Mastering 3D Modeling in 3ds Max: Basic Level | Widhi Muttaqien | Skillshare

Mastering 3D Modeling in 3ds Max: Basic Level

Widhi Muttaqien, CG expert & entrepreneur

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74 Lessons (9h 3m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Conventions and disclaimer

    • 3. 3ds Max UI

    • 4. Viewport Navigation

    • 5. Alternative navigation methods

    • 6. Zoom extent and display mode

    • 7. Create and modify objects

    • 8. Object selection

    • 9. Transformation

    • 10. Pivot point

    • 11. Transformation settings

    • 12. Modifier

    • 13. Object duplication

    • 14. Managing objects

    • 15. Scene explorer

    • 16. Layer management

    • 17. Selection set and Group

    • 18. Primitive vs Editable objects

    • 19. Editable poly basic operations

    • 20. Sub-object basic selection

    • 21. Sub-object advanced selection

    • 22. Normal direction and backface-culling

    • 23. Edge modeling techniques

    • 24. Cut and Slice techniques

    • 25. Surface smooth shading

    • 26. Capping holes and edge extrusion

    • 27. Bridge

    • 28. Polygon modeling techniques

    • 29. Project Oluce Atollo table lamp

    • 30. Measurement unit

    • 31. Project Tamtam stool

    • 32. Scale modes

    • 33. Resetting transformation

    • 34. Resizing objects precisely

    • 35. Snapping

    • 36. Project Etna side table

    • 37. Aligning objects

    • 38. Project Lack side table

    • 39. What we are going to create

    • 40. Setting up the references

    • 41. Modeling the base frame

    • 42. The feet and top surface

    • 43. The panels and handles

    • 44. Introduction to spline

    • 45. Line creation and Spline vertex types

    • 46. Spline creation exercise

    • 47. Adding and Deleting

    • 48. Spline modification

    • 49. Spline Boolean

    • 50. Cross-insert Weld and Trim

    • 51. Extrude modifier

    • 52. Project S letter logo

    • 53. Project Circular ornament

    • 54. Project Tileable 3D pattern

    • 55. Lathe modifier

    • 56. Project Echasse vase

    • 57. Bevel profile modifier

    • 58. Project Crown molding

    • 59. Project Abbyson Diana table lamp

    • 60. Project Roman column

    • 61. Subdivision modeling introduction

    • 62. Project Teacup

    • 63. Avoiding concave polygons

    • 64. Project Washbasin

    • 65. Introduction to 3D Boolean

    • 66. Advanced reference image setup

    • 67. Using non quad polygon

    • 68. Project Alma 2525 JR stool

    • 69. Conform introduction

    • 70. What we are going to create

    • 71. Setting up 3 sided reference

    • 72. The seat

    • 73. The legs

    • 74. The support

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About This Class

In this course, you’re going to learn the essentials of using 3ds Max 2020 and then basic-to-intermediate 3D modeling skills. This course is designed for complete beginners. So no prior experience in 3D is needed to take this course. The curriculum is carefully designed so you can master 3ds Max quickly and seamlessly.

What you will learn

There are a total of 9 chapters in this course. In the first chapter, you will be introduced to the "User interface" of 3ds Max. You will learn different ways to navigate the viewport. And different ways to utilize the display settings. In the second chapter you will learn basic object operations such as how to create objects, and how to modify them once they are created. You will learn how to select objects. How to transform objects. How to use and manipulate the pivot point. More advanced transformation settings. Learn about modifiers and then finally about object duplication. In the third chapter you will learn various ways of managing your 3D scene. From basic object management. Then learning how to use the “Scene explorer”. Learn how to use and manage layers. Learn about the “selection set” and also object grouping.

Then starting at the fourth chapter, we’re going to shift our focus to 3D modeling. In this chapter, you’ll learn the power of “editable poly” modeling techniques. We’ll start with the basic modeling operations. Then move on to different sub-object selection techniques, step by step, from the basic to advanced. Next, we’ll cover important modeling concepts such as “Normal direction” and “Backface culling”. After that, you will learn edge related modeling techniques. Then learn different ways to cut and slice 3d models. Next, you’ll learn about the surface smoothing group. Learn how to close holes, and learn about the hidden technique of edge extrusion. Then, you’ll learn how to connect two structures using the "Bridge" command. And then learn even more various polygonal modeling features.

In chapter five. We’ll focus on precision modeling. We’ll start with the basics of how 3ds Max uses measurement units. Learn all the nuances of the scale operation. Learn how to reset transformation. Learn how to precisely set the dimension of an object. Learn different snapping features that 3ds Max has to offer. And then learn how to align objects using various tools. Next, in chapter six, the focus is on a modeling project. We're going to create this kitchen counter product. We'll cover from setting up the references. Then modeling the base frame. And then modeling the panels. Until we have a finished model. In all of these modeling processes we are going to use a real measurement unit.

In the next chapter, which is chapter 7. You’ll be introduced to the “spline” object type. By leveraging “spline” in your modeling process, you can create more complex shapes, quickly and easily, if compared to the pure polygonal modeling techniques. You can create the most demanding lines and curves because 3ds Max supports different types of spline vertex. In this chapter, you’ll be given exercises to strengthen your spline editing skill. You will learn how to manipulate spline objects such as adding and deleting spline vertices. And many other spline modification techniques such as “Fillet”, “Chamfer” and “Outline”. Then we’ll discuss 2D Boolean operations. And then more techniques for quickly cleaning up messy intersecting splines. After that, you’re going to start learning different techniques to convert the spline objects into 3D models. You will learn about the “extrude” modifier. Then the “lathe” modifier. And then the “Bevel profile” modifier.

In chapter 8, you will learn the basics of creating smooth organic 3D models using the subdivision techniques. We’ll cover the most important concepts around subdivision modeling. Such as when to use and when not to use non-quad polygons. Learn how to fix bad topology results from concave N-Gons. Then we will cover the modeling techniques using compound objects. Such as using the “Pro Boolean” feature. And then learn how to deform an object to follow the surface of another object using the “Conform” feature.

Hands-on projects

This course is loaded with so many hands-on projects, challenges, and exercises that are designed to improve your skills gradually and push them to their fullest potential. Most of the projects in this course are based on real-world products. First you will model this table lamp product called “Oluce Atollo”. Then you will create this stool product called “Tamtam”. Then you will learn how to create this unique side table called “Etna”. Then learn to model another table called “Lack”. After that, you will create this kitchen counter product called “Werk”. Next, by using the spline modeling techniques you will create this “S” letter type logo. Then learn how to efficiently model this circular ornament. And then learn how to model any type of tileable 3D pattern while creating this wall ornament. Then you will learn how to create this vase called “Echasse”. Learn how to create interior details by creating this crown molding. Then learn how to create this table lamp. And you will learn how to easily model this Roman column. Starting at chapter 8, we will model this teacup object. And then this washbasin object. After that, we will create this stool product. And finally, in the last chapter, we will model this chair product using the techniques we’ve learned previously in chapter 8.

After completing the course, in sha Allah, you will have a solid foundation on how to use 3ds Max. You'll gain a significant amount of 3D modeling skills. And also, you will understand many important concepts around 3D computer graphics. I hope you find this course interesting and beneficial.


