Mastering Brushstrokes - Light & Heavy Paint (Part 3 of 6) | Jill Poyerd | Skillshare

Mastering Brushstrokes - Light & Heavy Paint (Part 3 of 6)

Jill Poyerd, Professional Fine Artist & Educator

Mastering Brushstrokes - Light & Heavy Paint (Part 3 of 6)

Jill Poyerd, Professional Fine Artist & Educator

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22 Lessons (1h 21m)
    • 1. Introduction to Mastering Brushstrokes

    • 2. Dry Brushing

    • 3. Dry Brushing - Oil

    • 4. Dry Brushing - Stroke Practice

    • 5. Dry Brushing - Object Painting

    • 6. Feathering

    • 7. Feathering - Oil

    • 8. Feathering - Stroke Practice

    • 9. Feathering - Object Practice

    • 10. Scumbling

    • 11. Scumbling - Oil

    • 12. Scumbling - Stroke Practice

    • 13. Scumbling - Object Practice

    • 14. Impasto Brush

    • 15. Impasto Brush - Oil

    • 16. Impasto Brush -Stroke Practice

    • 17. Impasto Brush - Object Painting

    • 18. Impasto Knife

    • 19. Impasto Knife - Oil

    • 20. Impasto Knife - Stroke Practice

    • 21. Impasto Knife - Object Painting

    • 22. Review - A Visual Quiz

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About This Class

Master key brushstrokes that lie at the core of watercolor, oil, and acrylic painting.

"As a novice the course is MESMERIZING! I am hooked on the various techniques attributed to the masters and the basic brush strokes they utilized in order to create their masterpieces." - Gerald E.

Brushstrokes are at the core of being an artist, and an individual's brushwork is one of the things that sets them apart from other artists. Using her approachable, easy-to-understand teaching method and lots of hands-on activities, artist Jill Poyerd breaks down historic and contemporary brushwork into twenty-two unique brushstrokes from traditional to unconventional. 

This six-part course covers twenty-two individual brushstrokes. They are broken down by style of application and include a brief history, examples of how they're used in masterpieces, visual demonstrations, and student practice exercises. By combining technical learning with visual and hands-on examples, students gain a thorough understanding of each brushstroke variation. At the end of the course, students are challenged to create a simplified painting using five-strokes selected from the course material.

Note: Demonstrations are given in both watercolor and oil paint. Acrylic painters simply have to apply the knowledge depending on how they use that medium, whether thick (like oil) or thin (like watercolor).

Meet Your Teacher

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Jill Poyerd

Professional Fine Artist & Educator


Jill Poyerd, NWS, is a contemporary realist known for her tranquil subject matter and unique painting style. Her award-winning work can be found in private collections both nationally and internationally. She has been featured in national publications, is the author of the portrait painting book Fearless Portraits, and is a signature member of several prestigious art societies, including the National Watercolor Society. Jill works in both watermedia and oil paints and has exhibited extensively throughout the Mid-Atlantic region as well as in national shows.

In addition to her work as an artist, Jill is an active member of the arts community. She has curated many multi-medium group shows, and is the founder and current head of the Fine Art Professionals of Northern Virgi... See full profile

