Mastering LaTeX - Academic Typesetting for Beginners | TM Quest | Skillshare

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Mastering LaTeX - Academic Typesetting for Beginners

teacher avatar TM Quest, Technology and Mathematics Quest

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

65 Lessons (3h 60m)
    • 1. Promotional Video

    • 2. Introduction to LaTeX

    • 3. Setting up Overleaf

    • 4. Navigating Overleaf

    • 5. Intro to Basic Structure

    • 6. Minimal Working Document

    • 7. Sections and Subsections

    • 8. Short Introduction to Packages

    • 9. Paragraphs and Text Formatting

    • 10. Comments in LaTeX

    • 11. Multi Line Comments

    • 12. Project About Me Document

    • 13. Introduction to Lists and Tables

    • 14. Commands vs Environments

    • 15. Unordered Lists

    • 16. Ordered Lists

    • 17. Making Tables 1

    • 18. Making Tables 2

    • 19. Intro to Mathematics 1

    • 20. Inline Math

    • 21. Greek Letters and Fractions

    • 22. Display Math and Subscripts

    • 23. Trigonometric Functions and Detexify

    • 24. Exercise Second Degree Polynomial

    • 25. Introduction to Images

    • 26. Including images

    • 27. The Figure Environment

    • 28. Figures Wrapped in Text

    • 29. Exercise Images

    • 30. References and Links Intro Video

    • 31. Basic Referencing

    • 32. Referencing Equations

    • 33. Hyperref Package and Links

    • 34. Introduction to Mathematics 2

    • 35. More Math Symbols

    • 36. Mathematics on Multiple Lines

    • 37. Formatting Mathematics

    • 38. Math Fonts

    • 39. Matrices and Cases

    • 40. Making Theorems, Definitions, and Remarks

    • 41. Numbering and Theoremstyle

    • 42. Intro to Fonts and Colors

    • 43. Manipulating Text

    • 44. Finding Other Fonts

    • 45. Setting Basic Colors

    • 46. Design Custom Colors

    • 47. Introduction to Citing

    • 48. References in the Main File

    • 49. Citing with BibTeX

    • 50. Using the Database

    • 51. Using Templates Intro Video

    • 52. Optional Arguments in the Documentclass

    • 53. The Letter Documentclass

    • 54. Using Templates

    • 55. 55 Project CV Template

    • 56. Introduction to Beamer

    • 57. Beamer Basics

    • 58. How to Structure your Beamer

    • 59. Styling Your Beamer

    • 60. Further Topics Intro Video

    • 61. Displaying Code with Verbatim

    • 62. Multiple Files

    • 63. Custom Commands

    • 64. Arguments in Custom Commands

    • 65. Resources and Goodbye!

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About This Class

Do you need to write a thesis, research paper, or book in LaTeX? Would you like to create professional-looking documents with LaTeX that enhance your technical writing? Are you suddenly required to learn LaTeX for some other reason, but have nowhere to start?

In this course on LaTeX intended for beginners, we will guide you from the basics all the way to more advanced features using Overleaf. You do not need any knowledge of LaTeX, Overleaf, or typesetting in general.

The course consists of many quizzes and projects so that you get intimate knowledge about writing LaTeX in Overleaf. To find the exercises head over to our class project.

Resources we will use in this course are:


Overleaf documentation:

LaTeX wikibooks:


The LaTeX Font Catalouge:

Beamer Theme Gallery:

There are several exercises and quizzes in this course. To find them head over to our Google Disk: 

Table of Contents

  1. Introducing LaTeX and Overleaf (Video 1 - 4)
  2. The Skeleton of a LaTeX Document (Video 5 - 12)
  3. Creating Lists and Tables (Video 13 - 18)
  4. Writing Beautiful Mathematics 1 (Video 19 - 24)
  5. Including Figures (Video 25 - 29)
  6. Adding References and Links (Video 30 - 33)
  7. Writing Beautiful Mathematics 2 (Video 34 - 41)
  8. Styling with Fonts and Colors (Video 42 - 46)
  9. Citing References with BibTeX (Video 47 - 50)
  10. Using Classes and Templates (Video 51 - 55)
  11. Presenting with Beamer (Video 56 - 59)
  12. Further Topics and Goodbye! (Video 60 - 65)

Meet Your Teacher

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TM Quest

Technology and Mathematics Quest


Hi there!

We're a couple who are passionate about teaching topics related to mathematics and informatics. Are you perhaps interested in data science or mathematics? If so, why don't you follow us?

Currently, we have published the following courses:


Mastering LaTeX: Academic Typesetting for Beginners Creating Figures in LaTeX Using TikZ Python 3.9 - What is New? Get Started with Higher-Order Functions in Python. Scientific Computing with NumPy - Python Data Science

Do you have a suggestion for us for a course? Don't hesitate to contact us :-)