1. Introduction: assalam. Waleikum my name is Redeem Attack in I am an entrepreneur and also lecturer in computer graphics disciplines. I teach treaty and to the animations where designs motion graphics give development another computer. Graphics related disciplines have been using and teaching to their smacks for over two decades. Now, in these online course, you're going to learn dear Sen shows off using two DS max and then focus on the critical techniques off three D modeling. This course is designed for complete beginners. So if you have never used to DS Max before, don't worry, because this course is for you. The curriculum is carefully designed so you can muster a tedious max quickly and seamlessly . There are a total off nine chapters in this course. In the first chapter, you be introduced to the user interface off three DS max. You were different ways to navigate the view poor in different ways to utilize the display settings. In the second chapter, you will learn basic object operations such as how to create objects and how to modify them . Once they are created, you will learn how to select objects, how to transform objects, how to use and manipulate the people point more advanced transformation settings, learn about modifiers and then, finally, about object duplication in 1/3 chapter, you'll in various ways off managing your treaty. Seen from basic object management, they're learning how to use this in Explorer, learn how to use in many layers, learn about the selection said and also object grouping. Then, starting at the four chapter, we're going to shift our focus to three D modeling. In this chapter, you will under power off irritable Polly modelling techniques. We'll start with the basic modeling operations, then move on to difference of objects. Selection techniques step by step from the basic to advance. Next will cover important modeling concepts such as normal direction and back face culling . After that, you earn each related modelling techniques, then learn different ways, took up and slice through the models. Next, you will learn about the surface smoking group, learn how to close holes and learn about the hidden technique off age extrusion. Then you will learn how to connect to structures using the Bridge Command and then learn even more various polygonal modeling features. In Chapter five, we'll focus on precision modeling. We'll start with the basics off whole three DS mix uses my German units. Learn ordered. Wants us off the scale operation. Learn how to reset transformation. Learn how to precisely set the dimension. Often object. Learn different snapping features that three DS max has to offer and then learn hotel line objects using various tools. Next, in Chapter six, the focus is on a modelling project we're going to create this kitchen counter product will cover from setting up the references, then modeling the based frame and in modeling the panels until we have a finished model. In all off this modelling processes, we are going to use a real measurement unit in the next chapter, which is chapter cell phone. You'll be introduced to this flying object type by leveraging spine in your modelling process. You can create more complex shapes quickly and easily. If compared to the pure polygonal modeling techniques, you can create the most demanding lines and curves because two DS makes supports different types off spying vortex. In this chapter, you'll be given exercises to strengthen your spine. Anything skill. You will learn how to manipulate spine objects such as adding and deleting spine vert, ASUs and many other spine modification techniques such as Philly Jam, Pfirter an outline. Then we'll discuss 30 billion operations and then more techniques for quickly cleaning up Messi intersecting spines. After that, you're going to start learning different techniques to convert the spine objects into three D models. You will learn about the extra modifier, then the late modifier and then the bevel profile modifier. In Chapter eight, you were on the basics off, creating smooth organic treaty models using the subdivision techniques. We'll cover the most important concepts around subdivision modeling, such as went to use, and we're not to use non court polygons. Learn how to fix with apology results from Gun Kif and guns. Then we will cover the modelling techniques using compound objects, such as using the pro bullion feature, and then learn how to deform an object to follow the surface off another object, you seem to conform. Feature. These force is loaded with so many hands on projects, challenges and exercises that are designed to improve your skills gradually and push them to their fullest potential. Most off the projects in this course are based on real products. First, you will model the stable and product called Lucia Tollo. Then you will create this stool product called Tempt Him. Then you learn how to create this unique side table called Aetna, then learn to model another table called black. After death, you create this kitchen counter product called work. Next. By using the split modelling techniques, you will create this s letter type logo, then learn how to efficiently model the circular ornament and then learn how to model any type off fallible TD Britain while creating this wall ornament. Then you will learn how to create this always called ashes. Learn how to create interior details by creating this crown molding, Then learn how to create this stable AM and you will learn how to easily model this Roman column. Starting a Chapter eight, we will model the stickup object and then this washbasin object. After that, we will create this stool product and finally, in the last chapter, we will model this share product using the techniques we've learned previously in Chapter eight. After completing the course in Sharlow, you will have a solid foundation on how to use studio smacks you again a significant amount off three D modeling skills and also you will understand many important concepts around three D computer graphics. I hope you find this course interesting and beneficial was Salam wa alaikum. 2. Conventions and disclaimer: well, come to the course before moving on. There are some throw things I need to mention and to make clear firsts first, about the structure off the course. I have carefully crafted the curriculum so that everything is placed sequentially. Each lesson you take on one level will become the foundation off the lessons in the next levels. Therefore, it is important that you take the course in order step by step, not jumping around. If you take the course by jumping around, most likely you will get confused at some point. The second thing I need to mention is that you need to practice for each video. Please try out the lesson yourself. At least ones. The course is not just about theories. Most off the lessons are practical skills. So again you need to practice. If you really want this online course to benefit you, I'll be using to the S mix Version 2020 in discourse. If you use on older version off three DS max, you may experience some differences. Those can be D y the short cuts and order features. To avoid these problems, I strongly suggest that you used the latest version available or at least you studio smacks . Version 2020 for your information or arrest releases a new version off three DS max each year. When you join this course, you might already use a newer version off video smacks now for the newer versions. I don't try to keep updating the course by inserting in between lessons to explain what has changed since version 2020. If not, I would just published a whole new course. Throughout the course. I'll be displaying a lot off images. Some of them are not made by me, amusing them merely as sources off inspiration or as references. If I can find the name off the copyright owner, I will try to add credit for him or her on top off the image. Otherwise, I will just put the girl offer. I got those images. If I don't specifically state that the image is made by me or has my watermark on it, it means that the image belongs to the respectful owners or artists is I do not claim those images made by me. All right, let's move on to our first lesson video 3. 3ds Max UI: in this lesson video. We are going to learn about the u i or the user interface off three DS Max. One thing that you need to know is that three ds max you I is customizable. So when you see other people's you, I you might find them a bit different from your you I or the standard you I and that is totally fine. For example, you might see other people has, like, color team and that you're you. I may have this default dark color team. Although dark you I is actually easier on the eyes, especially in the long run. But if you do want to change the you I to the bright color team, you can go to the customize menu up here and into slowed custom. You I skim after that, a window will open and you can pick this aiming like about you I file and then click open. After that, you may need to restart your treaty s mix toe. Apply all off the changes for now. I will use these the fault dark. You I Okay, now let's discuss the elements inside three DS max up here you will find a menu. This menu is probably the most standard thing among Windows based application. Even in Mac and Lennox, most applications will have this kind off menu on top off them below it, you will find the main toolbar in this main toolbar. You can find almost all off the common tools when working into the S mix such as the move, tool, rotate, tool and scale tool, etcetera. No. India's main toolbar. We can see the projects panel. We're not going to use this panel, so let's hide it to do that. Notice. We can see this. Lines just right. Click on it, then turn off these projects. Check box. You may notice data use 7 20 p resolution to record this video. It is why some off the main toolbar buttons are hidden. You may not experience these if you use high resolution such as full HD resolution. But if you do need to work in small resolution like mine, you can move your mouse cursor over the toolbar area and then hold the middle mouse button and then direct like this. This way we can see an access the hidden buttons below the main toolbar. You will find the ribbon. For now, we are not going to use the ribbon and the spinal actually taking some space in our screen . So we are going to hide this panel. In order to do that, we can click on this toga ribbon button up here in the main toolbar. If later you want to show it again, simply click again on this button. Okay. Now, at the left side, you will find this few portly or tab, which is, in my opinion, not very useful and also taking too much off the screen space. So we are going toe height. This also. But before we do that, I'm going to show you what this panel actually can do. This panel is useful to change the few port layout. For example, we can click on this character button and click on this layout. As we can see, we know half different, few portly out. But again, we will be using maximized minimize pupil Togo. So this is not very important for us at the moment to hide this panel. First, we need to switch back to the standard few port by clicking on this button. Then just right click in this line at the top off the panel and turn off these few put layout steps. Checkbooks. Next is the scene Explorer the Spano is useful to displayed. Lease off our objects in a scene in several different ways. In theory, we can show and hide the scene Explorer by clicking on this button up here. But in three DS Max 2019 this button has some strange behavior. If you click on it, it will open another scene Explorer. So now we have to seen explorers. I don't know if this is considered as a buck or not, but to fix this issue just right, click on this line and then click this scene, export or check box in here. Then you can wreck this one to the left area, or simply right, click on the title bar and then to stock, then laugh. Now we can show in height the scene explorer using this button up here next. This large center area is the few port few pork is like a window where we can see our three D world from different angles by default. We have four few ports. If you look closely at each off this few ports. We can see the name off the few port label at the top left corner. This is the top few poor where we are looking from the top direction. This is the front few port, which basically looking at the front side, and this one is the left few port. And finally, the last one, which looks a bit different from the rest, is the perspective. Few poor. We're going to discuss about few port navigation more in depth. In the next lesson, we can maximize a few port by pressing out W. But first you need to move your mouse cursor toe the few port that you want to maximize. For example, if I move my mouse on this perspective, few port then hit out. W the perspective. Few port will be maximized. I w again so many My sit back. If we move our most cursor on this front, few poor area and impress out W. Then we get our front few port maximized. Don't. Here we can find the timeline, but in three DS max, we call it the time slider. Essentially, the timeline is used to scrap the time pointer and place TI frames for animation because we are not going to learn any animation in this course. We're not going toe touch this panel. If you want to hide this timeline, we can right click on this line and then click on this time Slider. Next. Don't. Here you will find Max Script console status. The information values que frame tools, playback tools. And this area at the far right is for a few port navigation. We're going to discuss some off days when the time come, inshallah, At the right area, off the screen, we can find a command panel. So this big panel is called the command panel. This command panel is actually divided into sofa Rosa panels. First is the create panel. This is the panel. We need toe access when we want to create new objects inside three ds max. The second sub panel is the modify panel. This is where we go. If we need to modify existing objects, then the hierarchy panel where we can set up if it Boyne linking rigging, etcetera. The motion panel where we can set up and manage animations. The display panel where we can control how three DS max display objects. And the less one is the utility spinal, where we can find some helpful features in different categories. 4. Viewport Navigation: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss about few port navigation for us. I will create some tea pots in the scene and a plane object. Now, I know we haven't discussed object creation yet, but this is not the point off this lesson. So just bear with me for now, okay? Do not forget. The few ports we can use suffer all methods. The first method is by using the mouse. The second method is using the few cube. The third method is using the steering wheel and less method. It's using the you I buttons which are located at the right most bottom screen. Let's see each off this methods one by one. In this video, we will cover the first method and in the next video, we will cover the other three methods. The most method is by far the fastest method to navigate around the few ports. So you should always speak. This method is your first priority. Okay, Now, before we begin for this method toe work unit, a mouse with a scroll wheel or a middle button. If you are serious in three d, I strongly suggest that you invest on a good standard mouse with a scroll wheel, it will say a few tons off times compared to trying to never get the few port using the few cube or with other methods. Now, when you purchase a mouse for working with three D, just be aware that there are some mice products that don't have any scroll wheel or middle most button at all. You really shouldn't buy this kind off mice as they won't help you at all. When using Tree DS max, let's begin or Unification lesson with dragging or painting the few port who penned a few poor we can use the middle most button. Now. Many people don't realize that they have a middle mouse button because it is actually hidden in a scroll wheel. So if you are a pressing down the scroll, well, you actually clicking using the middle mouse button again, you need to press the scroll wheel down, not rotating it after you pressed and hold it. If you drag the mouse, the few port we open around now unit were understand. We are doing navigation here, not transformation, meaning these objects don't move at all. It is how we see the object that it's moving okay to zoom in and out the few port, we can rotate the scroll wheel back and forth, so scroll forward to zoom in and scroll backward to zoom out another method to zoom in and out, but with more precision. You can hold the control and the Archies together and then click and wreck with the middle . Most button back and forth. Four to zoom in and backward to zoom out. Okay, finally, to rotate, or or with the few poor forest. Less method. We can only perform these on a perspective. Few poor Moody's hold the all key and in the middle, most button and just move around your mouth as we can see the few port we rotate. Okay, now you might be asking, Why should I do this on the other a few parts? Well, because if you do this on the other, a few ports, the few port will change. Toe. Orta Graphic. Few port. This oughta graphic Few port looks like a perspective. Few port, but notice it doesn't have any vanishing points. So switch a few port to perspective, you on the left of you or any views you want you can click on this tax, which is the second label menu and used any few poor type that you want from this. Listen here. We can also see that the left you shortcut is l from few is f but on few is B and so on. Currently, we want to revert this view port back to the left of you. 5. Alternative navigation methods: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss the alternative matters for navigating the few poor. These methods that we are going to discuss are not actually recommended if you have a standard three button mouse, but sometimes we may find ourselves in a situation where we cannot use our mouths and forced to use our left top track bed. Perhaps our mouths is broken or we accidentally left it at home. For example, the first alternative method it's using the few cube. The few cube is this white colored cube you see at the right top area on each off the few part. Now the few cube is mostly used for doing different types off Vieux Port rotation to rotate or to orbit the view poor. We can move our mouths over the View cube and then just click and wrecked with the left mouse button. This is the same as using the out middle most button method. Another way off. Rotating the few port is using the turntable method. To do this notice. We have this compass ring. If you hover your mouse on the campus ring and then click drag around, you will get Vieux Port rotation also, but now it is constrained toe horizontal rotation. The next type off rotation that we can do using the View Cube is rolling. No, honestly, I never had a need for a view port rolling, but you may find this useful for your own situation to use a view port rolling. You cannot do this in perspective or user Orta Graphic view. You can only do this on access of your points. What I mean access Viewpoints are straight viewpoints such as top front left, etcetera notice. In his viewpoint, we can see to small arrows. If we click on one off them, we can see the View port rolled by 90 degree in Cremin. This is for clockwise direction, and this one is for counterclockwise direction. Okay, now, besides for rotation, we can also use the View Cube for accessing the excess viewpoints and for resetting the view port To access the front access viewpoint, for example, we can click on the front tax that appears on a view cube. We can access other excess viewpoints using the same method to reset the view toe. The initial view we have when we first start to their smacks, we can click this home I can on top off the View cube. Okay, now, because I have a standard three button mouse, I won't be using this view Cube at all Throughout the course, we can hide the few cube to save more space in the view port. To do that, click on this plus sign on the left top area off the view port juice of you Cube and click on this show the View Cube option in here. Now the view cubes are all gone or hidden to show them again. You can use the same method, but I will leave the View Cube hidden from now onwards. The next method off navigating the few port is by using the steering wheel. This is a hidden feature in three DS max, but honestly, almost nobody use it. I never see any treaty artisans who used this feature for navigating the few part, but it is there if you ever need it. Some features off the steering wheels are actually useful for presenting our work in real time, and it can be used to complement the View Cube navigation method. To activate the steering wheel, we can click on this plus button, then choose steering wheels and then Togo steering wheel. Now the steering wheel has many different variations. For example, if we click on this view Object wheel, we will have something like this. If we click on this tour building well, we will see something like this. We can also switch between this steering wheel modes by right clicking on it and interest any off this modes. For now, I will only cover the default mode, which is this full navigation wheel option in here. You can explore the other modes yourself later. Okay? Trooping around a few port. We can hover our mouths on top of the spin button and then click drag to rotate or to orbit the view port. We can click drag on the orbit button in here and to zoom in and out the view port. We can click drag on the zoom button in here. The rewind button in here can be used to go back to the previous of use we have before the center button will center the View port to the selected object. The walk button can be used to mimic first person controller in three D