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1. Introduction to Mastering Brushstrokes: welcome to my course called Mastering Brushstrokes. This course is part of its Siri's covering 22 different brush strokes. In order to give students a full perspective on each stroke, we begin by discussing that particular brushstrokes history, followed by examples of how it's been used by some of the masters. And then students watch as I demonstrate at close range how the stroke is executed. A separate lecture covers that stroke as it's done in oil paint. Students then watch as I show them how to practice this stroke at home. And then we finished the brushstroke by painting a simple object painting, using Onley that stroke in order to solidify its influence on forms. The brush strokes are arranged in a specific order, and we begin with the strokes that are often used in creating a base layer in a painting. Next, we move on to directly painted lines, lines that remain. It's part of the finished product. From there, we move into strokes that use light amounts of paint, followed by those that use heavy amounts of paint. Then we discuss the various broken strokes and finally, more contemporary application methods. Each lecture demonstrates the actual stroke, first in water color and then in oil paint unless specific brushstroke applies more oil. Most other painting mediums usually relate to one or the other there, either fluid like water color or dense like oil paint. For example, acrylics can be used either Finley like watercolor or thickly like oil paint, so the acrylic artist would apply the stroke information to how they use that specific paint. For this reason, a basic working knowledge of your preferred painting medium is necessary, and what I mean by that is you should have a very basic understanding of your materials and how your preferred painting medium is applied to a surface. I recommend that you watch both the watercolor and oil lectures, regardless of what paint you use. The reason is that sometimes understanding how a different medium works can actually help you better understand your own medium. Now, one thing I need to recommend is Onley use artist grade pains and if you work in watercolor Onley, used artist greed paper or a surface as well. Student grade materials do cost less, but their performance is poor. In fact, there are some basic skills and techniques that simply won't be possible using student grade pain. If you're concerned about the cost, just select a red, yellow and blue paint known as a color triad. If you work in oil or heavy acrylic, you may want a white in a black as well. From these, you can make every supplemental color. And if you work in watercolor, I recommend to paints as opposed to Pan's. There are a few brushstrokes that are going to require a more malleable pain. Now, as far as your surface artist grade, £140 watercolor paper is what I'd recommend, preferably cold pressed. So it has some tooth, too. An inexpensive Candace boards are sufficient for basic stroke practice if you work in oil. If you feel you need more information on supplies for water media paints, you may want to consider taking my course titled Foundations for Mastering Watercolor Painting. At the end of each lecture, students are guided through two assignments, some basic stroke practice and ah, fun application exercise. If you work in water media paints, you may want to pick up a small ring binder of watercolor paper for this second exercise. If you do all of the practice paintings. In this format, you'll end the class with a handy reminder of each stroke. Just make sure it's at least £140 paper or thicker in order to avoid too much paperwork. I've included some helpful handouts, as well as my three part YouTube video that covers the full history of brush strokes and the Masters that made them famous. But now let's get to the course material. 2. Dry Brushing: in this section, all of the brushstrokes we're going to cover involved a light brush mood. In fact, the first stroke we're going to discuss is so light it's called dry brushing by its very name, you can tell that it involves a brush that has very little paint on it. When using a dry brush stroke, the loaded brush is dragged across the surface, creating a textured effect. Small amounts of paint are left behind on the painting surface. Dry brushing can involve broad strokes or more. Narrow strokes, such as what we see in this piece of Chinese are work. A lot of the early masters used Dr Rushing, but it became more distinct through the work of France howls in the 16 hundreds in the 19 hundreds, both NC wife and his son, Andrew Wyatt, both used dry brushing to a significant extent in their work. In order to dry brush. Your dilution can vary, but your brush load should be light, and your surface needs to be dry. Well, why does the surface need to be dry? Because the idea is for the bristles to skip along the surface, leaving sporadic marks of paint as it travels. If the surface is wet or if you have too much paint in your brush, the paint will simply cover the full breath of the stroke and you'll end up with a regular directly painted line, so getting the right load of paint is really key. What use is our refer a dry brush effect. This is a popular stroke when painting water because it allows for spontaneously placed marks that take on the look of reflections in the water. It could be used to paint texture in a landscape for a structural texture, as we can see in this piece by sergeant, or to convey energy in an abstract. Now let's take a look at how to actually produce the mark. The most common brush used for dry brushing is a flat because the linear lineup of bristles skips along the lumpy circus. When the brushes laid flat, let me show you what I mean. How loaded your brushes and health flat you lay the brush. Both effect how much pain gets left behind on the surface. A natural hair brush will take and distribute the paint a little differently. Natural hair will soak up more paint, but the bristles are a little more flexible, meaning the paint will distribute a little differently. Now. Notice if I raise my brush up to the normal painting position, the full area being wiped gets covered. This is because gravity pulls the paint down to the tip of the bristles for distribution, laying it flat lessons that effect and results in the look that we're going for. I noticed the change in paint distribution as the brush becomes drier. Now what about a round brush? All of this applies to around as well, but around will produce a slightly different mark rounds, leave a thinner, more rounded brush mark and noticed that it covers the swiped area just like a flat if I raise it up to a normal painting position. Another factor is this. The smaller the brush, the smaller the line or mark, and each one has its own use. Now here's a side angle view to help you grasp the brush angles that we're talking about. It's a critical part of this Turk, this farce brush load. When I work in watercolor, I like toe, load my brush to a maximum and then gently touch it to a favorite towel to absorb some of the paint. The longer you touch the towel, the dryer your brush will be getting the hang of the right amount is just gonna take practice and experimentation. Here's another way to use a brush to create a dry brush. Look if you take a damp round brush and squeeze the bristles between your fingers that display apart, leaving explained. Gently load the brush in your prepared paint and then drag or whispered against the surface in one direction. This method is especially useful if you're working on a smooth surface and you don't have the lumps of the surface to help create the texture. In the next video, we'll discuss dry brushing as it relates to oil painting. 