Mastering Brushstrokes - Alternative Brushstrokes (Part 5 of 6) | Jill Poyerd | Skillshare

Mastering Brushstrokes - Alternative Brushstrokes (Part 5 of 6)

Jill Poyerd, Professional Fine Artist & Educator

Mastering Brushstrokes - Alternative Brushstrokes (Part 5 of 6)

Jill Poyerd, Professional Fine Artist & Educator

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21 Lessons (1h 11m)
    • 1. Introduction to Mastering Brushstrokes

    • 2. Splatter

    • 3. Splatter - Oil

    • 4. Splatter - Stroke Practice

    • 5. Splatter - Object Painting

    • 6. Dripping

    • 7. Dripping - Oil

    • 8. Dripping - Stroke Practice

    • 9. Dripping - Object Painting

    • 10. Dabbing (No Brush)

    • 11. Dabbing (No Brush) - Oil

    • 12. Dabbing (No Brush) - Stroke Practice

    • 13. Dabbing (No Brush) - Object Painting

    • 14. Smearing

    • 15. Smearing - Oil

    • 16. Smearing - Stroke Practice

    • 17. Smearing - Object Painting

    • 18. Scraping

    • 19. Scraping - Oil

    • 20. Scraping - Stroke Practice

    • 21. Scraping - Object Painting

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About This Class

Master key brushstrokes that lie at the core of watercolor, oil, and acrylic painting.

"This is the best online course I've ever taken. Jill has provided general and detailed information in a way that is easily understood and clearly defined." - Rebecca S.

Brushstrokes are at the core of being an artist, and an individual's brushwork is one of the things that sets them apart from other artists. Using her approachable, easy-to-understand teaching method and lots of hands-on activities, artist Jill Poyerd breaks down historic and contemporary brushwork into twenty-two unique brushstrokes from traditional to unconventional. 

This six-part course covers twenty-two individual brushstrokes. They are broken down by style of application and include a brief history, examples of how they're used in masterpieces, visual demonstrations, and student practice exercises. By combining technical learning with visual and hands-on examples, students gain a thorough understanding of each brushstroke variation. At the end of the course, students are challenged to create a simplified painting using five-strokes selected from the course material.

Note: Demonstrations are given in both watercolor and oil paint. Acrylic painters simply have to apply the knowledge depending on how they use that medium, whether thick (like oil) or thin (like watercolor).

Meet Your Teacher

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Jill Poyerd

Professional Fine Artist & Educator


Jill Poyerd, NWS, is a contemporary realist known for her tranquil subject matter and unique painting style. Her award-winning work can be found in private collections both nationally and internationally. She has been featured in national publications, is the author of the portrait painting book Fearless Portraits, and is a signature member of several prestigious art societies, including the National Watercolor Society. Jill works in both watermedia and oil paints and has exhibited extensively throughout the Mid-Atlantic region as well as in national shows.

In addition to her work as an artist, Jill is an active member of the arts community. She has curated many multi-medium group shows, and is the founder and current head of the Fine Art Professionals of Northern Virgi... See full profile