games the look button can be used for We are like viewing control where we are standing at stationary location while our head can look around freely to see the surrounding. And the up down button in here can be used to move our view up and down. Okay to close the steering wheel. We can click on this X button in here, or we can go back to the plus Sign menu steering wheel and then choose Togo steering wheel again. The less method off Vieux Port Navigation is using the U I. You can find a navigation tools at the right bottom area. Open the view port around. You can use this toe that looks like a hen to zoom in and out. We can use this to that looks like a magnifying glass and finally, to rotate the view port. We can use this tool in here. This tool will display the view port rotation, geese move. If we move our mouths inside this gizmo and wreck around, we rotate the view port. If we click and wreck this node or this node, we rotate the view port horizontally. This is like the turntable rotation we did before when rotating the compass ring at the View Cube. If we use this node or this node, we wrote it the view port vertically. Leslie. If we move our mouse cursor outside the geese more instead, we du Vieux Port rolling. Okay, this button at the far right button position is used for Vieux Port. Maximize. Toggle it. It's like the old W shortcut we discussed earlier. Now the navigation tools we see in here actually has lot more options and features. Notice that some off this buttons has small white triangle on it, indicating the day provide additional functionalities. We can see them by pressing and holding the button. We will discuss some off these features in time. 6. Zoom extent and display mode: in this lesson video we're going to discuss about zoom extend and different display settings off the few ports for us is zoom X 10. Zoom extent is the most important technique that you need to know. After a few port navigation. Essentially, zoom extent will allow you to quickly frame the few port to certain objects in the scene. Let's see how we can do this. If we select an object, for example, this teapot and click this zoom extent button in here. We can see it. Three. DS max will pan and zoom into the object so the object is in frame most off the time. I don't use this button but prefer to use the short cut, which is zero turkey. Okay, now, if you don't have any objects like that, what will happen if we press Z or performs? Um, extend. If nothing is selected, pressing, resume, extend or pressing, Z will make all off the objects in the scene. Toby in frame in a few port. This is helpful in scenario where, for example, we wrote it and zoom away from the origin, and we just kind off lost in space. If this ever happened to you. Just press Z and your few ports. We'll zoom back to the objects you are working on before or a few. All of the objects in the scene Okay, Few port navigation and zoom extent is a very important skill that you need to master first before moving on to more advanced lessons in his course. So just make sure you practice a little and become familiar with it. Okay, If we look closely at the third and 1/4 label menus in a few port, these two are used to determine how through the objects will be displayed inside the few port. If you click on this one, don't. Here we have delighting in the shadow section where we can turn on and turn off lights and shadows, etcetera. In the material section, we can enable or disable transparency and also some other options. In here you can play around with the settings and see which one you like best. If you are not sure which settings to turn on or off, you can simply to one off the presets. Up here we have high quality precept, standard performance and direct X mood precept. For now, I will stick with the standard preset in here. The last settings we want to look at are the ones located inside the less label menu. If we click on it, we can see so far, are settings we have face. It's which basically removed all of the small effects from the surfaces. Or we can pick Play in Here, which uses Z brush style madcap material. You can just try and see which one you like best in the stylized sub menu. We can even find more misplay effects inside it, such as this color pencil. No, honestly, I have no idea why we would want to use these stylized display modes, but they are there if you ever need them. For now, I will stick with the default shading option at the top. OK, now you need to understand that all off the settings we get from this to label menus, they are affecting only the few poor display, meaning it will not change the objects in the final rendering. There are two modes that I usually find helpful when modelling, and that will be this. Each faces option and this wire frame override the age faces option. We'll draw the ages off the objects in a few port, which is very helpful in the modelling process. The shortcut for this each faces is a four so press effort to show the ages impress a four again to hide them. The wire frame mode we removed all off the surface rendering, so we only see the ages for the wire frame of it. We after need this mood also in a modeling session. The shortcut for the small is after three, and it is a total function also so pressing after he again, we'll bring us back to the solid display mode. So again, I repeat, F three is for troubling between wire frame and solid mode and a four for showing and hiding the ages. But therefore, shortcut can only be useful in solid mode because in wire frame mod, everything is already looking like a bunch off lines for ages. Notice if we are in wire frame mode, the H faces option becomes unavailable 7. Create and modify objects: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss how to create objects and also how to modify them. Basically, intraday Astmax. If you want to create a new object, you need to go to the create panel, which is this step at the left Most location in the command panel. But if you want to modify existing objects, then you should go to the modified panel, which is the second tab after the Creator. No. So again, you need to remember this basic. You, I concept into the air smacks whenever you need to create a new object, any type off object, you should go to the career panel. And if you already have an object and you want to modify it, then you should go to the modify panel. Okay, If you look at the career panel, we can actually see some panels in a form off these small buttons. Each off Lisa panels represents the type off object you want to create. This one is the geometry soprano, where you can create a three D geometrical objects such as box, sphere, cylinder, etcetera. This one is the shapes soprano, where you can create a vector shapes such as line rectangle circle, etcetera. These sub panel is used when we need to create light sources. This one is for creating cameras and so forth. We're going to discuss these different types off objects step by step in time. Right now, we are going to focus on Lee on the geometry objects. If they look at the geometry panel, notice that it also divided into several categories. In a form off a drop down lease, we can see standard primitives, extended primitives, component objects and so on. It is what to mention that when you install that party plug ins into two DS max, some off this plug ins may provide new types off objects, so you may get new categories on this lease. For example, if I don't have Krone plug in installed, this kroner category will not exist. Okay, now let's focus on the standard primitives. The techniques off creating objects into the S mix are varied. They depend on what type off object you want to create, but mostly they follow a certain pattern. Let's start with the simplest method, which is clicking and dragging. For example, let's create a sphere. Er, click this fear button here notice how this button becomes active and then in perspective. You poor click and wreck like so then release, and we have a new sphere object created now. Pay attention to this button as soon as this button is still active. Whenever you click and wreck and release again in the view port, a new sphere will be created. So you are in this mood off creating spheres to exit from this creation mode. Simply right. Click. So again, this is very important to remember in three DS max. If you need to exit a certain mood, you need to right click with your mouse. OK, next, let's try creating a plane object. Click the plane button and click drag, then release. We can also do the click drink method to create a teapot. Just click on the steep hot button, then click drink on the view port and then release. Remember to right click ones to exit the object creation mode. The second technique, which requires more interaction, is by using the click direct method, followed by dragging and then click ones to finish. For example, let's create a box, click the box button, then click drag on the perspective View Port now the first click direct process will create this base area for the way it in the length. There is no height yet after we released the most button. Now we are moving on to define the height off the box. I'm not touching any, but now I'm just moving the mouse up and down to define the height. Notice that the height can be a negative value, which makes the box goes below the ground. After we are satisfied with the books of height, click once on the mouse to confirm it, and we just finished creating a box. It's always you are still in the creation mode. We can see the box button here is still active. If you want to exit, you need to right click. Once we can use the same technique on the cylinder object, click on a cylinder button. Click drag to define the base release. Move up click ones and we have a cylinder right click to exit the cylinder. Creation Modou. Next. Let's discuss the less technique in the Object creation, which involves sufferer clicks after the first initial click and drag one off the objects that require Miss method is the tube object, so click on a two button click drag in the view port. This will actually define the first radius or the outer radius off the tube. After we release, we need to define the inner radius by moving. The mouse beckoned for after we click. Once we can then move the mouse back and forth again to define the height off the tube. Then Click wants to finish the process right click to exit the tube creation mode. So by now I believe he already understand the pattern off the object creation process in three DS max. I recommend you to explore creating other objects by yourself. You can see there are a lot off objects that we can create inside the standard primitive scategory. There are even more in the other categories. You can try creating the extended primitive objects such as hydra total snot jumper box, etcetera. Now let's discuss how we can modify objects in three DS max. If we don't have any object selector and we opened a modified panel noticed the modified panel is empty. It doesn't show any parameters, but if it's like an object by clicking on one off this objects in the view port. We can see the modify panel now displace the parameters off the current object. So basically, the modified panel is the contextual panel, meaning it can only show the parameters off the currently selected object. Now, because different objects will have a different set off perimeters, the modified panel doesn't have a consistent you. I, for example, if I select this box, we can see the perimeters off the books object. In the modify panel, we can see and edit the length, the width and height off the box in the modified panel, simply by click and ragging these spinners up and down. So this small up and down arrows button is called the spin Other. Now, if I took this sphere notice we no longer see the length, the width and height parameters off the box. Instead, we can see and edit the radius and other parameters belong to the sphere Object. Now, besides clicking and dragging on a spinner up and down, you can also do a simple click only up. Order down buttons to notch the value, or you can also type in the value manually input field, for example. I can double click to select the whole text like this and in type in 20 then enter 8. Object selection: in this lesson video, who will discuss how to select objects and different moods and settings. Our own object selection. Introduce Max to select an object you need Toby in one off this modes this like object mood , move more rotate mood or scale Mood. If you are in one off this modes, simply click on an object and it object will become selective. So the cycle objects. You can click on an empty space in the view port, or you can also use the keyboard shortcut Control D. If you forget the shortcut, you can always go to the edit menu and look at this area. Notice. You can find a select non option in here with controlled es the shortcut. And from this menu, you can also see that we can select all objects in the scene by using control A. And we can invert the selection by using control. I shortcut. All of these short cuts will be useful for us later, especially when we are in the modelling process. If we have an object selector and we want to select more objects, we can use the control key. So, for example, we can click this subject to select their then to select this subject. Also hold control and click on it. Now we have for these two objects selected, you can keep holding the control button and keep clicking to select more objects. If you want to de select a certain object out from the selection, you can use the Alte. So, for example, put out and then click on this object. Notice how this object now it's not selected anymore. So again used to control modifier key toe, add more selection and used the out modifier key to reduce the selection. Okay. To select multiple objects at once, you can use the click drag method like this. Notice how it creates a rectangular selection region. Every object within the region will be selected when we release the mouse. You can use this technique with the combination off the control and out modifier keys. For example, if you want to add the subject to the selection, you can hold control and then click direct like so Now they are all become selected. If you want to de select them, hold out and then click direct like so now we can see these objects are no longer a selector. When we region selection, there is one important setting that you need to know in the main tool border. You can see this button. This button is useful for polling between window mode and crossing mood. So what is the difference between the tool well in crossing mode when we click drag to create a reagent selection, every object inside the region, plus the objects that are touched by the raging border will get selected. But in window mode, Onley objects that are truly inside the region will be selected. Objects that are cross or just partly inside the selection region will not get selected. The shortcut for the Stoker button is chef. Oh, until now, you might be wondering. A studious max only support the rectangular selection region. Well, the answer is known to change the selection. Raging behavior. You can click and hold on this button. Here we can see there are also circle selection polygonal selection less so and clean selection mode. If you want to cycle through the selection modes using the keyboard shortcut, you can use the Q. Let our key. Now if you set this to the circular mode when we click direct to select multiple objects, we can see the rage in Islam a circle rather than a rectangular like before. Next, it's the polygonal mode, or officially named the Offense Raging mode in three DS max. This one behaves like the polygonal lasso tool in photo shop. To use the smooth, you need to click dreck first and then do a serious off click releases. To finish up a selection, you need to double click the mouse. The next one is the less origin moder. If this is active to create a selection region, you simply click and drag to draw the region. When you release the mouse, the selection will be created. Finally, the less one is the pain selection mode. The selection mode works like a paint brush, so if you click and drag to move the cursor around across the view port like these, notice that every object that is touched by the cursor will get selected. Now, before I end this lesson, you need to understand that all of these different selection modes can be combined with the control and out modifier keys. Just for example, if I have a pain selection mode active and I hold the all key while performing the selection. I am actually be selecting the objects. If I hold the control key, I am adding more objects into the selection. I believe you already understand the concept by now, and she'll be able to apply these to the other selection modes. 9. Transformation: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss transformation. So what is transformation? Well, transformation is a generic term exists in computer graphics. Basically, transformation is anything that relates to the position, rotation and skill. But before we start learning about transformation, there is one important thing that we need to discuss force. And it will be the orientation convention. When working in three D, it is strongly recommended that you first understand the convention off the orientation relative to the world access. This is because different really software or game engines may have different or intuition. Convention. For example, what is considered Toby up direction in three DS max is different than the up direction in the Unity game engine Introduce Max. The up direction is the Z axis, while in unity, the up direction is doi access. If you are working with multiple pretty software, this can be a bit daunting. But there is at least wanting that is common and uniform across. All truly suffer in the world, and that is the colors off the excess, no matter what really suffer you are using. Dizzy access is always blue. Do I Access is always green, and the X axis is always read. Okay, for now, let's focus only on the orientation convention inside two DS max in three DS max. The up direction is the positive Z axis. In the don't direction is the negative Z axis. You can see this clearly by looking at the small access at the bottom left corner off each view port. The front direction is the negative for excess, and a big direction is the positive. Why access Leslie? The right direction is the positive X axis, and the left direction is the negative X access. Now, whenever I mention left or right directions in this course, it means it is based. Or now what a viewing angle not based on the objects local direction, unless are stated specifically that it is based on the object. Okay, now you always need to remember this convention all the time when working inside three DS max, especially the front direction, which is the negative. Why access? When you are modeling, you always wonder model to face the negative. Why access? You'll understand later why this is important. Now let's move on to discussing transformation. First, let's start with the position or movement to more often object. We need to be in the movie mode, which is this button up here. Besides clicking on it, you can also access it via the keyboard shortcut, which is W or another way to access it is by right clicking. This will open up a special pop up menu called the Quote Menu. From this menu, you can just move here, Okay, now, if you have to move more active and you have an object selected, you will see these colorful arrows appear on the object. These arrows are called the Transform Geese moon, and it is there to help us to move. The object around the blue arrow indicates, is the access direction dread. One is the X axis, and the green one is doing excess. If, for example, you want to wolf the object along the X axis, simply click and wreck on the Red Arrow. Yes, you can see the object is moving, but it is constrained only to the X axis direction. The same principle applies to the green Arrow, where you can only move the object on the Y direction, and it's also applies to the Blue Arrow, which constraints the objects movement to the Z axis. Now, sometimes we need the Waffen object on a plane instead of just a single access. For example, we want the subject to move along the X Y plane to raise. You can click and direct the elbow that connects the X ero and White Arrow. This will make both the X and Y access active at the same time. Therefore, we can move the object around along the X Y plane, and it will not move in a Z axis direction. The same concept applies to the X Z plane and also the Y Z plane. Now, before we move on, notice that there is a small rectangle in the center off this moon. We can use this rectangle to constrain the movement to the viewing plane, essentially the viewing plane or also known as the screen plane. This official plane, based on our current viewing angle, it uses our eyes or ever the orientation off the view port to constrain the objects movement. Next, it's rotation to activate the rotation mode. We need to click this button up here, or you can also use the keyboard shortcut, which is e or you can right click to open the court menu and simply click this rotate button here. After we are in a rotate mood, notice how the transform gets more changes to the rotation. Transform geese move, which looks like a bunch off colorful circles. Until now, you probably already notice it. That the transform gets more can be used to indicate in which transformation mood. We are in the circles. Tell us right away that we are in the rotation mode. Basically, these circles work almost the same SDA rose we saw in the movie mode. The blue one, for example, well constrained the rotation so that the object uses dizzy access as the rotational access . The same thing also applies to the UAE access, which is this green one and the X axis, which is this red one. Now. Besides the car circles, you might notice that we also have this big white circle. This white circle is used to constrain the rotation Toby perpendicular to the screen space . Sometimes you just need to wrote it an object randomly. We don't any constrains. Well, we can do that by moving the mouse to the center off the gizmo. We don't touching any off the circles and then just click and direct the most around. We can see the object rotates freely. The last one is scaling toe access the skill mode. We can click this button up here. You can also use the our letter key as the keyboard shortcut. Or you can also use the court menu by right clicking and into scale here. So until now, just to recap the upper left area off the keyboard is very important, as you may access it a lot. Q is for a selection mode. W is for movement mode is for rotation, and finally, R is for scaling to scale an object. Uniformly, we don't any stretching. You need to click and drag on this inner triangle. You can see the object become bigger or smaller as we move the mouse back and forth. If you want to scale the object only on a certain access, for example, the X axis, you can grab the red one and then drag it like so the scaling no only happens in the X axis direction. The same concept also applies. That is, the axes in all sorted Y access. We can also scale only on the X Y plane by grabbing the elbow, which connects the X and Y Xs. The same concept also applies to the other plane constraints. Okay, now let's throw our attention to this area down here where we can find on X y and Z values and let's activate the move mode for now. If we have to move more active, these values actually displayed, according it, for the position off the object in a three D space. Notice if I move the object around, these values change accordingly. Now, if we are in the rotate mood, what you will see in this area is actually the rotation value for each off the access in the grease notice. When I wrote it around in the Z axis, for example, does he value changes accordingly? If we are in a scale mode, these values, you see don't here are actually percentages. So 100 value for each off the excess is the normal order. Default value for the scale 100% is equal to one, which means there is no scaling happens on the object. No testify. Skill out this object on the X axis. We can see the X scale of value no becomes larger than 100%. Sometimes you need to show or hide. The transform gets moon. You can notice by going to the view menu and click. Please show transform gets more button. Besides showing and hiding, you can also make the transform gets more bigger or smaller by pressing the miners key and the equal key on the keyboard, which are located on top. Off the peel, a turkey and the bracket ski press minus toe make it smaller and press the equal key to make it bigger. 