3. Dry Brushing - Oil: Just as in watercolor, we need a lightly loaded brush in order to achieve a Dr Rush look in oil. Here we have a moderately loaded flat brush, and we need to take some of the paint off so will gently wipe it on a piece of paper towel . This will give us a lighter load. Then I'm not placing my brush straight up and down, but rather laying almost flat against the surface and then dragging it across. It's a gentle stroke, barely any pressure. Now I'll flip the brush and use the paint on that side of bristles. If I were to tilt my brush almost straight up and down, I wouldn't get enough paint to make much of a mark. Unlike watercolor, the paint doesn't get pulled by gravity to the tip of the bristles. Now what if I try this dry brush stroke with a moderately loaded brush? As you can see, you'd end up with more of a direct line. Let's try this same stroke with a round brush. This is my medium round talk hairbrush again. We want a light load so we'll take this moderate paint load and wipe it on a paper towel to remove some of the paint. I'm gonna lay it flat as well, not perpendicular, and drag it across the surface with a light touch. You can swipe quickly if you want, and then I'll turn it to access the paint on each of the sides again. If it's upright, we get too little paint and noticed that when I stroke the whole brushes moving not just the tip, so that's the dry brush mark. Here's a close up look. You can see the stroke uses the texture of the surface. The brush just drifts along the top of the texture. In the next video, we'll discuss how you can practice this on your own. 4. Dry Brushing - Stroke Practice: Let's discuss how you should go about practicing dry brushing at home to begin with. Go ahead and mix up your paints. It should be a moderately diluted paint and a recommend that you start with a flat brush, load the brush and then Deb off some of the excess. Now how that brush lays on the paint is very dependent on how the bristles air lined up. This one inch flat has synthetic bristles. I don't find them to be Aziz good. As the sable brushes for this stroke, they sometimes arc. So here's my half inch flat with sable bristles. Now watch how nicely this strokes on because the bristles air softer, they seem to lay more evenly along the surface. Now you don't want to hold your brush straight up and down. It should be slanted, a little bit flatter than the normal group. Now we'll switch to around sable brush, and I'd like you to try the following exercise in order to get a feel for just how dry the brush needs to be. Start with a loaded brush and paint a line, then dry off some of the paint and struck again without reloading. Just keep doing that. Your brush will get drier and drier as you go along and you'll get a feel for just how dry it needs to be. Eventually, it'll just be too dry to leave a mark Now. This also depends on what angle you have your brush up. If you use the tip of around. Even if you've taken some of the paint off, it's gonna paint a regular line. The idea is to lay it on its signed. You should also mix up some less diluted paint and try dry brushing that chap the access paint on the paper towels always and then brush it on. Notice how much darker the marks are. You can also try this with heavily diluted paint. Whether you have diluted or undiluted paint. The brush load is your key to getting dry brush marks. Go ahead and try the same dilution exercise that we did with a round brush with a flat. Just to get a feel for the difference. Keep stroking and drying until you get to the point where there's hardly any paint being painted on the surface. Now go ahead and try all of this at home. Try the different loads, the different brushes, the different angles, and then we'll move on and will apply it to our object paintings. 5. Dry Brushing - Object Painting: dry. Brushing a circular object is tricky for my particular image. It could look a little bit more like a scum ble, so I'm gonna use a smaller medium round brush. It will give me a little more manipulation, which I'll need to communicate circular shapes. My brush is very dry, and I'm angling it almost flat. On the surface, it's a little tricky to make it look like dry brushing when you're working with such a small area. Now I use less diluted paint but still a fairly dry brush. I can add a few darker tones. I'm going to try to dry brush this stem. Although I'm not sure about my paint load, I may have too much. Actually, it looks like it's fine going back and just gonna touch up the shapes a little bit more. Just so they have some kind of shape, and now we'll handle the leaves. I initially have a little too much paint in the brush, but it's not too bad. I'll let it dry off in that spot and move on. The brush is flat, moving in one direction lightly, with a very slight scrubbing motion. It's almost like stumbling, but really. I'm trying to pull or push the brush in a single direction. In that way, it should be a little bit more like dry brushing. You can see the texture that dry brushing creates. That's really nice. We're painting the whole piece in this stroke, but you can tell that it would be very nice for sections of a painting, and that's a Sfar assed will take this. So go ahead and try dry brushing your chosen image at home. 6. Feathering: Ah, feathered brushstroke is a lot like Dr Rushing. In fact, it really is dry brushing. You just begin this stroke a little differently. A feathered stroke starts off with a full coverage of paint and then trails off at the end of the movement, resulting in ingredient bristle effect. This is a brushstroke that could be found far back through history, but it end prominence through the work of Coro in the early 18 hundreds. Like dry brushing. Your dilution depends on how dark you want the mark. Your brush load should be light, although perhaps a bit heavier than dry brushing, and the surface should be dry. There are many uses for a feathered stroke. It can sit independently to convey a light, breezy foliage. Or, if you're a landscape painter, it can be used to depict all kinds of grasses and landscape features you can see in this painting the artist feathered wet paint over what was most likely dry. Giving the gentle appearance of grass. Feathering can also be used to soften and edge where the stroke begins with a moderate amount of paint on top of a solid area color, and then brushes away from the area and into a dry brush. Look in this way you soften what would otherwise be a hard edge. You can use this same stroke to soften the edge of an area of wet paint as well as we mentioned. Feathering incorporates dry brushing, but the start of the stroke is more like a directly painted line. I begin by holding my brush more upright like a direct line and then lower the brush angle as they move along in order to graduate the solid coverage into spotty coverage that fades off into the surface to give you a visual of the difference between dry brush and feathering. First all demonstrated dry brush line and now a feathered stroke. Notice the brush angle and the paint distribution. Here's another example of how fresh angle can influence paint distribution. Watch as I lift and lower the angle of the brush in this one swipe. When feathered strokes are placed in Miss, you can create a very useful visual notice that this time I'm starting my brush in a standard painting position and then quickly sweeping it away with a fast lifting motion. This is another way to accomplish the stroke also noticed that I'm using a roomed. As we mentioned, Coro used feathered strokes to imply much of his foliage. Because the stroke can have a direction to it, it can provide movement in a piece. Now key to this stroke is the brush angle, but another is brushland. Here's what it looks like if you overload your crash, and then if you under load your brush. Another way to use fathering strokes as to whether onto a dry surface from a wet paint area . In this example, you can see that my brush begins within the wet paint and sweeps into the dry area, using the quick lifting motion. In the next video, we'll discuss feathering with oil paint. 