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1. Introduction to Mastering Brushstrokes: Welcome to my course called Mastering brushstrokes. This course is part of a series covering 22 different brushstrokes. In order to give students a full perspective on each stroke, we begin by discussing that particular brushstrokes history, followed by examples of how it's been used by some of the masters. And then students watch as I demonstrate at close range how the stroke is executed. A separate lecture covers that stroke as it's done in oil paint. Students then watch as I show them how to practice this stroke at home. And then we finished the brushstroke by painting a simple object painting using only that stroke. In order to solidify its influence on farms. The brush strokes are arranged in a specific order, and we begin with the strokes that are often used in creating a base layer in a painting. Next, we move on to directly painted lines. Lines that remain is part of the finished product. From there, we move into strokes that use light amounts of paint, followed by those that use heavy amounts of paint. Then we discussed the various broken strokes. And finally, more contemporary application methods. Each lecture demonstrates the actual stroke, first and watercolor. And then in oil paint, unless specific brush stroke applies more to oil painting. Most other painting mediums usually relate to one or the other. They're either fluid like watercolor or dense like oil paint. For example. Acrylics can be used either Finley like watercolor or thickly like oil paint. So the acrylic artist would apply this stroke information to how they use that specific paint. For this reason, a basic working knowledge of your preferred painting medium is necessary. And what I mean by that is you should have a very basic understanding of your materials, how your preferred painting medium is applied to a surface. I recommend that you watch both the watercolor and oil lectures regardless of what paint you use. The reason is that sometimes understanding how different medium works can actually help you better understand your own medium. Now one thing I need to recommend is only USE artist grade paint. And if you work in watercolor, only use our discrete paper or surface as well. Student grade materials do cost-less, but their performance is poor. In fact, there are some basic skills and techniques that simply won't be possible using student grade paint. If you're concerned about the cost, just select a red, yellow, and blue paint known as a colour triad. If you work in oil or heavy acrylic, you may want a white and black as well. From these, you can make every supplemental color. And if you work in watercolor, I recommend to paints as opposed to pans. There are few brush strokes that are going to require a more malleable pain. Now as far as your surface, artist grade 140 pound watercolor paper is what I'd recommend. Preferably cold pressed. So it has some truth to it. And inexpensive Canvas boards are sufficient for basic stroke practice. If you work in oils. If you feel you need more information on supply for water media paints, you may want to consider taking my course titled foundations for mastering watercolor painting. At the end of each lecture, students are guided through two assignments, some basic stroke practice, and a fun application exercise. If you work in water media paints, you may want to pick up a small ring binder of watercolor paper for this second exercise. If you do all of the practice paintings in this format, you'll end the class with a handy reminder of each stroke. Just make sure it's at least a 140 pound paper or thicker. In order to avoid too much paperwork. I've included some helpful handout as well as my three-part YouTube video that covers the full history of brushstrokes and the masters that made them famous. But now let's get to the course material. 2. Splatter: Now we're going to discuss some unconventional application methods. Some that use a brush and some that don't. I'm talking about spattering, dripping, dabbing, smearing, and scraping. And we'll begin with spattering. I would define splattering as throwing or dropping paint so that it lands as a series of droplets. And these droplets can make up the entirety of a painting. Or just be used as an accent. Splatter in one form or another was used as far back as the 17 hundreds and in particular by John Constable, who liked to use it to convey texture. John Baptiste Camille Caro was another master who used the technique. How can we tell? Well splattered paint doesn't usually have a pattern or a rhythm to it. Although if splattered from an angle, it may convey a slight directional pattern. The marks usually vary in size and they tend to have hard edges. Notice how it adds an element of movement. Painting. Splatter is a fun technique and it really adds some spontaneity. Whistler actually used it for a focal point in his piece, the Falling Rocket. And Andrew Wyeth often splattered paint in order to add texture to an old structure. It can be used in abstracts, areas of abstraction, snowflakes, or even portraiture. For those who paint very loosely. When splattering paint, your dilution can be any level. As mentioned previously, the more diluted the paint, the lighter the color. Typically your surface will be dry because you want the droplets of paint to sustain on the surface. But you can splatter wet on wet and with oil paints in particular, a splatter mark is bold and spontaneous. It can be single or multicolored. And by its very nature, it's a bit impasto when sitting on the painting surface. The splatter Mark, enlisted Lamar are about the same size, generally speaking, but there are clear differences between them. Splatter is less controlled. The marks are more sporadic, have more variation in size. And because they're kind of impasto, the marks tend to appear darker than stippling. Round brushes work best because of the shape of the bristles and how it springs to release the pain. This tapered shape allows water to run down the bristles and accumulate in the very tip, ready for release onto the surface. A flat brush has a linear lineup of bristles. So liquid runs down and spreads across the span of bristles until it accumulates. To form a droplet. Avoid very short bristle brushes. They simply can't hold enough paint. Brush size matters as well. A larger brush will produce larger droplets. As we can see in this demonstration, I'm using a size ten into size four round brush. Splatter is typically placed on a dry surface. But when working in water medium and you can get really unique effects by spraying your surface with water first, because the paint will flow within the bodies of water, it creates really interesting edges and designs. You can also splatter onto a completely wet surface, which will give you a blurrier and luck, as well as a lighter tone. Now there are several ways you can splatter your paint with a brush. One way is to load your brush and then tap the midpoint or end area with a second brush. You can also simply tap a loaded brush with your finger. This is what I usually do. How hard do you tap? It will determine how much paint will splatter. And lastly, you can just fling your brush to release the paint. This can get a little messy, but it definitely produces a spontaneous look. And really it's just a flick of your risk towards the surface while holding your brush. If you tilt your surface and then spot or your paint, your spotter marks will have an angle to them and that can convey a sense of motion. Let's take a quick look at how brush load effects Mark, I mentioned having a fully loaded brush when you splattered. That will result in a variety of impasto like dots in your painting area. But what happens if you use a lightly loaded brush? Less loaded, you brushed the smaller the droplets. That course, if you have too little paint on your brush, the paint that's there will adhere to the bristles and you really won't be able to achieve splatter. Now you can also splatter paint using a spare to thresh. If you do use it for this purpose, you should only use it for this purpose. Load the toothbrush BY swishing it in your thin paint. Place it over the surface, and then run your finger over the bristles. You can see it creates a very fine splatter. And remember, whichever technique you use you and keep the motion for more droplets. Or you can allow the prior layer to dry and then add additional color for variation. In the next video, we'll look at how you can splatter with oil paint. 