10. Pivot point: In this lesson, video will discuss about the brief a point in three DS max. Every object has a center point. These center points are called the beef. What point, If you use any off the transformation tools such as Move wrote it or scale the location off the transform gizmo is actually located at the objects before point. The pivot point is very important because two DS max uses it as the basis off any transformation operations in terms off movement. The Pivot Point ISS used to define the objects co ordinate in terms off rotation. The pivot point issues as the center off the rotation in terms off scale. It is also used as the center off the scaling process. If you need to change the location off the people point first, make sure the object you want to edit is selected. Then go to the hierarchy panel, which is the spinal. Besides the modify panel, then to speak, but here and in turn on this effect before only button the button now becomes active, and while this button is active, any transformation that we do to the object will not change the objects geometry. Instead, it will affect only the people point. For example, if I move it like so notice the object is not moving. Only the pivot point moves after we finished anything the paper point. Don't forget to click this button again to turn off the People Point editing mode. In this case, you cannot use the right click method to exit the mode. You need to click the button again manually, and now we are back to the normal mode so and remove the object. The geometry in the pivot point. We'll move along together just like before. Let's see an example off how editing the paper point becomes very important. Let's say we want to create an animation off a simple door opening. Let's create a walks object for this purpose I'm trying to make it looks like a normal door . Okay, now, if we try to open the door using the rotation, this moon notice how the door opens up, using its center as the rotational access rather than the site area. To fix this issue, we need to reposition the people point from the center to decide to do that, just like before. Make sure the object is selected and then go to the hierarchy panel, divert and then turn on the effect we fought only mode. Now activate the move mode. And just like this paper point to the side. After you are done, don't forget to deactivate this button again so we can go back to the normal mode. Now, if we go to the rotate mode and try to rotate this object again, as you can see, it behaves much like the normal or common door. 11. Transformation settings: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss more in depth about different aspects. Off transformation. First, let's discuss about the reference co ordinate system. If you look at the main toolbar, there is a pulled on lease here that say's view. This is the option for the reference coordinate system. By default, it is, said Toe View, which means that when we perform a transformation, the transform gets more access will be aligned to the currently active Vieux Port. To show you this more clearly, let's create a teapot. If we are in a perspective, view port and we have to move more active, you can see that the X, Y and Z access off the transform gizmo are aligned with the world access. Don't hear. So basically, the View co ordinate system is exactly like the world coordinate system. If you are in a perspective view port, you can only see the difference if you are in one off the autograph IQ view ports, for example. If you go to the front view port, you can see the transformed this most why excess is pointing up, which is actually the direction off the world. Easy access. If we go to the left of you port We have something like this. Louis Arrow is pointing up and the ex arrow is pointing to the right along with the world. Why access? So basically, by using the View Co ordinate system If you are in one off the autograph IQ view ports, the vertical direction is always do I access and the horizontal direction is always the X axis. Besides the view mood, there are many other modes in reference coordinate system We're not going to cover all off them in this lesson will cover only the two most important ones which are the world and the local reference co ordinate If you change the reference co ordinate system to the world, things will become more consistent in this mode. No matter which of you port you are currently in the transform gets most access, are always aligned with the world access. Next is the local Mordor. Essentially in the local mode, the transform gets more will align to the objects with four point instead off the world access. To understand this more clearly, imagine that this teapot is a car. This is the head and this is the tale if you need to any make the car moving back and forth at this stage, you can do this easily using the X axis. But what if the car turns like this at this condition? If you have the reference co ordinate system set to the world, you will have a hard time to move the car back and forth because there is no access that lined toe the current objects orientation. But if he said this to local, we can see that the objects local ex access is aligned to where the object is currently facing. This way we can move the object back and forth based on where it is facing. So you understand by now how important the local reference code in it is. The next thing we're going to discuss more in depth is this tightly according it down here . Make sure you have the move tool active now, and you have the reference co ordinate set to the world. Let's pay attention to the small toggle button here. If this button is off, it means we are in the absolute more, which is to default basically any small. This X, Y and Z values are showing the exact location off the object in three D space. If, for example, we change the Z value here, this real out of the high position off the selected object. Okay, Now, if this button is on, we are now in the offset mode. Notice how these values only show zero. When we type in a Z input field 10 for example, the object just moved forth and units up from its previous position. And right after that, the Z value is back to zero again. So from this example, you can already tell how this offset mode can be useful for us. In conclusion, if you need to see these, according it often object, then you use the absolute mode. But if you need to move an object at a certain amount off distance, then you should use the offset mode. Transforming a single object is pretty simple. Mostly, you just used the objects. People point as the center off the transformation. But if you have multiple objects selective, there can be sufferers scenarios on how you want to transform them into their smacks. We can use this button here to set the center off the transformation. There are three moats that we can use here to see what each off this Moz can do less active it rotate mode first and make sure you have multiple objects. Selector. The top one is the individual people point mode. In this mode, each object will wrote it on its own. People point the second more is the selection centre mode. In this mode, the whole selected objects. We wrote it together as if they are a single object. Three. DS max will calculate the median point and use that point as the center off the transformation. The less one is the Reference co ordinates center. This will use the center off the world as the center off the rotation. You can see that even if we have the objects located here off from the center, the transom gets more appears at the center off the world. Now this mode is actually not using the center off the world, but rather it uses the center off the reference co ordinate that we specify here. If you have the view or world active, then the transform gets more will be located at the centre off the world. But if, for example, you have the local mode active here, then the center off. The transformation now behaves like the individual people point mood. 12. Modifier: in this lesson video we're going to discuss about modifier. So what is exactly a modifier? Introduce Max Modifiers are special functions or properties that can be attached to an object. A modifier can be formed. The ship often object, alter its texture, make the object, follow another object and many other things to access the modifiers. You need to go to the modify panel in this panel. You can see a pull down lists here, but again, you won't see anything here unless you have an object selected. We've talked about this before, so make sure you have an object selected first this pulled unless it's called the modifier released. This is where we had new modifiers to the selected object. After you add one or more modifiers, then those modifiers will be placed and steak on top off each other. In this list. Here, this race is called the modifier steak. So again, I repeat, if you need to add a new modifier, then you need to go to the modifier lease. But if you need to access the existing money fires, then you can access them in the modifier stack here. Okay, let's just see an example in here. I have three teapots. If I picked this one and then go to the modified least right now, I want to look for a modifier called Melt. If you already know the name, you can type in the letters. So press em then, e, This will make the lease jump to find the money fire with the corresponding name and so we can see the mouth modifier here. Now just click it and we just apply the math modifier to the object Notice. In the modifier stack, we can see the mouth modifier located on top off the teapot based object with the mouth modifier applied, you can increase this milkman value to make the teapot. Looks like melting. If you pick the other teapots, we don't see the math modifier on them on Lee. When we select this teapot object that we can see the mouth modifier, This concludes that the modifier is unique. Toe a certain object that is being applied to because we selected only the steeple when adding the milk modifier. Therefore, only the steeple has the mouth modifier. We can add more than one modifier toe on object if you want. Oh, for example, Let's add lattice modifier on the second teapot. Lettuce, money, fire. We'll convert any ages to surrenders and any versus two spheres to see the effect better. Let's set the joints radius toe one and said the struts radius toe 0.2. So we have something like these. Next. After the latest money fire, let's at another modifier. This time we want to add the twist. Modify error. As the name implies, this modifier will twist the objects geometry. We need to increase the angle value here to really see the to its effect on the object. So basically, what you see here is the product off to modifiers, which are ladies and twists attached to an object. Now pay attention to the modifier steak. We know half the teapot base, object at the bottom, followed by ladies, and then twists on top of it. You need to understand that three DS max processes the money fires from the bottom to top, not top to bottom. So from this base subject, the latest money fire will be processed first. And then after that, the twist modifier. You can change the sortie order by clicking and dragging the modifier if I direct the twist money fire down like this, for example although the result looks similar but the way to the S Max process them is different now the twist is processed first and then after that the lattice. We can undo this by pressing control Z in many other cases, depending on what modifiers you are using. Changing the order off the modifier stack can drastically impact the look off. The object sometimes can even break the object. So this is something you need to be aware off. The next thing I want to point out is that modifiers are known destructive meaning. You can always go back to change things around. For example, if we want to change the basic parameters off the teapot object, we can take this teapot entry in the modifier steak. Notice how the parameters don't hear change according to the entry is like in the money fire stick. You can change the radios, you can change the segment amount or you may want to hide the spout for the lead, etcetera. If you click on the latest modifier, then you can access its perimeters. Don't here If you click the twist modifier then you can access the twist modifier parameters here. I'm pretty sure you get the idea now. Sometimes when we are working on the perimeters off the base object or on a certain modifier that exists below not dramatic fire, we want to see only the actual look off the object at the current stage, not the final result off the top modifier stack. We can actually do this by clicking on this show and result Togo Button, for example. I am currently at the base level. Now he fight on this button off, we can see the original teapot object without anybody fires that exists afterward. I can reduce the segments like this. For example, we don't any distraction. If I turn on this toggle button again, we can see the final result off the modifier stack in real time. Yes, I changed the segment value. There are so many money fires available in three DS max and there will be even more modifiers Edit if you start installing third party plug ins into today s Max. I encourage you to explore this modifiers yourself because the more modifiers you know, the more will flow options you have when working with three DS max 13. Object duplication: initial s and video. We're going toe cover object duplication intra DS max. We can clone or duplicate objects using several methods. The 1st 1 is by using the clone command. Second is by holding she if we're doing a transformation, and third is by using the You're a tool. Now there are actually more methods that we can use to duplicate objects into the S mix. But I consider them to be more advanced techniques, so we're not going to discuss them in this lesson. Let's just focus on these three methods. For now, the first method is the clone command. To use this method first, you need to select the object, then go to the edit menu and then just clone hear a pop up window called the Clone Options will appear here. We need to choose between copy instance or reference options. We'll discuss the difference later in this lesson video. For now, just just copy and then click OK, we just duplicated the object. But it is hard to tell because currently the new object is located exactly at the location off the original object. If you press W to activate the move tool and then just move it like this. We can see we actually have two objects. Another way to access the Cone Command is by using the court menu. So again, make sure the object we want to duplicate is selected. Then rightly toe open to quote menu. You can find a clone command. Don't hear if you click it, it will open the clone options window like before. Another method is to use the keyboard shortcut, which is control V. Remember, you don't need to press control, see, dislike the object and impressed Control V. The Crone options window will appear again like before. And if you press OK to yes, Maxwell duplicate the object at the same location as the original object I mentioned before that you shouldn't press control. See why? Well, this is because if you do press control, see into DS Max. That shortcut by default is used to create a camera object exactly at the position on where you are looking at the view port. So if you press control, see suddenly your view port becomes very hard to navigate. This is because you are not in the perspective of you anymore. You are in a camera view toe. Fix this. Just change the view back to the perspective view by clicking here and to his perspective, or by pressing P for the shortcut. Then rotate the view port. We can see the camera object that we just created here, this selected and then pressed delete. We'll discuss about camera later in another section off the score. Serious. Another way to duplicate objects, which you will often see me doing in this course, is by holding the shift modifier key while doing any type off transformation. For example, let's like this object. Make sure we are in the movie mode now, then hold shift and then morph the object like so, just like before the corn options window will open. Let's just copy again for now, but let's change the number off copies value here Toe five, for example, Then hit. OK, you can see we just duplicated the object while moving it and repeat the process for times based on a distance off the first copy. Now we sets moving. You can also combine the shift key modifier. We throated and scale to duplicate an object, but for these we'll let you try it on your own. Now we can see that with the number off copies of value, we can create multiple duplications at once. But what if we need more controls over this multiple duplications? Well, this is where the next method, which is Ray, comes in handy to duplicate an object using the recommend. First, make sure the object is selected, then go to the tools menu. Don't use Ray Here in the upper area. There are two column groups. The left one issues. If we want to specify the incremental value from one duplicate to another, duplicate the right one if we want to set the total value off all off the duplicates, the first row is for movement. The second row is for rotation, and the rest one is for scaling. For now, just like the left one and said the X value here toe 15 for example. Next, at the bottom part, you can see the array dimensions. Section one D means that the duplication will happen one way we can activate this preview button to see how the final result will be. If we later click the OK button, you can turn on the display s books, but in here. This is useful in the scenario where you have a very complex object and you don't want to burden on the GPO too much. The Khan value here determines the number off duplicates now. If he said this to to the array, we can set the corn value for the second dimension. Toe five, for example, then said the way offset value toe 15. Now we have something like this. So this direction is the first dimension, and this direction is the second dimension, and you probably already guess it. If he said the rate to three D and change the convert you to three, then set. Does he offset value to three. Also, for example, we get something like these. If you are happy with the review to really applied, you're a tool you need to click the OK button here. From this example, you can see how powerful the array to is for quickly filling up spaces with duplicate objects. There are still many or a variations that you can create with your a tool, but I believe with this basic example, you be able to explore the tool yourself every time you create a duplicate into their smacks, regardless off the methods, you are always prompted to just between copy instance and reference. For example, if I direct this object were holding Schiff, you'll see the option again. So what is exactly the difference between them? Well, first copy means that the duplicate result will be independent off the original object. Notice how I tweak the object parameters here. The changes only happened to the selected object. Now, if I duplicate this object again