be used interchangeably with place and time, as you can see, you know, they're not. They're not specifically propositions of place and propositions of time. I bring these three up because they're very popular. There were useful, as you can see, there many uses. And I wanted you guys to get an example or two for each use. And each of these uses can come up every now and then. So by knowing the uses by having the examples, you can go very far with propositions. There are tons of propositions, but the 10 or 11 that I focused on will help you immensely in your future English learning . Thank you guys again for taking this course. I really appreciate it. I hope you learned a lot, especially about propositions in this course. And I'll see you in the next video. Thank you again. 2. Prepositions On At In: Okay, Welcome back, my students, to our next lesson, which will begin with propositions introducing propositions. The next few lessons are gonna cover different propositions. But for this lesson, let's first introduce what propositions are and why do we have propositions in English? Why were they so important to me? Propositions air Probably the biggest issue that English students have English as a second language students have when their first really diving into the grammar. They're trying to get ahead with the grammar, and they're wondering, you know, Ben, why do I keep struggling with propositions? Well, it's not an easy topic, which is why I have it for the advanced grammar course. You know, this is a difficult subject that takes a lot of memorization. It takes a lot of practice, but I'm here to help you guys really make propositions an easy subject, or at least an easier subject, because it's not super easy if you're learning English as a second language, but it is possible to do well, so let's dive in all right. So the definition, what is a proposition to begin with? While Proposition is a word that links links and now could be a noun or pronoun or noun phrase to some other part of a sentence. And I like if you if you don't remember what propositions are, just know that they are winking words and a very short there, Not long words to remember, so that's easy. But there are a lot of propositions now in this course, only be able to cover the big ones. But there are dozens of propositions. But it's important that you know what propositions are and which ones are the most important to be knowledgeable about now. Like I was saying, propositions can be tricky for English learners. There is no definite rule or formula for choosing a proposition, right, because there's so many. But there are certain ways to use propositions on certain circumstances in which we use the specific proposition. But when you were in English, you have to try to identify the proposition when you're reading or listening to recognize its usage, the more you read or listen to anguished more, you pick up on patterns of how we use propositions and will become easier. But I'm going to do in this lesson and in a few few future lessons after this one is give you guys some examples of how do we use different propositions and for what uses they have . So you don't get confused. Let me give you some examples of propositions in in use. So we have to the office, right? Going to the office to is our proposition. That's underlined to the office where we have at the desk. I'm at the desk right on the table. I'm pointing to a table. I don't think you guys can see it, but on the table, its surface in an hour, in an hour or about myself. Okay, so there are some examples that we could make sentences off, but to at on in and about are all examples of propositions. And the key thing to know about a proposition is its use To show direction, you other use it to show direction, location time, or to introduce an object. Right? So there are many different uses for propositions, depending on which one for this lesson, we're gonna focus on on at or in okay, specifically because if we focused on every proposition, I could I could have a course grammar course on propositions. But you guys want to focus on other topics, I'm sure, so I'm only gonna keep propositions toe a few lessons. But let's focus on propositions, a place referring to specific places, whether it's at on or in or at in on right here. So specifically, we use at for a point, referring Teoh a particular location mainly in for enclosed space, like something that has a women to it or on for a surface right, a surface kind of object or thing to make this little bit clear for at we have at the corner a specific location at the bus stop, right? It's very specific. The corner, the bus stop were at the door down here. Somebody's at the door. Somebody's at the bus stop. You're at the corner, right? So at is like a point. A specific point or location. Enclose space, like in the garden. Right. Gardens aren't infinite, right? Gardens are in close spaces. So in the garden in London it could refer to a city because cities are in close spaces, right? You know, cities don't go on forever. They have certain city women's or in my