3. Splatter - Oil: Now that we've learned about flattering and watched a demonstration in watercolor. Let me demonstrate splattering with oil paint. As always, the first thing to do is mix up your paint. But for this stroke, you'll need to send the oil paint down quite a bit in order for it to be fluid enough to fly off the bristles as droplets will make it a thin version of yellow to so you can see how adding an additional color affects the results. I'm going to add extra oil as well as a touch-up solvent to thin the paint. Now notice how the solvent lessens the surface tension of the oil. It's one of the reasons that helps improve flow. And now we'll mix each of the paint's. Spattering works best with a round brush. Here I'm picking up some of the paint with a medium round synthetic, placing the brush over the surface. I'm tapping it with my finger or I can tap it with another brush and that should cause the paint to fly off in droplets. But in this case, it's not coming off, which means the paint isn't going enough. So I'll add a little more solvent, mix it up and try again. The oil paint needs to be fluid enough to disperse. Well, it's coming off a little better now, but not quite as much as I'd like. So we can either thin the paint some more or use a smaller brush. We're going to switch to a smaller round. So you can see that the same paint mix will respond differently by brush size. The smaller brush will be more affected by the taps. N should release the paint easier. Let's see. It's also a hard bristle brush, stiffer bristles. So that should help as well. In addition, I'm tapping it with my palette knife. This time. It gives us sharper tap. Now we're getting somewhere. All three changes helped encourage the paint to release. Let's get a closer look so you can really see the paint dimension. Notice the slight impasto dots of paint. So let's add a second color. Looks like the yellow needs more thinning. That's better. Notice the variation in splatter size and shape, as well as the three-dimensional aspect. This is unique to oil and heavy acrylic. In the next segment, we'll discuss how you can practice flattering on your own. 4. Splatter - Stroke Practice: Now we'll review how you can practice splattering paint on your own. I'll keep my palette and view for now. Since having a very, very loaded brushes important. Mix up a fair amount of paint, pretty thin, and then load up your brush. Holding the brush over your surface, tap the brush with your finger. As you can see, nothing is coming off, which means I need more paint in my bristles. So I go from RPI. This time it's working and I'm tapping a little harder as well. Try this yourself and remember to use a slight risk as you tap. Amazing a medium round, but also try this technique using a small round. Following the same process, you'll see that it produces smaller droplets. Another method is to tap the brush with this second branch. Here I'm tapping a large round with a small one. Go ahead and try a brush tap as well. Make sure the one you use to tap with is not loaded or you'll end up with a bit of a mess on your hands. Although a round is the preferred brush, try this stroke with a flat. It will work, but you'll see that it's perhaps not as a deal as around. And lastly, try simply flicking your wrist with a loaded brush. Droplets using this method are a little more sporadic and little unpredictable, which you may want at times. So go ahead and try this on your own. And then we'll apply this stroke to our object painting. 5. Splatter - Object Painting: Let's apply what we've learned about flattering to our object painting. It would be very difficult to create the entire painting as simple as it is with spattering. So I'm gonna focus on incorporating it. Even if it only makes up part of the painting. We'll see how the splatter influences the overall feeling of the piece. As I usually do, I'm starting with the berries. But when I finished that section of the painting, while it's still wet spot or some of the blue paint around the painted area. Just a few taps with my finger did the trick. Now I'll paint the stem and then we'll move on to the leaves. I'm going to throw a little the blue into the stem just for creative license. Now, since our focus is really on the spotter, I'm just going to paint the leaves simply with warm and cool greens that blend together. And they're just about single strokes, directly painted like with the berries when I'm finished, but while the paint is still wet, i'm going to splatter and even warmer green around the edges of the leaves. Wanda, two taps. I don't want to overdo it. And where I aim, my brush head is where you'll get the larger droplets. Now I'm gonna go back into the berries while they are still dam and just add some darker values just for visual interest. And maybe a few swipes on the leaves. And that's bounded it. This bladder really adds a feeling of excitement, kinda spontaneous feeling to the piece. Now it's your turn. You can try to create the entire painting in spotter or find ways to incorporate it into your own version. 6. Dripping: Drooping is an expressive mark that can be incorporated into a painting to add pizzazz and expression. In section two, invisible brushstrokes. When we talked about pouring, we also touched upon the idea of dripping paint because one of the ways to drip paint is to pour it. But you can also drip paint from objects or just allow the paint that's already on the surface to run. Jackson Pollock, the inventor of the trip method, would even drip paint from old dried up brushing. In order to drip paint, your dilution will be moderate to heavy. Think back to our discussion on pouring paint in part one. The paint has to be fluid enough in order for it to flow, whether from an object or the effects of gravity. And the paint can be dropped onto a dry or a wet surface. A quick look online reveals how modern artists have found ways to work with dripping techniques, especially those who work in acrylic or watercolor, because water media paints have a lower viscosity and are therefore more prone to flow. And there's a current trend in watercolor to incorporate drips in loosely painted figure work and plurals. But dripped paint can be incorporated into many different types of paintings, including this wet on wet urban scene. I attend Xu Chang. In order to drip paint, you're