but used the instance option. These two objects share the same geometry data with one another. Or, in other words, we can say that they are actually the same object but displayed twice by two DS max. So if I select one off them and change the parameters in the modified panel, notice the changes also happen on the other instance. Off the object now instance, ING is a very important technique because it can help us to save memory when we are working with the massive amount off objects in the scene. For example, if you need to create before a scene with thousands off trees or perhaps a city scene with hundreds off buildings and cars, because although instance created objects have their own transformation values. Three. DS max stored the geometry in single memory space at a glance. You can tell that an object is an instant off other objects by looking at the ball texts on their modifier. Steak name Notice. This one is not born because it is independent. You can also spot that there is a special button here that becomes active. This is the MK unique button. If you want to make an instant object, become independent or unique, then you can click this button for that, or you can also right click here and then just make unique. Okay, so now what about reference? Well, the reference option is used to create an instant object, but only to a certain level in the modifier steak. After that, parents take the object is pretty much independent. Let's see a real example off this reference option. Let's create a new teapot, then apply a bend modifier on it. Increase the angle value so we can see the bending effect on the object. Then hold Schiff and movies here to duplicated for the corn option. Remember to choose reference. Okay, now, notice. When I changed the been angle value again on any off this objects, they both still share the value. But if we select the clone reference object, you can see there is a separator here at the modifier steak. Every money fire you put on top off this separator will be independent and off like only this object and everybody fire that exists below this separator will be shared. So if I add a mile modifier and increase the melt among value to make the object melt, only this one is melting. This one it's not, but noticed If I direct the melt modifier down across the separator now the milk modifier is being shared also with this subject. And so if it's like this object, you can see and controlled the male parameters in here also. So that is the difference within copy instance and reference when cloning objects 14. Managing objects: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss suffer matters off managing objects inside today's Macs. When your sin starts to get crowded with a lot of objects, you will soon realized that you need ways to manage the objects so you can work effectively . Goods in management can lead to faster development time and better collaboration with your team. There are many methods that we can use to manage objects, and we're going to discuss some off them in this video, probably the most important, but after neglected, seen management practice is the naming convention. Every time you create an object, you should always name them appropriately. In the modify panel. You can see the name off the object here, and this is also where you can change it. For example, naming all off the three objects in the scene with three as the prefix can help lot when later you need to select all off the three objects in the scene for naming your objects. There is no specific rule you need to follow. You can use any naming conventions as you see fit based on your need and or your workflow. Just make sure it is consistent so that you and your team can understand them now and later . If you already have a good naming convention, you can easily strike objects by their names using the search by name. Feature in Tree DS Max Toe Access. This feature. You can open the edit menu select by and their name, or you can always use H for short cut. This will open up a special seen explorer window in which you can immediately type in the words that you want to search. Notice the tax cursor already at the search input field up here when it's window for so bunt, for example, if I type in three, you consider it immediately. The object least gets filtered so that it only shows the objects that have three. As the first war in their names, click the OK button, and now they are selected. Now what if the names off your objects have two or more words, and what you are targeting is not enforce order. Let's say you have objects with naming convention like blue car, green car, red car, etcetera. How can we select them? You see the select by name feature, then well, we can use the well card, which is an asterisk symbol. This asterisk symbol represents any words in the search term, So when we type asterisk car, it means any words followed by the word Carter. We can see the objects are filtered accordingly, so we can select them all by pressing the okay button here. Sometimes we need to hide or on high to the objects so we can see certain areas in our seen much better to hide an object. First you need to select it. Then go to the display command panel and click this height selected button. You can hide multiple objects at once if you want to One height objects that are currently hidden you can either click the unhittable button here toe on height. Everything, or you can also use the UN height by name, button to select and un hide certain objects by their names. Besides the display command panel, you can also access the height and height features through the court menu by right clicking with your mouse button notice. We have some options here, although not as complete as the display command panel, another useful technique that almost identical to the height unhurt. Feature is the isolation mode. I used this technique a lot in my works. So what is isolation? More exactly. Basically, when we activate the isolation mode, everything will be hidden except the objects that are currently selected. When we exit the isolation mode, everything will be back to where it waas, including the view port angle. So, for example, I can select this object, then, to activate the isolation mode. There are actually many ways to do this. First, you can go to the tools menu, then isolate selection. Or you can also use the out que keyboard shortcut. Or you can click this small button don't here and for the less method, you can access it via the court menu by right clicking. You can see the isolate selection command here. If you do any off these methods, you will be in the isolation mode. We can tell that we are indeed in the isolation mode because all other objects are hidden. Also, by looking at this button, the button is currently active To exit the isolation mode, you can click this button again or use the court menu by right clicking and interest, and I saw it now we can see that the other objects are all back and view Angle is also back to the previous state. 15. Scene explorer: in this lesson video. We're going to cover the basics off using the scene Explorer toe Open the Scene Explorer. You can either click this button here, or you can also go to the Tools menu and into seen Explorer. Here you can have the scene Explorer floating like these, or if you want to dock it to the left. You can do that by dragging this area to the left or simply right click in this area and into stock, then left. It's really up to you. There are many things that you can do with the scene explorer. For example, you can select objects quickly by clicking on the objects name. In this list, you can also hide an unhurried objects by taking this I symbols and many other features that you can use to manage the objects in your sin. Let's cover the essentials first. The first thing that you need to know about the scene Explorer is that it is very customizable. You can tweet. Do you elements in a scene explorer to really suit your needs? Don't. Here you can find the presets off, do you? I lay out. We can see Container Explorer Mass effect Explorer. And there is even a very specific explorer Taylor for two DS max. Users get used data from rev it. Let's use the default for now. So we have the same starting point. The second most important thing that you need to pay attention to is this two buttons here , The left one is used when we want to view the objects in the scene s three years. Well, the right one is the hierarchy mode. You can say to you I up here changes. When we switch between these two modes, we'll discuss the difference between these two more in rep later. For now, let's focus on the you are in general and just set this toe the hierarchy motor up here, you can find the menu. The names off the menus are a very obvious. This is where we can access selection commands. This is where we can control how objects are displayed. This is for no editing. And finally, this is where we can customize to you I below it. We can see the search butter or define bar into this max term. We've used this before, actually, in a previous lesson. These are the hierarchy tools which only show up if you have the hierarchy mode active. Don't Here The left side is the object type display filter area. Here you can specify what types off objects you want to show or hide. For example, turning off the geometry type here will hide all off the objects from the lease because currently all I have in a scene our treaty geometrical objects. If you have some light objects, for example, turning off this light option will hide all off the light objects from the lease. I'm pretty sure you get the idea next we know this one and this one already Now the less one is interesting. This is the selection said, which is also a feature that you can use into the air smacks to manage the objects in the scene. We'll discuss more about this later in the future lesson. Now all of this you elements can be shown or hidden by going to the customize menu, then toolbar, for example. If I click this fine option, the search bar is now gone. If I just this display option here now, the object type display filter is gone to bring them back we can simply click the options again. Okay, now let's focus on this option here called Littlefinger Column. If you click it, it will open up a floating window. This is what actually makes the scene Explorer very powerful and customizable. You can put any off this data columns to the object least, for example, you can wreck the scholar and then find a spot you want to use, then release the mouse. Now we have a column for the object color. By default, you can change an objects color by selecting it first. Then go to the modify panel and click this color box here. But now, since it is available Innocent Explorer, you can access it much faster. Of course, this is just an example off what you can do with the columns in the scene Explorer. Now, if you change your mind and want to remove the color column, simply direct the column. Header out off the scene Explorer window like these, and now it is gone. You can see the color column option is snow back in a column floating window. The hierarchy mode is where we can see and edit objects in terms off their parents shall relationship if you're doing character animation or reading. In general, this mode is probably the one that you after need toe open. But if you are doing architectural visualisation or game environment type off project, you probably don't need to use hierarchy that much and prefer to use the layer mode more afternoon. Okay, so what is exactly a parent child relationship in its hierarchy mode? To make things simple, if you make an object, a child off another object, any transformation that happens on a parent object will affect the child object. Let's see an example off this toe parent, an object to another object. You can use this link button here and then click direct the object. He wanted to become the child and release the mouse on the object. You wanted to be the parent. Now, as you can see, the blue car object is indented and located below the green car. We can collapse and expand the hierarchy using this carrot button. No, no, no. If I move, routed or even scale the green car object, the blue one follows. Another way to parent on object is to just direct the objects price inside the scene Explorer, for example, I can direct the green car object and then release it on top off the red car object. Now the red car is the parent off the green car, and it is the grand parent off the blue car. If you have multiple levels off torrential relationships like this, any transformation that happens to an object will affect all off its descendants. So if I wrote it the red car, for example, not only the green one moves but also the blue one. This feature is very useful in character animation. For example, if you wrote it on upper arm you wonder forearm the hen in all the way to the fingers toe follow another way to parent objects is by using the tools provided here. For example, if you want to parent a blue car to the ground object instead off the green car, you can click the blucher object. Then click this button, Then click the grown object. Now the blucher is the child off the ground object. Let me undo this next ISS. This button this is used for selecting all of the descendants often object. So if I select the red car and then click this button. All of these three objects get selected. The last thing I want to discuss is how toe on parent an object. To do that, select the object you want, Owen parent. Then click this handling button located in the main tow bar. Or you can also just direct the object toe on empty area in the scene, Explorer like soul. 16. Layer management: in this lesson video. We will continue our discussion on a scene Explorer. Previously, we cover the hierarchy mode. Now we'll focus on the layer mode if you want to open the scene Explorer and activate the layer more immediately. Instead of clicking this button, you can click this button or you can go to the Tools menu and into Layer Explorer. Here you can see we have foreseen Explorer like before, but the Layer Explorer preset here and the layer more here are active. For those off. You already understand two D graphics software, Like for a shop or gimp or creator. You might be thinking that the layers into their smacks are similar to the layers in for a shop. Well, they are not in two D graphics software. The ordering off the layers is very important, as it will define how the image composition looks at the end into their smacks. The layer is just a way off grouping objects so we can organize them better. For example, we can put all off the three objects in one layer called tree. We put all off the car objects in a layer called Khar etcetera. Later, if we want to hide all off the trees, for example, it will be very easy. Just hide the three layer and everything in a three layer, which are three objects, will be hidden to create a new layer. You can simply click this button up here. Then you can rename it to any name you want. Now, when creating a new layer, you need to make sure that you don't have any layer selected before. Just click on an empty space like this before you click the create new layer button. The reason for this it's because if you do have a layer selected like this, for example, clicking the new layer button will create a new layer nested inside that selected layer. So yes, layers can be nested or placed inside another layer. They can even go multiple levels deep, just like the folder structure in our hard drive. Now, if you don't want this nest that structure, you want to move this layer to the top lever. Simply click director layer toe on empty space in a scene Explorer like this. This will move that layer to the root or the top level, or you can select the layer by clicking on it, then right, weak and in just Unless here, on the other hand, if you do want to move layer inside, not layer, you can just drag it and then release it on top off the layer you want to make as the parent layer. Okay, one off The most important concepts in layer management introduce Max is the active player . So what is the active player exactly? Now the term active layer is different from the selector or highlight that layer we knew click a layer like this. This does not make the layer active. This simply selects or highlights the layer to make a layer. As the active player you need to click on this, I can hear you can see there can only be one active player. This active player is very important because whenever we create a new object into their smacks, it will be automatically placed inside the active flair. So, for example, if I create a new teapot like so, notice how the new teapot automatically become a member off this layer. Next, let's discuss about the leading layers to the little layer. You can highlight the layer first by clicking on it, then right click and then just delete here, but there are treating is that you need to know about the leading layers. First, introduce Max. You can only delete empty lay your stay. You cannot delete layers that already contain objects inside them. If you really want to delete a known empty layer, then you need to move the objects out first from red layer to make it empty. Only then you will be able to dilated. The second thing that you need to know about the leading layer is that you can never delete the zero default layer as this is the base layer in three DS max. Third, you cannot delete the active layer. So if you do want to delete a layer that is active, you need to deactivate it first by making another layer as the active player. Only then you can delete that layer. Now let's discuss a simple example off how we can manage objects with layers. Let's say we want to create the layer called tree for the three objects, then a layer called Khar for the car objects and finally, a layer called terrain for a grown object. Click on the empty area to make sure that none off the layers are selected. Click this button and rename the new layer toe. Three. Click here again to de select the layer and create a new layer and rename it tow car. Finally, create another layer a name it train. If somehow you mistyped the name, you can rename the layer by for selecting it, then right click on it and then just rename here. Or you can also highlight the layer. Wait for a second and then click again to move objects from one layer to another layer. It's actually very simple, just like the objects and then click drag and then release them on top off the target layer . For example, we can click here to select the 1st 3 object called Schiff and then click here on the last three object. So now we have all of these three objects selected, Then this click and wreck like so and released them on top off the tree layer. We can do this also with the car objects, select them all and just direct them, like so to the Carl a year and finally the ground object. Just drag this to the train layer. Okay. Now, if he already manage our scene with layers like this, there are a lot of things that you can do with them. You can quickly hide and un height the layer, including every object inside it. By tricking the eye I can hear in the layer level. Second, you can also freeze them all at once. Now, I know we haven't discussed about freezing objects yet, but it is quite simple, actually, freezing is just a term into the S Max. For objects that cannot be changed, you cannot even select them in the view port. It is a way off protecting objects from any accidental editing. Now, normally, you can freeze an object by for selecting it in the view port. Then go to the display command panel and just free selected here. Or you can write leak an interest free selection here. But by using the scene Explorer, you can freeze objects more quickly either one by one by clicking the icons in the first column or because we have all off them in a layer. We can just first them all at once. But leaking this Aiken at the layer level you can see that frozen objects are colored in gray. Interview poor. At this stage, you cannot select or edit um, one forest um, back. Simply click the icon again. You can combine the layer management features with the custom color method that we discussed in a previous lesson. To really customize the control on the slayers based on your own needs. 