See full profile

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1. Promotional Video: Hi, and welcome to this step-by-step guide for mastering later. Latex is a technology for creating professional and high-quality documents. There are two lectures in this course. My name is Ivan and my name is Tina. Between us, we have over ten years, it's variance. So why should you take this course? After completing a course, you'll first of all, be able to create high-quality documents using later. You'll be confident in writing mathematical formulas in latex. And you will learn how to make presentations such as this one in Beamer. You'll know how to utilize colors and fonts to make your documents really stand out. And much more than this, you'll learn how to import images, make tables, make lists, make references, ribbon like database, customer commands, and so on. During this course, we will use overly on online later editor. The course will be filled with quizzes and exercises. So after the course, you will have plenty of experience using later. We've made this course because learning later can be hard. Unfortunately, let us has a high learning curve and it's not always easy to find good learning references for beginners. And we learn later, we mostly just Google what we needed. This resulted in copying code. We did not really understand aswell as spending a lot of time on silly mistakes. The course is designed for absolute beginners that wanted to get to the point where one can write 1s, Hochberg faeces or CV confidently by using later. If this sounds like you, we hope you give this a try. 2. Introduction to LaTeX: Hi, and welcome to the course. In this first video, I just want to briefly talk about what latex is and how it relates to other software that you might have seen previously. So first of all, what is latex? Well, latex is what's called a document preparation system and also called a typesetting system that essentially allows us to write high-quality documents when writing in later, OK, what do we write is text combined with what's called special commands, such as the one you can see here, the text BF, and this command will change the appearance of the texts. Do not worry about this for now and we'll talk much more about this throughout the course. Late tech was actually created in the 19 eighties by Leslie Lamport. Laid tech is built on top of a type-setting language called Tech, which was developed by Donald Knuth and 1994 diversion called Latex to E was released, which is the current standard version of later at risk work being done towards latex three, the next version, but this is far from being complete at the moment. What about pronunciation? First of all? So here's actually a quote from Leslie Lampert. One of the hardest things about latex is deciding how to pronounce it. This is also one of the few things that I'm not going to tell you about later. Since pronunciation is best determined by usage, not fi at Tech is usually pronounced tech, making lot tech and late tech, the logical choices, but language is not always logical, so late texts is also possible. You cannot separate the 2 first letters as an LA tech, but you can't choose either not attack or attack. It's completely your choice. It's very natural for me to compare this with Microsoft Word, which is a software did a lot more people are familiar with. So there are some disadvantages and advantages. And disadvantage of using latex is that it has a higher learning curve in the beginning. Secondly, there is no click and drag feature. So in Microsoft Word, you can just click on things and they will appear. But this is not the case in later. Later is purely text-based. However, there are plenty of advantages to using latex. One of them is much better control of the typesetting. It's infinitely much better when it comes to mathematics. It's better. Writing large documents takes care of the numbering automatically. As a final nice thing, you don't need a separate program like Microsoft PowerPoint to make presentations, the slides you're looking at right now, remaining later. So later because in many ways, a lot more multi-functional and Microsoft Word. So what is the difference between late tech and over leaf? So if you've seen the description discourse, you can see that it takes place in overlays or late tech is the actual language will be writing into crate or documents. On the other hand, over leaf is just an online environment where we can write late tack and compiler documents. So that will become the usual PDF documents you're probably used to. So an analogy here is that if later gets football than overlay is a football field, you play football on the football field in the same way you write laid back in, for instance, over leaf but are not the same. And we'd like to know Trevor before we end this introductory video that you don't need to use over leaf. There are actually plenty of other environments that you can write late. Again, one thing that really separates overlap, it's that it's online. It comes with both advantages and disadvantages. The big advantage for us in this course is that you don't need to install anything on your personal computer. And we can just get started right away. I would strongly suggest you to use throughout this course. After the course, I suggested you take a look at other types of environments work and also write later. So overly EFF has become a lot more popular in later years, both by beginners because they're very beginner friendly, but also by professionals. Personally, I use overlay for almost everything when it comes to later. In the next couple of videos, Steven is going to show you how to get set up with overlay, some basic navigation inside that site. Thanks, and I'll see you again soon. 3. Setting up Overleaf: Hi and welcome. In this first video, we are going to look how to register on over leaf. To register, we can either do it down here where you type in your email address and your password and just press register. You can also register using Google or if you have an orchid account, you can register here. After you have registered overlay full send you an email to confirm your Amun address. So let me just press confirm email. So let me just log into my elderly for count. So when we first login to opal, if we are Welcome to this Start screen. To create our first project, we press Create and blank project. And then we are asked to give the project a name, which are going to be first project and then repress create. So if your screen looks something like this, we can try this along here to make all three areas babies will. So the leftmost area is where we have all low files. The MIT area is where we actually write the code and the text in your document. And the right most area is where our document is displayed. So let me just press hello world to make sure everything is okay. And then press compile. And now we see that helloworld had been added to a document. To compile. We can also press control enter, which is the shortcut we will use a lot. 4. Navigating Overleaf: Hi and welcome. In the last video, we ended here in our first project. And to get back to our file directory, we can press the arrow in the upper left corner. So I file directory looks something like this. If we want to create a new product, we can press New Project. And here we have several options, among which we can press upload project hair. We cannot load our zip file containing the project. So let me now just make a new blank project as we did last time. Let me call this file's second project and press enter. Okay, so this looks exactly the same mass, our first project. So let us now explore this environment a bit more. If you press the menu button, we see that we have several different options. First of all, we can download the source filed in a zip file or the PDF file. Here. We can also copy the project and do a word count or sinking the projects in the ending of this options. So first of all, hearing you have compiler option. The first one tells you which compiler you're using and the second one is which version of Tokyo using? If you are writing in another language than English, then we can set the spell check to that language. We can take the autocomplete off or on the auto close bracket of known coat check off and on. And we can change the editor FEM. So for instance, if I press SQL Server, then we see that the color theme here changes. Another thing we can do is to change the overall theme, which basically changes the black care to white. Let me just undo that change. We can change the bindings. So if you are writing in Vim or Emacs, you can do it here as well. We can change the font size. So let me just press 24 pixels. We can change the font family, the line-height or fewer from a built-in to an 81 in the end here. And you can also see the hotkeys. So the shortcuts here and over leaf also provide a lot of latex documentation which you can find by pressing this one. We can also download our PDF file by pressing here. In our next couple of videos, we will usually high in this file directory, which we do by pressing here. And we will make this hair a little bit bigger, so it will be easier to see. Okay, see you again in the next couple of videos. 5. Intro to Basic Structure: Hi. So in the next couple of lectures, we are going to discuss the basic structure of a latex document. So what will we cover? First? We'll explain the minimal working document and the individual components that go into this. This will include like explaining what a preamble is versus the main body of the document explaining what packages are and how we can use them. And we'll see three examples of packages in this first series of lectures. And then also how to write a title, author, and date of a document. Secondly, we'll look into the basic formatting. We will see how to make sections and subsections in our document. Moreover, we will also see how to make a table of contents look at things like paragraphs and for instance, italicized text and see how we implement these in later. Finally, we'll show how to write both single-line comments and multi-line comments. So let's dive into all of this in the next video. 6. Minimal Working Document: Hi everyone. So right now I'm located in the main window of my own belief account. So I'm here and I can just press now new project. And I'll call this skeleton of a late tack document and create this. Now we're into the editor and just a small note about customization for the most part, I will actually just collapsed this thing here. In the beginning of this course, we will only work with one document. So having the file storage openness not really that useful. And I will also a bit more room here for the code. Here's a lot of taken at the moment. What I will do is just take all of this and just delete it. The reason for this is that I want for us to gradually type this out and see what each component does. So the first command in any later document is to document class command. So I'll write a backslash and document, and you'll see here that overlies automatically tries to auto-fill what I'm doing. So I can just go down here to the document class and press Enter. And for the Documents class, we're going to specify business an article. What this means is that we will get the formatting of an article in our document. There are plenty of other things we can specify. So document class, for instance, our letter, and we'll get more back into this later. What we also need to specify in a document is the title of the document, and that's done with that title command. So again we're just write backslash and then title. And then we wrote the curly brackets and inside here is the title. So over livers automatically given us an optional one before I erase the code previously. And I'll actually just copy this because I think it's nice suggestion that scuttle up ton of late attack document. I also need to specify the author. And this is done with the author command. Again, the works exactly the same. So you have a backslash, then you have the command name, which in this case it's the author, then have curly braces. Inside of curly braces, you should specify the author. So previously it said, I can see most of us know, just write a check to see if there is an actual change. And finally, we need the date command to specify which details. So here you have two options. One, you can specify the precise date. So I can just write, for instance, crony of 20th, September 20th, 20. Or I can write the special command which is called backslash today. If you write this, then this will automatically update. So if you come back to the document in a week, automatically update to get the correct date the last time you compiled a document. Ok, so this is all the meta information we need for now. Now, we need to actually write a begin and end statement. So here if we're right, begin and then curly braces here or I can write down document. So this here is what's called an environment, and we'll get back to later, what's the difference between an environment and a command? So I'll write begin document and undocument. And inside this thing here, this is real right, or actual text. This is where the actual text of the document is going to be placed. Final thing I need to do before I can compile the document is they want to place the title somewhere. So here I have all the title information, title, author and deeds. And I want to decide where to place it. And typically in almost all cases, you want to place a title at the top of your document. So there should be above any text here. And here we have a special command called Make title. This amount is a bit different from these ones. These ones excepted arguments like skeleton, AIG, and today inside the curly braces, make Tycho command does not require any arguments. So now if I go to compile, I will actually recompile document. And you'll see now I have an updated title which is the same as previously, have my name and they and this is where the actual text document is placed. Precisely the text terrorists now I can start writing or document. So this here, what you see now is kinda the minimal thing you can do in an async document. You have to have a class of your document. You have to specify some meta information about who's writing the document. And you have to have a begin and, and environment. Inside this environment, we will write the text that are actually appear in the document. 7. Sections and Subsections: Hi everyone. So right now I'm on overlaps documentation page. So if you just Google overlap documentation, then you will find that overly It has a lot of documentation on latex. So just wanted to show you this. So for instance, if we go here on mathematics, mathematical expressions, we'll get a quick and nice introduction to mathematical expressions in late tack, of course means Dina will guide you through a lot of the stuff that's here and a lot more as well. However, I just want you to note that this is kind of a document and as you can see, this document has a section title here, and also subsections like contents and introductions and so on. And this is not particular to overlay if I'm in almost any document, whether it's a blog or a thesis, has sections and subsections. So this is actually something we need to be able to make in late tack and we're going to learn that now. So now I'm back in the document we had in the previous video. Let me just show you how to make a section first. So let's go above the text we made no use to Command backslash. Section. Section is a command that accepts an argument. And the argument is the title of the section. So let us write sample section. Let me go and recompile. And you'll now see that we have a section here called example of a section. And then we have some texts. So I can mark oldest texts and choose to copy it and paste it here. Let me just do it manually so you can see, just to generate some more text or compelling, we get to texts on reception and we can just make another one like this and go and compile. And you'll notice here that we get a new section. You can also see that we have numberings. So this is the first section is titled One example of section. Second one is to add a new section, and this numbering will just continue. If you don't want this action to be numbered, what you can do is go here and after dissection command, but before the arguments, you can write a star. By writing a star or the multiplication symbol on your keyboard. You will tell late I got, I don't want you to number this section. So actually now if I recompile, this doesn't become numbered. So if I go down some more and then make a new section, let's make this numbered. Let's call it a third section. Now go and compile. Then this will get the number two because the second one essentially is just out of the loop when it comes to the comping, you also can gradually notice that I don't always go up here to click recompile research shortcut. And for at least windows, this is control and enter. And this is one of the shortcut style will start using from now on and use all the time. When writing a letter document, you'll essentially press the compile button hundreds of times. So having this one shortcut command is really convenient. Additionally, two sections, subsections. So let's go into the introduction after some text. I want to make a subsection. For writing a subsection. As you might expect, there is a special command and this is precisely called subsection. And other than this, the command works precisely the same as this action. Let us call this first subsection and then recompiled by using that shortcut or by pressing the recompile button. We get here a nice subsection, and this is also numbered. And here we get this Seba numbering. So we get 1.1. If I make a new subsection, I get 1.2 and so on. They don't want things to become numbered. It's precisely the same. So just insert the multiplication symbol or star symbol here, and then the ordering just drops. Finally, there is a special command for making a table of contents. The table of contents is just a list of the different chapters or sections and subsections, whether we've met to make this list, we precisely right, table of contents and recompile. And here we can see that we get this nice contents thing. And then we get, this is the first section. Listen to the second one and the ones here illustrate on which page we are. Of course, in this XML document, we're still, as you can see down here, we're still on page one. So this isn't really useful. But for longer documents like thesises or longer articles, this is really, really useful. So overly will keep track of all the numbering. This isn't really important point. You shouldn't go around numbering stuff in late act. You shouldn't say, okay, this is the first section or this is the second and so on. Because if you want to move stuff later on, you have to go in and change numbering later. We'll just keep track of this for you. So this is the basics of making sections and subsections and also making the table of contents. 8. Short Introduction to Packages: Welcome back. So in this video, I want to talk about packages. So first of all, what is a package? Well, a package is a way for us to import extra functionality from outside latex or that we can use it in our document. So what we'll do is actually go here right below our document class and used to command use package. So a lot of people have written external packages for link tag and we can use by just importing them with a US package command, and then we can use it in your text. So let's see a simple example. A simple package is something called a CS quotes. And if we import this and recompile, you'll see that nothing really has happened. A common theme is when you do something before the begin document. So this part here is actually called the preamble. And if you do stuff in the preamble, it won't show up in your document Because this is more like meta information. This just allows us to use the commands inside CS courts package. So what can we do with this? He escorts package more, we can make a really nice-looking quotes. So let's, for instance, rate. He said. And then instead of writing courts mentally, I'll use the command text quotes. And this also accepts an argument and inside into what I wanted to quote a person on where he said, I love learning later. So if I now go and recompile this. So this should be right before the new section. And we get actually our first error. So what you can see as I got a text, but it's not really giving me anything regarding two quotes. And you'll see a red mark here. And this is the login output file. So let's check. So we've got what's called an undefined control sequence. What this means is catalytic is having problems understanding what I really wrote. It seems like I've used a command that later doesn't really understand and I, of course, I have just used one is a text quotes command. Recent doesn't understand it because I simply remember wrong. It's supposed to be taxed without the plural. So now if I try again, you'll see that the arrow disappears. And also here and get this really nice formatted court. So he said, I love learning later. So the CS Package allows us to use the text quote command to get nice quotes to look at a second example which is also very minimal and sweet, is the blind packs package. This is called Blind texts. And it's a good idea after you've imported a package to simply just recompile the document at once, just to see that later understands what you were saying. If you somehow spell this wrong or the command wrong, then we will get the error message right away. And this is really useful to catch the errors as soon as they appear. Now it seems like blind taxes imported correctly. And what I can do now is to use the command. Let's use it inside a new section. Here I used a command, blank text. This is nice because the command is called a same as the package. And what blind text does is to give me a lot of just default text. So here you see I got a lot of this almost random seemingly texts. So this is sometimes in other languages called Lorem Ipsum, which has randomness seeming Latin text and fills out here. And this is nice if I want to kind of pad out something with text to see how it actually looks. Now I can see that the space between a new section and a third section, it looks really nice. I get nice spacing here and here. For sections and subsections of course is not that useful because latex takes care of this. But when we import images later on or deal with lists and can be a good idea to use blamed text to see if everything looks good with some text in it. And it's sort of typing on a lot of random texts receptors just check that it works using the blind Texas. Just really convenient. And it looks yet it looks nice. Then I can just delete it again and recompile my document. So these are two examples of packages that are both very minimal in the sense that they give us really little, but are on the same side, really easy to understand risks in later. A lot of bigger packages that have hundreds, if not thousands of commands and can take a really long time to learn. But we will start with some of the ISI packages and then work our way through the more complicated ones later in the course. I just want to preface again that the area before the begin document is called a preamble of your document. And after the begin document and before the undocument called the main body of your document. So you might have noticed that in the preamble doesn't really matter with spacings. I can do this if I wanted to. If I recompiled. Nothing really changes, but doesn't really respond to whitespace and new lines. Typically whoever you want to keep it at least somewhat nice-looking. So maybe have document class here, one space than your packages, then your titles and authors, and then again one space before the begin document. 9. Paragraphs and Text Formatting: Hi and welcome back. In this video, I want to talk about two things. First one is making paragraphs and the second one is text formatting. So for paragraphs, if we have some text here as I do, and if I just continue writing, so maybe instead of using the blind text, I'll just copy this and paste it a few times. There's also possible, if I recompile this, it looks kind of nice, but there is no paragraphs in this. So how do we actually add in paragraph? One thing you might expect to be possible is just to press return here between your line and then get some more text. But actually this is completely ignored by later. So if you see here the latter taxa we use just filled up exactly the same as previously. And this can be very confusing for beginners because one return or one press of the entropy does nothing but two presses, that actually does something. So now I've pressed enter it two times so that we can see that I have this whole blank line in between. Now, if I recompile, you'll actually see that this has given me a new paragraph. So liner stopped here. We jumped down. We have this typical indentation that is characterizing a paragraph, and then we start again. So this is a way to make paragraphs in later. So let's go into another place, for instance here, and then make a paragraph recompile. And we see that this works perfectly. And of course, in an actual document, paragraphs and meant to signal a change. And here, since I'm just repeating the same sentence logically, it doesn't really make sense to put paragraphs, is this is just to illustrate how we might type a paragraph in later. There is another way to do this as well. If you don't like to type new lines like this, you can use a lighter command called lbf, which just a shorthand for paragraph. So if I do this and recompile, it just does precisely the same as adding this new line thing here. You'll see that we've got this program anyway. Whether you want to do this or this is completely up to you. I find it's a bit cluttered. So if I want to use the paragraph command and at least press Enter once here. Again, pressing Enter once does nothing, but it looks a bit cleaner here in the code. Preferably I typically use this most of the time. However, now, if I want to jump to a new line, but for some reason I don't want this invitation, then this does not work. If I want to do that, I'll actually have to do another command which is called new line. Again, newline as a command and doesn't need any arguments. And now let's see the difference. So it's jumped down here. We don't have this typical indentation. And in certain places you might not want an invitation, but in most cases you do want them to inpatient. So this is homemaker paragraphs in later. For the second topic, I wanted to briefly talk about text formatting. Specifically, how do we make text bold, italic, or underlined? There is a separate command for each of these three things. So to make something bold, I will just write a backslash and then text BF, and then wrap What I want to be bold inside the curly brackets. So now I'm singling dielectric dot this word. I want this to be bold. So now I get, this is where the actual text of the document is placed. And for want of something to be italicized, alright, backslash and then text. It. It again works the exact same way. And finally, let's take another word, for instance, text here and I'll write underlying like this. Now if I recompile, you'll see this in bold, placed in italicized and texts underlined. Again, since I kind of have a random sentence here, is it doesn't really make logical sense. You want to use this to emphasize words in certain ways. Nevertheless, I just wanted you to see this. Also note that over leaf has really short keyboard commands for actually doing a lot of this stuff. So if you go down to the menu here and scroll all the way down to show hotkeys. You can see her and we have a lot of shortcuts and actually control B and control I at least were Windows will give me bold text and give me italicized text. So what I can do if they want to say a word document here to be italicized, I can just mark it num press control i. And then this becomes nicely placed inside the text italicized command here. 10. Comments in LaTeX: Hi everyone. So in this lesson I want to talk to you about comments. Comments is something that is present in almost all coding languages