pocket, which is enclosed space that I have, you know, for Gummer. Whatever in my pocket. These are enclosed spaces, or we could talk about on the surface, so on the wall for on on the floor. So we're talking about surface things, things that have a surface to them that you can touch and feel or on the menu, and you'll notice that the proposition before the descriptive word always goes first. So at always comes before the descriptive word or the object, or what we're referring to or in that always goes first, right before the space or on before the surface item. So as you can see, there are things to be aware of when it comes to propositions. But the main things to be aware of our that it's a linking word, right. It's a short word, and you're usedto link different objects or actions together, right? You're linking the noun, the pronoun or the noun phrase to some other part of the sentence, and there's no definite rule or formula. But you just have to look for patterns of usage, right for choosing what proposition to use. Okay, you have to look for in is good for you know it is good for in close spaces. Ad is used for a specific location or point and honest for like, surface objects or surface places. So you just really have to follow the examples. And you have to identify the proposition when you're reading or listening to recognize its usage takes memorization. It takes practice. It takes time. But if you start to read and listen and right, you'll start to understand which proposition is used where and, you know, propositions are only used for certain purposes such as the show direction, the location, the time, or to introduce an object. And we're talking about proposition of propositions of place in this lesson, whether it's at in or on. Okay, And remember, it's at for a point in foreign enclosed space or on for a surface kind of object or well or location. Okay. All right. I'm gonna leave the bottom here. But you guys, if you finish stopping this down, I'm gonna go ahead and erase it. Now you can pause the video if you'd like, but we're gonna continue, and I want to die vinto on at an inn in terms of their specific uses with some examples. Okay, And leave the bottom for now, right? So beginning with on their five main uses for the proposition on. Okay, so I'm going to give you guys the big five right here and then an example for each one. There are so many examples I could use for each use, but I'm not gonna have an hour lesson on this topic. But I'll give you guys an example for each. So use to express the the surface of something right. Or it's used to used Teoh. Specify days and dates, or it's used to indicate a device or machine like a computer or a phone. Or it's used to indicate a body a part of the body with on body parts, Let's say, and the last year's for on is used to indicate the state of something they're five million uses. The state of something means its current physical or mental capacity. Whether it's an object or a person, what's their state? What? What are they doing currently? All right, let's see. Let me dio where me do this provided here. Each example will go here. Examples are gonna be in blue. Makes it easier. Okay. All right. I'm gonna erase this now. Okay? At the bottom, because I want to get to in and act as well, so I'm gonna race this. All right. Okay. So the final paper, like the final paper from a class, is on my desk. Final paper is on. And what's the surface of something? It's the desk. The final papers on my desk. So remember it used to express the surface of something. Final papers on my desk. Right. And the next one used to specify days and dates. You know, an example of that. I was born. This isn't my actual birthday, guys, but I was born on June 14th. So for talking about your birthday, you want to give the proposition correctly you want to use on? I was born on June 14th 1988. Please don't say Happy Birthday. If it is the state, that's not when I was born, but it's a good example. I was born on June 14 1988. You could also say this person died on so and so date and used to indicate a device or machine. Uh, what's a My favorite movie will bay on TV tonight. Okay, so that's a good example of a device TV being used with on or used to indicate a body part . Right? Okay, so body part, let's say he kissed me. Are you know, for girl? It could be She kissed me, but he kissed me Justin example that he kissed me on, uh, my cheek. Right. So where did he kiss you on my cheek on Used to indicate the state of something. What's going on? What's currently happening with so and so. Ah, Okay. So let's say the building is on fire. Right? So what's happening with the building? Well, it is on fire. That's the state of it. It's not in a good state. It's in a bad state. So the building is on fire. All right, so let us continue with next. We're going to go toe act, All right? There's a still a lot of uses for at but those air the main uses for on. So when it comes toe, add, there are four uses for us to be aware of. Hopefully I can fit all three. Let's see. So at what do we do with the proposition for