17. Selection set and Group: in this lesson video, we will discuss the selection set, an object grouping selection said, and grouping are two other methods that you can use inside Radius Max. Two men each objects. Let's see each off this methods one by one force. Let's discuss the selection Set selection said Esther. Name implies it's a way to make Tweedy S Max. Remember our objects selections. Basically, you select a bunch off objects, then you create a selection set out off them. Whenever you need to select those objects again in the future, you can just call the selection set again to access the selection set feature. You can do that through this button here, and this pulled on lease here. If you click, this button window will show up. Here we can manage the selection sets. For example, let's create a selection set for the trees. Select all of the three objects, then click this plus button here and nameless toe trees. Notice if I click this correct button, we can see that all off the trees are already inside, this selection said. If you want to delete a selection, said you can click this X button here now, you might be wondering. So what is the difference between the selection set and layer, then? Well, first, the selection said, works more like taking instead off folder structure. What I mean by that you can have one object, Toby, a member off multiple different selection sets. Also, the selection said, cannot be nested to give you an example. If I dislike everything and create an empty selection, said Green, aimless toe trees, right, then create another empty selection, said a name, this one toe crease left notice. I cannot direct the selection, said Toby. Inside another selection set. So again you cannot put a selection set inside, another selection said. Now I want to make the streets on the right side. Toby, the members off the trees, right? Selection said. To do that, we need to select them first and then Well, the selection said, is highlighted. Click this plus button here. We can notice also for the left trees. So, like all off them, click the selection set you want to use, then hit the plus button here. Notice how this 304 for example, exists both in a trice selection set and in the three Streit's selection said so again, one object can be a member off multiple selection sets. If you want to take out an object from a selection said, then you can click this minus button. The second difference between the selection set and the layer is that we cannot hide or freeze objects directly within the selections. That window, the selection said, only serves as a way to select objects, not controlling their recently properties. However, after you have them selected, you can hide show for a frizzed um, s U ish. Now, after you have the objects organized in selection sets, you can select them by using this button. For example, I can select the trees set and then click this button. We can see all of the three objects are selected. I can select the trees right and then click this button again. Now only the right side trees are selected. The faster way to select using the selection said it's not through this window, but through this pulled on lease here we can select the trees left, for example, or the threes selection said again, etcetera. So there is how you can use the selection set feature in three DS max the next method off managing objects inside today's Macs is through grouping. So what is exactly grouping into DS max? Essentially grouping lets you combine two or more objects into one, as if it is a single object we can name. The group we can move brought it and Skelly much like any other object in three DS max grouping can reduce the complexity often entity that has multi part objects, so they are easier to control. For example, if you have a table with the tabletop and each off the legs as different objects, you can just group them into one. So it is easier to select the whole table and to move the table around were needed. Let's just see an example off this grouping feature in action, for example, let's say we want to group these three cars together. First you need to select them, then go to the group menu, then just group here. We can then name this group object tow cars, for example. Now, if it's like this car, the whole cars group will get selected. If we activate the move tool, we can move the group together. We can do this also for location and also for scaling. If you open the scene Explorer, you can see that a group object has a unique Aiken. And it also has a carrot button that we can use to expand and collapse to see the objects inside it. But you cannot access the group member directly who violas in explorer like these. If you do want to access a group member, you need toe open the group first. To do that first, make sure the group object is selected. Then go to the group menu. Don't use open here now we can select the individual car object. We can do whatever we need to do with each off this objects such a smoove routed skill, etcetera. You can also access its perimeters in the modifier stack if you need to. Now we're in the open state like this. You will see this bonding brackets. If you click on it, you are actually selecting the group object. So if you move it for example, you move all off these three objects along with it. If you are done making the changes, then you should close the group object again by going to the group menu. Then choose clothes here. Now we cannot access the group members again. If you want Owen Group a group object, simply select the group object and then go to the group menu and choose on group here. So those are the basics off object grouping intra DS max. But after grouping still has a lot more features to offer. Let's just discuss each off them. Real quick groups can be nested, so essentially you can create a group inside another group, which is inside another group, etcetera. For example, while I have Rikers Group selected, I can select these trees also, then go to the group menu and create another group. Let's just name this one. My group you can see in a scene exporter. We have the curse group inside the my group group. If you have multiple nested groups like this and you want to access the blue car, for example, opening a group inside another group can be tedious. You have to do the open group command twice for this kind off scenario. We can use this command instead in the group menu called Open recursive Flee. This will open each off the groups inside multiple nested groups at once, so you can know. Select each off the objects individually. If you need toe on group multiple level groups like this, it will be tedious also to use the UN group command for re scenario. It is better to use this explode command here this well and group all off the groups at once. Inside the multiple level Nestor groups, the less grouping features we need to discuss are attaching and detaching. Let's say I select these three cars again and create a group named cars just like before. And then I decided to take out dread car from this group to do that first, we need to open the group so we can select the red car object, then go back to the group menu and then just detach here. Now if I close the group as you can see the red car, it's not part off the group anymore. We can move it independently from the group object. If you want to put the red car back to the cars group, then you can use the Attach Command to do that force, select the red car object, then go to the group menu. Just attach here then click on any off the cars group members. Now the red car is part off the cars group again. 18. Primitive vs Editable objects: in this lesson video. We are going to discuss the difference between the primitive versus irritable objects we knew. First create an object into DS Max. You actually create a primitive object. The term primitives, Intria smacks, are objects that still contain the original parameters off how they were created inside the modified panel. For example, if I create a sphere like so then well, this fear object is selected in the modify panel. We can still see the sphere parameters. We can change the radius, the segments, the hemisphere value and the other stuffs don't. Here again, this is called the primitive object. So now what is an irritable object, then? Irritable objects are objects that already lost all off the perimeters when it was created . But in return, we can access its subjects and use many different modeling features that are not available before in a primitive mode. Basically, if you need to model a custom object beyond just simple geometry, then you need inevitable object. Okay, so how can we convert a primitive object toe on irritable object then? Well, it is very easy. Simply right click and in the court menu you will find this convert toe options. We can't just between these creditable objects mash, polly pitch and nerves, a quick explanation off these different types off irritable objects, Mesh and Polly are almost similar. Polly is basically the advanced version Off MASH introduce Max. Domain difference between MASH and Polly is the ability to handle and gone, and gone is a multi sided for explain. MASH only supports triangle faces, while Polly supports and gun faces are also known as polygons. In the old days, you could only use Smash, but since Polly was introduced, people stop using much anymore. The reason why must still exists into their smacks is for compatibility reasons. This is so true. DS Max is still ableto open or import all treaty models. Now you need to understand that the smash and poorly terms are just a way off. Three DS max calling the different under laying technologies behind them in other three D software, the term MASH actually refers to the poly type object. Okay, in conclusion, if you want to create an inevitable object, then you shall choose the irritable Polly type object. Now what about Patch and loves here? Well, they are both surface based modeling Let's discuss which first, unlike Mash or Polly Patch offers, the ability to have cuffed lines between verjus is the way you control the surface. Curvature is through the use off busy handles, much like the handles you see in two D vector graphics, such as Adobe Illustrator or Escape Etcetera. When Patch was first introduced, many three D artists US used it to model complex shapes. But soon they realized that approach object can quickly become overly complicated. And so the siege industry abandoned the patch technology, just like they abandoned the much technology. Nowadays, almost nobody uses special anymore. Next isn herbs. Nerves stands for non uniformed relational. Be spine, just like patch nerves also offers the ability to have kerf lines or curved surfaces between vortices. But unlike patch nerves does not use busy handles to control the curvature. It uses fewer control points, so it is easier to work with until to date. Nerves is used extensively in the product design and manufacturing industry, but sadly, not so much in the media and entertainment industry. This is because nerves requires more work, and it's technically more complicated compared to the next smooth surface technology, which is norms or also known as subdivision surface. So again, rarely you will find through the artist CeCe you speech or nerves introduce max. No days. This is because the siege industrious, moving towards using irritable Polly along with terms for three D modeling, will discuss norms later in the future. Lesson. For now, let's focus on the basics off irritable police off objects. Let's create a teapot object. If we go to the modified panel, we can see all of the teapot parameters are still available, so this teapot is still a primitive object. Now, to change this into a ned, it'll object. We need to convert it by right clicking, then convert toe dentals Creditable Polly here, notice in a modified panel once converted into an editor, Bill Polly object. We cannot access the old teapot perimeters anymore, but we can access the sub objects, which are the Vertex or over to seize ages, borders, polygons and elements. And we also have all off these tools that we can use for three D modeling. We'll cover more in depth about this difference up objects in later lessons and also all off the study modelling tools. For now, let's focus on House of Object mode works and how you can transform subjects. Let me duplicate this teapot for now. So now we have to irritable Polly objects. Now, if I select this teapot and then click on any off these icons here, for example, the Vertex Aiken, we are now in a Vertex sub object mode off this teapot, while in this mode you can always like Vertex or overdoses off the subject, you cannot select or change other objects outside off this object. If you need to see the ages, you can press F four or click here and just each faces we can select. This vortex, for example, could control and then select more overt assists. After we have some verte see selected, we can use any off the transformation tools such a smoove, rotate or skill to edit the selected the Verte sees. After we are done, we can go back to the object mode Porto the top level mode by clicking on this vertex Aiken again. Now we can select objects just like before, so in conclusion when you were in a sub object mode, you cannot select objects outside the currently selected object. You can always like the sub objects off the object to be able to select objects like you normally do, Then you need to exit from the sub object mode now to go in and out off the subject mode. You can actually do this in several ways. Force is by using these icons as we discussed earlier. Second is by pressing this carrot button here notice we can select the sub object from this list. If, for example, we click the H item here we are no any h sub object mode to go back to the top level mode, we can either click this h lease again for click the irritable politics up here. Okay, The next method is through the court Main union. If we have a negligible object selected if we write leak, we can see in the top left menu. We have all of the subject names in a top level option. If we click on a polygon option, for example, we are no in the polygon sub object mode To go back to the top level mode, you can right click again and then to stop level here. The less method off accessing the subject mode is. Avoid the keyboard shortcuts to access the sub object modes. You can use the number case 1234 and five. These are the number case on the left side above the Q and W letter keys, not the number keys on the number head one is for overtakes mode to is for each mode. Three is for border mode and so on. So, for example, if you want to activate the element mode, you can press five. Now you are in the elements of object mode. If you need to go back to the top level mode, you can press the same key again, which is five. No, you are back in a top level modem. So those are the methods that you can use to access the sub object modes and a top level mode back and forth again. Remember, you can only do this if you already have inevitable Polly object. You cannot use this method on primitive objects. Finally, just to give you an idea off what irritable Polly can do to your object, I'm going to turn this teapot into something else. Let's say I want to add a mouth here so that I can go to the Vertex subject mode. I'm selecting these over theses and then moved, um, like soul. Next, I want to add to eye sockets, tore the steeple, select these overdoses and moving them up like soul. Then select this party guns and then move them back a bit. And Leslie, I can go to the elements of object mode. This is so I can select the whole spot part easily, Then rotate this spot and reposition it so it looks more like a nose or a trunk. So as you can see any simple example but inverting toe inevitable object, you have more freedom toe. Customize your treaty model, and this is just the beginning. We will cover more and more to the modeling features inside the irritable Polly object gradually. 19. Editable poly basic operations: in this lesson video. We're going to cover the basics off polygon based operations. We've discussed how to activate the subject modes in a previous lesson, but we haven't discussed in depth what each off the self objects do. So essentially, the term sub objects are the components that make up an object. If you remember mathematics lessons back in elementary school, a cube, for example, can be broken down into its components. They are points, the lines connecting those points, and when the lines create a close loop there will form a plane now into DS Max. The irritable Polly object provides similar objects. Components We have points, lines and planes. Also overtax here is actually point in three D computer graphics We call point. As Vertex. They are basically the same. Vertex is the singular form in plural form. Or in other words, if we have two or more, we call them over Texas. If you have the vertex of object mode active, you can always like Vertex or overdoses off that object. Next, we have lines in through the computer graphics we call lines that connect vert assists as ages. If you have the age subject, more active. You can only select the ages off that object you cannot select. Vote assist in this more directly. Next, we have planes also, but in three D computer graphics we call planes as either faces or polygons into DS max. The faces are used for planes that have three sites on Lee. Basically, they are triangles in three D space, and the term polygons are used for planes component that has four or more sites in other treaty suffer, though the terms, face and polygon are usually used for any type off plane element, regardless off their sides amount. And again, if you have a polygon stop object more active, you can only select polygons off the selected object. You cannot select vert, Asus or ages in this more directly now. Besides these three modes, two DS Max also offers to other UNIX up object modes. They are the border mode in the element mode. First is the border mode. Essentially, border is an age selection mode. The reason why it is differentiated is to make our life easier. With the border more active, we can easily select the ages that exists on the border area. For example, the ages around the steep. What lead here? If you click on any off the ages at the border the whole ages at that border, get selected. You can imagine if you need to select each off this ages manually one by one, that will be just too time consuming. Next is the element mode. The element more is basically the polygon mode, but it will help us to select polygons that are part off a connected structure. What I mean by them inside a single treaty object. It is possible to have multiple lose structures in this teapot object, for example, the body, the lead, the handle and the spout are actually not connected. There are no overt Asus or ages that connect them. So if we are in the element mode and we click the body part, for example, only the polygons at the body gets selected notice. If we use the move toe by pressing W and then moved about the element like these, we can see that they are loose structures. So again we can use this element mood to quickly select multiple polygons that are part off on independent loose structure inside a single object. So those are the differences between each off this up object modes. Now being aware off which subject is currently active is a very important in the modelling process. Why? Well, besides, it dictates which type off subject you can Celek. It also dictates which modelling tools are active. You see, if you are in a polygon mode, for example, you can access this modeling commands like extra bevel and inset etcetera. But if we activate the element mode, we don't see those extra bevel and insect commands like before. So if you want to perform a certain modeling command into the air smacks, you need to know force in which subject the command exists. This becomes more important due to the fact that in many cases the modeling commands have similar names across difference of object types, although they are different. For example, if we go to the H mood, we also have extruded here. And if we go to the Vertex mood, we also have the extra command here. You need to know that even if they have similar names, they work differently and so produce different results. The extra command in a polygon mode is different from the extra command in the H mode, and it is also different from the extra command in a Vertex Moder. We can see that this section is called Edit Vert Assis. If we are in a polygon mode, the section is now called Edit Polygons. We'll discuss the details leader. For now, you just need to be aware off these differences. The last lesson we are going to cover in this video is attaching and detaching objects. Previously, when we discussed grouping, we have learned how to detach and attach. Now what we're going to discuss. It's a completely different thing. What we are going to discuss now is attaching and detaching polygons to and from an object , not a group. Let me create a new teapot here. Let's say we want to combine these two teapots so they become a single object. To do that, we need at least one off them. Toby Inevitable Polly object. You cannot attach objects if they are all primitive objects. Since we already have this one as inevitable Polly object, we can select it then into edit geometry section. You can see the Apache common here. This edit geometry section is different from the upper section because the commands in this area are general commands that work uniformly across difference of object modes. Toe attach another object. So it becomes part off the subject. We can click this attach button, notice how the button is no active. We are now in the attach mode. And so every time we click on an object, that object will be gone from the sin. But a treaty geometry data will become part off the subject. After you are done, remember to turn off the button again by clicking on it or simply rightly, to exit the attach mode. So that is how your touch objects into the air smacks to detach polygons from an object. You need to select the polygons first. So in order to do this, you need to be at least in a polygon mode or in the element mode, select the polygons. You want to detach, then impressed this literature button here. Unlike attaching objects when detaching you actually create a new object, that is why to the S Max prompts you to give it a name. Let's name this one lead for example. Then click this OK button. Now if we go back to the top level mode. We can select this new object independent from the teapot object. This is the teapot 001 object. And this one is the little object. 