and programming languages in general. And it's a way for us to write instructions to ourselves and to others who might be reading the source code here, but should not appear in the finished product. In this case, it's in the finished PDF document. So how can we do this? One thing we can do is to go above the section here. So this is the first section we have. I'll write a percentage sign, will automatically see that this turns green. So that means that later somehow recognized as the symbol, then what we'll do is turn everything after dissemble into a common. What this means is that it will appear here so that I can see it. But when I recompile the document, as you can see here, nothing happens to the output document. This is only here in the source code. So there are two ways to write comments. One is like this, which is called single-line comment. Or you can actually do what's called an in-line comment and comment something after it's nothing else on the line. So this is another comment. If I go here and press enter and start writing, and this is no longer a common. So what are some usages of actually writing comments? Well, one good one is explain to yourself and others what packages does. So for instance, the CS course package we saw is a package for dealing with quotations. So what I can do here is to use a percentage sign and write for, for quotations. And here the blind text is, was for generating random texts. Lemme just say random text. And now when I return to this, maybe a few months later, I can easily see what these does because the names are not always that descriptive. Of course I can just copy the name, Google it and find out. But this is a lot more efficient and lower usage of a comment is to make something called a visual hierarchy. What this means is that I will use comments to make it easier for myself or others to see where in the document I M. So what I might do is, for instance, make some space here before that begin document by the comment. Let me just write some lines and then beginning of document and some more lines only recently are making these lines here is to make this comment easy, really visible. Now when I scroll through the document, it's a lot easier for me to suddenly see it this and to see this. So now I can easily identify where the beginning of the document is and for instance, where at the beginning of the packages are. So here I can write dashes and then packages. This also gives you kind of a immediate structure of your document. So here we have this title, author, and date. So let me just put on some meta information about me. So strictly speaking about a document like this. And here you can see now that the document is a bit nicer divided up. Again, since our documents are so short is not really that useful yet. But if you have like 50 packages than this, It's really convenient for just quickly gauging where you are in your document. And final thing, which is a bit under appreciated is when we're trying to fix an error. And error occurs when we were trying to write something bit later, doesn't understand what you're meaning or what it's supposed to do. So for instance, I might want hear boldface sentence. This is in bold. If I recompile this, I will not get an error because I haven't done something wrong. And you will see here, this is in bold. Wherever assumed that I spelled this wrongly for some reason. And we're just wrote Text B. For just write texts b, I'll get an error and I might not immediately see where the error is. Such a small errors. This, I'll get a lot of visual clues. One is here, do line where the error is taking place and the other one is clicking on the logs and trying to read this. Also here you can see the line number and seeing what the problem is. More complicated documents, as we'll see later, is can be a bit tricky to identify exactly where the errors are. So a common thing to do then is to just rethink your errors here. You might just comment the whole thing out. And recompiling now is kinda confirms that this is a place where the error is taking place. This is a nice way for us to just quickly it removes some code those problematic temporarily before seeing like, oh, I'm missing a letter. Yeah, that sounds good. 11. Multi Line Comments: Hi and welcome back. So in this video I want to talk slightly more about comments to see how we can make multi comments. And you might notice that you don't really recognize what's going on here. So if I now compile this thing, then what I've made is what's called a table. And don't worry about this at all. Steyn will explain this to you later on. I don't want you to understand anything regarding using, except that it gives us a table. That's nice. However, there are some mistakes that are a bit harder to make out immediately. So for instance, here if I write, remove some lateral here, you'll see that I get this red sign here. And it's kind of clear words begins more or less. It's not completely care. So this might be something that is a bit harder to just immediately see where things go wrong. But it can be even worse than this. So if I remove this parenthesis here, then later we'll begin this environment which is called now tabula, curly braces, all this, we thinks this is still inside the argument. So if I now try to recompile, Not only does it look bad, it looks horrible humming what its oldest and says compile error. You later document couldn't compile for some reason. So it doesn't really want to give us our document at all. Something is horribly wrong and say that I don't create no tables that well yet, I can't really fix this now, but I want to continue with my document and go back to this later so I could of course, erase all of it, but I don't want to do that. Secondly, I could comment it out, which is a great idea. Wherever writing this, this is very tiresome. So I'm now making a single line comment for each line here, and this is not really optimal. So I would like some way to make a multi-line comment. Let me just remove this. And actually there is a package for this. So if I go pair, we can use an external package. And external package is called comment immediately after. Importantly is package I should first of all, just right what it does. So this will make multi-line comments. So now let's go down here. Inside this package, there is an environment called Comment. So in the same way that we wrote begin document and n document, I can write a begin comments and an end comment like this. And actually now this does not look very good. But the document recompiles the reason for this as everything inside the comet environment. So everything after begin comment, but before uncomment shows considered one big comment Who doesn't appear here. Now I can go further on and here, continue writing, recompiling and working with my document. Maybe getting back to this mistake later when I actually understand tables. So the comet environment is great for commenting out multiline stuff and visually is also kind of nice. Mark all this and press tab just to indent it was maybe and then this environment here as well, like this. This makes it a lot easier to, just, at least for me to view it. Final thing regarding comments is said I want to write the sentence them begin on a new line here. Say I wanted to write a sentence. The shoes are twenty-five percent off. This looks immediately like might be a problem. And I think some of you can already see the problem once I write the common symbol, everything else is just a comment. Now, if you look at the document, it says The Shooter 25 after percentage. Everything is just taken away. So how do we actually get the percentage sign in late tech? Well, that's pretty simple. You just write a backslash before the percentage sign. This essentially tells us to not consider the percentage sign as a comment maker, rather us just the percentage sign and don't worry about what it really means. So now you'll see we get the shoes or twenty-five percent off. 12. Project About Me Document: Hi, I'm glad you're still here. In this section, we've learned a bit about the document class and packages, how to specify meta information, how to begin a document with them. Again, document environment. How to make the title, which is what is here. How to make the table of contents, which is what you see here. And how to structure the rest of her text into sections, subsections, be it numbered or unnumbered out to make paragraphs and modify the text, boldface and italicized and so on. We also looked at making comments. Specifically, we looked at making multi-line comments for commenting out big chunks of code. Now I wanted to give a small exercise. What I want you to do is go back here and then I'm making a new blank project called Project about me and create this document. So here we have a brand new document. What you should do is first to alter the author, sort of your name. And the dates are, that's the date you're watching this video. Then I want you to write a short section which is just, you can just call it a bout me, rewrite some facts about yourself. And in this section I want you to try to use the different things we have learned. So try to rewrite some things in boldface, tried to read some things in italicize, tried to use a paragraph to divide a text international layers. And I want you to import the CSS quotes package up here, like we did in a previous video, and use the text command to make a quote about you can either take a court would like, you can make up your own quote. Important thing is that you get familiar with writing commands in latex. Finally, I just want to mention that you see when you open a new blank document in over leaf that you automatically get this package input EMC, which is short for input encoding. You don't need to worry about this package here at all, has some kind of extra argument here. This is called an optional argument. We'll talk more about this later, is essentially ensures that foreign characters can also be processed nicely. Actually turns out an overlay if this is done under the hood already. So if you actually delete this package here, then nothing will really change. And I can still write score down here on rights from characters like this are not in the English language and this will still be formatted nicely. However, if you go to many of the offline editors are late tech for not doing later in over leaf than you actually need this package. So it's best to just keep this on the top of your document. In any case, in case someone wants a compiler document doesn't use over leaf. Okay, so that's it. I won't go through a run-through of this project as it's very open-ended. So just write a few sentences and try things out and understand and we'll see you in next video. 13. Introduction to Lists and Tables: Hi and welcome. In this video, we are going to learn how to make lists and tables. Before starting on discussing lists and tables, we're going briefly to discuss the difference between an environment and a command. Us an example of a command, we are going to use the footnote command, which we can see here, and additionally here, which makes footnotes. And we're going to look at the abstract environment which makes an abstract or a short explanation of what an article is about. The section about lists, we are going to both learn unordered lists and ordered lists. And we are going to learn how to nest lists. So here you see an ordered nesting and appear if you see an unordered nesting. In the last couple of videos, we are going to learn how to make tables. So here is a little example of a table. And you see here that it has a caption which we are going to learn, and that it has separate horizontal and vertical lines. So see you again in the next video. 14. Commands vs Environments: Hi and welcome. In this section we are going to learn about the difference between a command and the environment. So we have seen several different example of commands before. For instance, the section command, which looked like this. And common for all commands is that they start with a backslash in later, and then the name of the command, in this case section. And then they sometimes take in inputs. So the section command takes in an infant in the curly brackets, in this case of the section. And if we compile, we see as we have learned, that we have a section which is named name of the section. Another example of a command is the footnote command. So for instance, if I write some text and want a footnote, I used the footnote command, which starts with a backslash and then the name of the footnote command. And then inside here, I can write a footnote. If I now compile the documents. We see that we have some text and then a footnote which are assembled with a number here. And if I go to the bottom of the page, we see the footnote. So the arguments which are placed in curly brackets are non optional. So they need to be there. There are also examples of optional arguments which are placed in square brackets. So for instance here I can take in the number two and then compile. And now we see that the number here for the fifth note is not any longer one. It's two, which corresponds to the number I plugged in and optional arguments. And here we see also at the bottom of the page start instead of one, we now have two. So let's move forward to that. Alignment. On environment is a special pair of commands which always begin by begin the name of the environment, which in this case this document. And end with an end command. And then inside the curly brackets, the name of the environment. An example of an alignment is the abstract environments. So let me begin by begin and writes abstract here. And we see here we begin by begin, the name of the environment which is abstract and would end and an abstract. And let me write this is an abstract. So an abstract is a short text before an article which tells you what the article is about. So let me just compile. As you see here, we have an abstract to our article. So one mistake which is common is that we, for instance, misspell abstract so that the begin name and the end name do not correspond. And let me just say that I forgotten s. So now we see that all belief do not like this. And you see that it froze to errors here and here. But also if I try to compile it now, then it doesn't look that bad. But you see here you have an error. And if we go here, we say that begin abstract ended by, end up perfect. So let me just re-render it, like spell it correctly and recompile. Another thing which is common is that you begin on environment and forget to end it. So let me just forget ended. And again, you see that over leaf, try to warn your, so it tells you that you will get an error if you want to compile the document. But let me try to compile it anyway. So everything here looks fine. But if I go inside the log, we see that begin abstract ended by n document, which is not correct. You cannot, you need corresponding begin and end statements. So let me again just correct it by end. Abstracts and compare. See you again in the next video. 15. Unordered Lists: Hi and welcome. In this video, we are going to learn how to make unordered lists. To make an unordered list, we use the item and its environment as we learned in the previous video. And the environment begins with a big gun statements. It is case, begin, itemize. And by an And statement like this and itemize command. In the middle here, we see that all the leaf have autofill doubt X slash item command. This system make a single build point in our list. So if we try to compile now, we see that a single build point has been added. So let's say I want to make shopping list. And in the shopping list I need bread. And then I can compile the document. And now we see that a single bull parents have spin added with the word bread after it. To make another bill point, I make a new line and then write specially item. And then I can write, for instance, milk. If I now compile, we see that we have a 2 bullets list. One would bread and milk. And of course we can iterate the process with making several bullet pronouns like apples and pastor. And if I now compile, we see that we have a bullet point list with four items, bread, milk, apples, and past. We can also nest lists. So let's say that I want to be extra fancy and make my pastor from scratch. And I want to have the sub-points were the ingredients of the pastor. Then I can off the pasta, begin another itemize environment by begin at the mice here. And if I now compile the document, we see that we have added a dash after the Palestine. So to make pasta, I need flour and I need x, and I need salt. So if I now compile the document, we see that we have the ingredients for the pasta with a dash in front of them. And we can make nesting up to four levels in later. The item command can also take an optional argument, which is which kind of below point we want. So for instance, if I take square brackets and take a bash inside the square brackets and recompile. Then we see that instead of a bullet point, we have a dash before it bread. Okay, see you again in the next video. 16. Ordered Lists: Hi and welcome. In this video, we are going to learn how to make ordered lists. To do this, we are going to use the enumerate environment to start an enumerator environment. We begin by begin and then write enumerate. And let me go down here and press Enter. And now we see that we begin the environment by begin enumerate, and it ends by an NDA numeric. And in the middle here we have an item. So let me compile it and see what happens. And we now see that we have a single one here. So let's say I want to make a list of my favorite foods and I want to order them as well. On first place we have pizza. And let me just compile and see that we are first pizza. On second place we have pasta. And on third place we have a cone. And let me know, compile the document, and now we see that the elements has been ordered. So on first pizza, then passed on the second, third, we have phaco. And if you continue, we will have afforded to them fifth item and so on. As we saw in the previous video, we can also nest lists. So let me make an ordered list inside here. Again, we begin by begin, enumerate. And let's say my favorite pasta is spaghetti. And what we see happened here is that we have pasta and then we have a sub item, which is spaghetti. And if I write another item here, we see that we have an a and the B item here. We can also make unordered nesting. So we can also have a begin and itemize inside the enumerate environment. And let me just say that I go is good. And then compiled the document. And here we see that under taco we have the ability point is good. So let's say that I'm not too happy with it being numbered by numbers. Let's say I want to have like Roman numbers instead. The easiest way to do this is by the package enumerate. So let me go up in the preamble and import the package and numerate. And let's just compile C that nothing happened. Okay, so what I can do now is that the numerator environment can take in an optional argument, which is the kind of simple we want to use to enumerate. So let me take square brackets for optional arguments and then an I and parenthesis and compile now. And now we see that instead of numbers we have small Roman numerals. If I take a dot instead, then we have the same thing, only that instead of a parenthesis, we have got. If we want letters, we press an a, and if we want capital roman numerals, repress a capital I. Ok, so that was ordered lists. So see you again in the next video. 17. Making Tables 1: Hi and welcome. In this video we are going to learn how to make tables in late tech. To make tables, we are going to use the table or environment. So let me start by writing begin and then table. And let me not auto-complete. And by writing end hablar. So the first thing I need to decide is how many columns to tables should have. So the number of columns is decided inside the argument here. And we have three different options for columns. Either it can be right, which are symbol with an art, or it can be centered, which you'll symbol with a C, or it can be left flushed, which is symbol with an L. We can also add lines between the columns by using a pipe symbol. So for instance, if I add lines before and after the right most column, we can do it like this. If I tried to compile. Now, nothing really will happen because I haven't added any text inside my table. Let me start with first column. And to move to the second column, we will do it by an ampersand, then second. And then FRD. If I compile now, we see that we have a really simple table with first, second, and the third column. To add another row here, we will do it for the new line symbol, which is a double backslash. So let me also just go down so it becomes more readable. And right second row. And then again, an ampersand to move to the second column. And let me just do it a third time. And if I now compile, we see that we have two rows. And here the text is right, centered. Here in the middle, that text is centered, and here in the end, the text is left centered. If I want to add horizontal lines, I can do it with the h line comments. So for instance, if I add an h line here and compile, we see now that there is a horizontal line between the first and the second row, I can also add so many lines as I one. So I can add a second one and then compile. And now we see that we have 2h lines between the first and the second both. So let me also just make more vertical lines here and make a horizontal line on the top. And if I now compile, we see that this is our table. Okay, so this was how to make tables. So see you again in the next video. 18. Making Tables 2: Hi and welcome. In the last video, we made this table here, but there are some problems with it. So the first one is that the table is not centered and the second one is that it's part of the text. So let me just add some texts about and some text below and compile and only see that the table comes between the text. So the reason for this is that a table for later is just a very big symbol. So to fix our problems, we are going to use the table environment. So to do this, we are going to wrap the tape lawyer environment inside the table environment. So let me begin by table, jumped to the end and end the table. And let me just compile. And now it seems like table vanished, but if you look at the button, it's added. Ok, so still we have not centered to table. So let me fix that with a centering commands here. And if I compile now, we see that the table has been centered on the bottom of the page. Ok. So I'm really not happy with the placement. So late tech tried to places as best as they can, but sometimes it needs a bit of help. So I really wanted to be below this text here. So to do this, I can use the h command, which means that it's going to place it here in latex ice. And now we see that below the text, we now have our table. There are different kinds of option here. H means place it here. T means place it on the top. And what it does now is to make it centered on the next page, which is not freely on the top. So what I can do is to add an exclamation mark which kind of shout place it on the top. And if I now compile, it will place it on the top, but on the top of the same page above the title, which is not really what you want. You can do the same thing with the bottom of the page. So let me just compile. And now you see the table is added on the bottom of the page. Another thing you can do with the table environment is to add a caption or an explanation on the table. To do this, we will add the caption command captured and some explanation of the tables. So let me just explain by here is my table and compile. And we see now that we have a table which is called Table one. And the caption I made, which is here is my table. 19. Intro to Mathematics 1: Hi, and welcome to this first section on writing beautiful mathematics with late tack. What we'll do in this section is to first of all, looked at some basic math concepts. So we will explain the basic commands that you will use to write mathematics in later. To give you a few examples, we'll show you how to write square roots do not equal sign, as you can see here on the right, we will show you how to write the Greek letters for just pi, lambda or omega and all the others. And also how to use subscripts to get this 11 on the a down below, and the superscripts to get a to the second power. In addition to this, we have a few concepts that we want you to learn. First is what is inline math and how you should use this. The second is, what is a display math and how we can use this. And thirdly, we wanted to show you an external tool called detoxify e-types, if I will help you if you know what you want, but don't know the specific command in later. So we will cover all of this and more in this section on writing beautiful mathematics with late act. 20. Inline Math: Hi and welcome. So in this video, we'll start writing mathematics in later, specifically inline Mathematics. Before we do anything, I want to import three packages. So I'll go up into the preamble newsletter use package command. So I want to import AMS math, AMS soon, which is short for AMS symbols and also AMS th, m, which is short for AMS theorem. A lot of the math environments, a math commands or we need will be contained in these three packages. As such, I just want to import them right away from the get-go and we can freely use alter commands. So all throughout this section, we'll be using these packages. So let me move down into the main body of the document here, and let's start to write some inline math. So inline math is simply math written within the text. Intuitively, if I wanted to write a function, let's say f of x equal to five x plus three. I could just write it as usual. However, if I recompile now and actually look at what's printed out, this is not really correctly formatted. So if you see here, you'll see the f of x and it looks kind of weird. And it's simply because later it just treats this as texts. For late. I could treat this as math. We actually have to enclose it in dollar signs, symbols like this. This is an indication to link attack that we want to write in-line math, meaning math within the text. Now, if I recompile, we see it suddenly looks a lot more familiar and now it looks correctly formatted. So notice that this inline math has a beginning marked by a dollar sign and Mark also by a dollar sign. You need to remember to both at the beginning and unwanted or just do this and then tried to recompile, I'll get an error. So what kind of symbols can we use inside here? Well, as you can see, you can use plus minus. I can also use that division symbol, for instance, like this. So if I recompile, this will be formatted as usual division. So the usual arithmetic operations we have on your keyboard still valid here. One exception is maybe if you use the product symbol or the star symbol on your keyboard, then we'll get this. This might be what you want, but sometimes you also just want this to be a single dot or not really a star. And to do this you'll just right backslash and you use the CD command. doesn't need any arguments, stands for a centered dot. So now if I recompile this, you can see here that it actually looks maybe more like what you want it. You can also see that between the five here and the x, I've just written nothing. And then I will just format it as the five standing right next to next, which might also be what you want it. Except for the obvious things we can do, there are a lot of other commands we can use within inline math. Let me just explain two of them. The first one is the not equals sign. So here we have the equal sign. And how do you get the not equal? So for instance, so everyone knows that two plus two, i want to write a not equal to five. So how do I do that? Then I will use a special command called backslash and the q, which is just an abbreviation for not equal. So when I render this recompile, all get precisely what I want. Another command that is used a lot is a square root command. So how do we make a spare route? A student's current of nine. For this, I'll use a special command, SQRT. And this does accept an argument, mainly what I want to take the square root off. So in this case I want to take square root of nine. And I want to say that this is equal to three. Notice Teradata African square roots, since I want to add more text with an s, I need to close the inline math. Then right, is an open inline math and then write three again. Now, if we recompile the square root, root, root of nine is equal to three, we can see here that the square root, root of nine is three. So the square root function actually accepts an optional argument as well. So this I can right after the command name, but before the main argument. This is enclosed in square brackets. This signifies if I want the usual square root or the third root, that fourth root, and so on. So for instance, I can write three here. Look at the third root of nine. Instead of the second root of nine. These are just some of the commands you can use to write math inlined. In the next couple of videos, we'll look at a lot more and also look at a different way of writing math called display math. 21. Greek Letters and Fractions: Hi everyone. Right now, I'm not over leaves documentation page for the list of Greek letters and math symbols. And here we'll see a complete overview of all the Greek letters and how we can write them in later. So maybe here the most familiar one is maybe pi, which is written as backslash PI. You might also recognize other symbols. For instance, you might have had a calculus course where you've used epsilon and delta. You might have had a linear algebra course where you've used lambda for eigenvalues or maybe you've used omega in electrical engineering and so on, if you need a Greek letter in later. And here's a complete list of all the commands. Let's test this out and editor. Now I'm back in the editor and to write a Greek symbol, you can simply do an inline math and then write the backslash. Let's do pi first. Once I recompile, you can now see that we get the nicely formatted the Greek letter. Important thing about Greek letters is that there is a difference whether you use a small urine pi, where big P. So if the first letter is capitalized, then you will get the capitalized letter in the Greek alphabet. So this area is a capitalist Pi and this holds for all of them just to see a different example. So number one is lambda. Here. We can also see that overlay if gives us two options, lambda with a small l or lambda with a capital L. And this is two different symbols. So let's first do the small lambda. This gives us a small lambda. But if you change this to a big L and we get the capital lambda, as you can see here. This is really all there is to say, But Greek letters in latex, You could just refer back to this table and use them whenever necessary. A second thing I want to briefly discuss is fractions. So you can see up here that we had five x divided by three. This is one way to write a fraction, but it's not really the only one, but it can also use a special command. So this is an abbreviation of fraction, and you can see that this takes two arguments. And the two arguments are the numerator and the denominator, meaning the thing on the top and the thing on the bottom. So I can also write x here and the first argument, three in the second. If I recompile this, this will actually not look precisely the same. If you just write the division symbol, it would look like this. But if you write the fraction, it would look like this and it's a bit different once a bit annoying instead, if you write a fraction thing and this will actually make the next line push a bit down because this needs some extra space to avoid, this will typically use the fraction command like this in a display math environment. In the next video, we'll go through displayed math environments and how we can use some to get nicely formatted equations. 