going to need to use the force of gravity. And there are several ways to do it. First, you can drip paint from an object directly onto the surface. You can also apply paint to a flat surface and then tilt it. As the surface elevates, gravity pulls the paint down to the lower end. The higher the elevation, the more pull gravity will have on the paint. You can also tilt your surface first and then apply your paint. There are several methods you can use to get your paint to drip. One way is to allow the paint to build up in a specific spot. Adding paint with a brush until the mass of liquid gives in to the gravitational pull. Basically keep adding paint until it drips. One thing to keep in mind is that the less perpendicular to the surface, the less gravitational pull and the more paint will be needed to cause it. You can see in this example that I keep having to go back to my palette, reload my brush, and add more paint. You'll also notice that the brush can sometimes splatter a little bit of paint due to the motion. Just be ready to soak it up with a paper towel or simply tried to use less of a tapping motion than what I'm using. Could sometimes tapping your brush will cause the paint to splatter a tiny bit. Another method of application is to use eavesdropper filled with mixed paint. To do this, I like to mix up my paint in a small cup, getting it to the desired paint dilation. You can test your dilution along the way on a piece of scrap paper. Then I use a dropper to soak up the paint mix and release the paint at the desired spot on the tilted surface. As you can see here. Notice the consistency of line. In the case of water medium paints, water is attracted to itself, so the new paint will typically follow along in the same line. You can also drift onto a wet surface, providing a very different resulting look. The paint, in this case, spreads and blurs, resulting in very soft edges. It also dilutes into the water and surface, causing the paint to finish with a lighter tone. This wet in wet technique can also be achieved using the dropper tool. If you use paint that's hardly diluted, your drink will appear dark, even dense. Possibly. A heavily diluted paint is much thinner and thus lighter, as you can see here. Let's look at an example of dripping paint on a dry surface. But this time we'll use multiple colors and let them blend in the process. I also want to show you that you can encourage flow and sometimes some spontaneous marks by sprinkling water on to the desired area using a spray bottle. The addition of water will encourage dripping. This only applies to water media paints. In the next video, we'll discuss tripping as it applies to oil paint. 7. Dripping - Oil: In this video, we're going to talk about dripping with oil paint. Now if you work in oil paint and you play into practice this stroke and oil. This video will also function as instruction on how to practice it at home. To begin with, in order to drip oil paint, it'll need to be thinned way down more than is typically recommended. In these plastic cups. I've poured some safflower oil, paint and solvent. I normally use walnut oil, but we'll go ahead and use safflower. And this time, the mix is half and half an even mix of the other tune. These three ingredients need to be mixed very well. All of the clumps need to be dissolved. Dripping oil is best done on a smooth surface. So I'm using a JSON panel as opposed to a canvas. And I'm creating the same mixture in blue. This is a case where I think it's actually beneficial to use two colours. Now in order to get all the comps out, I initially mix with my palette knife. But then I use a small brush, round or flat. And that seems to do a better job of really refining them. Once both paints are ready, we'll go ahead and pour the paint onto the surface. Yes, it's pouring. But remember pouring is one of the ways to drip. Now we'll pour some of the blue on. And I want you to see how they interact. When we tilt the board. As we tilt it, the paint is going to be allowed to drip and flow. These trips could be used within the painting. We're basically using gravity to manipulate the paint and cause drips. And in this case, we pour it on to pure colors and allowed them to mix on the surface. Now of course, you can add additional drips as desired. Remembering that when we tilt the board, there's gonna be some flow. Now if you choose to use this application method in oil, remember that it needs a lot of time to dry. Once you're comfortable with dripping, we can move on and apply this technique to our object paintings. But first, in our next video, we're going to discuss practicing dripping with lighter media paints. 8. Dripping - Stroke Practice: In this video, we're going to discuss how you can practice dripping paint on your own. And we'll begin much like we did with the oil paint, prepaying two cups of fluid paint. In this demonstration, we're using watercolor. I've secured by paper, which is pretty important for this stroke. And what we're gonna do is try to kinds of dripping wet and dry and wet on wet. Once you've prepared your surface, take a nice size brush. In this case, I'm using a medium round and pick up some color. Remember it should be a moderate to heavy dilution, loaded brush to the maximum, and then paint a rough rectangle. It doesn't have to be a perfect shape, just something that's about two by four inches. And then what you're gonna do is tilt your surface. You can either hold it at an angle or place something underneath. I'm using a roll of paper towels, but you can use a towel or some other object and then take your liquid mixed paint. Remember the two cups of paint. And either with a brush or a dropper, add paint to a rectangular area, keep dropping it in. You may want to place paper towel at the base of your surface to catch the drips? I have the surface at about a 30 degree angle from the tabletop. Continue adding pain. Now you can see how the mass of paint is building up. If this was tilted even more, gravity would have already pulled the paint down. So when is it going to drop? That is a lot of paint. It's holding. There we go. And you can see the paper towel soaked up the access. Now we'll try it again, but this time we'll increase the tilt. To do this, go ahead and paint a second rectangle and then tilt the surface a little higher, about 45 to 50 degrees. Don't forget a towel or paper towels to catch the drips. Now begin dropping in some paint again with a brush or dropper. And notice how quickly the paint drips this time. Remember last time it built up quite a bit with this time, look, it's already dropped. That's because of the increased force of gravity. This time I'm holding the surface so I can shift the elevation a little bit. Take note of the width of the drips. The lower angled drip is wider than the elevated drip. And that's because the patient got to build up at the lower angle. The third thing we're gonna practice is wet in wet application. And to do this, we're going to wet the length of the paper and then will drip the paint. In this way, you'll get to experience how the paint reacts to a wet surface. And again, this is with water media. Makes sure that water is spread across the surface evenly and then tilt your surface again about 30 degrees like the first time. Then dropping the paint and compare how it responds as well as the difference in Mark compared to the wet and dry. First, I used to drop her and now I'm using a brush. You can see you can do either. You can also drop in a second color. But realize that pigment interaction will be at its height when they're put together on such a wet surface. For example, the yellow pigment is much finer than the blue. And so they're going to interplay and in this case create kind of a, an unusual effect. And so I'd recommend if you're going to use a second color for dripping in a painting, definitely make sure you practice ahead of time so you know how they respond to one another. And this is what I'd like you to do in order to get a feel for the dripping capabilities of fluid paint. If you work in oil, just review our discussion in the prior video. And in the next video we're going to apply this technique to our object painting. 