7. Feathering - Oil: regardless of medium. Your choice of brush for feathering depends on what kind of mark you want. In this case, I'm beginning our oil feathering with a flat brush, and it has a tiny bit more paint than it did for Dr Russian. Just like we saw in the watercolor example. It's a solid mark that blends into a dry brush mark. The motion is straight down, and I'm adding some pressure and then pull across while lifting notice. The brush angle is a Chinese bit less flat than when we dry brush. I'll turn the brush over and do it again because remember an oil paint. The paint doesn't drop by gravity straight down and then pull across pressure and then pull . And they could be quick marks, too. Asked with watercolor, this could be done with a round brush as well. Let's see how the mark changes. I'm loading the brush. The right load is important. I'm just wiping my loaded brush onto the palette, then push down with light pressure and quickly lift the pressure as you pull across. It's the same motion is before, but it's shorter. Let's get a different view. Notice that the brush is more upright than when we use the flat. That's because the bristles lineup differently. They're tapered, so it requires a different angle. I'm putting a decent amount of pressure on the brush and does I pull away? I'm lifting, but it's got to be fairly quick. Let's try the stroke with a sable rush. We're going to do the same motion pressure pull. Notice how the softer bristles create a longer and more even dry brush mark. Now you can do groupings of feathered strokes with just about any brush. Let's get a closer look. These are the ones we did with disabled bristles. This was with around, and this was with the flat. Now what happens if you don't have enough paint? Well, you're just going to get a plane dry brush mark. You won't get your solid start. Another use for this stroke is when you have an area of wet paint and you want a feather an edge. Make sure you what I mean here. The line of wet paint will act as the initial part of the stroke. The solid start, so I have to do is sweep away from the wet area into the dry to create the feathered edge, look at it from a side angle, place the brush in the wet paint and then sweep away and up the feathering motion that we've been using the whole time. It gives you a nice soft edge. Now let's walk through practicing this stroke on your own. 8. Feathering - Stroke Practice: My preferred brush for feathering is a flat brush, and in particular I prefer the sable, but you can feather with most brushes. The key is to have a tiny bit more paint in your bristles than you would for dry brushing. Because the stroke starts off like a direct line and ends with dry brush, place your brush on the surface and add pressure and then sweep it across while at the same time lifting it off the surface. If you try raising your hand up right, sometimes it causes the bristles to separate each brush position changes the look of the mark a little bit. Practice over and over, making the different sweeps. Try keeping your brush flat and see how that changes your results. Vary your pressure. Keep stroking. Just brush brush brush. You'll eventually get the hang of it. Try it with less diluted paint. Try groupings so you're kind of interesting looks you can get. Try it with round brushes. Now remember, when you use around, use it a little more upright. You can try sweeping your round brush upwards on its side because remember around is usually a little more upright. But if you lay it on its side and sweep. You can get a different look, although a more upright angle is more of a true feather and maybe try a larger brush. A large brush will give you larger marks, By the way, noticed that the rounds sometimes leave pointed ends. It's something to be aware of end, maybe something you can use, and now it's your turn. Try different brushes, different sizes, different shapes, varying amounts of paint and dilution and even different brush angles. And then we'll apply feathering to our object painting. 9. Feathering - Object Practice: As with Dr Rushing, using feathering to create a round object may be a little tricky, so I'm going to use a smaller, flat brush. That way I can control the mark better. I'll start the feather from the back side of the berry and sweep towards the top, allowing the feathered part to imply the Barry tops. So we're looking at a solid back of the berry going into a dry brush front to the very now I'm going up to sweep it a few times in order to get around and look. You just have to think about how to use the aspects of the stroke to communicate the form. Now I'm going to do a tiny feather of dark paint. Undiluted pain. Well, mostly undiluted. For implied detail. It's a little sweet. I'll paint the stem and try to feather the ends of the branch where it meets the berry or the leaf. Because it's such a narrow shape, I'm using a very small round now going to switch to a medium large round in order to do the leaves, and you'll see why the width I can get from putting pressure on my round and then leading into the dry brush point at the tip offers me a very nice leaf shape that 1st 1 had a little too much pain. But you can see from subsequent strokes the effect that we can get. Okay, and now it's your turn. Go ahead and paint your object painting using feathered brushstrokes. 10. Scumbling: There are actually many different definitions for the word scum bling, and in some cases they aren't even very similar. So for this course, I'd like to establish an independent definition. Let's define it at the stroke, where a fairly dry brush skips over the painting surface in a haphazard way in order to create a textured effect and allow some of the base layer to show through one of the earliest artists to use. This struck with John Constable when he painted his clouded skies. This piece by theatre over. So is another great example of how scum bling can be used for skies. Stumbling can be done using any level of dilution and really any level of brush load. A brush that's loaded to the maximum will produce an impostor or kind of solid stumble. One that's barely loaded will produce a haphazard, dry brush kind of look. Each level of brush load will give a slightly different look. The surface is typically dry, but you can stumble over wet paint with oils. As mentioned, Stumbling is a nice brushstroke when depicting texture and painting, especially for the landscape. Artist stumbling could be used when painting grasses it can be used in abstracts or to paint still life objects. This painting appears to consist almost entirely of stumble strokes. It's really amazing. My preferred brush for stumbling is around a medium round to be specific, and that goes for both watercolor and oil. When I stumble, I'm not usually looking for straight lines but rather sporadic rounded marks. I use a moderately loaded brush so that it can deposit enough pain, and I usually lay it fairly flat along the certain Lying it flat allows me to get a more spontaneous look rather than the precision that an upright brushwood Give me. Let me show you what I'm talking about here. I'm holding my brush up right, and now I'm laying it on its side. Notice the difference in the marks. The preferred motion is kind of a bouncy, slightly scrubby action, all with a delicate touch. Remember that you're not looking for solid coverage. You actually want some of the bottom layer to show through because that can give you some very interesting layering effects. In this example, I'm letting each layer of color dry before adding the next color or value. This creates dimension and a complex textural effect that you can't achieve when you paint wet and with, at least in water media pains. A little earlier, we mentioned a flat brush. Well, let's take a look at the mark that it would make. You can see here amusing the same emotion, but the shape of the brush head effects the mark. I use the flat edge as well. As the side bristles. You can see that it has a different look, but in some cases, that may be what you're looking for. If you use a small brush, such as this small round, you get a smaller mark that looks a little bit like a dry brush. Stroke. Difference is that you have more control over where the mark lays down with the scum bill stroke. And finally, you can even use a rigger brush. This is my second favorite brush for stumbling, because it can create very unusual texture. I especially like it for landscape texture. Brush load affects the mark that's created a swell watch as we begin stumbling with a moderately loaded brush as we move along and I'm not reloading the brush, the bristles slowly empty of their paint and the resulting marks change. This is because the brush has less and less paint to distribute, so we're using the same motion. But there's less pain now. What happens if we dilute the pain a bit? The result is the same kind of scum bling mark, but a lighter value and tone. The thinner the paint, the lighter the marks. We mentioned that the preferred surface condition is dry, but let's look at what happens when you apply this stroke to a wet surface. In watercolor, it creates a soft modeled look, and finally, another variant is to use the side of your brush to create the mark. If you sweep it upwards, you can get something resembling kind of a feathered, stumbled look. Experiment with your own brushes. Each one will offer you unique capabilities. In the next video, we'll discuss stumbling with oil paints. 