22. Display Math and Subscripts: Hi, so in this video we're going to discuss display math. So what is display math? Display math is essentially the same as inline math except that it's displayed on a separate line. So first of all, how do we write this? What you can do is just take an inline math expression like this, copy it. And then instead of having this dollar science signifying inline math, you can use a backslash and then the square brackets in the beginning, you would use backslash open square bracket. Well at the end will be a backslash closed square brackets. If I now recompile this, this will look very different from previously. Now you can see that we have what's called a display map is displayed on a separate line. If I continue writing after this, like this, recompiled, This will just nicely be put down here so that we have a nice displayed math environment, except that we're using different delimiters, meaning different opening and closing things here. And instead of the dollar signs, everything more or less works as the same and that's more or less older is to say about it. So something I also wanted to show was subscripts and superscripts. So I can say a second degree polynomial is on the form. What I will do now is write a display math environment for use backslash open square bracket. And I'll just write the backslash closed immediately and then go inside here. And let's write a function to its f of x. It's constant a times x squared. And how do we write squared, which is also called a superscript. This is just by the square root symbol on our keyboard. And here we should typically your right to the second power. But actually I want this to be inside curly braces for this number is not really necessary. It will be the same. If you have more than one thing inside here, then you really need these curly brackets. We have this and we have plus B times x plus a constant c. Let me now go and recompile. You can now see that we have a second degree polynomial. Instead of using ABC, we could've used a1, a2, and a3, or you use subscripts. So here instead of using a, we can use, let's say a2. And instead of B, and we can use a one, and instead of C we can use a 0. This is just a different way to denote coefficients, meaning of the numbers in front of the polynomial. Notice how we write this here. I actually forgot underscore. So I've written this a underscore to a underscore one and a underscore 0. So if we compile this and look at the difference, this is a subscript to a subscript one and a subscript 0. Again, I'm choosing to put the square brackets here, although they're not strictly speaking needed. If I just erase them like this, nothing will really change. You can see that it's exactly the same reason I have the square brackets is that if I wanted more than one subscript, then this is no longer possible. Say I wanted a subscript to be 00. And if I do this, I don't get an error, but I certainly don't get what I want. This is not what I intended. What I intended was for both the zeros to be subscripts. To make this happen, I'll just put the square brackets around them. Now if I recompile, you can see that it's properly formatted, like got a both the subscripts under here. So although it's not needed for a single one, it's good practice just to put it there anyway. 23. Trigonometric Functions and Detexify: Hi and welcome back. In this lesson, we'll go through a few trigonometric functions in later, before going to an external tool called detoxify. For the usual trigonometric functions, you can write a backslash. So first of all, I'm going into an inline math mode and occur right backslash sign. And this accepts the argument you want to pretend server instance sine of 2x. So let's now recompile this. And you can now see here that we get sine of two correctly formatted. Sometimes scientists also written with parentheses and instead of writing curly brackets here, you can also just write the parentheses and then we get sine of two, like this. So here you can see you now to get the correct parenthesis, if you choose to write the sine function without the backslash here, then you're not really applying a command. You will see the difference now, if you look here than the texts all skewed because usual text is skewed in math mode. So if you're using sine or cosine or any of the other trigonometric functions. Make sure to have the backslash here so that we actually call the command sine. Sine is of course one option. We also have cosine. This is written with a backslash cosine. And then inside here, that's right. For instance, pi, this is equal to negative one. So again, if we recompile now, you'll see that everything looks really nice. Of course, we can also use this with a display math environment. So let's say an important, an important trigonometric identity is an hour go into math mode for the display. But what might also be very useful for you is to just add a line break here so that we start on a new line. This will not affect the display at all. It'll just make it easier for us to read. We can also do it up here. This. And like this. Having this on a separate lines here in the editor will make it a lot easier, at least for me to read it. So here I can write cosine of X and then squared plus sine of x squared. And notice that I have discords inside curly brackets. This is not strictly necessary here, but it's a good practice. This will always be equal to one. Something that is slightly boring, but a bit useful is to know about punctuation. Here I put the punctuation inside environment, so you'll see it appear right here. Wherever. If I put it outside, then I exit the display mode and actually the punctuation disappears and it ends up here. If you can see it, this does not look good at all. So make sure if you're display setting, if you want to punctuation, then put it inside and as always in late, OK, if you're unsure than just compile it, see how it looks. If it looks great and awesome, if it doesn't, then change something. Now I must an online tool called detoxify. You can find a link in the description and it can also easily find it by just Googling detoxify. This is an online tool to help us find symbols in later. There is no one in the world remembers all of the later commands. So it's really useful for us to be able to just draw a symbol and then detoxify would try to come up with options for us to use, say I want to get a subset symbol in my later document. I know how a subset symbol looks, but I'm not really sure what the precise commanders. So what I can do is go here and then try to draw it. The drawing will not be very good if you're on a computer and just use the usual mouse. But still, even though it's pretty bad and get a lot of options, and this is actually the one I want. So here I can see that it's written as a subset E Q, which is probably a abbreviation for subset equation, even more likely to subset. And equality because this is indicating that it's either a proper subset or an ordinary subset. And this thing here, studying math mode essentially says to you, use this either an inline math or display math mode. You not use it in a text mode. And we can write now, we have that. Let's open an inline math mode a as a subset of B. So now I can write backslash subset EQ B and then recompile this. And we can now see that we get a subset. You should also notice that we've got this paragraph indentation here, and this is because we have an empty space here. So if I just remove this and recompile, you'll see that this disappears. The fact that a subset command is a math mode Command means that I can have it inside math mode. But if I try to just copy this and place it somewhere in the text like this, recompiled. And actually this would be a problem and I will get an error message and I will actually get us here in a document looks fine, but suddenly the rest does not look fine. That's because latex suddenly tries to make this into a math Environment, tried to understand what I'm really doing here. It doesn't really figure it out. So it gives me an error. Formatting doesn't look good at all. With the next word, makes sure that commands that are used in math mode, such as subset EQ or sine and cosine and square root that are actually used inside the math mode and not inside the text. 24. Exercise Second Degree Polynomial: Hi, I wanted to give you a small exercise so that you can become comfortable with the material about math we have covered. So here's an exercise where essentially want you to just recreate what you see on the screen here. This is just a basic fact about second-order polynomials under zeros. The math is not really important for us at all. What's important is to try to recreate this thing here. What would you need? Here we have an inline math statement with some superscript. Here we have a list, so you need to look back on lists from the previous section would steamer. You also have to display math modes here, you have a square root, you have a fraction things we need to look back on refraction command and also have this plus minus thing. But actually get a plus-minus is not really obvious. I encourage you to either google it or it used to detoxify site that I showed you earlier to figure out how to write this in later. So we'll find a solution and touched in the description of this video. I hope this goes well and we'll see you in the next videos. 25. Introduction to Images: Hi and welcome. In this section we are going to learn how to include images into our latex document. So first of all, what will we cover in this section? While as I said, we will learn how to include images or other kinds of graphics into our document. And what additionally, we'll learn is how to scale the image or setting the size of the image. Positioning the image either on the top or the bottom of the page. How to make captions. So a descriptive text under your image. How to wrap your image inside Text. And finally how to create a list of figures. So this is the thing so we will cover. So see you again in the next video. 26. Including images: Hi and welcome. In this video we are going to learn how to import graphics. So before we begin, we need to download our files. So, so our picture. And we do this by pressing the Upload button in the upper left corner. So here you can upload your file and you have two choices. You can drag your files and just drop them off here from your file directory, or you can select your files from your computer. So since I've already done this, let me just press council. And here you see that I have free files, two of them images. So the first one is this multidimensional plots here, and the last one is just a simple image of the plot of the cosine function. So before I start importing the images, I need to include the graphic package. So to do this, I go up here and write to use package, and then a graphics package. So let me take this one and press Enter. So now I can compile. And nothing will happen because I haven't imported images yet. So let's say I want to include the simple cosine picture I had here. Then I start by writing include graphics. So let me just press Enter. And I don't want any optional arguments yet. And here I can write example graphics, which is the name of the file. So let me just press Enter and compile. And here you now see that I have the picture of the cosine function. So the file extension here is actually optional. So I can remove it and compile again. And you see that nothing really happens. So you get the warning here because the image is too big for our page. So we need to scale it, so we need to make it smaller to make it actually fit to page. To do this, we can use an optional argument. So let me start with the braces and then I can write scale. And let's say I scale it by 0.9. So I multiply the width and the height of the picture by 0.9. And that's me compile. And now you see that picture got a bit smaller, but still it complains about it being too big. So let me go down to 0.5. So it's half the original size. And now you see that warning just vanished. So scale is just one way to control the size of the image. You can also use the width. So let me just delete this and write with here. And let me say it that way is 12 centimeters. And then I can compile the document. And now you see that the width of the image will be 12 centimeters. So you can also do other lengths like inches. So let me say it's two inches and compile. And now you see that the picture is exactly two inches. If you can do the same thing with height. So now instead of the width of the graph being two inches, we have the height of the graph is two inches. There are also many relative sizes. For instance, you can make the picture half of the text width. Ok, so let us write with here, and we can use the relative size 0.5. of the text width. Let me go down here. So the texts with command is just a command that escapes out the texts width or the width of the text. So let me compile. And now the picture here is exactly half of the text way. So if I just remove this one, it should be the entire text swift. And let's recompile. And now it's the entire width of the text. So if you have a lot of pictures, so your latest projects is really big. You sometimes will use folders or sub folders to organize the document. So to make a folder in all the leaf, we can press New Folder and let me call it pictures and create folder. And now I can drag all my pictures into the picture folder. And if I try to compile now, we see that the picture vanish and we get an error. And the reason for this is that it doesn't find the example graphic anymore. Okay, so what do we need to do now is to tell later that while all my picture is in the picture folder. To do this, we will need a function in our preamble, which is the graphic path here. So what do we need to do now is to say that it is picture folder. So I need to write the file of path through the picture folder. So first of all, the file path needs to be in another set of curly braces. So let us begin by dot to say, ignore everything in the file path before, right the backslash. And then pictures or the name of the folder. And then finally a single backslash. Because we have said that all the graphics in our documents is in the picture folder. Okay, so this was a quick introduction to how to include graphics. So see you again in the next video. 27. The Figure Environment: Hi and welcome. In the last video, we learned how to include images in all latex document. As you see here, I have added a bunch of text from previous time and have my graphics inside the text. And if you see on the compiler document, it doesn't really look very good. And the problem is the same as for the table environment that Plato really thinks that the figure is just a really big symbol. And the solution to this is very similar to the table environment as well, is to wrap it inside another environment called figure. So let me just write the begin figure on top pair and end figure on the button and compile. And now you see that it jumped to the bottom. And it's really not a part of the main text anymore. In many ways, this also works the same way as the table environment. So for instance, I can add an h here in the optional argument to make it come approximately here. And if it do not teach John where you want it, you can also add an exclamation mark which forces it to a place where you want. The other optional argument we had was top to make it on the top. And let me also have an exclamation mark to visually make it on the top and compile knowledge jumped on top. And we also have the button, which is the default argument here. So if we want to figure centered, we can use the centering command as we saw last time. And if we now compile, we see that the figure here is centered. We can also use the centering command on text. So let me just take it off center and compile the documents. And now we see that all the text here is centered. If you want to picture to appear on the right, you can use the right left command here inside the environment and compile. And you see now it appears on the right and the same goes for texts. Can also, let me just copy this command and replace the centering and compile. And now you see all the text is to the right. The last thing I want to take up is how to make a caption. And this is done the same way as with the table environment with the caption command. Here is. So if you now compile, we see that below the figure, we have the caption. We can also do this above. So let me just drag it above the include graphics and compile. And now you see the caption is above the image. Ok, this was a bit spotty figure enlightenment. So see you again in the next video. 28. Figures Wrapped in Text: Hi and welcome. In this video we're going to learn how to rap a figure inside the text. To do this, we will start by importing another package, namely the rap fig package. So you package rough thing here in the preamble. So let me just compile and nothing should happen. So the fig package allows us to use the wrap figure environment. It looks a lot like the figure environment, except we have some additional options switch we need to specify. So let me just begin by wrapping the include graphic inside the begin rough figure. And with an entropy figure. And if we try to compile it now, we will see that we get an error. Here. The reason for this is that we haven't specified all the options for I figure need to compile correctly. So the first option is whether we want to figure to a pair right or left on the page. So let me say that I wanted to paper left with an L. And the next one is how much of the page we want the figure to take. So we see here that the fingers takes up 0.5. or half of defects width. So let me go with the same thing here, so we don't run into problems. So let me now compile. And now we see that the figure here is wrapped inside the text. So let me just add some space above and below and compile again. And now the spacing up here looks a little bit better. We can add it to caption in the same way as we have done before with a caption command. So let us write the caption. This is figure and compile. And now we see that we have abrupt figure inside the text with a caption. This is a failure in articles. It's quite common to list all your figures and tables. To do this, we can use the list figures command. So let me go here and write lists off figures and compile. So you see here that we get a list of figures in the same way as regatta accountant list in one of the previous videos. We can do the same thing with the list of tables. And now you see that we have a list of tables, but we haven't added on a table so it's empty. Okay, that was everything for this video. So see you again in the next video. 29. Exercise Images: Hi and welcome. In this exercise video, we are going to import some images which fit with the text. So your exercise is to find some images online, for instance, of pineapple or some pinup, both FEM stuff and import them into this text. And try to use different techniques like placing the image or wrapping the image inside the text and making captions to use all the things we learned in this section. Good luck with exercise and see you again in the next section. 30. References and Links Intro Video: Hi, welcome to this section on adding references and links to our documents. So this is a pretty short and sweet section. What we will cover is, first of all, how do we reference a specific page? This is the first thing. Say we want to reference something on page three, then we could do it manually. But just saying, look at a thing on page three, however, what if that changes in the future? Say we add some more text at the beginning of our document and note that suddenly on page four, and we need to go back and change this manual and this is not ideal at all. So we want to add references to specific pages that update automatically. And the same goes for referencing sections, subsections, and for instance, tables in your document. How can I reference Table one or section five, sort of this will be updated if something changes in my document. And thirdly, I want to talk about how to add links. Sir, here I wrote like it should be links, how to add links to other web pages in your document. So you can see a link and then you can press it in an automatically the webpage should open. We will see how to do all of these things in the next couple of videos. 31. Basic Referencing: Hi. So in this lesson, we're going to talk about referencing within a document. Here, I have a relatively empty document. I have a basic preamble with nothing special. And you have here a section called latex where it says later he's amazing software for typesetting. And a section called writing by hand, where it says, this is self-explanatory. Now, I want to add a section about Microsoft Word. So just down, make myself a section on Microsoft Word. Inside this section on right a reference to the latex action. So I can write, unlike late tack discussed in section one. Word is more user-friendly, and this works fine. You can now see that I've referenced the first section wherever this is actually not good at all. The problem now is if I rearrange something, say node that I want best writing by hand section, actually want desk to go first. I'll just paste it in here. Now I'll recompile. After recompiling, you'll see that writing by hand section has the number one. And in Microsoft Word section, this is unlike latex discussed in section one, but later gets no section two. So this is very confusing. The problem is that we were manually referencing and we need to keep track of all the updates and other documents get longer. This becomes almost impossible in the amount of work you need to do. So how do we fix this? What we can do is to add something called a label, and this is added with a backslash label command. This takes in one argument and it's a name of the label I want to use to make your reference. So here I can say, for instance, Let's say latex section. Now, instead of directly referencing to section one, I'll use the Command backslash rough. Inside here you actually see overlay for giving us a few options, and it's this one I want. So now, after recompiling, you'll actually see that this is fixed. This is no section two and it's fixed independently of where I put things. So again, if I rearrange, let's say R1 for some recent firstly take than writing by hand and then Microsoft Word. And still now later becomes one. And inside Microsoft Word it says, unlike latex discussed in section one, so under the hood, latex now takes care of the numbering so that all references are fine. Use this syntax. So if you want to label something like a section or a subsection, then you use the backslash label command when you want to reference to it, use the reference command. Some people like to have the label on the same line here. Some people like to have it one line down. This doesn't really matter. This is just a preference. In addition to the rough command, there is also the page rough command. So let me write. Can learn more about later on page and here I can use the page ref command. And now again I can refer to a label. So I can again refer to the latex section. Label. Copy this in here. Recompile. And now you can learn more about later on page one. Of course I only have one page, but in longer documents, this is really useful. Imagine having to say something like, you can learn more about this on page 35. And then after that you add more content previously and documents that the page gets shifted. Excluded lake that keeps track of all of this. Sort of you don't have to. So you can use Page rough reference specific pages and rough reference specific environments are commands like the section command here. Here I'm an older leafs documentation page for tables. So recall it steam it taught you about the tables previously. So you have a table environment and inside a heavier tabular environments. And then you can have a caption at the end. Just wanted to show you, instead of typing all of this out, that you can also label tables. So here in this example you can see that you have a label command, which is called Table one. And once you've set that label, then you can reference the whole table. So here we can write a table, reference table one is an example of a reference later element. You can see here that it says Table one and a caption. And it also says table one here. When we did a reference, if I make another table for their open a document and this, and this will automatically both be changed to a tool. You can use the label and reference for table environments and also for figure environments when it comes to images. 