at? Well, it's used to point out a specific time used to point out a specific time like the time of the day that it focuses on or it's used to indicate a place or a specific place that you'll be meeting somebody. For example, another use. It's used to indicate an email address, right we used at Symbol. Uh, we're used to indicate an activity. What kind of activity really is up to you? Okay, so those are the four main uses for APS? Okay, as the proposition. Now let's get an example for each. Well, if we want to point out a specific time, let's do I will meet you at the park at 12 PM, right? So that's a specific time we're referring to, which is 12 PM or used to indicate a place. Which place are we talking about? It could be anyplace. But what say there is there is a birthday party at the clubhouse. We don't know his birthday. It is, but we could still use at because that's the location used to indicate an email address. This one's pretty self explanatory. We used the at symbol, right? So please send me a message and I'll we sent me a message, and then we use the regular at ABC at right the at symbol here at a b c d dot org's right. Just an example here. Please send me a message at ABC at ABC D dot ork. OK. And used to indicate an activity. Right. What kind of activity? Well, I am. I am good at. What are you good at? Well, drawing celebrities. Some people, you know, they sell their art, which involves drawing famous celebrities. Right? We're drawing portrait's of famous people. So what do you What's your activity? Will drawing is their activity. So what do you get at? I am good at drawing celebrities right here. Okay, Very good. And the last one is in, right? And there are five uses for in. Okay, Hopefully I can fit all of them here to finish us off. Uh, let's see. 1230! Oh, it's gonna be tight. I hope you guys can see what I am writing, but it is use for unspecific. So compared to add its unspecific times during a day or a month, day, months, year, and in is used to indicate a specific location or place. And I'll cover that example in a bit. Used to indicate a specific location or place or used to indicate a color, shape or size, all right, and you could use it to express while you're doing something used to express something or used to express something while doing something while doing something. And the last one is used to indicate a belief, opinion interests or feeling so just expressing her panties used to indicate, All right, so let's quickly give some examples for in to give some context 1st 1 used for a specific times during a day month year. There are a lot of examples t give, but let's just use a general in the new semester will start in January. All right, so the new semester will start in January. We don't know when in January. It's just a non specific time in January used to indicate a specific location or police. Well, we could say, um, my hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California. Okay. Next used to indicate a color, shape or size Let's use. This painting is mostly in the color blue, okay, referring to a specific color this time Blue used to express while doing something. So let's do a catchphrase needs to be impressive catchphrases like a saying catchphrase needs to be catchphrase. Needs to be impressive. Ah, but, uh, in marketing a new product. So the catchphrase needs to be impressive in order to market a new product in order in marketing a new product. Okay, so the catchphrase needs to be productive in marketing a new product. So express while doing something while they catch the catchphrase needs to be impressive in marketing a new product. So last one indicate a belief in belief or an interest or an opinion or feeling That's a very broad one. But I'll give a good example. I This is just an example, not my personal belief out here with religion. But I believe in the after life, some people would say that some people wouldn't. But I believe in the after life that's expressing an opinion or a belief, right? I believe in the afterlife. Okay, so this is a complicated subject, but I hope you guys know for on at in propositions a place, how do we use them? And what are some examples that we can use? Teoh further our understanding of these propositions. In the next lesson, I'm going to talk about three other propositions of two and four that are very popular as well. Thank you guys again for taking this course, and I'll see you in the next video. 3. Prepositions Of To For: All right, Welcome back, students, to our next lesson, which focuses on three other propositions here, our next propositions that we're going to focus on our of two and four. Now, I just want to give you guys a basic definition for four of two or however you want to order it. I know that propositions are very tricky that that your you might get confused about it. But the best way for me to really reach you at home is to be aware of the main use for each of these propositions and to give you guys some examples later on in this lesson, really going to dive into the nitty gritty of of two and four in terms of how do we use it and where do we use it? Okay, in terms of its X specific uses and the specific examples for each type of use. But first, let's give a broad overview. So starting with four, the Proposition four usually tells us about the use of something like the reason or purpose for its existence. Right. So you want to know the use of something or, you know, a reason or purpose. So we have three examples. 