11. Scumbling - Oil: for me, stumbling in oil paint requires actually holding the brush differently for most strokes. I hold the brush like this, but when I stumble, I like to hold it more like this because I want the brush to lay almost flat against the surface. Here, I've got a light to moderately loaded hog hair, medium round brush to create a scum bull market Oil with my brush positioned, you kind of bounce and scrub along the surface. I'm turning the brushes. They move along because, unlike watercolors, the paint doesn't drop to the lowest point due to gravity. It stays where it's placed on the bristles. Now notice that I'm not covering all of the surface. That's really important. You skip along the surface, but you don't cover it completely. You can lay your brush, flatter if you want, or raise it up a bit, but the look should stay the same. Now let's try the same motion with a flat brush using the same amount of paint in the same light touch. You can see that it gives a slightly different mark. What happens if your brush is straight up and down? Well, it results in a different kind of mark. This is what the stroke looks like with a lightly loaded brush. It's more like a dry brush mark. You want a little more paint than that, so getting the right amount of paint is very important. Of course, if you have too much pain, you end up with the kind of imposter stumble, which has its uses. But a moderate load is really what we're looking for now, if you want it another color. Normally you would wait until the first layers dry, but you can add it wet and wet as well. However, keep in mind that as you bounce and scrub, the paint on your brush will increasingly smear together with the base color. A yellow is taking on some of the blue and therefore looking a bit green in spots. Here's another look at it. You can see where we have the imposter stumble and the brush that was very dry. And here's where we mixed in the second color that would have been vibrant if the blue had been dry. In the next video, we'll discuss how you can practice stumbling at home 12. Scumbling - Stroke Practice: stumbling is a fun technique and one that's hard to really mess up because at its core, it's a bit of a chaotic free technique. Whether working in oil or water color, the brush is typically held at a fairly horizontal angle so that the brush can skip and bounce along the surface in a haphazard way. Here, um, using a fully loaded round brush and this is watercolor paints. When you try this, go ahead and do the stroke, as I've shown you, and then also dry your brush off a bit and try a dry brush version of it. Get a feel for the difference. Stumbling uses the texture of the surface, but it also works on smooth surfaces. I've been using a medium round, but you can also use smaller brushes. It will just give you smaller marks. For example, here I'm using a smaller, fully loaded, round fresh. It uses the same motions, but the results are a little bit different. If I lay my brush flat and lay it on the surface horizontally, look at the interesting line that I get when you practice. Go ahead and try all of these things. Play with this stroke and see what other effects you can get. Now, let's try stumbling with a flat brush. Remember, you don't hold it quite like you would for regular painting. You want to hold it so that it lays flatter against the surface, a very horizontal position. Look what I get when I simply tap the flat side of the bristles on the surface. Kind of an interesting look. Push your mind experiment and see what interesting marks you can get from using a flat for this stroke. Just remember, if you hold the brush up right, you get a totally different mark. Now let's say you're stumbling and the brush becomes too dry. Well, you can tilt your brush a little more upright if you're working in watercolor, and that will cause some of the remaining paint to run down the bristles for applications. So as you move along, you may end up needing to tilt it a little bit. Now go ahead and try these exercises on your own. Perhaps try adding a second color just to see how intermingled. Then we'll apply. Stumbling to our object paintings 13. Scumbling - Object Practice: when painting your object painting in stumbling, I recommend having some scrap paper right by your side so that you contest some of the motions that you might want to experiment with. You can also test dilution as well. I've decided to use a smaller round brush, as I haven't some of the other object paintings in this case. I want more control in order to be able to convey the proper shape, at least for the Berries. As I apply the blue paint, you can see that my brush is nearly horizontal, and I'm using that typical scrubby bouncing motion to distribute the paint. Now it's different from dry brushing. Dr. Rushing was similar, but it really involved more of a dragging motion, and for the most part it goes in one direction. Whereas this is bouncing and scrubbing, I'm gonna pick up some less diluted paint in order to increase the value contrast in certain spots, I'm gonna go ahead and try to scum below a thin line toe act as the stem. Well, I like the look of that now for the leaves. I want my brush to be a little dryer here. Even though I took off some of the paint. It seems to be a little too wet, so what we'll do is we'll just integrate the solid area by stumbling around it. I spent the video up a little bit for this leaf section. In reality, it was a more relaxed pace. Something. Sure, when you do this, just take your time and enjoy the process. As we move along, I simply continue the scum bill motion coming at the different leaves from different directions. I'm adding a few cooler tones stumbling over the prior layer, which is still slightly damp. And now that the Berries air dryer, I'm gonna go back and scum bling a much darker paint in certain areas for more dimension. I'll add a few minor touches here and there, and that's it. So go ahead and try your hand at stumbling your object painting. 14. Impasto Brush: So far, we've covered invisible brushstrokes, directly painted lines as well as strokes that use a very light amount of paint. Now we're going to discuss strokes that use heavy loads of paint, often referred to as impasse toe. I like the following definition given by study dot com. It says the term in pasta comes from the Italian word for paste In pastor. Technique involves applying paint as thickly is paste, creating a textured surface in which the marks of the brush or palette knife are often still clearly visible. In Pasto, strokes could be applied with a brush or palette knife. Now, how can you tell the difference between the two applications? The difference is in the texture of the stroke. For example, let's take a close look at this piece by El Greco, and this goes up. You can see lines in the stroke. Those lines are from the bris is of a brush. And compare that to this close up from the same painting in the orange paint. There are no lines, so it was likely applied with a palette knife. Let's look at another comparison. This first painting was done mostly with a brush and this piece was painted mostly with a knife. How do we know? Well, if you look closely at the first piece, you can see this subtle bristle line in the strokes. You can also see that the brushstroke edges are fairly choppy and a bit in positive. Now compare that with a close up of the second painting. The strokes in the second piece are extremely smooth and show some evidence of smearing. The edges are, ah, lot more in pasta than those applying with a brush. Plus this edges are a bit more defined in the rest of this lesson. We'll be focusing on applying and pasta paint with a brush and will begin with a brief discussion of its history. Titian was the first master to really begin using imposter paint, and this was back in the 15 hundreds. Artists have used in Pasto brushstrokes ever since for a multitude of purposes, including creating dimension and texture in clothing and fabrics. It's also used to depict animal for or other textures, and when used for facial features, artists are able to give their paintings a rial artistic flair. Landscape painters use it Ah, lot because it can add dimension and highlight certain textural features. Or an artist can use it all over the painting as a source of expression and, of course, for use in pieces of obstruction. The brush load from Pasto brushwork is typically at its maximum. Dilution is nearly zero or zero. Basically, you