32. Referencing Equations: Welcome back. So in this section I want to talk about referencing specific equations. So let's write a display math equation inside the latex action. So let's again talk about second-degree polynomials. So second degree polynomial, it's on the form. Now, let me do that display math environment. And I can write a squared plus b times x plus c. Just some repetition from the method section all the way down into Microsoft Word section. Here I want to reference that specific equation. It's a question such as NAD equation. It's not that nice. Inward and problem is how do I refer to that specific equation? I could just refer to the whole section. But imagine that a section has typically a lot of equations, but could be very difficult. In fact, to be able to do this, I need to change this here. This is a basic display environment, but it does not allow for referencing. So what I can exchange it too is an environmental call equation. Then I will write begin equation and an equation at the end. And now, if you recompile this, almost nothing has changed except for one thing. You'll see here that I get this indexing one. This will allow me to do a reference. Again, I can use the label command. And here, let's call this polynomial equation. Now instead here as a first attempt, I can try to use the reference command and just take the polynomial equation and paste that in. And there's almost work. You'll see now that it says secretions such as one is not as nice and word, it looks almost correct except that I'm missing these parentheses here. The goods have parenthesis. We could manually add them at both sides here. We could do this and this will work. But we also have a special command that we can use that as a lot more convenient to do this, we actually need to import one of the math packages, AMS math. This package needs to be imported in the preamble for us to use this command. And instead of adding these parenthesis manually, we can use the EQ. Wrath is an abbreviation for equation reference. You'll see now that once I do this becomes very nice. Natick no keeps track of all my equations. So if I switch up some equations, the liter reference here or there later will automatically update so that things are correctly referenced. And again, if I want to write labeled here or put it one down, this doesn't really matter. This is just a preference. And final thing. When I reference the section, I used this sign. And when I reference the equation, I used this sign, it does not matter at all. You would probably just be consistent and use one of them. What I typically do is four equations. I will use an EQ for just to remind myself that this is an equation I'll typically use, say, underscores here for a section, I'll typically write SCC and then later section. 33. Hyperref Package and Links: Hi, just a quick comment about the previous video. So when I change the name here and the label, of course need to change the name and the corresponding reference. So this name here always has to be equal to the name here when I make the reference. So I've changed this now sorted all of the names that I'm referencing are the same as the two labels. What I'll do in this video is to introduce the hyper graph package. This will allow us to make links to outside pages of our document. Flow go up in the preamble here and import the package hyper eth. It's actually pretty important to import the hyper ref package as the last package. The reason for this is that it redefined some of the later commands, but it's important to have it last. Now if I recompile and it doesn't seem like much have happened. But actually all our references have become clickable. If I go here, you can see that the corrosion becomes clickable. This will automatically take me to the page where the reference is at, which is here. Of course, I only have one page for is not that easy to see. What I can do is to go here between the sections and use the command new page. This command takes no arguments and it's pretty self-explanatory or simply go to a new page. So now you'll see that after writing by hand section a jump down a page to Microsoft Word. And if I now click here, this will automatically get me to this equation here. The same if I click on section 10, automatically jump up to relate extraction one. So if I go a pair after the MCH title, I can add a table of contents. This is nothing new, I can recompile. But now inside a table of contents, this is also clickable. So if I want to go to microsoft poorest section, I can just click here. And I go to Microsoft Word. Of course, when I have two pages is not really that useful. But imagine you are writing a report having to be 1020 or 150 pages. And this is really convenient for quickly jumping through the document. And another thing that the hyper F package allows us to do is to make links to outside web pages. So let's say I go into the latest section here, and now we want to add a link to overlay so you can find it, find more information on over leaf hurricane use the URL command, which takes in a single input, and this is precisely just the page you want reference to. Think this is their homepage sludge as recompile, antsy. Yeah. Now you can find more information on over leaf. This is an a monospace font. Every letter has the same length. And now if I click this, I will go to the overlay page. Sometimes you actually don't want the full link to be displayed because this can be in some cases very lengthy. So what you can do instead then is to use the HRF command. Is unlike the URL command, takes in two arguments. The first one is to link, but the second one is the name you want it to be displayed. So let's say over leaf. Now, when I recompile this, you'll see here that you can find more information on over leaf. Now, over leaf is clickable. If you click here, it will be taken to this link here. This is more or less a21 and comes to references and links. And electric section, we'll look at how to add colors to links to make them more distinguished. 34. Introduction to Mathematics 2: Hi, and welcome to this second section on writing mathematics. So what we will learn in this section is to write different calculus expressions like limits, sums, and integrals. There after we are going to go through making different parenthesis and how to space the mathematics correctly. Thereafter, we are going to go through some math funds like the boldface and graphic frontier, and how to make dots and all the lines over our expressions. We will also go through multiline mathematics, like you see here. And this here. And we will go through how to write matrices and how to write cases. This function here is the absolute value. And it has three different definitions depending on where you are. So when your are positive, we adjust, give off to value x, then you are 0, you give it 0. And when you are negative, then you flip the symbol so that you give out something positive again. Okay, so this was the introduction. So see you again in the next video. 35. More Math Symbols: Hi and welcome. In this video, we are going to learn how to write some limits and integrals. So first of all, you see here on the top that we have imported the usual math packages. In this video, we are usually just going to use the AMS math package to write the mathematics. Okay, so let's begin by sumps. One thing you need to know about SMS is that it displays differently in inline math and display math. So let's say I want to write a song in inline math. So then I take my Douglas science and the command for some is just some. And if I want some lower limits, I take the underscore and some curly brackets. And then I can write the sum from n equals 0. And let's say I want to sum until infinity. So then I have the caret symbol and to make infinity, I just write infinity. So let me just compile the document. And now you see that you have the sum and then n equals 0 to infinity. So let me just also write frack and then something that actually makes sense like this. And now you see it appears that we have this sum from n equals 0 to infinity of one over n squared plus one. If we want to write the same thing in display math to see the difference, we can just write displays and let me just copy this line of code here and compile. And you see here there are some main differences. First of all, the N equals 0 appears below in display math, and infinity also appears above. So here you see that they all appear on the side. And the reason for this is that the inline math needs to fit inside the line. So if I have some text here, and let me just copy some texts a couple of times and compile. You see that it fits inside the lines so it doesn't look horrible to have this inside the line. So let's move on to integrals, and it works more or less the same. So the command for integrals is int. And then I can integrate from 0 to one. And let's say I want to integrate x squared and then Dx and then compile. So also here you see that the 0 is just to the right of the integral and the same about one. And if I write the same thing in display math, it will appear a bit different. So let me just copy this line. And here you also see that latex uses a lot more space in display math than in line math. If you want to have a double integral, you can write II. And let me add something that makes sense. So plus y d y. And let me say that I only integrate over some set S and compile. And now you see that you have two integrals beside each other. You can also do free Integrals. Let me also just take these set and compile. And now you have free integrals here. And again, if you do the display math, free integrals and compile, banished looks a lot better. Okay, finally, I want to talk a bit about limits. Recommend for limits is slim. So usually when you work with limits you have X goes to something. So let me just take the underscore. And to make x goes towards one, I will write x. And then the command to, to make an arrow and then one. And if a no compile, we see that we get the limit as x goes towards one. And let me also just write x. So we have some actual limit here. And again, if we write the same thing in display math, let me just copy this line here. It will look a lot better even though it takes more space. And here you see that you have x goes towards one below delimits compared to here, where it's just on the right of the limits. So you have several different commands which behaves more or less the same as limit. For instance, you have the max command, which takes the maximum, the min command, which takes the minimum, the subcommands, which takes the supremum, and the command which takes the infimum. You also have like variants like lim, sup and limb, and they are just limb, surf and Lim. So let me just compile. And here you see that we have a long list of difference operators. So let me work with the max command. And let's say I want to take the max of an electrolytic backslash curly braces, one comma, two comma free backslash curly braces, and then one more curly braces too, and this one here and compile. And now we see that they take the max over n in 1-2-3. And let me also just take an n here. So I have actually something to take the maximum of and compile. So the recent hair for me taking a backslash and then the curly braces. That curly braces is a special symbol in tech. So to say too late tack that I actually want a curly brace, I need to take a backslash in front of it. So let me just briefly show you how max isn't display math. Let me just copy this piece of text here and Control V compile. And here we see just like with limits, the satyr appears below the maximum. And all the other commands here behaves the same. Ok, that's a bit more about math. So see you again in the next video. 36. Mathematics on Multiple Lines: Hi, and welcome to this video is about writing mathematics on multiple lines. So while you often need to write mathematics on multiple lines for several reasons, one reason is that your equation simply doesn't fit on a line or you want to do several steps with mathematics before splitting it up, put text. Okay, so how is this done? So there are two simple environments I want to go free today. And one is the online environment, and the second one is the multiline environment. So let's start with the simplest one, the most enlightened environment. So to start a multi-line environment, we start with begin and unmute the line or move blank. Let me press Enter. So let me just check that everything works by writing some mathematics like f of x equals 2x and compile. So when you look at this thing here, there are two things you notice. The first one is that f of x has quite a distance to the equal signs, which has quite the diffs to 2x. Recent for this is that the multiline for the MOOC environment is really made for having multiple lines and working with really long equations. So let me just write a really long equation to see how this works. So let me just start with writing a polynomial. X squared plus three x cubed plus four x y. And since I'm lazy, let me just copy the previous things here. Control V plus like this and let me see if it's long enough and compile. Okay? Let me just make it a bit longer to really see what the problem is and Control S again. Ok. So here you see that your line of mathematics goes outside the page, and this is a problem. So making use of the multiline environment, what you can do is to break up this line with a newline symbol. So let me see where I want to do it. So it will be approximately before 3x cubed thing here. Think it's here. New line. And then let me just for formatting, press Enter and compile. So what you see now is that you have this long equation on one line and then directly below the rest of the equation. So as we saw when we talked about the question, if we want to remove this number here, we can use a star in the environment. So by having a star after the multiline and let me compile. And now we see that the number vanished. You can also, if you want to have it on multiple lines. So let me have a line break here and compile. And now you see that your equation is unfree lines. Ok, so that was the multiline environments. So the other environment I want to talk about today is the line environment. And the line alignment works a lot like the table environments we talked about previously. So let me start and align environment. And let me write that again a line and press enter. So what I want to write to in here is a set of equations. So let me start with the first equation. Two x plus three, y plus preset plus w equals two. And I want everything to align on the equal sign here. So I will have alignment character or the ampersand here. I want to of the equation to be on the next slide. So let me have another ampersand here. And the next equation, which is going to be three x plus four, y plus one sets plus 0, w. Four is a good number. And again, I want to align everything on the equal sign here. And let me just compile now. So here you see you have one equation and then some space and new equation. So if I want to write the rest of the equations here, I can write X plus four, Y plus three plus w, and then the ampersand, so that this equation here aligns with this one on the equal sign. Then free and then the ampersand. So that this aligned here with this. And then the last equation can just be minus x minus y minus, minus W ampersand equals or alignment equals free. So let me now compile and see what happens. So here is the result. So now this equal sign here is a line from this equal sign here. This space here is the line with the space theorem, even though you can't really see it. And this equal sign here, It's aligned with this equal sign here. Okay, so what do you think is that you don't really need alignments in bold here. So let's try to remove it and see that it's really needed. So when you compile here, you end up with no space in between this equation and this equation. And it looks really horrible. And for some weird recently you end up with space here. So you really need the alignment symbol here. So often when you're using the alignment environment, you really don't want to number each line to remove one of the numberings, you can use the command no tank. So if you now compile, we see that just one of the lines are numbered. As Ilich talked about when we were doing references, we can label this equation theorem. So I can make a label here. And let me call it lined environment. And then I can use the EQ breath to references below. So let me go down to line environments and make a cross-reference and compile. And now you see that we have one here referencing this equation here. And if we remove the stars on multiline, We can do the same thing here. Label line environment. Let me also reference that here for the EQ ref Kodak to multiline and compile. And now we see that we have two references, one for the multiline environment and one for the alignment alignment. So another usage of the alignment environment is if you want to do longer computations. So let me just quickly do another example with enlightenment. So let me say that I have the function f of x. And this one is equal with an alignment at equal sine two x plus three y minus two x here. And what I want to do now is to simplify this equation. So to do this on the next line, I start with the new line symbol. So let me press Enter to make a new line to make it easier to read than the alignment equal. And then F3 Y, which is the simplification and compile. So this means that you can do several lines of math without breaking up. So let me just make it a bit nicer with having the star Sarah, so we don't have numbering on each line. Okay? I think this was everything I wanted to do with multiline and alignments. So see you again in the next video. 37. Formatting Mathematics: Hi and welcome. In this video we are going to learn how to format mathematics better. So here I have imported the AMS map and EMS and EMS theorem, even though I really only the, this one. And here we see a couple of examples of not so good formatting when it comes to math. So let's solve it one by one. So the first one here. So the problem is that if you have really long math equations inside your text, then it doesn't really look that good. So here, instead of using enlightened math, is, would it be better to use map instead of the dollar signs? We replace it by a backslash and then brackets. And now it looks a lot better. As a rule of thumb, you are inline math relation go above 1 third of the texts width. So if it's over 1 third of the texts wave, you should use display. So that was the first one, the next one here. The problem is that it looks a bit cramped here. So when you have conditions such as for all x not equal to one, you usually will have a lot more space here between the equation and the condition. Okay, so there are several commands for spacing. One of them is quiet. So let's try this one and compile. And I see that there's a bit more space here. But if I want even more space, I can use the QQ plot command. And now you see you have even more space here. So late Tech has a dozen of different commands for spacing. So Haram in delay tech documentation on all the leaf. And I'm under the theme spacing in math mode, which you can find here under mathematics. And it's all about spacing and how to create more space in mathematics. On the bottom of the page, we see a lot of different commands. For instance, the quantum command. We also see the backslash comma command, which makes it really fun space, and the backlash Space Command, which just make a normal space. Additionally, we have the backslash exclamation mark command, which makes negative space. If you sometimes thinks that the spacing here is just a tiny bit too big, you can use the backslash explanation mark command. Okay, so we are back in our documents. So here we solve this problem. And the final problem is this really long accretion here, which simply does not fit on one line. So we learned in the previous video that we could use the move the line environment or the moved line environment to make it on several lines. So let me make this and both line. And let me still have IT started. Like this. And let me just compile to see it that everything is okay, right? Nothing happened. And all I want to add a new line here. So I go into my texts and a new line and then Enter to make it easier to read and combine. And then I end up with an error. So you see here we have an error and we have an error here. And the problem is that we use the left command here and the corresponding rights command here. And these command cannot be on separate lines. So if I remove the right here and the left here and compile, then the error is removed. This here does not look really good. So the parenthesis is just way too small here and here to make this look good. So a way to fix it is to add up big in front of the parenthesis. And this just makes the parenthesis eager. So let me compile now. And now we see it's a tiny bit bigger, but I wanted even bigger. So let me have a capital B and a G here to make it even bigger. And now it is approximately where i wanted. So now you see that this parenthesis is huge, but this one is still very tiny. So I do the same thing on the end parenthesis here, b, i, g, g, to make it really big. And now we see that the corresponding parenthesis here and here is the same size and everything looks way nicer than before. So now I am in the overlay of documentation. And the theme here is brackets and parentheses. And it's under mathematics here. And you see that here it's different kind of parentheses like norm or pi. So vertical bars and so on. On the bottom here, you see different sizes of parenthesis. So you have the big and if we want to bigger you can capitalize the B. And if you want to treat even bigger, you can't have two Gs. And then the biggest one is with capital B and two t's and all the other parenthesis followed the same pattern. So as a final thing, when it comes to integration is custom to make a fin space before the dx to kind of separate to the function and the dx. To do this, we can take the backslash and a comma to make a really tiny space. So let me just compile this again. And you see here we have a really small space separating the cosine x and the dx. Okay, that was a bit about formative or make better formatting in later when it comes to math. So see you again in the next video. 38. Math Fonts: Hi and welcome. In this video we are going to look at Math fonts. So again, we have imported our math packages, AMF, math AMS fonts and AMS theorem. So this time our fonts are male Nico and to be in a mess fonts. So you really need this package to make everything compile correctly. Ok, so there are several different math fonts in later. So the first phone to I'm going to explain is the boldface math font. To make this, we need to be in math mode. And let's say I have the letter a here and I want it to be boldface. So if i compile now, then we have a over here. So let me probably soon a bit. Okay, so here is our a. And if I want it to be in bold faced and I simply press backslash, right, math bf, which stands for math boldface. And then it close to a in curly braces. So if I now compile, we see that the a is known boldface. So this is, for example, used if you want all your vectors in boldface to distinguish them from numbers. Another font I want to explore is the calligraphic forms. So this is, for instance, used for topological spaces or sets or whatnot in mathematics. So if I take the math cowl here and I want a t for topological for instance, and compile. So now you see that the T has this curly font. And the same is if I, for instance, take math, Cal and then see for collection. And again, we see that it's much more curved than if I had the normal C. So let me just for comparison, a normal C in math mode, looks like this, and the math cal see, looks like this. So the final point I want to explain is the blackboard bold face. So this is, for instance, used if you want to do the real numbers or the natural numbers are the integers and whatnot. So this is done with writing math, BB, four, blackboard, bold, curly braces. And then for instance are. So if I now compile, we see that we have this notation which is usually used for the real numbers. So both math Carl and math Bibi really only works on capital letters. If I tried to use it on non-capital letters, than I'd get something, but not really what you want. So for instance, if I do math BB and compiled, and then you see that you get this reversed G here for some reason, which might be what you want, but it's not like a small, a width math BB funds. And also if you tried to do math, cal and small a and compile, then we will get this symbol over here, which is used in logic. Other things you can do is to have different kinds of OL lines or dots over your symbols. And for instance, if you want the normal line, you can either use the bar. If you only have one letter or if you have moved to pull letters, you can use the overline. Lets me take AB and compile. And here you see that a has all valine and the AB has also a Nobel line. If you try to use the bark command with several letters, for instance, AB and compile. Then we will see that the still has the same length as if it was only one letter, but it's in the middle of the letters. So in general, it's much better if you have several letters that you use the overline command. If you want to have a derivative over your letter, for instance, a dot over your letter. Then you can use the command dots. And then for instance, f and compile. And now you see you have this dot here, the letter F, which often denotes the time derivative. The usual derivative is denoted by f prime. So we can compile and see the difference. So here is the usual derivative and here is the dot derivative. You can also have several prime after each other. And it will look like this. Here. This was a bit about funds in later. So see you again in the next video. 39. Matrices and Cases: Hi and welcome. In this video, we are going to go through two more math environments, namely the matrix environment and the case's environments. Common for both of them is that these alignments need to be written inside a math environment. So for instance, you can write matrices in, display math, inline math, or a line or any kind of these environments which except math. So let me write my matrix inside a display math environment. And to begin a matrix, I will use the matrix environment. Begin. And then matrix. And then I press Enter. So the matrix environment works very similar to the table environment and the alignment environment. So for instance, if we want to matrix where the row 1234 and then 4567, then we bright one. And then the alignment character to linemen character, free, alignment character and for, and to go down to a new row, you press the newline character, then we can write five. Alignment can characteristics, alignments, alignment eight. And if you now compile, we see the matrix here. So more often than not, you have some kind of parentheses around your matrix and you have several different options here. For instance, we have, if we start to matrix with the PI four parenthesis, you will get these round parentheses around your matrix. As you can see here. You can also use B to get the brackets around your matrix. You can also use v to get vertical bars. Here for denoting, for instance, the determinant of the matrix, which doesn't make sense in this case. And this is just some examples. There are other kinds of parenthesis you can have around your matrix. Also, if you want to name this matrix, you can write a equals and then this matrix. And if we compile now, we see that we have a equals this thing here. As with many other of the math environments, if you write that in inline math, it looks a bit different. So if we change the display math to an inline MAF and Compile here and let me also write some text. Then you see that the matrix is way too big to fit inside the text. And I do not advise writing matrices inside in-line math. Ok, so the other kind of environment I want you to go through is the cases environment. And this is simply to write, for instance, functions which have one definition when x is above 0, and another definition when it's below 0 for instance. So again, I need to write it inside some kind of math environments. So let me again write it inside this play Math. And let me define the absolute value of x by using the cases environment. So the absolute value of x is defined as. And then I can begin my math environments. So begin cases and let me press enter. And now I want to write the three different cases and the definition of the absolute value. So when x is greater than 0, we have that the absolute value gives out x. And then I used the alignment symbol. And then I can write text, which allows me to write text inside a MF environment for x greater than 0. And let me also have some space. So this is the first case. So when x is greater than 0, it gives out x. So then I can have the newline character. And it gives out 0. When then use text again to give out text. For X equals 0. So this is the second case. And the final case is when x is negative, we give out minus x. And this happens when for x less than 0. So let me compile. And now we see that we have defined the absolute value in this free different cases. So this was just a short video of how to make matrices and cases in mathematics. So see you again in the next video. 