9. Dripping - Object Painting: We can use dripping paint to create our object painting. Well, it wouldn't be possible really to create the entire image through drips. So what I'm gonna do is create a very basic painting and periodically tilt the surface to allow the paint to dry. And then we'll see how that impacts the feeling of a piece. As always, I'd like to begin with the berries, just creating simple shapes with a simple color scheme. But before they fully dry, I'm going to douse it with additional paint and tilt the surface almost completely upright. You can see I have to add a little more paint. Remember, we're using the force of gravity to pull the paint down. And I need to add paint until the buildup is heavy enough to flow downward. Keep adding the pain. Free to had to get it out of here because we had to turn it completely perpendicular. But there you can see the drips that we got. Make sure you protect the surface where the paint will drip onto. Throw in a few additional darker paint areas, just give some dimension. This is with narrowly on diluted paint. Now, I'll add this stem because the berries were so wet, I'm avoiding connecting the two sections to merge and just kinda wanna give them a chance to dry. And now we'll paint the leaves. Adding variants and the greens, wet in wet. Knowing that I'm going to repeat the dripping crew believes at least in one spot, even though the leaves themselves are not direct. I'm using the wet in wet technique to help give it a slightly looser feel. I think I'll dropped the leaf that's farthest from the berries so that it won't run through the damn blue paint. Like before. I'll tilt this surface and add additional paint to that specific leaf. The nice thing about tilting it is it will prevent the new load of paint from rushing into the other leaf areas too much. So you can see it worked. The drips give it a feeling of unpredictability, I think. And by alternating the colors in the leaves using both the cooler green and nearly yellow bits of paint. That also gives a little visual interest to the piece. And now it's your turn to try painting your object in your chosen medium and incorporate dripping in some way. 10. Dabbing (No Brush): Dabbing paint without a brush is a motion in which you have to apply paint to the surface. You can dab paint using a number of different tools, including a bear finger. It's a stroke that's primarily used by acrylic and oil painters. But it can certainly be used by watercolour artists as well. Dabbing with a finger or a rag dates back almost as far as oil painting, which began in the Renaissance. In the mid 18 hundreds, Gustaf Corbay, in particular was well-known for his rank damping to create foliage in his landscapes. But this technique can be used for a multitude of other purposes. Including painting a highlight on a still-life object, or accents in an abstract painting. Damping with a brush, which we covered earlier in the course is very similar in stroke size, but the mark left behind has a different look. A brush dab takes on the shape, the bristle head, whereas the finger takes on the shape of a fingertip. And when working in oil, a brush Deb can show the bristle lines. Whereas a finger doesn't. Dabbing with a rag can either look like a textured fingerprint or if the rag is plotted up, it can leave kind of haphazard look. If applied thickly. It can also leave behind slight impasto peaks when using the thicker painting mediums. You can also dabbed with other objects and each one will give you a completely different mark. One of the most common objects used for dabbing is spun, and it can be a piece of household sponge or a natural sponge. They kitchen or household sponge creates a little bit more of a geometric shaped. The natural version gives a less predictable pattern. And for this reason is often used by artists to depict fully edge. And you can turn the sponge in various directions to increase the variation in the monarch. Let's look at more examples. As we said, a household sponge will leave a geometric shaped spotted mark. A Q-tip will leave a solid, very consistent looking down. A natural sponge results in a spontaneously dotted mark. A finger covered with a latex glove will produce a rounded but inconsistent mark. Even a plastic sheet makes a combination of linear, rounded and spotted marks. And finally, a piece of foam core with paint spread on it and then dabbed on the surface will result in a variety of interesting shapes according to how you place the paint on the surface. So dabbing a brush can take many, many forms. Of course, the look of the mark will also be affected by how much paint you use, the level of dilution, and how much pressure you apply. As well as the painting medium. A finger dab in oil will look different from a finger dab in watercolor. But the general shape is the same. As far as surface condition when using thinned acrylic watercolor or egg tempera. This surface should be dry. In oil paint or heavy acrylic. You have the option dabbing wet in wet or wet on dry because the wet paints enough to show the brush mark, it won't flow into the base layer of wet paint. Few happened to work with cobalts, cadmium, or other paints that have a tendency to be toxic. You may want to just pick up some latex gloves. However, remember that the latex glove will leave a different mark than a bare finger. In the next video, we'll talk more about dabbing without a brush in oil paint. 11. Dabbing (No Brush) - Oil: Jabbing without a brush in oil paint works very similarly to the way it works with water media paints. And it can be done with a lot of the same tools, some of which can be found around your home. There's the household sponge. Notice I've thinned the oil paint. But in oil paints, you can use the paint Finley or ethically, and you can do it on a dry surface or a wet surface. This applies to almost any alternative tool. For example, if you damped with a natural sponge on a dry surface, you can repeat the stroke over and over again. If you dab onto a wet surface, for example, the prior wet layer of paint, you can only apply a few strokes before you have to clean the tool and reload. Even though oil won't flow into prior paint, it will blend with repeated strokes. Now as we saw in the prior video, you can use a cotton swab to Dan. And it makes a very nice round mark that might work well for pointillism. And if you remember the plastic sheet, it makes a much more substantial mark when using oil paint. The oil paint adheres to the plastic surface much better in watercolor. Because oil is conducive to impasto. You can dab with a palette knife. I have this small one which works really well for that. You just pick it up with the tip