1st 1 we need new batteries for the remote control. The purpose of the new batteries is the power of the remote control. So we need new batteries. What do we need them for? Well, you can't use the remote control without batteries. Right? So that's the purpose of the batteries is to be used for the remote control. Next one. These drinks are for happy hour after work. All right, So what are we doing at Happy are? Well, the for drink for drinking, Right? Responsibly. Thes drinks are for happy hour after work. When adults get together to enjoy a time off from work, he's a drink. These drinks are for happy hour. We use the long, more work. Well, what we use the long more for Well, it's for cutting grass, right? To keep our wants are property orderly. So we use four to tell us about the use of something, the reason or the purpose for its existence. Batteries for the remote control drinks for happy hour at a bar, long more for cutting grass. Right. So four can be used for the purpose of something or for someone Next we have off now of definition is, it usually shows a connection. We're belonging to something or someone. So of shows the connection or belonging to an object or somebody. So are examples here. Is she a girlfriend off yours? Is she your girlfriend? But we could say off here. Is she a girlfriend of yours? Okay. Is she your girlfriend or seeing other? Another person's girlfriend. But if we wanted to use of as a proposition, is she a girlfriend of yours or this is a photo. This is a photo of my wife, Jessica. Who's the photo off while this is a photo of my wife Jessica. Right here. Um, so this is a photo of my wife, Jessica. The connection to Jessica is through the photo or that glass of red wine is for you. And this is a mixture of both propositions, right? That glass of red wine over there is for you. So the connection of the glass to the red wine, they go together. It's a glass of red wine, and it's for you. Okay. What's the purpose of the wine for you to drink it And to usually shows the direction of something moving towards the direction of something basically. What is it moving towards, Uh, you know, where is it going? Uh, are examples here? We're going to Italy next week. We're going there. Were going in the direction of Italy were flying there. We're going to Italy next week. So you're moving towards Italy by playing right? Where are you going? To buy your next sneakers. All right, So which story gonna go to which direction we're going to go, where you're gonna walk or where you gonna drive to? Where you going? To buy your next sneakers. You have to buy it at a place. But where? Where would you buy it? Right. We ran to the end of Main Street. Which direction did you run too? Well, you We ran to the end of Main Street. We had a direction of mine were moving towards Main Street. Okay, Now, these are just the base definitions for of two and four. But these air some good examples that go with these based definitions. Now we're going to dive deeper. There are three or four main uses for each of these propositions. And I'm going to give an example for each one like we did in a previous proposition lesson . I'm just gonna switch around the order now, Uh, and I'm gonna race this. I'm gonna leave this up for a couple more seconds that I'm going to start a racing. Um, I know this is a tricky topic. Propositions are tricky, But knowing the uses for each proposition, these major propositions and the examples will put you way ahead of other English students . So trust me on that By taking this course by taking this lesson, you're really making a difference in your English language education. All right, so I'm gonna race thes now. We're gonna keep the divides. All right, Let's start with off. Now. There are three main uses for the proposition off. So what do we use of four? And then I'm going to give you guys an example for each use use for belonging to, relating to or connected with, What is your connection, and I'll give you the example in the second before I do that Used to indicate reference you're stupid, Kate. Indicator reference of time or date or used. Teoh. Indicate it in amount or number. Okay, so let's see what examples we have for each. So I always dreamed of being rich and famous. So what did you want to be connected with in this sentence? You wanted to be dream. You wanted to be a rich and famous person. You wanted to belong to that. You wanted that to be part of your lifestyle. So I always dreamed of being rich and famous. Or you're connected to these two attributes which goes with belonging to relating to or connected with. OK, so that's our first example used to indicate reference. Uh, what do you referencing