40. Making Theorems, Definitions, and Remarks: Hello and welcome to. This video is all about how to create different environments, like PROMs definitions and remarks in later. Ok, so the things we are going to use in this video is mostly contained in the AMS theorem package. So what we want to do is to create the theorem environment. So if I try to make a theorem here, you would think that you could write theorem, begin theorem and end theorem. But different tried to compile. Now. Then we see that we get an error. And the reason is that the theorem environment is not yet defined. Okay, so how do you define the fearsome environment? So we start by going up to the preamble and write new theorem. Let me go down here and press enter. So the new theorem command makes a new theorem environment. And the first thing you need to decide is what are we going to call the environment? So here we see that we have cold environment theorem. And to define it, we need to write theorem here. So if we compile now, then we see that we get a number. If we do not have any error here. But it doesn't tell you that this thing here is the theorem. To do this, we use the second argument here and write the name. So fierce and compile. And we see now that this theorem one appears on the page. So here inside the environment I can write now this is theorem and compile. And now we have a theorem which states this is the theorem. The theorem environment right off those to the box can take in an optional argument which will then become the name of the theorem. So let me write the square brackets to denote an optional argument and write the name of theorem and compile. And we see now that we have a theorem and in parenthesis we have name of theorem. So here you can have the name for some other additional information, like where you can find the theorem and so on. Okay, so let me write another theorem environment. It's the definition environment. So again, I need a new theorem. Let me go down here and press Enter. And I wanted to be called definition. And every time I use the environment, I wanted to write out the definition and compile. So let me quickly use the environment by begin the MTR and compile. And now we see it after we have the definition one. And let me just write this is definition. You see that both the theorem environment and the definition environment is numbered. To get rid of the numbering. For instance, on remarks, you need to add a star when you define the new theorem. So let me ask an example, new theorem. And then the star symbol for Mark. And then let me call it with the cathode tool remark here. Compile. Okay, so now if I tried to use the environment's remark, let me begin by begin from Mark, enter. And frightened this is remark and combine. Now you see that we have a remarked without the numbering. So the final thing I want to say is that when you have the numbered theorems and definition, you can also label them. So here you can have a label and definition. So the label, this is a definition. So below here I can reference the label. So for instance, width, breath command, and press. This is the definition. And if I now compile, then I get one here. So I can write here definition. And then one. Ok, this was everything I wanted to say in this video. So see you again in the next video. 41. Numbering and Theoremstyle: Hi and welcome. So in this video we are going to continue talking about theorems and how to make them. Okay, so if we go here to the text, we see that both theorems and definitions have their own counting. So if I write a definition, one more definition. Again, definition down here and compile. We see that we have Definition one and definition to and fear on one if you want to have it so that the definition continues to home thing from theorem. So we have Theorem one, definition two, and definition free. We can do this with an optional argument in the new theorem up here. So let me go here and have some square brackets to denote the optimal arguments. And here I can write the name of the environment. I want it to continue the counting off. So for instance, here we have the theorem environment. So if I write, fear and compile, we see now that definition just continues the counting of the theorem environment. So we have Theorem one, definition two, and definition free. Another thing we can do with the numbering is to have the numbering of the section as well. To do this, we have an optional arguments after the two require to arguments here. And let me write section to get the numbering of the sections and compile. And now we see that we have the numbering of the section. So we have section one, which corresponds to this one. And the first thing in section one is called 11 and so on. So if I go down here and make a new section and write a theorem and compile. We get that in the second section. We have the counting two dot one. So other arguments we can put here is, for instance, chapters. If you're writing a book or sub-sections, if we want to have the numbering of the subsections as well. So another thing you can do with the theorem environments is to apply different kind of styles. So here we are applying the default style, which is the plain style. So for instance, if I write theorems style and let me just press Enter and right plane. It means that all the next ones will have the theorem style plain and compile. Then nothing happens because plain style is the default one. Another style you can apply the definition style. To do this, you write theorem style and write the definition. So not all the environment created below the definition style, we'll have the definition style. So if we now compile, look here. You see a dot instead of being italicize, the text is now straight. So the final style I want you to look at is the remark style. So again, let me write theorem style and remark. And now only the remark environment will have the remarks file. And let me compile it. And now you see instead of this text here in the beginning being bold face, you have that it's italicized. So often when you're talking about theorems, proposition or lemmas, you need proofs or you want to prove your lemmas, propositions and so on. This is really easy to create. You just used the proof environment. So let me begin by begin proof, enter and write. This is proof. So if I now compile the document, so what you see here is that it types out proof in italic. And you had this square here with South Sudan. Proof is finished. Okay? This was all I wanted to say about theorems. So see you again in the next video. 42. Intro to Fonts and Colors: Hi and welcome. In this section, we're going to talk about fonts and colors, and that's a motivational example. Let's look at the template CV that I found. This Cv To be honest, looks amazing. It's very slick, it's very neat. Let's try to identify what components go into this CV so that it looks the way it does. First of all, we have a clear hierarchy in the sense that we have different font sizes here, here, and here that gradually guide your eyes. Secondly, you have a good grasp of alignment. You have a good line materials here and so on makes the whole thing seem very structured. There is a good use of icons. So for instance, here and here, this is after all, just inserting images. You can also see lists, but you've learned in late tack and inserting URLs that you have also seen a lot of the things in this CV you kind of already know, doesn't mean you're an expert in putting it together. But you know the components. What you don't know yet is how to manipulate fonts and colors. This is a really big part of the C V. So here first of all, you can see that this is slightly bigger than this, which is slightly less than this again, which is slightly bigger than this. You have this hierarchy in size that guides your ice. Secondly, ever good use of colors in the sense that you only use two colors for the whole thing, essentially in pretty black color, font weight is used very heavily in the sense that this has a lot bigger font weight. Dance, save this. If you take a look at this section, you will first guide your eyes here because that's the biggest text and it is in purple. Then you will look at each of the components here, because this is highlighted in boldface, and then you will read individual texts pieces. So a lot of this is good assign, but it's also being able to manipulate colors and fonts. And this is what this section is about. 43. Manipulating Text: So now I'm back in my overlay. And here I have a more or less empty document, or it says manipulating texts. And here are some texts and can be manipulated. So one way that we saw previously it just to recap, is or we can use the command text BF, for instance, which makes something boards. We have the command text IT, which makes something italicized. And we're also had underlying, Which makes something underlined. So this is all repetition. Let's just see. It would typically not used under lying inside the text. It is lot more common to use it and headings. Another thing we can do is to manipulate the font-family reusing. So in late tech, you always have a crept serif font, sans-serif font, and a monospace or Typewriter font. So here you can see a picture describing the difference between a serif font and a sans-serif font. So in Serif fonts, you have these things here at the end of letters, which are called serifs. And some serifs simply means no serifs. So this is a lot more common in classical type writing. Sans-serif is something you see a lot more, for instance, on the Internet when we're back in our document, if we zoom in a bit, it's clear that this is actually a serif. So you have these serif, Marx for instance, here and here and on all the letters. How do we make something sans-serif, meaning don't have serifs. What you can do if I want to make this manipulated word into a sans-serif font, is that a group it by placing parentheses around circular brackets. And then inside here I used a command. As a family. I don't need you to take any arguments. I simply place a space between here and here. And now when I recompile everything that is inside the grouping will become sans-serif font. If you look closely, you can see that this does not have the serifs at the end of the letters. Finally, we also have the monospace are typewriter font. So again, I can take this thing here in the group, the manipulated word, like this, and then I use backslash T, T family. And you can see now a business written and a monospace or Typewriter font. This is really useful if you want to display code in your later document or just have kinda old school fetal of the document. Finally, we should be able to manipulate the size of our texts to create this visual hierarchy that we saw in the CV template. To do this, again, if I want to make the first letter here smaller, first group it like this. And then I will use the small commands, as simple as that. For now, take a look and smallest, the smallest you can make something so it's a bit hard to see here, but it has become slightly smaller. If I want to make something a lot bigger, one command I can use this, say Qj, then compile. And you can now see that this is a lot bigger. Now over n over leaves documentation page. And if you go here to font-size as families and styles go get to this page. And if you scroll a bit, don't you consider reference guide. And here we can see all the commands for manipulating sites. You can go all the way from the tightening command up to small, as we saw it's monitor slightly smaller than normal size. Then you can go all the way up to huge. And then you can also write huge with a big H, giving us something rather big. This is really the most basic manipulation of text. You can make it bold, you can make it bigger, make it italicized, or for instance, change it to a monospaced font. 44. Finding Other Fonts: Welcome back. In this video, we're going to get even more fonts by getting external packages we can use to get a bigger selection of fonts and our documents. Right now, among that latex font catalog page, you can find this page by just Googling does Title here or checking the description of this video here you can find it rather big selection of fonts. So up here, you can find, for instance, what's called color graphical funds. A 100 northeast looks like hand-written fonts plus coherent, tried to pick a rather nice one. I think this Caligula looks nice. Here we can see a text example, and here you can see the usage and the style examples. So what you'll need to do is to go to usage. And here we can see which packages you need. So you need the package called Caligula, and you also need the font encoding package. I'll just copy both of those. Now I'm back in our document and up here I'll just pasted two packages. So this is the front encoding. This is more or less required if you want to use external fonts and this specific package for the font I want. So how do we use the font? Say I want to make the title calligraphic. And I'll just go to the title or make one of these groupings. And inside here, I'll use the command Caligula. Again, this is more or less the same as this as a family type thing where this doesn't require any arguments per se, just requires it to be inside the grouping. This will make it sort of all the other text inside a grouping will be applied with this font. Now if I recompile, you can see that I've gotten this calligraphic title. How did I know that this was a precise command I needed? Here I am again at the calligrapher page. And here you can see that style examples. And this is where you can find a specific command you need to use to get the tax in this style. Here we have something called Unicode fonts. And these look rather interesting, I think. So here, if I go to say this one, then I can go here and check what packages I need. So I already had the font encoding. Soldiers copy the unicode package and before heading over, let's see. So I need to use the UN CL family command. Now I'm back in your document, so let us first of all import the package. Now I can use this specific command. So let's say here, I'll make a grouping. And this is the command and Cl family. I think. By doing this, you can see that I get this kind of interesting frontier. So this is just two basic examples and I encourage you to just go into the site and check out more. A final thing I want to point out is that some funds will actually overwrite these basic SR family and tt family and also the sans-serif one, which is called RM family. So again, I'm back at a later font cataloged close now try to override the monospace or the typewriter font. Let's see here we can find a typewriter fonts. And let me take something that looks okay. I think this one looks good. So this is the ammonia font. So for this, I need this thing here. I already have the font encoding. I don't want to go into the middle command here because this will set the typewriter font to be the default font. So whenever you're writing, it will automatically be in typewriter. So I'll just take this. Now again, I'm back in my overlap document. Let's paste in the package. And I don't need to make anything more because we already have so monospace font here. This word here being manipulated. This isn't monospace font. And if I now recompile, this style will be overwritten. You can see now that it looks quite different. This is not the only way to get external fonts into your document. You can get specific font files, which can end with say, a t, t f extension and then import them by uploading them there in the file storage here, and then using them within later. This is another option, but I chose to do a specific one just using the letter catalog because here, this gives you rather OKC selection of fonts, as you probably noticed here, just smashing different fonts with no thought into it makes the text not look very good. But if you stick to a few number of funds and you can make it look really good. 45. Setting Basic Colors: Hi, so final thing about importing font packages and said this is an excellent example of where you should place comments. So for instance, here for this barrel motor package, I should probably pays a commentator telling myself what does really dusts. If I come back to this a few months later than I might not really remember what this does. The fact that it resets and oral command makes it especially important for me to document whether it really does. So now we're moving over to colors. The basics of adding colors in later is actually really simple. What I'll do is they imported package and I'll use the package X color. There is also a package called color, but it's usually recommended to use the x cholera package as you have a lot more options here, let's just recompile to see that the package is imported correctly. Ok, so this looks good and say no that I want to change the color of this section here. What I can then do is stand to use just that command. So everything is going to sing grouping here says texts has now been turned red to be really specific, I think actually we should have narrow sets of parentheses here to indicate that the first here is the brackets coming from this section. Then I make a grouping. Here I set the color to red and I have the text manipulating texts and underline Miseq can do all over the place. So for instance, if I wanted to change the color of this some word, I'll just make a grouping. And then I can do backslash color. And let's choose the color blue recompile. And this is more or less it, the biggest problem so far is that we have really few colors in more or less just have the basic primary and secondary colors. To get a few more colors, we can add the optional argument, which is called DVI EPS names. This is what's called a driver and it will give us a lot more colors to work with. So here, for instance, instead of blue, I can write all live green, both with the big O and big G. Recompile this. And now you can see that we have this kind of olive green color like this. Now I'm back in the ovary of documentation in here you can see a complete list of the colors we now have available. So it's a lot more colors and sometimes this will actually be enough. But in other cases, you want to define your own colors to have even more customization options. And we'll look at that more in the next video. 46. Design Custom Colors: Hi. So in this last video, we'll talk about making our own colors. Might seem initially that this collection of colors we get from the extra package with this driver gives us enough options. But really they don't because sometimes you want to tweak colors in here. You can pick anything at all. You either have to use olive green or say green and nothing in between, so you don't have that much control. How do we make our own color? What we do is go up into the preamble here. So let's do it under the packages. In here we can use a command called the fine color. You see it pop up here and it actually takes three arguments. The first one is the name of my new color. Let's just call it my new color, for instance. Secondly, we need to specify which format we want to enter the coloring. So later has a bunch of different formats you can use. One of the most common ones are RGB, which stands for red, green, and blue. So here in the last argument, we specify the amount of red, green, and blue we want in our colour. And this goes from 0 to 255. So if I, for instance, say 255 comma 0, comma 0, then I essentially make red. Let's just make a combination. Let's say that I have a 187 here, I have 42, and here I have 97. I've defined my colors. Delicious recompile. So far. Nothing should really happen because I haven't used it yet. Let's go down here. For instance, in this word here, I'll use the command text color. This takes two arguments. The first is the color that I want to use, and I called my color my color. And secondly is what I want to change. So this is the word here, so I can just copy this inside here. Now, if I recompile, we can actually see what kind of color I made. And this here is the color that we got. So this gives us a lot of possibilities. Just a quick note under the different formats of lactic acid. This is RGB, which is a very common one. If you write RGB with small letters, this is not the same. So if I tried to recompile it now, this does not work. The way we wanted to do. Textures disappears. And this is because we've RGB, things are normalized to one. That means that here, you should really want the same colors. Really first calculate this number here. This number divided by 255. This number here. I can't do it just inside later because in this way, later doesn't really understand arithmetic that recompiled is first and then I owe debt numbers between 01. So this is kind of a normalized version. Typically if you find colors on the internet, there will not be normalized. So you need to remember to make this RGB in capital letters. A different one you can use is give us a new color. And let's call this next color. This is a color in the so-called heck system. So in later you should write HTML. This alludes to the Martin language, HTML, which often when you use it, combined with something called CSS, uses hex colors. This is a combination of six letters, C, for instance, 665544, something like this. Giving you a color. And now instead of my new color, I can write next color and see what I got here. This is my color now, so it looks almost black, so it's kind of just grey, brownish. This here should be written in the number system with base 16. If you're unfamiliar with that done, I just encourage you to either google it or just skip it for now. You can always convert between this XHTML format and the RGB format. There's a bunch of different formats. And again, just encourage you to go through the overlap documentation page for colors. Just take a look at the different formats you can use. Okay, so before we end, let's just make the document at least slightly better than what it looks now, but you shouldn't. Things we know here. Let's begin at the top title. I like this calligraphic font, but I would also like it bigger. So I can use backslash, huge with a big h. Now if I recompile gets a lot bigger here, the second font, do you NCL family looks kind of funny, but I don't really think it fits with the rest of the things. I'll just simply remove it like this. I think this looks nice and a color, but I don't want anyone to just be in black. There are ways of changing the one to also become the same color. But the simplest way for me now is to just make an unnumbered section. Let's do that. And then I'll worry about the colors later. So here we just have a lot of random text. So instead of this, let's just take this as the text for mine, her graph, something like this. Just take it instead of using this lorem ipsum thing for blind text, I'll just take something and then copy it a bit. Now it looks like this. And actually here, instead of using the manipulating texts, I think I can use a monospaced font here just because it looks a bit fun. So let's go here and use the TT family. Remember that we've overwritten the default monospace font with this Bermuda thing here. So now if I recompile will look like this. So I think this looks kind of cool, but I don't really want the default red color for this. So let me just try my new color just to see how this works. Like this. You can also see there can just pass your new color into the usual color function as well. Now you get this, I think just looks kind of interesting. So let's just see how it works with more sections. So I'll just copy this thing here. And yeah, I think this looks kind of interesting. I'm not saying that I would go for this as an end result, but at least it looks more consistent and I'm not using too many forms. One of the big mistakes that people who are getting into fonts and colors do when they start using it, using way too many. So they think they will use like 15 funds within documented than 25 colors and just looks horrible. Or if you want to do is stick to a few different fonts here, here and here, and stick to just a few different colors. Finally, if you want to find inspiration for using colors and documents, but you don't really have a good eye for colors and hundreds of pages on the Internet giving you core templates code template is just a set of colors that look reasonably good together. So here's a page I think called colors does really matter which patient we're using. Just search for color templates. Here you can see different colors and they look nice together. There is different formats, different, different sorrow. And you can just go and say, oh, I like this one. And here we can see the hex color. So if I just selected, I'll get the hex value. And maybe I specifically want RGB. So here I have the RGB values. I can probably just click here to copy it. Knocking, go back in my little document and use these colors. 47. Introduction to Citing: Hi and welcome to this section on citing width peptide. So often when you are writing text, you will need to cite different sources. So to do this, it will be beneficial to use peptides for several different reasons. For instance, it takes care of all the numbering and everything happens under the hood would be black and it makes the sighting more consistent so it follow very strict regiment. It makes it also easier to edit afterwards. So if you want to, for instance, have a different style of citing or something else, It's much easier to add it than having to go through every individual thing and changing it. So the thing we will cover in this video is how to cite in later. We will learn how to set up a BibTeX database, how to change the bib textile, and finally how to make a reference list. So let's get started siting in IPsec. 