are looking for almost pure paint, and the painting surface can be dry or wet. Now there's one distinction that must be mentioned in past. Our techniques cannot be used when working with egg, tempera or watercolor. Due to the nature of those two mediums painted too thickly, those paints could crack when they drive. Now you can, however, use a medium called Aqua Pasto. When working with watercolor paints. Aqua Pasto is a gel medium that reduces flow and thickens paint, allowing for mild imposter techniques. In water Media P. The gel consists of gum Arabic, which is the binder used in watercolor and silica. It's water soluble and so, like water media paints. It'll dissolve with water, and it will also re wet after drying the additional gum Arabic and the imposter version will also provide an additional sheen. But of course, in pasta is ideally suited for oil paints, which will discuss in the next video 15. Impasto Brush - Oil: although as we saw in pasta can be used with water media paints, its most suited for oil or heavy body acrylics in Pasto or thick paint, requires more paint and normal, so it's important to mix up a large amount whenever you work with it. Because you want thicker paint, there's no need to add any solvent. Paint straight out of the tube is usually the best. Now you could add a tiny bit of solvent, I suppose. But I personally prefer the pure paint. For imposter work. Imposter means not only mixing up a lot of pain but also using a lot of paint on the circus . It's gonna go on nice and thick. The idea is to use the body or density to help communicate expression. The thick paint shows every stroke, and that's what we're trying to take advantage of. Now. What brush you use will determine what mark is left behind in the thick paint. This is a case where soft bristle brushes will give a different result from stiffer bristles like hog hairbrushes. Let's look at some examples here. I'm using ah, hog hair round brush. I simply loaded the brush to the maximum and I'm spreading it around. On the surface, there is not much of a right or wrong and how you should handle the brush. You can use most angles and use any grip. It's more about manipulating the paint and getting to know how your brushes and your strokes influence the result. Now. Ah, flat brushes used the same way, but because of the bristle head shape, the applied paint will be a little more angular. You have a better chance of obtaining street edges and a flat stroke top with a flat. Now let's compare in pasta to an ordinary stroke. Notice that the thicker paint shows the actual stroke better as well as the bristle lines. I like the stiff bristles of Ah, hog, hair brush for applying and pasta. I feel like it gives me a little more control over the paint, since the bristles have less give. But let's look at how sable bristles handle the thick paint. This is a small, rounded flat. It's also known as a filbert. The difference really has to be felt rather than seen. The soft bristles lay the paint down in an almost sat Anyway. We'll discuss that somewhere in the next video. When we talk about how to prepare to practice and pasta painting on your own 16. Impasto Brush -Stroke Practice: Now it's time for you to practice in pasta brushwork and get a feel for working with the thicker paint. If you're working in water media, you'll need to add an impostor medium to your paint. Unless you're painting with heavy body acrylic, I'll be painting the demonstration in oil. But no matter what paint you use, you'll need to mix up a large amount on your palate. If you have them, I recommend grabbing a hog hair medium and small round, as well as a medium flat on perhaps a sable of some sort. If you don't have sable, use a synthetic in this way you'll get a feel for how the paint goes on, with various shapes and bristle materials using a medium round. In my case, it's hog here. You're gonna want to pick up a large load of paint with your brush. The paint should sit on the top end of your brush and then lay the whole amount on your service. Feel that fic consistency Now, using the tip of your brush, squish it around. The objective isn't to create anything. We're not painting an object right now. It's just to get the feel of the paint and how it applies to the surface. It should almost feel like spreading cream cheese or butter. Taper it into a thin coat so you can feel the difference. Okay, now we'll try painting an impostor online. Load your brush again and, working from the tip of the brush, glide the paint straight down along the surface. Gravity can't pull such thick paint to the base of the bristles like a cannon water medium , so you may need to turn your brush a little bit just to access the available paint as your brush load lightens. Painting a second line here, the market is smoother and more controlled. After you've gotten a feel for the medium round, try a small around. You'll notice it can't pick up quite a much pain and try the same moves with this smaller brush, spreading the paint thickly and then try and in pasta line with this brush. It should still have bulk. You know it's imposter when you can see that there's a little edge to it. If you have one, switch to a flat and try the same thing. Of course, the larger the bristle head, the more paint the brush can pick up. Notice that I'm keeping the paint at the top. Third of the brush bristles and gently spreading the paint on circus. You want it to kind of glide along the top of the paint with a thick coating underneath. Swipe with the fat side of the brush and take a close look at the mark flats. Make it easy to see the bristle lines in a stroke. Use the brush to spread the pain, but don't use so much pressure that the bristles touched the surface. Now try stroking with the fin ege. You can even tap align as long as it leaves behind a thick paint. The brush should be angled. If you were to hold it straight up and down, it would be difficult to get the right paint application. It's better to have your brush slanted or even a little bit flat. Try all of these brush positions so you can get a sense of the influence. And now if you have a sable brush, which has softer bristles, compare how the thicker paint feels when you use the soft bresil. If you don't have a sable, try a synthetic. Now watch how much paint these bristles. Pick up and try painting a line, and if you have a rounded flat, you'll notice that it's nice for making rounded shapes. The smooth pay, applied with the smooth bristles has a very satiny feeling. Very nice. So go ahead and try this yourself experiment. Try different brushes, and when you think you have a good feel for imposter application, move on to the next exercise, which is painting our object paintings. 17. Impasto Brush - Object Painting: Now we're gonna apply our knowledge of imposter brushstrokes to our object paintings. I'm gonna demonstrate mine in oil paint as the stroke is more conducive to that medium. But if you work in water media, you can just add an impostor medium in order to paint my object in oil. I'm going to secure my six by eight canvass board by taping it onto the surface. I'm going to make sure it doesn't wiggle around while I'm painting. I'm leaving the upper and right regions visible so you can see how I pick up the paint mixes for this demonstration. Amusing a red, blue and yellow plus white. By using primary colors, I can get almost any color I would need. Now. This is an imposter demonstration, so I better add some extra paint. I'll be putting it on pretty thick. I'm going to pre mix my colors and I'll start by mixing up of blueberry blue, or at least close to it. I'm not going to spend too much time perfecting the colors as the primary focus is on the stroke. Now, all mix up some green, leaving some of the yellow untouched and making part of the green. Mix darker with some extra blue, and I'll take a little bit of each color and mix up a neutral tone for the branch. I decided to use a flat, rounded sable brush for the Berries of Filbert. I think the shape will make it easier for me to produce the rounded shapes. I'll pick up a decent amount of paint and start with the largest berry right there. Obviously, this blue is a bit dark. It could have used a little extra white in the mix, but that's okay because the focus, as I said, is on the strokes in the application. Notice how much paint on putting down? It's very thick. My shapes aren't perfect either, but that doesn't bother me. I like a little artistic