of your palette knife and debit and it creates nice peaks of paint. One of the preferred tools of some of the old oil Masters was a simple piece of clean rag. The technique was called Bragg dabbing. To use a rag, you can either scrunch up the cloth or wrap it around your finger. And then you simply wipe up some of the paint and dab it onto the surface, as mentioned. And this can be done with thick or thin paint. How you position your finger will determine the kind of mark that will be made. And lastly, you can just use your finger either bare or with a latex glove. You basically just stroke the paint and then debit on the surface. Both variations bear fingering gloved will result in a fingertip shaped mark with a very slight texture. In the next video, we'll discuss practicing dabbing without a brush on your own. 12. Dabbing (No Brush) - Stroke Practice: Now that we've learned about the various tools other than a brush that can be used for dabbing. It's time to practice it on your own. Let's go over some of the things you should do. First of all, gather a few items that can be used for dabbing. Either the ones we've discussed previously or perhaps some that I didn't think they should be clean and either disposable or for painting use only. For example, I have a piece of plastic wrap. Once you've mixed up a moderate amount of paint, experiment by dabbing the paint on with your various items. I'm crunching up the plastic wrap to see how that lays down the paint. An interesting mark. Now, I'll use a cotton swab. In this demonstration. I'm using oil paint, so I could try each item with thick or thin paint. And heres a natural sponge, a household sponge. And depending on which angle you use, you get different marks. And think of different ways to dab with each item. Tried to think of different variants. Can you rotate it? Would if you increase your pressure or your paint load? And I do recommend trying rag, there had to be a good reason why some of the master's liked it so much. So remember, you can crumble it up. Or you can just wrap your finger around it. Music kind of like a finger. Damn. You may want to try a latex glove too. And if you're paints are non-toxic, try using your finger. So go ahead and gather some items, makes up your paint, and try your hand at the variety of dabs. If you come up with something really great, why not share it with the class? In the next video, we're going to apply dabbing paintbrush to our object paintings. 13. Dabbing (No Brush) - Object Painting: In order to pay our object painting using non brush dab strokes, I begin by mixing my four paint colors. It's important to have everything mixed up ahead of time. And since we are going to be using some unconventional tools, I make sure to practice each stroke on a piece of scrap paper before applying it to the painting. I decided to paint the berries using a piece of plastic wrap secured around my finger. I like the dark values. It also just has an interesting appearance. I think I can get fairly rounded shapes with him. The plastic wrap doesn't absorb any of the paint. So I'm able to transfer a lot of the paint to the paper. I really like that. Now I realize the shapes aren't rounded. They're generally rounded. But I like the interesting edge. I like that it offers a hint of abstraction. For the stem, i'm going to use a damp cotton swab and dab along the line of the stem. It'll look a bit choppy perhaps, but that's okay. I actually like it. And it's a little bit of artistic license. For the leaves. I'm going to try rag damps. I'll have to try to get a lot of paint loaded because the rag we'll probably soak up a lot of the pain. It's taking repeated dabbing to get the shape too. And you can see that the rag is soaking up the paint. The values are fairly light. As I move along, the rag is getting saturated so the paint should appear darker or I can mix up some less diluted paint. But let's see how it goes. Not thrilled with that leaf placement, but it's on there now, so we'll work with it. Using the cotton swab. I'm going to add a few touches of less diluted paint to imply very tops. And that's about it. It is challenging to use unconventional items, but it's also a lot of fun. Now it's your turn to try it. Go ahead and paint your object. Painting using non brushed dabbing strokes. 14. Smearing: Smearing is closely related to dabbing. If you dab onto a surface with your finger, smearing simply involves dragging that finger across the surface to manipulate the paint. An actual definition would be to spread, smudge or blur paint across the surface using a rubbing action. Artists have smeared paint since the development of oil painting back in the Renaissance. But it became most obvious in the work of El Greco, who's smeared his paint with a palette knife in the 16 hundreds. Monet created entire paintings by smearing thick impasto paint in the late 18 hundreds. In artists like repel and richter used various instruments to smear the paint in their abstract paintings from the 19 fifties. On. One way to smear is to push through paint that's already on the surface to imply an object or an action. Examples of this can be seen in Robert Henry's painting, snow in New York. If we look closely at the street lamp, you can see the downward motion of what was likely a clean brush. One way to identify a smeared area like this is the fact that surrounding pre applied paint gets pulled into the downward motion or the surrounding paint accumulates around the swipe. Let's look at another spot. Henry used the same smearing strokes to imply wheel tracks in the snow. A closer look reveals the same signs. Surrounding paint gets pulled into the motion. Smearing can also be used in a more abstract manner. Look at this piece by Andy Warhol. Warhol uses smearing to develop an abstract impression of the figures shirt. You can see the motions used to smear away previous layers of paint to create form. And let's go one step more abstract using this meringue methods developed by rho Pell and richter. The result is a creative design and blur that you cannot achieve with a brush. Notice the sense of motion that this stroke can convey. This brushstroke. Grew technique is best served using oil or acrylic paint. You need a thicker consistency to achieve the look. So a way to smear with watercolor, you simply have to add aqua costume medium to your palate mixes. Now how is smearing different from impasto strokes? Well, it is an imposter technique really. But the objective isn't to simply apply paint. It's to manipulate existing paid or apply paint in a specific manner. Paint can be smeared with a palette knife, a speckle ninth, a spatula, or even an old credit card. You can even smear with a brush or your finger. And the tools, there are several ways you can go about smearing the paint. You can apply the paint to the surface and then smear. Or you can add the paint to the smearing tool. And then phi. You can even smear while at the same time taking off a prior layer of paint. The surface can be dry or wet, and you can smear a single color or multiple color. In the next video, we'll further discuss smearing with oil paint. 