48. References in the Main File: Hi and welcome. In this video we're going to go through how to make citations in later. Okay, so in this text I have written some citations. And what I'm going to convince you is that this is a really bad way of doing it. And here you see that you have the number one, which refers to this fairy tale, The Little Mermaid. And you have the number two, which refers to the novel Frankenstein. And if you're looking at the compile documents, it looks okay. You have this references and it looks fine. But let's say I want to make another reference above this one here. So above the Little Mermaid. What I would need to do that is to change all the numberings I have in my entire documents. And this can be quite a hassle if my document is very long. Another example of why this is not a good way to do is is that if I want to change the entire scheme of reference, so for instance, I want a m and then the year like this, and the same here, S, h, and then the year which is a team. Then I will go down here and need to do it manually. And unfair it is seven. And this one here, S, H a. And again, if you document is very long, this would take a lot of time. So this here is just another way to write the references. So how do I want you to do it? While we will learn here two ways to do it. The first one will be the easiest one and it will not require another file. And the second one, we will do a split file, which is just a database of all your references. So let's start with the easiest one. So the ECS Wave to do is, is to use the bibliography environment. So let me begin the bibliography. Press enter. And now you see that over leaf have auto filled out several different things. The first thing here we need to decide is how many references do we need? So this number here is just the number of references. So let me say two. And the thing is that you can have fewer references than this number, but it's kind of like a maximum. So you can have everything from one reference to 99 in the bibliography. So down here we see that we have the bid Python command. So bip item command Create a new reference. So let me call the reference Anderson. And below the Anderson reference, I will need all this information which I wrote down here. So let me copy it and paste it up here. So if I now compile the documents, we see that we have our references here. And we have one reference which is the Little Mermaid. But yet we don't use this reference here. So the way to use preference is to use the site command. So let me go up here and write the site command. And then I write the name of the citation, which in this case is understood. And then close the bracket. And if I now compile, then we see that we have a reference here. And it's refers to this reference down here. So let me add another big item on here. And let me call this Shelly. And below, again, I just copy the information and paste it. And if I now compile, I have two references, but I don't use this one yet. And bright, Shelly. And then end the bracket and compile. And now we see that we have two citations. One referring to the Little Mermaid and one referring to Frankenstein. Belief this information down here and compile. So let me talk a bit more about the site command. So the site command can take in optional arguments, which is usually, for instance, where you find the specific bit of text. So let's say I want to cite the page for the seven of Shelley's Frankenstein, which is written like this. And if I now compile, I get the reference to and then the page. And easily to make it look a bit better, I will use this tilde symbol here and compile. And now we have a space theorem. We can also plug in multiple references in the site command. So I can cite both Anderson and Shelley. So now we see that we have both the reference 12 on page 47, which looks a bit odd. So let me remove this additional information. Okay. I think this was everything I wanted to say in this video. So see you again in the next section. 49. Citing with BibTeX: Hi and welcome. In this video we are going to learn how to make a big tech database. So what is a bit thick database? So a big tick database is just an external file with all your references inside it. So to recreate this external file, you can au pair and press New File. And then the name of the file, which I'm going to call it PEBO, short for bibliography. And file extension we're going to use is dot pip. So let me create this file. And then you see a pair that we have a new empty file with nothing in it. So to create one item, as we saw last time, you've ticked, uses slightly different language. So let me copy one of the references here and paste it. And what I'm going to do is to translate this text here to be bib tech item. So all the big tech items start with the at symbol. Thereafter, you need to say which kind of documents you are referencing. In this case, you are referencing a book. There are other kinds of file-like article and PhD faeces and whatnot. And a list of them will be referenced in the description. So after your Britain, what kind of file your preferences? You need to add this kind of start and end curly braces. And all the information which you had here is going to be contained in the curly braces. So first of all, we are going to add the name of the reference, which are pair we had shelly. So let me just copy it, paste it, and then make a comma. So now this reference here is named shelly. Thereafter, I'm only the offer of the file. The name or the title of the document. The publisher, which apparently I can't spell publisher. And a year. So if you're a referencing a book, then all of these fields need to be written in. So let's start with the offer. So the offer is written in quotation marks here. And in our case, it's M shelley. So let me copy the name of the author like this. And after the offer, I will need a comma to separate it from the title here. Here I write the title again in quotation marks, which is Frankenstein. Copy it, paste it. And with a comma. The same is true for the publisher. I had just type quotation marks. The publisher here, copy town, paste it. And then for the comma. And finally, I have my year, which is 1818, and quotation marks. And then optionally i can end with a comma, but it's not really needed since this is the last field. So this is this item here, only Friston in VIP tech. So let me delete it because this is not valid in this file. So now I have my first reference inside my bib file. So often when you use pip tech, you want to copy the items from some external sites like Google Scholar. So for instance, if I search for the late tech companion, go down here, press enter. Then I find the book about later, which is called the later companion. If I go down here, I can press site. And here you have all the different citation. But down here you see that it's written Pip like and if I press this one, it will open the citation here, which I can copy. So now I can press copy what I found about the later companion. And here you have all the information. Okay, so one thing you might note is that in this case, we have this curly braces instead of quotation marks. So the point is that you can choose either of these two ways. I choose quotation marks, but tabbing curly braces is just as valid. And other thing you can note is that here you have several offers and they are separated with the end word. So this is kind of like a special board inside Pip tech and you get the name of the author and then the next second one and the third one and so on. This was a bit both how to create a big tech database. So see you again in the next video where we are going to learn how to use the database. 50. Using the Database: Hi and welcome. In the last video, we learned how to make Pip tech database. In this video, we are going to learn how to import it and actually use it. So currently, this is our main file and this is our fifth tech file. And they have nothing to do with it. It's shutter. So before we begin, let me delete everything here so that we have an empty document and now we have no references. So the first thing we are going to do is to point this main file to the bib file here to say to later, where it's going to find its Pip like entries. To do this, we use the bibliography command. Let me press Enter here and we write the name of the bibliography, which we do not need to file extension here. So let me just currently compile it. And we get no errors. So everything is working. So what we can do now, let me just create some text like this. And what I can do now is to actually cite the files inside here. So for instance, this one is called this long name here. So let me just copy it and use the site command. And here it actually tells me that this is a reference. So I have two references and this is one of them. So let me press it. And now overly auto-complete it, everything. So let me now compile. So currently it will not recognize the reference because I have not written which kind of style reference is going to be in. Let me add the style, bibliography style. Let me add plain and compile. Okay, so to make another cetacean, we can again use the site command. And here we have dereference shelly. So let me press this one and compiled. And now we have two references here. If you want to change the style, we just write in something else here. Another option, which is alpha, for instance, compile and see what this does. Now we see that the style of the reference changes. So we have the first three letters of the offers and the year of the publication. Ok. This was everything I wanted to say about references. So see you again in the next section. 51. Using Templates Intro Video: Hi, I'm glad you're still here. So in the next couple of videos, we're going to talk about document classes and templates. So first of all, what is a document class? So we've seen that in the beginning of her later documents, we always have this document class command. We can actually modify this to get different formats for our documents. So first of all, we'll look at optional arguments in the document class and how that can help us change the document. It's a special case of this. We'll see how we can get a landscape mode and our document. And thirdly, we'll talk about entirely different document classes. And in particular, look at the letter document class to see how we can read professional looking letters. Secondly, we'll look at templates. So templates, religious mean, pre-written later documents that other people have written for us that we can borrow and modify to speed up or writing. So first of all, I'll show you a confine latex templates or many places I'll show you one in particular. Secondly, we'll look at templates for specificly posters and letters. And thirdly, I'll show you a really great looking CV template that I've found that you can use to modify and make your own CV. I hope you're also excited for this, so I'm happy to start with this in the next video. 52. Optional Arguments in the Documentclass: Hi and welcome. So in this lesson we're going to talk about optional arguments in the document class. So what I have here is a document we had in the fonts and colors section. You don't actually need the document yourself for this video, it will suffice to just watch me type stuff. We can't change the Document class here if instead of article we can, for instance, do letters or Biemer, and both of these will do later on before this, it's actually important to understand we can change a lot just by adding optional arguments as well. So I'll go here before the main argument and open a pair of square brackets. In here, I completed all my optional arguments, and these were significantly changed the structure of my documents. First of all, I can specify the font size of my document. So I could say ten PT, indicating I want 10 size for my font. This will change nothing at all because the default is ten points. But say, for instance, I choose 12th. Now I have a bigger font size overall. So this optional argument you can use for changing the font size. Then there are two optional arguments that regulates equations. Let's go down here and let's go into my paragraph. And let's say Add begin equation. And let's do two plus two is equal to four. And let us notice two things here. First of all, it's centered. So it has equal space on the left and on the right. Secondly, the label here, and we see here is on the right. And both of these things can be changed. So first of all, if I wanted to change the first aspect, I can write F, L EQN. So I think this is an abbreviation for a float left equations. Now, if I recompile and all my equations will be floated to the left, as you can see here. Secondly, I might want to take this reference here or this label and put it on the left side. To do this, we can write l e 20, which is I think an abbreviation for left Equation number. When I recompile, you can see that the label here is on the left. So these are two optional arguments that you can use for manipulating the display of equations. We have two more optional arguments that I want to briefly go through. And those are the two that have the most significant impact on the document. First of all, it's a two column argument. What this does is instead of having a streamlined flow downwards, you get two columns. So let's see how this looks. This is really useful when you're writing reports, when you're writing papers, or maybe when you're writing a CV that he wanted to have two columns. Finally, instead of writing down words on a sheet of paper, we could flip the paper around and have what's called a landscape mode. For this, we simply pass in the optional argument landscape. Now, if I again recompile, you'll see that we have a landscape mode now again with two columns. So maybe I want the landscape mode, but I just want one column. Then I can delete this again and recompile. And now we have this landscape mode. 0s five optional arguments you can pass in not only to the article document class, but also to most of the others. 53. The Letter Documentclass: Welcome back. So in this lesson, we're going to dip our toes in different document classes by writing a letter. So here I've just started with a basic blank document in over leaf. And what I'll actually do is just delete the whole thing. I don't need any of that so far, what I will do now is to start to write a letter. So first of all, I'll write the document class. And instead of the article, this is an important part. I want a letter or certain aspects that needs to go into letter. First of all, we need a begin document and n document environment. Like this. This is the same as for an article, but inside here, we need a begin letter environment. What makes this a bit different from what we have seen before is that the begin letter also requires two arguments here. And this is some extra information say, about the company and so on. For now, I'll just leave this blank. For inside my letter. I need an opening and closing. This is prescribed with an opening command and a closing command. Each of these commands takes a single argument describing the opening of your letter and the closing of your lecture. Here, for instance, I could say to whom it may concern. And here I could write yours faithfully like this. Now I am almost ready. Inside here I can place the arbitrary text I want. This is simply the text of my letter. I'm almost ready before the begin document. I need two more things. I need a signature, which is a signature of your letter, and it can steamer, you can fill in your own name. Secondly, we need an address. So let me just say fantasy town, thoroughness, specify more. Let's skip down a line. Then I say, if I'm fantasy Street and fantasy house number, and I think this is all I need to hear. It should of course, be to whom? Yep. So this looks almost good. Of course here I should have backslashes and not forward slashes for line breaks, recompile again. And yeah, this looks good. Here you can see the basic structure of your letter. So let's just quickly go through it to the signature, of course gets down here to address is here. Here it also have a date. Then you have your opening, then you have your actual texts of your document, and then finally you have the closing of your letter. This is more or less all I have to say about writing letters. Maybe a final thing is that I pointed out here that is the second argument. And this is typically for business related information. Let's say you're a CEO of of the business. You have a business address like this and let's recompile. Now you can see that the extra information comes up here. So this is typically for company information or extra information in general. And finally, everything here seems a bit clunky. It's a lot of jumping in and might seem a bit weird. But this is because the military so short. So if I take this thing here, let's just instead of using bind text again, let's copy it omega2 and copy this again. And I get four. Let's copy this again. Let's do something like this. Maybe I'll add a paragraph. So more. Let's try to recompile. Now, this looks a lot more like a typical letter as I told you in the previous. Oh, we also have optional arguments for different classes. So here, I think the size of the font is a bit small. Plus 212 points. Yeah, it looks a lot bigger. So you could of course specify more optional arguments, but none of those we have gone through is really fitting here. Even I just want to warn you if you do, for instance, landscape will not give you an error message. It will just completely ruined your letter. This is because the underlying data doesn't really know what to do with the landscape for a lecture class. So you should not specify this. And also the others that I've gone through is not freely data applicable here. So if you want to set an optional argument in letter class, I think you will mostly just be regulating the size of your phone. And let's just recompile. And this is our final leisure. 54. Using Templates: Hi, so now we're going to look at templates. So first of all, what is a template? A template is code that someone else has written for you so that you can modify it to your own needs. You could of course, write every document from scratch and in practice, especially for, say, writing CVs or writing presentations. This can be very time-consuming. So what you often would do is to look for templates. In first place, I would advise you to look for templates is an overlay. So if you just go to Google and just Google overly If templates, you'll get to this page. We can also find it here in the menus of your leaf account. Here you can see a lot of different categories of templates. So in this video, I just want to check out two of them, namely the posture and the formal letter that we looked at in a previous video. So first of all, let's take a look at a poster. You might think some of them look nice and some of them don't. That's perfectly fine. What do you want to do is find one you like, really like the structure of go into it and take a closer look. Say here that I like this. This is from the University of Melbourne and this is a poster or a scientific conference could do this, but it's easier if I want to get a quote for Look first of all, just to download as a PDF. So here we have a centered title. We have University and the name of the author. We have logo, and we have this multi column structure here. So here we have this kind of titles. We have texts and formulas in between, and we have images that we can enter ourselves. It seems very much like the landscape mode instead, and we have three columns going back here. I can now view the source. This will give me this pop-up and it can take a closer look. So for instance, here we have a document class. So the font size is 20 Londoners. Quite a lot of other arguments that I don't recognize necessarily. And this is the class called poster. This is not something we have gone through, but that doesn't mean you can't modify the document with what we know. So here we import a bunch of packages. Some of these packages you have seen like the AMS math, AMS theorem, Amos fonts, the input encoding and so on. While others you might have not seen like the adjusted box, but these are still just packages that contained commands one can use. Here we are in this preamble and they are setting some kind of color theme it seems. And then they begin the document here. There are some meta information. And then this looks very familiar to begin to document. You make your title, you start centering and you start some environment called columns. And then you can look closely through the document. Important thing is not a you understand each single line. Important thing with what we've learned is that you understand the structure of light-dark documents. So you noted above here or in the preamble here, run the main part of a document. Here you begin an environment called columns, whatever that is, you can Google if, if you want to know more, and if not, you can just try to manipulate the tax and see what happens. Finally, if you're confident that I really liked it and I want to try it out. Just press here as open as templates. And if I do this, what we will do is simply create a new document for me with that information here. And now I can go down, let's say here an important problem. So this is clearly this. So this is some kind of block and an important problem is specified as an arguments. So let's say are not important problem. I don't really understand this block environment at all, but let me just see if I can manipulate it. And it turns out, but I can so I can still manipulate things even though I don't understand all of it. But it seems like this block command first gives me as the first argument, the title here, and the second argument that text. And functionally that's seems like almost all I need to know to be able to do some basic manipulation. I'm back on the templates page and let's take a look at formal letters just quickly. Here I have a bunch of formal letters. And there's a lot more here if you just call further. And I think this looks may be nice. Yeah, let's take a look instead of downloading and just zoom in a bit. So here yet font looks really nice and the colors and opacity here of the Texas nice. Here you have some kind of company logo which I can hopefully able to remove. I think I like this one. So as before, I'll just open it as a template and try to modify it if I need to. And that's really all there is to templates overly If it's not the only place on the Internet where you can find templates. Norway is just to try to group what you need and you'll find a lot more templates and a lot of them will be on GitHub. So here also you can see the latest version is at and GitHub Lynch. I encourage you to just make yourself familiar with a few templates and see what they have to offer. In the next video, we'll look at manipulating and gorgeous CV. So it's a CV we have seen previously in the course. Next video, we'll open it and try to modify it a bit and I'll leave it to you as a project to fill it in with your own information to see how that works. 55. 55 Project CV Template: Hi. In this video I want to show you a great looking CV and invite you to modify it yourself. Right now, I'm not overly template page and I'll just go through the search bar here and copy and Marissa Meyer, We can also manually navigate if you go here to CVs and finite here, and then I'll pick the first one here. So this is recreating Business Insider CV of Marissa Mayer. This looks really cool. So open this as a template. And you open a template can be a good idea to just quickly navigate here. So you have a few PNG, so images here you have a bibliography file Cristina told me about. So here you have a read me file so you can look at this if you want to make some serious modifications. I also just that you do is essentially try to modify this CV to become your own. This is a really great starting point for really good CB. The first thing I want to do is just scroll down a bit and take a look. Here we have the document class and specifies the Font Size, A4 paper, and so on. And then if I go and look a bit down here, we have a lot of colors that are being set. And if I go even more down here at the document begins. So here in the name column, you can specify your own name. And I'll just recompile. And you can see now that it changes, even though there were things here we don't know. There's just so much things we already know. It's not that difficult for us to just modify the document. So here we have some lists, here we have sections and subsections. We have fonts with colors and so on, have links, and we have images. So what I invite you to do in this very open-ended project is you just take this Cv and tried to modify it away. One, you might want to change the colors, you might want to change the font. And of course, if you want to make this really into your own CV, then you probably want to exchange models, all of the information and add your own. So you, maybe you don't have this broad of an experience section, but you can make your own sections. So I won't go through a run-through of this project as it's so open ended. But I hope you take the time to look a bit at the CV, maybe just try around, play with it and see how it works. One of the main takeaways here is it's always good to build on other people's work as long as you understand the basics. So you guys know understand lists, tables, sections, and so on and so on. So you can modify things if you have no prior experience would later can just jump into a template, then it's really hard. And you spent a lot of time doing silly mistakes. Since you know the basics, you should actually feel pretty comfortable going in here and modifying things. If it's something you don't understand, then don't be afraid to either google it or just play with it and see how it works. I really hope you have fun with this challenge. And then Stephen will see you in the next video. 56. Introduction to Beamer: Hi and welcome. In this section we are going to learn how to make presentations using Beamer. So in fact, what you see here on the screen is an example of a beam of presentation. So keep this in mind when we are looking through the slides. So first of all, why would you use Beamer compared to another tool like PowerPoint to or slides or whatever. One reason is that you can use Latex to make your slides. Which means that if you are basing your presentation on thesis or something similar, you can just copy your code directly into your presentation. The second reason is that it's much better for showing math than for instance, PowerPoint. So what we will cover in this section. So first of all, we will learn how to make presentation and Beamer. We will learn how to speak the page into several slides. So for instance, if I go back and forth, fair, you say that the two appears and disappears and we will learn to spit the page into several such slides. The first one is to structure the information into boxes, which we can see on the page here. And the fourth one is to change the style of your presentation. Okay, so see you again in the next video where we actually going to go through some of this stuff. 