freedom when I paint, and I don't encourage you to allow yourself some freedom as well. In these exercises, just make sure that you keep to the stroke in this case and pasta with a brush. Notice the brush line, and that's with a sable brush. Now I'll pick up some pure blue, nice and dark, and I use that imply the blueberry tips. And because this is in pasta, I'm just kind of blah bing it on. Now I'll pick up that neutral color for the stem. I may not have mixed quite enough. We'll see. It's not terribly imposter, is it? I'll add a little white and just build up the form of it. It went on a little thin, but I could bulk it up a little with this white mix. Now we'll put in the leaves, which I'm going to do in a small hog hair flat. This should give me the shape that I want. So I load the brush and you can see him picking up a lot of paint and then drag it on very thickly. I'm trying to paint these in his few strokes as I can, so that has a freshness to it. I'm also allowing some of the color to mix while I swipe. It offers a little visual interest now. I'm not sure if you can see it well enough, but this is pretty thick paint. We'll get a close up at the end so you can see when you do your object. Take your time. There's no rush, and that's it. That's my object painting in in pasta using a brush, and now it's your turn. Go ahead and paint your object painting using imposter brushwork 18. Impasto Knife: In the previous lecture, we looked at how imposter paint can be applied with a brush, but it can also be applied using a palette knife. A palette knife is a blunted knife that's made of flexible steel and used for mixing paints . Back in the 15 hundreds, it was El Greco who first began experimenting with an early form of palette knife. He would use it to smear on thick applications of paint or in pasta, the nature of steel or metal. The fact that it's hard and smooth allows for some unique capabilities, such as its ability to shape large amounts of pain or to create wonderful, glassy smooth paint layers. But you will have to contend with strong lines along the edges because of the way the knife distributes the paint. It's those very edges, however, that can allow for some very interesting textures and lines. A palette knife is very handy when you want to cover a large area with thick paint. It's a great technique if you want to add a little bit of drama to your painting or to accentuate a specific feature in a painting, for example, that's mostly smooth, an area of in Pasto Connect is a focal point, leading the eye to a three dimensional spot. Personally, I use a palette knife within Pasto paint when building up the foreground grasses in an oil painting. As with brush application, your load of paint will be at its maximum. Devolution is none. You want pure paint or at least close to pure paint, and the surface can be dry or wet. Now palette knives come in different shapes and sizes, and each variation will influence the resulting look. They also come in both metal and plastic. Now I highly recommend you go with metal because of its durability and flexibility. In Austin, knife strokes are primarily used when working in oil or heavy acrylic paint. But there is a way to use a knife for watercolor, and for this you'll need fresh paint straight out of the two. We mentioned that if you want an impostor watercolor paint, you need to use a medium, or you risk the paint cracking once dry but used with small amounts of pure water color paint. In conjunction with water, a palette knife can offer interesting effects. One way to use a palette knife with watercolor is to dab on small amounts of pure paint and then spritz the area with water drop walls or painted with water, allowing the paint to mix on the circles. You can also reverse the order spraying the surface with water first and then adding bits of pure pain. The idea is to allow the paint to mingle with the water and result really nice value and color effects. You can also apply the same process to a fully wet surface for a different look. In the next video, we'll delve into impasse toe knife work with oil paints. 19. Impasto Knife - Oil: before we cover in pasta knife strokes. Let's first review the difference between imposter, so the brush and impostor with a knife on the left. You can see the imposter brushstrokes from the prior lesson. Noticed the intense brush line and now will spread the paint with a palette knife right next to it. Do you see the difference? Look closely at the surface. You can see the bristle lines in the brush version, but not in the knife. That's the biggest difference. Also notice the difference in edges. The knife has a sharper, more sporadic looking edge. Knife edges tend toe. Also have more peaks of pain. There are a lot of things you can do with a knife. You can load up the paint and school shit across, dragging the knife in a parallel motion. You can pick up your paint on the edge of your knife and then drag it on the edge to create lines. You can spread it across, or you can use the tip to apply the paint, in this case, using a kind of patting motion because of the thick texture, the paint adheres the knife as you left and can sometimes create little peaks, which can be used for texture. You can smooth the surface of the pain as well, just by sweeping with the flat side of the knife. Let me show you how I'm loading my knife for these strokes. For basic knife work, I swipe across the mixed paint until the bottom of the knife has in pretty nice load of pain. I can also smooth the palate, paint and pick up the new paint with Onley, the edge of the knife that allows me to tilt the knife and apply the paint as an impostor line. I notice I'm not straight up and down. I'm kind of tilted as I apply the paint as we mentioned, you can also pick the paint up with the tip. Then, when you apply the paint, you're not laying the knife flat. You're angled so that the front quarter of the knife touches the surface. Now let's discuss some pilot knife variations. There are many, many different shapes, which is kind of fun. Here are a few of my favorites. This is your standard palette knife. If someone mentions a palette knife, this is the one they're usually referring to. It's very versatile and is great for mixing your paints as well as application. And here's another shape, kind of a small, blunted version of the standard one. This is shorter, giving a little more control over the spread of pain. It's stiffer, so it also scrapes a little easier palette, knives coming. Interesting shapes as well. I like this one because of the unusual textural effects that can give me. Here's another, which offers a number of angles to work with. Each variation has its own feel, so selection is a very individual thing. This one has that nice, sharp edge for scraping. In the next video, we'll talk about how you should go about practicing this stroke on your own. 20. Impasto Knife - Stroke Practice: to practice and pasta. Nice drugs. You'll obviously need your surface. And since I'm doing this in oil, I have a small canvas board taped to the surface, and then I have a selection of palette knives. If you don't have a palette knife, you can always use an old credit card or perhaps something like a cake icing spatula. You could even use a clean butter knife, although I wouldn't recommend using it for food afterwards. And you don't have to have a selection. You could do all of the exercises with one knife, perhaps the standard palette knife. But the first thing you'll need to do is mix up a large amount of pure paint straight out of the two. I'm gonna use the same oil mix that I've been using throughout the course, a subtle blue made from three pains. You should use a single color for this exercise, but you can create that color from more than one paint. If you wish. Just makes it up ahead of time. You'll notice I placed a small amount of a second color in the corner. You may want to do that as well, so you can see how a knife can integrate it towards the end of the session. When you're ready, clean off your knife and pick up a large amount of paint with the bottom tip of your palette knife. I've got a few fringy edges there. Let me just wipe them off and then stroke the paint onto the surface. Notice the angle I'm using. The edge is slightly tilted. What you're doing is depositing the paint on there. If you place it straight up and down on its edge, you won't transfer much paint. You have to tell to the little as you deposit