15. Smearing - Oil: Smearing is most conducive to oil painting into smear, it usually involves impasto peak. So the first thing we'll do is mix up a decent sized batch of paint and diluted. You could add a medium. You might even be able to get away with diluting a tiny bit. But I like to use the pure paint. I'm using the same blue that I've used for all of the oil demonstrations. There are several ways you can incorporate smearing into your oil painting. The first way can be demonstrated by first spreading a layer of paint across the surface. Here I'm using a palette knife to spread the paint. And now I'll run my finger through the wet paint, removing some of the paint and leaving a smeared line behind. A quick swipe will really spread the paint. Now, I'll show you a second way to incorporate smearing. This time, I'm smearing in our second color on the palette knife, intending the mark to remain as a final mark in the painting. You could do the same application, but use a different stroke to convey a different feeling. For example, you could use a kind of zigzag mark. If you wipe off a brush, you can now use it to smear shape into the wet paint painting in a sense by taking away the paint. Here's a variant on that. It's the same brush, same process, except this time I have fresh yellow paint on brash. And so I'm going to smear it in as a drag it through and extend it into the dry area. It's just another alternative. Now, just for clarification, this is what it looks like if I were to use the yellow and blend it into the existing paint as opposed to a smear. Another method for smearing is one used by John Paul repel and Gerhard Richter, where you apply the paint to a straight edge of the tool and then smear the paints on to the surface together at one time. Let me show you what I mean. If I add different colored paints to this straight edge, globbing it along the edge on one side. Then I can take that edge, lay it against the surface, although not completely flat, but at an angle, and then drag it across surface. The colors smear together directly on the painting. And as you can see, most of the paint was applied to the surface. I could go over the area again in a single stroke to further smear the paints. And if I want, of course, you can do the same thing with a palette knife or other hard-edged tool. Now the idea isn't to keep smearing until the paint is thoroughly mixed. Instead, you want the smeared paint to be obvious and to be part of the painting itself. In the next video, we'll discuss how you can practice smearing on your own. 16. Smearing - Stroke Practice: In this video, I'm gonna demonstrate how to practice smearing on your own. And I'll be using oil paint. Now if you work with watercolor or related mediums, you'll need to mix ako posture medium in with your paints. The first thing you should do, they smear a solid color of paint onto your surface. Then pick up a second color and smear it into the first with a palette knife or brush. Remember this isn't mixing. It's a single swipe or a brief series of swipes with the objective of creating a design, nonbonding the colors together. Brushes are a little more likely to blend the paint than a knife is. So be aware of that. And try smearing with different tools. Each one should work a little bit differently. And then clean off a brush and smear of farm into the painted area. Extend your smear into the dry area of your surface so you can get a feel for how that works as well. And then you can do what I'm doing here. Do a quick swipe over the whole area just to get a feel for what one or two more swipes would do. Now if you really scraped a paint, you could go back to the original blue. You should also try building up your paint on the edge of your palette knife or a credit card or some other tool and spreading it across your surface. In the next video, we'll apply smearing to our object paintings. 17. Smearing - Object Painting: Applying smearing to our object painting is gonna take some file. There are various ways you can apply it, and I'd encourage you to explore this in your mind. Think about how you can apply the concept. For me. I decided to try out the following idea. I'm going to paint the painting area first with white paint. So basically a base layer of white. And then I'm going to smear on my planned colors. In this way, I think it'll be interesting to see how the weight base impacts the results. So I'll start by spreading titanium white all over the six by eight panel. Or at least where I think I'd be painting the object. This'll be a thin coat. Now if you try something like this, you can apply the paint with a brush or a speckle knife or any of the tools we've mentioned. Once I have the weight in place. Now I'm going to mix my paints and I'm gonna mix a little more than neutral term for the branches. Think I didn't have quite enough there. It's made from a mix of the four colors I use. So let's see how this goes on. We have our white base, and now I'll smear on the berry colour. I'm going to use this small palette knife. Again, it gives me a little more maneuverability because it's so short. And I kinda like a sigh, cow, it's working. And let me go in and shape this one barrier a little bit more. I'm intentionally thinking about how the Blue could smear and with the white in order to accentuate the farm. Now, as in the other demos, I'm going to take some of the pure blue and define the tips of the berries. Notice I'm using that smaller palette knife still. And I'm kind of dabbling in, in. I've smeared a little bit in order to integrate it. Now all smear in this stem. I can use the palette knife, but I think our smear it with a small round brush. Instead. I pick up some of the neutral tone and just drag it along through the wait. This is a really fun technique. I think I'll use a brush again to smear in the greens. Now the one I'm going to choose as a goat hair brush, so it should produce more defined lines in the paint. That choice is intentional because I think it'll be really good for leaf texture. I'm picking up a moderate load, knowing it'll blend with the white a bit. And you can see I was right. The goat hair bristles are providing some nice texture lines. And that's an example of how you can use bristle material to implement the piece. I really like how the brush lines enhance leaves. I think our smear in some warm and cool tones just for visual interest. And that's about it. Now it's your turn. You can try something like this. Or think of a unique way that you can apply smearing to your object painting. 18. Scraping: Our final brush stroke is scraping, and it's defined as using a sharp edge or an instrument to lift off a layer of paint, revealing the surface or a lower layer of paint. If the objective is to reveal a bottom layer of color. The technical word for this technique is graffito, which comes from an Italian word that means to Scratch. Artists have used scraping as far back as the 16 hundreds. For example, look at this excellent painting by art to Kaldor. The artist used the wouldn't end of his brush or a painting knife to scrape out highlights and texture in the figure's head dress. You can see it in the figures sleeve as well. Let's look at another example. This one relates to clothing as well. In this piece by Fragonard, The Artist scrapes a design into an area of paint meant to act as the color of her outfit. The actual scraping pattern, in this case, a snaking S-shaped reveals the base layer. And note the paint that was pushed to the side of the scraped area. This scraping line is what really defines the object. Scraping is also a very popular tool for landscape painters. Here the artist used it to scrape out grasses in an oil painting. And here's a similar example, but in a watercolor from