to? Uh, Well, this is a picture. Gonna put the other example. Looks I'm gonna put the last one down here so you guys can see it a little bit better. But the 2nd 1 this is a picture off my A large family. So what do you referencing? Well, I'm referencing my large family this, and that's a picture of him. This is a picture of my large family, and the last one used to indicate in amount or number. Well, there's many examples we could use with that one. Right. Um, but let's do three. So I drink three glasses of milk before bedtime. Okay, So what's the amount of the number here. Well, it's three glasses of milk, and that's before bedtime. So the number here is 33 glasses of milk before bedtime. So that's the amount or number we're referring to. All right, continuing on. And I'm going to change these dividers here because we have a little bit more room to play with. The next one we're gonna do is to, and there are four main uses to to the proposition to four Main uses. What's divided here? We'll do four. So last one or three uses. Okay, so continue with 22 can be used to indicate the place, person or thing that someone or something moves toward or in the direction off. I know it's a lot that's a mouthful, but let's keep it as used to indicate the person, place or thing. Let's say moving in a certain direction. All right. So what? What would be our example here? Used to indicate the person, place or thing moving in a certain direction. Well, uh, please send the package. We send the package back to me. Simple example, but effective. You want to send the package back to May. So you want to move the package back to May. So, police, whoever sending the packet, send it back to me, Okay. And the next one used to indicate a limit or unending point. So some everything has an end. We used to for that. An ending point, for example. For that, there's there's a good one. We could use the snow. The snow was piled up to the roof of my house. Where did it go? Up too. Well, went up to the roof of my house. Okay, so the snow was piled up to the roof of my house. Okay. All right. And the next example used to indicate a relationship. All right, so there are many examples, but the one I want to use is, um, this recommendation letter from my professor is very important to who to may. All right, So this recommendation letter from my professor is very important to may. That's the relationship between your professor. What he's doing to for you on your behalf. He's writing you a recommendation letter. So the recommendation letter for my professor is very important to me. Okay? And our last example is, or or less use, I should say, for two is used to indicate a period of time used to indicate a period of time or a specific time itself. All right, so what's a good example to use for that? Let's talk about the 9 to 5 grind that a lot of adults working right. A lot of adults would say I work from nine like nine in the morning to five PM Monday to Friday. Okay, so that you're expressing a period of time. 9 to 5, like 9 a.m. 25 PM Monday to Friday period of time. Or it could be a specific time, like 9 to 5. That's a specific time to, but it's a period of time over course, of hours or days to all right, good. Think we're doing pretty well. This lesson with this. Let's finish off with four. What are the three main uses of four? Well, the 1st 1 is used to indicate the use of something. What is it useful for? Well, let's do this one. Let's do this example. Ah, I baked the chocolate cake. So what were you doing? What we're using the cake batter and everything. The oven for you did it for your 40th birthday. Okay? I baked the cake for your 40th birthday. The use of the oven use of the cake is for your 40th birthday. That's the purpose of it, right there. All right. Used to mean because of force. Another use for because of so another substitute for because of is four. Oh, sorry. A substitute for because of is four right? That is correct. It is used to mean because of So it's a substitute kind of word. So instead of saying, for example, I am so happy because of you, you could say I am so happy, so happy for you. Like when your sister gets engaged or when your brother gets a promotion. You want to say I am so happy for you, right? I'm so happy that happened for you. That's a big deal. So that's a substitute for because of and the last one but not least four commutes that indicate duration of time in general, so used to indicate duration of time. There a lot of examples we could use, but I will use this one. I attended University four one year on Lee, but Okay, so that's a good introduction to the propositions that are widely used off two and four. Right? We have the uses, Theo. Examples. And how do we form it? And how do we not get confused? How can we tell when to use each one? What are some tips that we can look out for? The This is a hard subject. I'm glad you guys are sticking with May. I'm glad you're sticking with my course. Thank you again for taking it. I hope you enjoy this lesson and let's finish up propositions in the next one. I'll see you then. Thank you, guys.