57. Beamer Basics: Hi and welcome. In this video we're going to learn how to make a simple presentation using Beamer. So first of all, we need to use the Pima class to create a Beamer presentation. To do this, we remove the article here and write Biemer. And if we now compile, then a couple of things happen. Most notably, you have the different aspect ratios. So now this side here is longer than this side. Another thing that happens is that these kind of different symbols appear here, which we are going to learn what the meaning of those are in a second. But you still see that a lot of the structure is the same. You have the title, which appears to be title here, the offer, which is our fur here, and the date which is to take tier. And the main title command does exactly the same as it did previously. An alternative way to do this is to write frame and then backslash, title, page, and then close the curly bracket. And if we now compile, we end up with two identical title pages. So you can choose which one of these you want to use. I will just use the Make title because it's what I'm used to. Another thing you can do is to write Institute and the University so that your university appear on the Bieber template. So here you have the additional information with a university, which is really common when you're are doing beam or presentations. If I write some more text here, let me do it. Hello, this action and compile. So you see that you're still get another page. But this is not really the way you should deal with a Beamer presentation. Instead of what you should do is to create what's called a frame. So to create a frame, you begin with begin frame, and then enter. And then you have your Frame Title inside the curly brackets. So let me just write title here and let me coffee is some more text inside here. And five. And now see that the text becomes centered and we have the title Above. And everything is just a lot more structured this way. If we want to make more frames, we can just make an outer frame would begin and end frame here. And let me recompile. And now we see that we have free frames. So our title frame, our first NoneType will frame, and our second frame here. The final thing I want to explain is how to make an index. So you see here we have a section. This doesn't really appear anywhere. So let me also make another section here. And what I want to do is to create the table of contents for this presentation here after the title card. To do this, I begin by begin frame, and then content here. And then inside the frame, I can have a table of contents. And if I now compile, we get our content page with the introduction and this can section. And if I click on it, I jumped down to where I should be. So this is a very good ways to kind of structure your talk. So you start with what you are going to go through in your presentation and then you go through the material. So this was a really short introduction to Beamer. We're going to delve into more Beamer related stuff in the next video. So see you then. 58. How to Structure your Beamer: Hi and welcome. In this video we are going to learn a bit more about Beamer, especially how to structure your Beamer presentation. So a common object in Beamer is this kind of pluck formats. So this is for instance, if we want to have like an example and you want it to be stand out that this is an example and everything isn't an example environment. Or you want a block of text which is all contained in 150mm. So to create a block, we use the block environment. So begin block. And the block has a title, which you can do in curly braces. So let me just write phi as the title of the book. And here are different being related. So if I now compile the document, then on this page, you have this beam here. And some text below which are kind of stands out from the text below here. This will be more prevalent when we use a different style. So when we go more into styling your latest document, so you have different kinds of blocks. So you also have an alert proc. So begin alert block. And it's also have a name and alerts box is generally used for important information. So let me just write important stuff. So if I now compile, we will have two blocks inside the frame. So you see that instead of this blue color here, the important stuff has this red color. So the last block is the example block. So this is done by begin example. And here we don't need any title. And let me compile for the final block. And the final block example is green. And you have the optional argument of the title. And if I now compile, we have the example first example. Okay, so, so far, if you want your presentation, you'll have this slide, this slide, and then all this information here. So mostly want one of the things to pair off than others so that you don't scare your audience away with just a huge block of text. And this is just write pulse here. And if I now compile, so this is off the define block. So you see it after hub the first frame here. And no only defeat block shows on this. Here. On the next slide you have all the rest one. So in your presentation you go here, yeah, the theme. And then you have dressed. So usually you will have several posts this pose and then, for instance, a pulse after this example, like this. And now it's spit the frame into cypher peaches. So this is the first page. And here is the second one. And here is the third one. And finally here is the fourth. So to make some structure here, I will usually have some spaces separating things. So you can actually see you wear a frame begins and another one ends. Like this, so that you have at least some structure. A final thing I want to talk about is that you have a really easy way to kind of highlight key words in your presentation. This is usually done with the alert command. So let's say that the word is related is really important. And I have the alert command around the port related. And if I now compile, then you see it afterwards related appears now infrared, which is a really distinct color compared to the rest. Ok, so this was a bit more about how to structure your Beamer. So see you again in the next video. 59. Styling Your Beamer: Hi and welcome. In this video we'll go mainly to touch upon the styles and the colors of your femur. So before we begin, just a quick comment that these buttons down here, you can use them to navigate your femur. So for instance, if I press here, I've jumped forward. And if our procedure, I jumped one port. So all of these here do similar things. Okay, so let's say that I want to change my Beamer 50mm. And the beam if beam is basically how things look. So the style of code, the title is written, and how the boxes look and things like this. So to teach the FEM, I will use the use FEM command and all these different fields to unnamed up after cities, at least the standard femur themes. So for instance, Anova has one of them. So let me compile the document. And here you see that several things changed. For instance, you have this kind of card here on the left, which kind of continues downward. And also the numbering here changed on the table of content. Another theme is the Bergen thing. And we can just see how this looks compared to the one over P. So here you see that the title cards changed an accountant. So here we see that the blocks looks a lot different and important alert block and the example are rather different than the standard one. And yeah, you see that on each FEM, it changes quite a lot, or at least their structure changes a lot. However, all the colors stay the same. So it will always use this blue here as the primary color and the red one as the secondary or Delbert color. And this screen here as the example color. Ok, so to change the color fill, you use that use color theme command. And all of the different standard color themes are named after animals and birds and whatnot. So for instance, you have the colour FEM beetle there. So now you see that it's changed the color quite a lot with this other blue being the primary and some kind of gray on the slides. And you also have fly. It's a color theme, which look like this. And yeah, you have a bunch of standard color themes. So now I have move to the femur FEM gallery, which lists all the themes and the colors and the fonts which are standard used in the beam. So for instance, if I press the themes, so then I see all the different themes here and a compressed for instance, on but de la and hair a have an overview on how the FEM looks. And I can also see all the colors here. For instance, we have the Org kid and you have a lot of different kind of color films. And you see that the color themes also changes the boxes, how they look. And lastly, you have the Fund families, but there are not too many of them. Lastly, overly if have a lot of Beamer templates already made. And personally I think they often looks a lot better than the standard be morphemes we looked at on the previous page. Often you also can find your own university so you don't have to import the logo and whatnot. So for instance, we can look at the next page. For instance, let's say that I want to use this theme, which looks kind of nice. And then you can download that PDF and just look at how it looks. And here you can download the PDF sample and you can view the source and you can also openness. So Template in all belief. Ok. This was everything I wanted to say about Amer. So hopefully you would have at least the basic when it comes to Biemer and be able to use it to create your own presentation. Okay, see you in the next video. 60. Further Topics Intro Video: Hi everyone. So in this final couple of videos, we'll look at some further topics for you to explore and talk about some resources that can help you along the way. So we'll cover three additional topics. This will just be brief introductions, and these are first of all, code display. So I'll show you how it can display code in your later documents. This is pretty simple to get started with in his a great extra topic. Secondly, it's multi files. This happens when you have a filer grows and grows and grows and becomes longer and longer after a while, you want to split it into multiple files so that you have better control of your documents. And thirdly, in the most exciting one is making new commands. So, so far we've used a lot of the default commands and later in the video on, new commands will show you how to make your own custom commands. This gives you a lot of customization options, is the next step towards taking your latex Kelso next level. Finally, at the end, we'll give you resources for how to continue learning about latex. And of course, wish you good luck to the three topics are really greater, short, and sweet. So I hope you will really enjoy this and I'll see you in the next video. 61. Displaying Code with Verbatim: Hi, and welcome to this further topics section. In the first video, we're going to talk about displaying code. So say you have the following problem. You want to write later document that explains, say to a friend, how you write the fraction in data. So you might start with to write a fraction. You type. And then you might try to do this and compiler. The problem now is that you are doing the frack command outside of math mode and later does not like that at all. So you get nothing here. Okay, and let's do it inside math mode. And recompile. Now, there is no error, but also you don't get anything out because there is nothing in a fraction. If you insert a few numbers, then you get, of course, diffraction. But this doesn't really explain anything. Think now that you're reading this writer fraction, you type 1.5. This does not tell you anything about diffraction command. So how do you actually write frack without lay attack, interpreting this as the specific command. To do this, you use the verb command. All right, I don't need any math science here, but I do need a symbol here in the beginning and assemble here at the end to indicate where the command starts and ends. And this symbol can be anything as long as it's not part in the inside command. So for instance, I could do a plus here and a plus here. Then I recompile. Now you can see to write a fraction, you could just type access frack one over two. And now I don't even need the numbers. I can also just do this. This will just be interpreted hazardous. So if I recompile this now, you get the backslash fragment. So the verb command is essentially telling later, do worry about what's on here. Just display it. So it's not the same as a comment. A comment is telling me, Don't worry about what's here and also don't display it. The verb command is saying, don't worry about what's here. Just display it. Don't need to use pluses here. You can use say, pipes, for instance, just doesn't make any difference. The important thing is that do, don't use any of the symbols that are present inside here. So I cannot use this symbol on both places. The reason for this is that now the verbal command, thanks, that is starts here and ends here. We'll just find the symbol that is not present for me personally, if I'm writing later than I very seldom use the question mark inside an actual command. So this works fine for me. This is related to a similar problem. How do I write code in the attack? Say I want to write, to write our for loop. In Python. You would write, maybe you think I can do like a central environment. So if you don't know Python, that's completely fine. This is just to illustrate writing code inside or document and having it displayed as code. So I have a number from one to 40. And to do that, I will print the number squared. Again. If you don't know Python, that's completely fine. If I compile it, I don't get any errors, but this does not really loved the way I wanted to. And this is understandable when I'm adding a new line here. This doesn't add any new line because that's not what happens inside a central environment. And it doesn't look like typical code. What you can do is instead of using the central environment, then you use the verbatim environment. And verbatim as saying, displayed is precisely acid S. So that actually means that this notation I'm doing here, usually for readability and environments, no, actually makes a difference. If I do this, I recompile. This actually becomes different. You can see here that it automatically gives it this typewriter font and that it's a lot better spaced out. So here it should just be two parenthesis. So I don't want to go more into this than I already have. You can use the verb command to get inline symbols displayed as you've written them. And you can use the verbatim environment to get displayed code. So now I am at the oval leaves documentation page for code listings. You can just Google code listings or follow the link in the description. Here's a lot about the verbatim environment and a lot more. So here we can find how to write professional looking code inside your latest document. So first of all, you might want some kind of highlighting of certain words like four and if an Alice and so on, typical keywords. Additionally today, so you can add colors and you can add styles and so wanted, it actually becomes really, really nice. But take a look here if you're more interested in styling code inlet attack. And if not, then what I've told you is essentially all you need to know. 62. Multiple Files: Hi. So in this video, I want to talk about multiple files. As you can see now, I only have one single file. And that's perfectly fine for small projects. The problems start to arise when the fire becomes bigger and bigger and bigger. To try to imagine that this file is now not only 20 lines, but say five thousands. And say this is a 60 or 70 page documents. In that case, you run into two major problems. The first one is navigation. It's really hard to navigate inside a big dark demand. You'll find yourself spending a lot of time searching up and down and scrolling to find a precise place you want to be at. So first is navigation. Secondly is compilation time. Once your documents get bigger and bigger, it takes longer and longer to compile the document. Say for instance, you want to change a really minor thing on page 39. You change it and impress, recompile, and then later as a recompile the whole document, all the images and so on, disconnected take a lot of seconds after awhile to avoid these two problems, namely navigation and compilation time, we split a document into more files. So how do we do this? There are several ways of splitting up your document. For me, the easiest one is to use a specific package which is called subfiles. It's what you do is just to import the package subfiles. And then see here I have a first section called introduction. And then if I want to make a new section, and instead of writing this section clearly in here, what I will do is to use now the command subfile. So what I'll do now is to define the name of my sub file. So let's say I would call it section one as it stands now. And this will not compile because they don't yet have a file called section one. I'll go up here, person you file and make section one text file. Inside the section one text file, I'll have to write a specific document class. And this document class is some file because it's a subfile. And the often argument is, what kind of document is this a subfile too? And this is the subfile two main deck. So make this section one at subpart of this one. And now, and do the begin and end document. And here let's say I want to have a section. Let's call it section one and just have some random text, something like this. And now if I recompile, let's see if we can find the error. So here I get an Arabic was it's not sub pilot sub files. And now everything is good. Let's take a look at what happens if I now go back to the main of tech and press recompile, I will get first my section that's actually manually written in adenine will import section one. So now if I compile main attack, I get everything. However, for now I just want to make some changes in section one say, and it just head over into the section one attack. And when I start recompiling here, it will only recomposed section one. So that means that the compilation time is a lot lower. Say section one has ten pages instead of 60, which is the full document, that it takes a lot shorter to recompile here. Secondly, I know that if I have a mistake I want to fix in section one, it's inside this document. It's a lot easier to scroll down here and find it because it's simply shorter. So what I do in practice is to not have manual sections in here like this, but I just continue to make subfiles. Let's make a second one. Section two. And I go over here and make neutron. Pursuant to Section two. Again, just for practice here we need a special document class called subfiles. And the main file is again, Main.jack. Playwright might begin document statement. And maybe here I just want some texts, something like this. For now recompile section two, I only get what's in section two. So just as text in section one, I only get section one. Section one is not interacting with section two at all, and they're both imported into the main tag where if you recompile this will get everything. One last thing is that it's often useful to add folders to get some kind of structure. So let's say I want a new folder called sections are created folder. It's good. And I want to drag sections into that folder. So now I have the Main.jack here and I have a section folder with both of these. This is great, but it now becomes a slight problem in the sense that if I recompile, he can't seem to find certain files. So here I'm looking for a file called Section one, and it looks in the current directory, hinders nothing there. So what you need to do is to then go to the section folder. So I guess sections folder I call it. So go into the section folder and go to section one and the same hair. So going into the section folder and go to section two, this is a step in the right direction. And we get the nice thing here. But actually if I go into the sections, I think now that I'm not sure if this will work actually. Yeah, it seems to work to be really specific. I think what you should do is to say too late, I want to go one level up. So outside the section folder and then to the Main.jack. And this you do by writing two dots and then a forward slash. And now everything should be working fine. Seems like you don't really need to do this. And I was a bit surprised, but I will do this for safety anyway. So now I want to make more sections or simply make a new sub file and then go into my section folder and making new file. 63. Custom Commands: Hi, so now I'm here in an empty overlap documents, just a single file here. And I want to talk about custom commands. To custom commands is when we write our own commands to so far in the course, we've relied on over leafs default commands that we're using, or we can also define our own commands. How do we do that? Let me just start with an example. So let's say that we have an integral that I know Steve natatio about earlier in the course. So here we have backslash, INT and then subscript. And let's say we have an integral from one. And then all the way to infinity of some function, say delta function as one over x squared. And then add this to get the correct spacing. Let's say that this integral converges. Let's recompile and this is perfectly fine. But if I have a document where I need to write this specific integral here, integral from one to infinity a lot of times. And this can get really tedious, safer water added like 50 times. So what I can do is to go up into my preamble, let's say below the packages here. And I can make my own command, but have a shortcut for this. Commands we typically make in later courses are typically just shortcuts. What I can do is to make new command. Here. This takes two arguments. The first is what I want to write, the second is what I want to get out. So what I want to get out is kind of clear. I want to get out this thing here. And what I want to write, it's just backslash t. Let's say maybe. And now if I just take this whole command here and substitute it for i and t, And then nothing is changing. So this thing here, the backslash INT inf, is just now a shortcut for this thing here. So let's, before we move on, just do a few more examples. Let's say fruits I like our EEG. Apples, bananas and oranges. And a kind of fun fact is that the spacing here, meaning the typesetting, is not actually correct. If I assume n, I need to probably soon more under this to see it, then the problem here is actually here. So what is the problem? The problem is that latex makes a distinction between inter sentence space and inter wards space. So between words. So you have this size here of a space between sentences. We have a slightly bigger one, you can see here. And actually notice that this thing here between the period and the f is bigger than the spaces here. So if you write e dot g as an abbreviation for, for example, then since you end with a period later things, oh, you must be ending a sentence. Let's make this a big space. So this is actually not correct. And the correct one is humming backslash here. So backslash space gives you this into workspace. So now it's actually correct, even though it is really hard to see. And it's actually really annoying to have to go through your whole document and every time you use an abbreviation like E dot g or I dot E for, for instance, then you need to check this to get a perfectly formatted documents. But on the other hand, you can just make your own command. So I want new commands, same as before. So we're not going to do is just to take this thing here, paste it here, and this is my EG. Now the size is correct. Now, well, of course the size is great, but haven't really used the command yet. So you are used to ED command. If you take a close look, then you can see that this is the correct space. This might be a bit hard to see and it's not really that important. That's very convenient. You can just write Baxter's EEG, which is shorter than this, even without the correct space, then you get the correct space anyway. In the same manner, I can just copy this and for instance to Nora abbreviations or I0. And this here, this will help me were doing IE commands as well. Before we proceed, we should note that this is not a full power of commands. You can see when we're doing commands here, the fread command that we can input stuff. So you can take in a one here. They can an x squared here. And this command changes depending on what we take m. So the command takes arguments in our command so far, they don't take arguments. So for instance, here, this goes from one to infinity all the time. I cannot so far just two. All I want from two to infinity like this. This does not really worked. So it doesn't give me an error, is still goes from one to infinity, just places to, to further opportunity to figure out how it can take arguments. In the next video, I want to look at how our commands can take in arguments so that they become even more useful. 64. Arguments in Custom Commands: Welcome back. In this video, we'll build on the previous one by adding arguments store custom commands. So just to recall here we had a command i and t nth, which essentially gives us the integral from one to infinity. You can see that if I place it here, we get the integral from one to infinity. Problem no S say that I want the integral from two to infinity. By doing it in this way without arguments, I just need to make a whole new command and then set that from two to infinity and so on. That's not really what I want. What I want is to just be able to take in an argument, say to here. And then it will automatically give me the integral from two to infinity. How do we do that? What do you do up here is to provide an optional argument, is optional argument here will correspond to how many arguments you have an A-command. We'll say, first of all, I only want to change this one underneath one argument. And this argument will be written as a hashtag and e11. What happens now? If I specify c2 and recompile? Now you can see the integral is going from two to infinity. So what's happening is that this two here will be taken place here. Say now that I want to commend to take two arguments. First one is the lower limit of the integral. Second one is the upper one. Then I specify two here and then to go from the first variable to the second one. So this is indicating the first argument I put in. This is indicating the second one. So I wanted to go from two to say infinity just to get the same. Now that works, but I can also do from two to say three for instance. I know that works. So now we have the integral from two to three. And admittedly, now this starts to become equally long as a typical command. Then other cases, this might be a lot shorter than your typical commands. There is a lot more to say about making your own commands, making arguments, and it can even make optional arguments. So again, I'm back at the overlay of documentation page and they have their own site on commands, just Google Custom Commands over leaf, or just take a look at the link in the description. And here we can find a lot more examples of how it can make your own command. So here instead of writing this mat BBR could just write access are, and this is a lot shorter. Here you can see the example and then you could add what they call parameters, which I guess is what I call arguments. And here we are optional parameters that you can take a look at and so on. And then you should also be careful about overwriting existing commands. So with a command reuse and called new command, you should not overwrite existing commands. You'll get an error if you try. But if you're using the rails new command here, then this can overwrite existing commands. Whoever I want you to be really careful about this is typically not a great idea to overwrite a lot of the already existing commands in latex. So in the beginning I would suggest to mainly stick with just a new command. So this is all I want to say. Please just explore this topic on your own and have fun with it. 65. Resources and Goodbye!: Hi and welcome to this last video. In this video, I want to give you a few further resources so that you can develop your latex skills. So just Google overlies documentation to get here. So this is in general, really, really good for plenty of topics here that you can see here go into and are good examples and in general is very well presented. I would suggest that the first go here, if you need to know anything more than a CFA, have a small article on what you need. Secondly, there is a page called Wikibooks, which has a big section on later. So just Google Wikibooks, latex, or follow the link in the description to get here. First, you can see a bit of information on TAC and later in general. And then if you go further down, here, you have a contents menu. There's loads of things here that you can take a look at. A lot of these things you probably already know like fonts, colors, tables, and so on, can probably find things here that you don't know as well. This is a pretty good place to start, especially for instance, if you want to make figures, which takes, just jump into it here, can see what you can make to this as a package for making really cool drawings. What you've learned during the course, we'll make you able to read this pretty easily. One working late, OK, you're often just run into problems. And for this, it's really good to have a website where you can ask other people about later. Luckily for us, this page exist, so this is StackExchange. Stackexchange is a site that has different groups in, for instance, most programming languages where you can ask questions and get answers from professionals. And they also have one on latex, specifically tech that also deals with the Duke News version of tech. And that later we've learned, but you can ask us any question about later Kurzweil. And it's generally a good idea and a question to be as specific as possible and also include your code to ask what's wrong if you're just pose a question and say, hey, what's wrong with my code without presenting anything, then it's almost impossible to answer, to try to fix it yourself first. But if you're really, really stuck and tried to share your code here in a question and see if you can get some help. Other than this, I would just suggest you to try to build project, trying to work with laid tech and really make documents with it. A lot of the basic stuff will then just gradually come into your fingers. You'll be able to perform them efficiently. So this was it for the course. I hope you have enjoyed it. And goodbye.