the 18 hundreds, it looks like the artist scraped the mark and then softened the edges with a wet brush. Scraping is sometimes used to convey the splash of a wave or a reflection in the water. Scraping can be used for effect, like we can see in this oil painting by art Van der near in the 16 hundreds, using the other end of his brush, van der near scratched out the wet paint to reveal the light bottom layer and imply reflected moonlight. Now there are two kinds of scraping. Scraping paint that's wet and scraping paint that's dry. The effect is also influenced by the medium you use. In watercolor. If you scrape wet paint, the pigment will rush into the scrape marks, causing the scrapes to appear as dark lines. These lines will also be permanent. If you scrape dry watercolour paint, scraped areas will reveal the surface and appear as white line. In watercolor. Sometimes it's handy if you've forgotten to save a little area of white, simply scraping the drive paint can restore some of the white area. But if the paint over that spot, those areas will then appear dark as the paint pigment floods into the crevice. In oil paint, if you scraped wet paint, you're basically removing whatever paint you touch. If you scrape dry oil paint, impasto in particular, you'll very likely just reveal a layer underneath. If you aren't scraping a thin layer, then your scrapes may reveal a surface and therefore show up as white lines. If it's sustaining pain, it may show up as a tint of the top layer. Now what instruments can you use for scraping? Some artists like to use the hard tip of the brush handle. And some use exact or knives or blame. But anything from the edge of a credit card to a stick can serve the purpose. Because there is no application of but rather the removal, paint, dilution, and brush load. And as we mentioned, the surface can be either dry or wet. In the next video, we'll talk some more about scraping with oil paint. 19. Scraping - Oil: How is scraping in oil different from smearing an oil? Well, scraping involves a hard edge that lifts the paint off the surface. Smearing pushes the paint up and off to the side of the area being smeared. You're not really removing the paint. You're adding, redistributing or redesigning the paint. And you can scrape wet paint using a variety of size tools. With short strokes and broad tools such as this speckle knife. You can scrape lines and designs into wet paint. You can also use narrow tools. But first, remember that scraping in oil is quite different from scraping and watercolor in oil. When he scraped wet paint, you're not dealing with fluid paint. So there's no pigment to go rushing into the script area. Instead, the paint simply lifts off the surface, resulting in a white line or a line revealing the color of the base layer of dry paint. As we just saw, scrapes can be made with the edge of a pilot nature or are the opposite end of a paintbrush. And repeated scrapes can be used to communicate a form such as grasses. One thing that's nice about oil is that if you are unhappy with the wet scrapes, you just have to smooth over the surface and try again. The wet paint will smear away this grapevines. Scraping dry oil will also result in the removal of the paint, revealing the painting surface or Dr. layer underneath. But the look is different. The visual result is typically white lines. Or if the paint layers are thick enough, the color of the bottom layer. Now, let's discuss how you can practice scraping on your own. That's our topic for the next video. 20. Scraping - Stroke Practice: Now that we've learned about scraping in both watercolor in oil paint, it's time to prepare to practice it yourself. Whatever medium you're working in, you're going to want to try it both with wet paint and dry. Since scraping responds differently to eat, will begin with scraping web page. The first thing to do is mix up some paint and spread it across the surface. If you work in oil, you can use a brush and palette knife or any other tool. If you work in watercolor, you can apply it with a brush or a through pouring, but smooth on a moderate amount of paint. And then using different tools, scrape into the painted area. Each medium will respond differently as we'll each tool. I think I'll add a little more paint here. As you can see in my example, I'm using oil paint. And here I'm using a palette knife edge to scrape into the surface. And now I'll use the back of a brush. Try whatever tools you have on hand. Once you have some scrapes, read, spread, or apply a little more paint and see what happens. In watercolor, you'll get an even darker permanent line. In oil, the marks disappear. The surrounding paint simply smears over the scrapes, eliminating the marks. Now scrape again, but this time, try scraping from the wet area into a dry area. Remember we did this with smearing. The You Can Do It was scraping as well. In this way, your instrument carries some of the removed paint off into the surrounding area, offering a very interesting grassy looking effect. When you have some dry oil paint available to scrape carefully, use a straight edge exact or knife or other sharp tool to scrape into the dry paint layer. Get a feel for what happens and how far into the paint layers you can go. There's nothing like hands-on experience to build your knowledge base. Just be careful not to scrape so hard that you damaged in the surface. Now if you work in watercolor, find a painted section that's already dry and paint a section of wet paint right next to it. Then use a sharp tool and scrape through each one. The wet surface and the dry. You'll need to add a little extra pressure over the dry section. This is a great way to get a feel for the difference. And now it's your turn in your chosen medium. Practice scraping both wet and dry paint. And then we'll move on and apply it to our object painting. 21. Scraping - Object Painting: In thinking about how I could incorporate scraping into the creation of the object image, because it would be difficult to actually create the entire image with the stroke. I decided to paint the entire image in watercolor and then define aspects of the forms by scraping into wet paint. This way it's kind of like drawing edges with pen and ink. So my first step is to paint the varies with fairly dense paint, not worrying about division of form. Then while it's wet, I use the hard edge of my brush to draw, in a sense, the lines between the berries. I can add additional paint if needed to emphasize valines, knowing that the pigment particles will settle into the crevices. If the lines don't differentiate enough, I can use a sharper instrument like a pallet knife, to race grape over the lines. As I like to do, I'm going to drop in some less diluted paint for value depth. The pigment should flood into the scrape marks as well as dark in the surrounding area. The stem is painted on using a standard direct stroke. End for the leaves are follow the same process I used for the berries. Painting on lightly diluted paint and scraping the key lines. Now, I want to scrape in some fine lines for the leaf veins. So I'll use the more precise edge of appointed palette knife. This is really a fun technique that can be employed in many different ways. Oil painters will need to think in reverse. The script lines will result in lighter lines, so their process will be different. Now you try it. Think about how you want to incorporate scraping into your object painting.