20. Sub-object basic selection: in this lesson video. We will discuss basic selection methods inside the subject modes for splits discussed selecting all this like all and inverting the selection. Essentially, we can use the same keyboard shortcuts that exists in the object mode. So if you press control a all over, the subjects will get selected to clear all off the selection. We can use control de for a short cut. If you want to invite the selection, you can use control. I, for example, if I select this polygons here to invert the selection, this press control, I now the previously selected polygons are distracted while the rest becomes selected so again, to recap control A to select all and control de to dislike all and Leslie control I to invert the selection just like in a top level mode. In the subject mode, we can also use the control key to add more selection and the R key to reduce the selection . For example, if we are in a polygon modern after selecting this one polygon, we can hold control and select other polygons by clicking on them one by one. Or you can also hold control and direct like so to create a rectangular selection. This will add more to the existing selection. The opposite method is by holding the out key. If we hold out and click on any off the selector polygons, that polygon will be selected. If we hold out en Drake like so go rectangular area, we will reduce the existing selection. Besides the polygon mode, you can also use this method on the other subject modes, such as Vertex Ages and so on. Amusing Polygon for the examples, because it is just easier to see in the video. When we discussed object selection, we already covered these different types off selection radiance Well, in a subject mode, you can also use these selection reagent tools, for example, the circle selection and also the pain selection. I'm sure you get the idea here. You can also combine the control key in the out key with these different selection raging modes. For example, while I have no pain selection raging active, if I hold control input in the selection like this, it will add more selection to the current selection. But if I hold the alky while doing it, it will reduce the selection. Feel free to try each off the selection, raging moods and experiment with them. We're combining them with the control in the all keys by default. When we create region selection into the s mix, all of the subjects inside that region will get selected even though they are not visible directly to us. For example, when we create a selection using the rectangular selection mode like this notice if you turn the object around and say it from the other side, we can see that this polygons gets elected. Also. Sometimes this is not what we want. Sometimes we only need to select the sub objects that are facing our eyes directly and just ignore the part that is not visible. We can do that by turning on this. Ignore, by facing option here, know that this is turned on. If you use any of the selection raging Moz again to create a selection and in turn the object around, we can see that none off the polygons in the back area get selected. So that is what this ignore back facing option does to the selection process. The next election technique we're going to discuss is using the by angle threshold when this option is turned on, we can specify the angle Trey sold that will be used to grow or spread the selection automatically. When we have 45 degrees here, for example, we just a default. Then we select this polygon here at the lower part. Off the lead, we get the selection. Essentially three DS max will select the polygon. We click. Then after that, it takes the neighboring polygons. If a neighboring polygon formed an angle lower than the anger threshold, then the polygon will get selected. After that, the neighbor off that neighbor polygon, will be tested and so on. Essentially lowering this angle threshold will contract the selection results as fewer polygons will fall under the degree threshold. So, for example, if I change these 25 degrees and then click again here, we get less selection than before. So there is how we used the bye angle selection method. We can use this method to quickly select large, flat surfaces. The next method off creating selection inside the sub object mode is shrinking and growing . The selection. We can do that by using this two buttons here, for example, if I select a single polygon here to grow the selection. We can click this button. We can keep clicking on this button multiple times to grow the selection even more so sharing the selection. We can click this button. We can keep clicking this button toe, have fewer polygons selected. 21. Sub-object advanced selection: In this lesson video. We will discuss more advance selection methods inside the edit double police, off object modes. The first election matters we're going to discuss are the ring and the Loop selection. Now these features are mainly used in the age subject mode. When we select an age like this and hit the like button here, notice that all of the ages that are connected serially will get selected also. But if it's like one age like this and then hit during button, the ages that are placed parallel to the age will get selected. Okay, so again, the Loop Command will select the ages this way in a serial pattern. And the Ring Command will select the ages this way in a parallel pattern. Now you might be thinking so why do we need ring and loops direction anyway? Well, they can be used for many different modeling methods, but mainly we use them for the connect and charm for modeling. Commands will discuss all of these in later videos in a polygon mode and in a Vertex Mood Ring and Lopes election do not exist, but we can simulate them using the shift click method to do this. We need to select one polygon and then hope shift and then click on a polygon. Besides the initial polygon. For example, if I select this polygon, then hold shift and then move the mouse on this polygon decided we can see the preview off the loop selection. If I move the mouse. So this polygon. Instead, we get another preview with a different loop direction. Remember, you don't want to move the mouse too far as this only works on the polygons that exists besides the initial polygon. If we click here, for example, than the loop selection will be created in this direction, we can also perform this shift click method to create loops elections in a vertex mood. For example, If I select this vortex here, then hold shift and in hover over this vortex. Besides said, we get the loops direction preview, and if we click on it, the selection will be created. The next up object selection technique we are going to discuss is the selection conversion you see in three DS max, each off the subject modes half their own independence of objects selection, for example, if we are in a Vertex mode, and we select these Frevert Assis. Then we go to the edge more and then select these for ages. And then we go to the polygon soft Object mode and then select these six polygons notice. If we go back to the Vertex mood, we still see the street over Texas director. If we go back to the H mood, we still see this for ages selector. And if we go back to the polygon mode, assuming expect, we still have these six polygons selector. No, the idea is like this. What if you already have a selection in a polygon moder and we want to transfer or convert that selection toe the Vertex or H mode? Well, we can do that. You see in the Control Click Method on the subject. Aiken's Let's say we want to convert this six polygons selection to the Vertex selection. Just hold the control key and then click on overtax subject. I can hear notice The vert assists that are selected are in the area off the six selector polygons we have in a polygon mode. If we go back to the polygon mode, hold control and click on the H subject I can hear we get something like this. All of the selected polygons now converted into age selection. Besides control, we can also use a just shift key or control and shift keys together. Let's see the difference between these methods. If we go back to the Polygon Morgan, then hold shift and then click the H mode Aiken. We can see that only the border off the polygon selection gets converted into the age selection. Okay, now let's go back to the polygon mode again. If we hope, control and shift case together and then click on the H More Aiken, we get something like this, which is basically the opposite. Off the previous election conversion method. We get our selection converted except the border. So again, to recap holding Schiff and clicking on the subject, I can will give you on Lee the border. But if you hold shift and control together, you will get the inner selection. We don't the border. The next selection method we're going to discuss in this video is the selection path method . Let's say we want to create a spiral like selection in its polygon mode. If you try creating the selection by holding the control key and clicking on the polygons one by one. This will be a waste off time. Or maybe you can use the pain selection raging method. But just be aware that our hands are typically not that steady so you might end up with too many Unwanted polygons. Get selected in the process. The easiest way to do this is by using the shift key Hope method. To do that. First, make sure none off the polygons are selected. You can press control the or disk, click on an empty space, then hope shift and then click on this polygon. Do not release the shift key yet. Keep holding it, then click here. Click here and so on until you have the spiral shape that you like. As you can see. With this method, you can create prep type selection quickly. Inside the sub object mode, you can see radio buttons here called review selection. Personally, I would not recommend you to have this option turn done. I always have this option set off. I'll explain later why I prefer to do that. But first, let's discuss the purpose off this feature. If you have this option said so some object notice as I hover the mouse over the object. Three DS max will give us a quick feedback off which polygons will get selected if we eventually click the mouse. The next option is the multi sub object mode. Basically well, this mode is active. You can be in a polygons off object mode, for example, and yet you can select vert assis. An age is also just how you can select the polygons. The idea is great, but in reality, if you need to perform certain modeling features that exists in certain SOF object mode, you still have to active it. That corrects up object mode, so having to select difference of object types becomes pointless. But the biggest problem with these two options is that you cannot use any off the selection operations that use the shift modifier key. For example, if we have this turned off, we can click here and then hope Schiff and make a loop selection. Or, if we clear the selection first called she off and click here, then here and so on. We can make a selection path just like what we have discussed before, but notice the fight on any off these options on, for example, the previews up object mode. We likely here and then hold Schiff and try to create a loop selection. I cannot do that again. Basically none off the shift selection methods work. If you have this option or this option turned on at this, this is the case with three DS max. Version 2020. Did I use currently? Personally, I rather have the chef selection methods work instead of having the selection preview or having the ability to select difference of object types. 22. Normal direction and backface-culling: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss surface normal direction, bake face calling and how to fix three D models that have flipped normal problems. There are many three D content creation software that are aimed for the media and entertainment industry, such as two DS Max Maya blender modo, etcetera. In this software, the treaty models are not solid or in other words, they are basically hollow. They are like paper craft glued together. We can sidious if we create a box object, then converted into an inevitable Polly object and then select the polygon on top of it and just deleted. You can see that the surface off this box doesn't have any thickness. Another example. If we create a plane object this spring, object doesn't have any thickness. Also in three D computer graphics, every polygon has a default direction, called the normal direction. This plane object, for example, has a normal direction facing up towards busy access. If you turn on the ages, we can see that this plane object actually has 16 polygons. Each off them has a normal direction, pointing in the same direction for these books. However, since it has six different sites that are facing different directions. It has six different normal directions. The top polygon, which we already deleted, has the normal direction pointing up towards the positive Z axis just like the plane object . This polygon here has a normal direction, pointing that way towards the negative X axis. Well, this polygon here has the normal direction, pointing that way towards the positive X axis. This polygons normal direction is pointing towards the negative. Why access and so on? You'll get the idea now if you imagine a polygon as a ship off paper which has two sides, we can consider a polygon toe have two sites. Also, the site that is facing the normal direction is called the front face, while the site that is facing the opposite direction is called the back face. So for the plane object, the top area is where we see the front faces, while the bottom area is where the back faces are for the books object. All of the sites that are facing outside are the front pieces, and sites that are facing inward are the back faces. So from this example, you should already realize that in the ideal situation every three D model should only show the front faces and hide the back faces. Or, in other words, viewers should never see the back faces off our three D models. Now you might be asking why. Well, there are many good reasons for these. First of all, if you plan to export your two D models to external applications, such as game engines like Unity or on riel or agudo, for example, this game engines do not render the big faces by default to gain performance. Essentially, the back faces will simply not be visible like they do not exist at all. This technique off, not rendering the bank faces is called back. Face culling. If you want to see the back face, culling effect into the air smacks, you can do this. Avoid the layer properties or, over here, the object properties. Let's just see how we can use the Object properties method for these. Select the object first, for example, the books here, then right click you can see in the court menu. There is an option here called object properties. If you click it, the Object Properties window will open. In this area. You can see the back faced call option. Now all of this display settings are no controlled individually for object basis. If you want all of this to be controlled where the layer properties, you can click this button again. For now, let's just use the by object option. If we have this breakfast co turned on and we click the OK button, we can see the polygons seem to disappear. If you look at the cube from the interior side, having a breakfast call option turned on is an important step before you export your two D models toe game engines. This is so you can check whether you have breakfast problems in your model or not. Let me turn the back for a skull off again. Another way to check your two D models for any breakfast mistakes is through the use off the View port x of you. To do that, you can click this plus button at the top left off the View port dangerous ex of you here and then turn on the face orientation option here. Notice if I select the walks object. Two. DS Max will display a bright green color on the back faces this way you can spot back faces without having to turn on the back fiscal option inside the object properties, but something you need to be aware, though this ex view method does not work on primitive objects. So if it's like this spring object, which is currently still a primitive object, two DS max will just display an error message telling us that the object is not supported. We can see the bottom area. It's not colored in bright green. This is actually not a big deal, since objects that have flipped normal problems are all irritable objects. You won't find primitive objects with the problem, but just to prove it. If we convert this plane, object into inevitable Polly object now the error message is gone. And if he wrote it the View port, we can see a bright green color on the bottom side. Now, if we do find polygons that are facing the wrong way or, in other words, have flipped normal problems, how can we fix them then? Well, we can fix them by flipping them toe the correct side. Just, for example, let's create a teapot converted into inevitable Polly object. If we go to the polygon mode and then select suffer a polygons like so toe free police polygons. Normal direction. We can click this free button here. Now this polygons are facing the wrong way. What we see on the outside are actually the back faces. From this example, you can see another big reason why you don't want to expose the back faces. It is because back faces can create. We're rendering errors. If you render a scene and you see with dark blotches or shadow artifacts on the vending result, you might want to check for flip normal problems in your models. Okay, so one way to fix Frith normal problems is to select the polygons and then click this flip button. Now flipping one or two polygons can be done quickly. But what if our to the models consists off hundreds off Brendan polygons that have flipped normal? Usually this happens when you import to the models from other applications, such as from sketch up. For example. You can fix this problem using a modifier called normal, but honestly, this is what I don't like about three DS max. You see, the normal modifier is a legacy modifier that has not been updated for years, perhaps a decade or so. It is funny that the modifier only works on irritable much objects. It does not work on irritable Polly objects. So yeah, you need to convert the object for us in tow. Inevitable mash, then apply the normal modifier. You will see two options here unify normals and flip normals. Using the flip option will only flip the existing normal directions. Durio magic happens when you turn on to unify option here. With this option, the normal directions will be generalized. And so we can either make call off them. Facing outside, we'll make all off them facing inside. After you are done, you can confer the object back toe inevitable, Polly by simply right click convert toe and just irritable Polly. So now we can continue using the irritable Polly features again. 23. Edge modeling techniques: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss some off the irritable Polly modeling features inside the age subject. Mordor. The first technique we're going to discuss is Connect. Remember, Currently we are discussing the modeling features inside the H mode, so make sure that you have unedited ball Polly object and you also have the H mode currently active in modify panel In the eighties Ages section you will find the Connect command here. Disconnect command is used to create New Age is at the center off the selected ages. For example, if I select this age, let me turn on the ignore back facing option here first just to be safe and then hold control and then click on more ages to select them like so you can see I am creating on our ship. Bring selection here. After we have the selection, we can click the connect button here. Yes, you can see new ages are created at the centers off the ages that we select a previously let me undo this. Another method off accessing the Connect command is a wire, the court menu. So after you have selected the ages, you can write leak and then click this Connect command here. Okay. Now introduce Max. Almost all commands provides the setting smooth You need walks us this mode. If you were more control over the modeling command, let's say, for example, you want to have two or three ages created when performing the connect operation. Let me undo this again. To access the setting mode, you can either click this small button on the right side off the connect button. Or, if you prefer the court menu after you, right click. You can click this button on the left side off the conical man here, as you can see instead off creating the connective ages instantly. Two days Max displaced This floating you I where we can adjust the perimeters off laconic command. Here we can specify the number off H loops. We can type in the value. We can also click on this small up and down arrows, or we can just click and wreck like so on the aero buttons. Let's set this to three, for example. Here we can tweak the pinch value. The bigger the value, the wider the gaps between the H loops and smaller values will make them more closely together. The last one is the slight value, which makes the age loops off center and lean more towards the sites. At the bottom area, you can find three buttons. We can use the expert in here to cancel the whole can. I commend. We can use the okay button at the left side to apply the connector man and close this panel and at the center. The press button here is useful only for the type off commands that can be applied multiple times, which is not the case with the Connect Command. So let's just click the OK button here. Yes, I mentioned earlier. The Connect Command is often used with the ring selection method. For example, if I want to make a new age loop around this part, I can click this H ones and then hit during button here. Or we can also use the shift method to create during selection. We can click this age here, for example, hold shift and then click on this age, and then we can click neck. Now we have three H loops in this part. Notice how the previous custom settings we used before are no use as the default. This is the reason why we have three H loops now as the result. Instead, off one h loop, the next H modeling command we are going to discuss is the create command. Essentially, the create command will create a new age by manually clicking on the verge. Assists to use the create command. First, you need to click the create button here in the area. Juma three section. Or you can also do this from Look what menu here. If you do that, notice how the create button is no active. Basically, we are no any eight creation murder while this more ISS active. If I click on over tax and then click again on a neighboring vertex, a new age will be created. We can keep doing this as long as we are still in the H creation mode. After you are done, don't