paint. You'll want to increase the tilt until you're almost flat. Practice these different angles. Even try placing the knife down completely flat, swipe in one direction and then swerved back and forth. See how that affects Mark. We're going to clean the knife again and then pick up some more paint with the very tip of your knife and practice placing it on the surface in short strokes. Remember to keep the layer of paint thick. You shouldn't really feel the surface texture. Make sure you try this side of your knife. You can also load the very tip and scrape downward. Just kind of experiment. Play around and see what capabilities you have. Try different angles and different loads. Just doesn't do. I always have a nice stack of paper towels available. Some people like to use a regular towel. It's a personal preference. Now, after you've played with this and are feeling comfortable, don't be afraid to go back and try scraping into a spot with your knife. That's a different brush stroke, but since we have the paint down, you can try it and then sweep over it again and watch how it covers back up. Once you've practiced the stroke and are feeling comfortable with it, you can bring in a second color. Just pick up a little with your knife and spread it into some of the prior paint area. You can also quiet with a bouncing motion if you want just for something different. It's kind of like a knife stumble, isn't it? Now I have some other knife shapes. This one is a very thin pointed knife like I showed you in the oil demonstration. Whatever knives you have, try spreading the paint both horizontally and vertically because this is such a thin knife . It's hard to get a lot of pain and notice that I'm turning the knife as I apply the paint to access the rest of the paint on the knife. I'm also using the stubby your knife as well. I can pick up the paint and spread it on. Because this knife had is smaller, it has less give. And so part of the Sechrest eyes is for you to get the feeling of your different palette knives. Because of the small size of this particular knife head, it's not bad for making circular shapes. I'd encourage you to try to do that with whatever palette knife you have. Now we're talking about imposter, so so make sure that your pain is nice and thick after you got the feeling of a stroke, then we'll move on to painting our object painting with in pasta, knife, strokes 21. Impasto Knife - Object Painting: in this video, I'm going to demonstrate painting. My chose an object using imposter knife strokes. And I'm gonna use two different palette knives for this. The tricky thing is going to be to get this circular shapes of the Berries. I'm gonna try using this small pallet knife for that because you have a little more control with it. Now, I don't think I have quite enough paint mixed up. So let me first and to that, Make sure you have enough paint before you start. I'm gonna add some pure yellow for variation. Now, mix up some more blue adding a little more white than I had used for the imposter brush demo. And I'll need a supply of neutral tone for the branch. We'll start off with the Berries. And as I mentioned, I'm gonna use this small pallet knife for that purpose. I pick up some of the blue paint with my knife. Happily as I had planned, The small knife head is giving me more maneuverability. Notice how thickly I'm applying it. I'm really loading on the paint. It's really fun to do this. Enjoy the consistency when you try it. I'm trying to keep the paint on the tip of the knife like I did in the brush version. I'm going to take some of the dark blue and use it to imply the berry tips. And now I'm going to switch to a standard palette knife for the branch, applying the paint with an edge to make a line. I load the edge of the brush like we showed you in the previous videos and drag it along the stem area. The track will be to get close enough to the Berries without disturbing them. Now, if you're a perfectionist, remember that it doesn't need to be perfect. Focus on the application and try to really just enjoy the process. I didn't disturb the Berries a little bit, so I'll go back and just touch it up in spots. And now what do the leaves for interest? I'm picking up some of the green as well as a touch of the blue, and I'm basically squashing the paint into place, trying to use the imposter texture to enhance or build the form, and I'd like some of the paint to mix on the surface. Now, if you feel you need to practice applying paint with a knife some more Before doing this exercise, Feel free to do so. Work at your own pace. Once you feel ready, drive in and try it because it's a knife. If you want to, you can scrape a swell and that's it. That's my imposter. Knife object painting. Here's a closer look just so you can see how much texture and paint depth there waas. Like I said, When you're ready, go ahead and paint your object using imposter. Oh, nice drugs. 22. Review - A Visual Quiz: before we officially close out the first half of the course, let's review what we learned by taking this short visual quiz, I'm going to show you a bunch of masterpieces and we'll zoom into parts of the paintings where I want you to see if you can identify some of the brushstrokes we just learned about . We'll begin with this painting by George Bellows, zooming into the foreground. What stroke jumps out at you here? If you guessed Provera, you're right. Look at these confidence swipes. Here's a different section. What do you see here? Did you pick up on the imposter? Brush and knife strokes? Here's a closer look. Remember how we learned to tell the two Apart? Here is a piece from the 17 hundreds. If we zoom into the face, what's drugs do you see? The cheek and the side of the face were both painted with blended strokes, as were some of her other features. You can also identify directly painted lines and marks. A close look at her collar reveals yet another stroke. Some small and pasta brush marks now, but you can identify this one right away. If you guessed in pasta brushstrokes you're right again. Noticed the obvious brush lines in the thick paint. Use a very textural painting. If we zoom in, take a look and see what you can find. Did you notice the dry brushing or perhaps the scum bling? There's also what appears to be in pasta knife lines, likely made with the side edge of a palette knife. Now here's a piece by Charles to move. If we zoom into the top half, what do you see? Did you identify the radiance? Here's another section of the page. Do move Uses blended strokes to build up a lot of his forms. You can also see a lot of directly painted lines. Now we're looking at a kind of unusual piece by Paul Jenkins. What stroke is dominant here? Jenkins used poured paint to develop this piece. This one's a very ethereal landscape. When we zoom into the river, what brushstroke D. C. If you guessed dry brushing your right. Dr. Rushing is a common technique for water. This is a temper painting on wood that dates back to around 280. If we look at the top part of the peace, you'll notice that much of the painting was painted in. What stroke? The answer is directly painted lines. The lower half of the face conveys another stroke. Can you see it? The artist used heavy hatching and cross hatching lines. Sanford Gifford is a master of a particular brushstroke. Are you able to identify it? He did amazing work with glazes as well as blended strokes. Noticed the subtle transition from blue to pink in the sky and love this piece by Fang. There are several brushstrokes we can identify in here. Which ones do you see to begin with? The sky uses a lot of blended strokes, and the distant water has a lot of Dr Rushing. In the foreground, you can see a lot of river work. You have the large chunky strokes as well as the more expressive versions. On the left. There are even a few blobs of imposter paint. Here's another textural piece, this one by Tom Roberts. There's a lot to look at here, but if we zoom into the water, what stroke becomes apparent? If you guessed feathering your right, Notice how he pulled the brush in an upward direction and he doesn't interesting version of it in the reflection. And finally, this artist is well known for a specific brushstroke. Can you identify either the artist or the stroke? It's stumbling, and the artist is Gustave Courbet. So I hope you've enjoyed this little quiz. It's just a nice way to wrap things up and review what we've learned in the first half of this course.