forget to exit from each creation mode by right clicking. The next modelling technique we're going to discuss is John, For essentially, the charm for command will spice the selector ages. If we toe jumper on corner ages, the corner will become blunt. To use John for first, you need to select the ages. You can charm for a single age, although ideally or in the most common situation, you want to come for a whole H loop. So that's select unnatural by clicking on this age called Schiff and then click here to apply the chan further, you can use the chance for a button here for the chance for a settings button here. Or avoid a court menu by right clicking and interest down for here. For the settings. Button here. If weekly on the charm for button in a modified panel, you can see the button becomes active. Basically, we are now in the chance for Mordor. Well, in this mode, we can move for the mouse on top off the selected ages, then click direct like so we can see how the ages have sliced from one H rope. Tow three edge loops. After you jump for the ages, you need to left click to confirm, or, if you want to cancel, you can right click after you are done. Always remember to exit the chunk for mood by right clicking. There are many options in a chance for setting smolder. We're not going to discuss all off them only the most important ones for now. To see the settings in action, let's like these three ages at the corner and then hit the blue button. Click the chance for a settings button. You can see the champ for offers a lot off perimeters that we can tweak. These are similar to the charm for modifier that we're going to cover a leader. The most important parameters are these four parameters at the top, the metering amount segment and up. First, it's the segment value, which basically controls the number off H loops created by the champ for Command. The metering type here difference the topology on intersection areas. Lizzie Squad. This is Troy, and this is uniform and so on. The amount value determines how wide the champ for area will be, and the depth here determines whether it creates convex or concave or flat surfaces. Now, if you only need to spice the H L a pinto to H loops, then you can use the try option here and said the segment toe only one. This is the minimum number off H loops you can get from the charm for command. Feel free to experiment with the other parameters yourself when working with complex objects. Sometimes we need to optimize the topology by reducing the ages from the object. One way to reduce the ages is by selecting them and then hit the delete button. But the problem with this technique is that the polygons attached to destructive ages will be deleted. Also basically pressingly, it will create hosts in a geometry. If you only want to remove the ages, we don't creating holes on the object. Then you should use the remove command. Instead, you can access it by clicking on this dream off button. Noticed the ages are gone, but the geometry is still intact. There is no hole created in the process. Now, at the glands, the remove command result is perfect. But if we go to the Vertex mode, we can see that there are vert assists left behind at the location where we remove the ages . Ideally, you don't want tohave overdoses that only have to wage is connected to it in your treaty model. To avoid this situation, you can use the control remove method instead to show you what I mean. Let me undo this. So after we have the ages selected instead of clicking the remove button here, first hotel control key and then click this remove button. Now, if we go to the Vertex mode, as you can see, the remove command result is cleaner as there are no over Texas left behind. 24. Cut and Slice techniques: in this lesson video we're going to cover for techniques that we can use to add more ages to our treaty models. These techniques are cut to the sliced plane tool, the quick slice tool and finally, the pain connect toe again as a reminder, you need tohave inevitable. Polly object to be able to use these techniques first is the cattle cut is across up objects tool that can create new agents from the existing vert, Asus, ages and polygons. What cross up objects means is that this toe is available anywhere, whether you are in a Vertex age or other subject moles. It is even a wearable when you are in the object. Mordor. To use the cut toe, simply click this cut button or you can rightly toe open the court menu and click cut. Here we are now inside the cut mode in a cut mode. If we move the most around while hovering on a treaty motto, the cursor changes when we have her on top off overtakes the cursor change to the Vertex cut Moder. When we have our over an age, it will change to this age cut mood, and when we are on top off a polygon, the curse or changed to something like these. So basically it automatically detects anything beneath the mosque or sir, If I click on overtakes, then on this age, notice how it created this line. Now, at this point, we can continue doing the card. For example, I can click again on this age, then on these Vertex, then on this polygon and so on. I can even go beyond sufferers up objects, and it will handle the rest to finish one cup operation. Simply right click. A single cup operation is finished, but we are still in the cut mode, so if we click again, it will start another cup operation. After right clicking toe finished a cup operation to really exit the cut mood you need to write like once again. To be honest, I rarely use the cattle anymore since two DS max introduced a more stable cutting tool called the Pain Connect, which we are going to discuss later in this video. In my experience, the capital can be a bit baggy after it creates double over taxes and cuts on the area that the Children. So if you want to use the stool. Use it with caution and always check for humanitarian integrity. After using it, you can imagine the slice plane tool as a gigantic knife that we can use to slice objects. Basically, it creates New Age is based on the intersection off the object with a large spiritual plane object. Unlike the cut toe, the slice plane tool is not available in the object mode. You need to be in a subject mood to use it, but you can be in any off the subject types. Weatherby, the Polygon H or Vertex indie ated Geometry section. You will see the stress plane button here. If you click on it, you will see this yellow plane in the view port. These two buttons here, below the slice plane button, become active. Now if you are in a slice plane mood like this. Whenever you do a transformation, you are transforming the slice plane instead off the object. So moving, for example, we'll move the slice plane. If we activate the rotation tool, we can wrote it the slice plane, and we can also do scaling, although scaling will not affect anything so distressing. Process. If you want to reset the slice plane transformation. You can click this reset button if you want to have a straight vertical slicing plane after you reset the plane used to rotate. Oh, and let's say you want to rotate it this way, using the Y axis as the rotational access. To do that, just type in 90 in the way rotation input field and you have a vertical plane. You can use this method for different directions that you like after you wrote it, or move the slashing plane as needed to actually slash the object. You need to click this slice button after lead. You can continue to transform the slice plane again and do another slice if needed. When you are done to exit the slice pain mode, you can click on this button again. Sometimes we need to slice only on this part off the object. We can do that by first selecting the polygons that you want to slice. So in order for this to work, you need to be at least in a polygon mode or in the element Mordor, for example. We can activate the element Morgan so, like only the handle part off this teapot object then click the slice plane button again. You can see the slice. Preview only exists in the handle area and up on the body or the spout areas. Now, before we click the sliced button here, I want to explain the less feature off the slice plane and that is displayed. Option here. If this is on and then we click the sliced button. It looks like we've done ordinary slice like before. But notice if it's like this part, were in the element border. This part becomes an independent element. We can move this to another location. We don't affecting this lower part. So there is the function off this spread option here. The matter off slicing is by using the quick slice tool. This method is almost identical to the slice plane method, but the plane itself is always projected based on our viewing direction. Just imagine that we have a very long lightsaber that can slice anything in front of us. Just like the cut tool. The quick slice tool can be accessed from all over the subject modes, and it is also available in a top level mode to use the quick slice tool for click the quick sliced button. Here we are now in a quick slice murder. Then, to slice the object, we need to define two points in space. We can click here, for example, to specify the first cutting point and then click again here to define the second cutting point. Now the object is sliced all the way as it was being cut by a very long sword or lightsaber . Okay, Now dislike the slice plane tool. The quick slice stool can also spread the object. If you have a split option here turned on and you can also limit the slicing process toe a certain area where for selecting the polygons for the elements. Just for example, we have the spirit option here turned on, and we are in the element Mordor. If you select the elite part, then click the quick sliced button. Click here, then here, rightly, to turn off the quick slice. More than now, I noticed that only distracted polygons, which is the lead part, gets sliced and because we have the spirit option turned on, if we select this part, we can move it independently from the other part. The less method that we are going to discuss in his video is the pain Connect All Distel was originally available as 1/3 party plug in called Malibu's. After Autodesk acquires palette Goose, the two now becomes spark off two DS max by default toe access the Pain Connect tool. You need to open the ribbon interface, so click this button, then opened the modeling tab and then open the air itself menu. You can find a pen. Connect all here, dis click on it to activate the pain Connect mode. Well, this is active. We can click direct like this on the object to create connecting ages by default. The pen connect all will cut from age to age. If you need to cut toe overtax, you can do so by holding the control key. For example, I can direct the mouse from here to here now when I want to target overtax. Simply hope the control key and we don't releasing the mouse. Just move it to the Vertex location. You want to target the New Age creator with a snap so that the vertex to exit from the pain connect mode. We can simply right click. OK, it's I mentioned before I usually preferably smothered over the cut method due to its stability 25. Surface smooth shading: in this lesson video. We are going to discuss two methods that we can use to control the surface. Smooth shading off a three D model inside three DS Max Force is by using a smoothing group method, which exists in a polygon sub object mode, and second is by using the age hardness properties. But before we go covering each off this methods, let's discuss the surface shedding in general to make things simple. Let's just see an example of it if you create a sphere like so, this fear looks nice if you need a rubber ball or a bubble in your scene. But what if we want to create a disco mirror ball or, ah, heart age Ruby, for example, If you open the modify panel, you can see an option here called Smooth if you turn it off. Now the sphere looks like a disco ball. This type of surface shading is also known as face. It'd or frank shading. If you recreate this sphere in the real world, I mean exactly, with the same amount off polygonal surface is like this. Well, this is what you will actually get. So the smooth version off the sphere is the fake one, essentially in three D computer graphics. To create smooth surfaces like this, we don't necessarily need to create millions off polygons to achieve it. We just need to tell the renderers to smooth out the shadow that false on that surface when rendering it so. With only a small number off polygons, we can achieve a smooth surface look. But in many cases, we don't want to serve us to look all smooth like this, or look, all visited like this. A lot of times we need some parts off the model Toby smooth in the other parts to look face a toe. Well, this is what the lesson is all about. Let's make this sphere smooth for now and then that's converted into inevitable Polly. The first method off controlling the surface. Smooth shading is by using the smoking groups. The smoothing group is a polygon property so you can find a smoking group parameters in a polygon soft object mode or in the elements of object murder. If you scroll all the way down, you can see a table with numbers that look like a calendar. This is where we control the smoking groups and using it is actually very simple. Just remember this rule polygons that have the same smoking group numbers We look smooth and polygons that have different smoothing group numbers will not look smooth. For example, if I select the single polygon here, this party gun belongs to the smoking group number one. If you select this one, this one also has to smoking Group number one turned on. In fact, if it's like all off the polygons in this fear, they all have number one turned on. This is the reason why the host fears surface looks smooth. It is because all of them have the same smoothing group number. Now if you select all polygons and hit this button, clear all notice Our sphere now looks like the previous fear before when a smooth option turned off. This is due to the fact that none off the polygons iss part off any smoothing groups. Let's turn on the smoothing shading again by assigning number one like before. Now, if you strike a polygon loop like so and then hit number one in the smoothing groups, the number one button becomes inactive. So this number buttons are basically Togo buttons. If we turn on the number two instead, you can see that the polygons in the slope area are smooth, but they are not smooth against the rest. Off the polygons outside the loop area, the only looks moth against each other again. This is because this polygons are assigned to the smoothing group number two, while the rest are assigned so smoking Group number one. Now it is important to know that a single polygon can be a member off multi but smoothing groups. For example, If I select these two polygons, then click on the number one now. These two polygons belonged to smoothing groups number one and number two. Because off this we can see they are no playing nice with everyone. They look smooth against this area and this area and they look smooth also against the slope area. Okay, guys. So there is the smoking group feature Introduce Max. Smarting group is very important, especially if you are working on low polygon objects, usually for exporting them toe game engines. Because with smoking group, you can simulate the look off complex geometry with only a small number off polygons. But the smoothing group is not the only way that you can use to control surface smoothing the next method off controlling surface smoothing is through the age hardness properties. In order to use this feature, you need to be in the H mode. The way this works is even simpler than a smoothing group. Basically, you need to select an age and then you decide whether it will look hard or smooth. For example, let's like this h loop then in here you can see two buttons hard and smooth if you click the heart button. As you can see, the smoking area breaks at this age loop. So that is what this heart buttoned us. Now, if you always like this to ages here and then hit the smooth button, we can see it is to ages becomes smooth. You might be wondering now. So what happens with the polygon smoothing group? Then, when we control the surface shedding with this age hardness method? Well, if we go to the polygon mode and then select one of these two polygons, for example, we can see that behind the scene to the S. Max actually takes care off the polygon smoothing groups for us automatically. Okay, let's go back to the H mood. The less feature that I want to mention is this. Display Heart ages button. This button is useful. If you want to check which ages are set to heart in the view port, you can turn this on or off. You can also choose a different color here if you want to. 26. Capping holes and edge extrusion: in this lesson video we're going to cover to modelling techniques inside the borders of object mode. We're going to discuss the kept command and how to clean up the model afterward. And then second, we're going to discuss how to extrude ages. You see the shift move method. The 1st 1 is the kept command. Basically, we can use it to close holes in our treaty models. For example, if it's like this polygon and impressed the lead to create whole, we can patch this hole. You see, look at command. The kept command only exists in a border model, so make sure you are in border moat. Now you can press number three on the keyboard to access the borders of object more quickly . Then select the border surrounding the hole. You want to close by clicking on any off the ages in the whole area. After that, to close the hole, you can click kept here in a modified panel, or you can also rightly and into sceptic here. Now, if the whole has more than four sides after the cup command, you may need to fix that apology manually. For example, if I select this for polygons here and then hit the lead. We can cross the whole using the same method as we did before. Select the border and into scape. You can see the whole is now closed. If the hole is on a flat surface, you will get a clean result. But because the whole we have here is located on around surface, we still have two problems that need to be fixed for us. We have a non court polygon and second, the surface. Smooth shading is broken. Let's fix the first problem in three D computer graphics. The most ideal polygon is squad, meaning it has for ages surrounded Well, this polygon generated by the kept command It's not quite we have one toe 345678 ages Around this polygon we can also see that widow and a small shading and gone polygons are actually formed by many invisible triangles like these. Okay, toe fix this topology. We can use many different approaches For now, let's just use the cattle, right click and interest cut. Make sure you have her own overtax here and not on the age. Click on it and then move the mouse to this work x location and then click again likely to finish this station. Currently, we are still in a cut mode, so click again here and then here, right click twice to exit the cattle mode. Next, we need to face the depth off the center of vortex. As you can see, it is slightly sunk into the surface. We can fix this by first activating the Vertex Mordor and then used the local to information here instead off the view or the world. Mort's notice in the local mode. If it's like this word X dizzy access is actually pointing towards the normal direction off this vortex. So, yes, the Vertex can also have a normal direction. Just like the polygons overtakes. Normal directions are calculated. Were interpreting the surrounding polygons normal directions we can recklessly handle here to pull out the ver packs so it is roughly aligned with the general curvature off the surface. After you are finished, don't forget to change this back to the view or world reference coding it just to be safe. Next to fix the smart shading, we can go to the polygon sub object mode if we select the sounding polygons we can see they are using smoothing group number two. So let's like this for polygons and said that smoking group toe to also and now we have a smooth surface, just like before. The rest method that we're going to discuss is the H exclusion. We can use this method in the borders of object mode or any H more as long as the ages are located in a border area. Basically, to use this method, you need to select the ages or the border and then hold Schiff and then move it to any direction we like. For example, let's create a whole again at decide, go to the borders of object mode and select this border. Hold Schiff and then move it away in the X axis direction. As we can see, new polygons created automatically from the selected border toe where it moves, we can notice again and again. Now, if you go to the h Mordor and then select this H only hold Schiff and then move. We also get new polygons created. We can move this to the up direction if we want O or to any direction that we like. Okay. Now, if you try to do this method on this age instead. For example, we just an age there is not at the border area holding Schiff and moving this age will not produce anything. So again, H extrusion only works on ages that exists in a border area or, in other words, ages that only have one face attached to it. 27. Bridge: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss the bridge command. Essentially, the bridge command will connect to borders or two holes by creating new geometry between them. So to use the bridge command, you need at least two borders selected first. Now, besides the border Mordor, you can actually use the bridge command in a polygon Mordor and also any H mood toe test the bridge Command. Let's create a new walks like So you can press F four to show the ages in the view port And let's make all off the values off the segments toe for you can click drag here and type four then hit tab type for again press step again and then type for again. Then press enter. Okay, Convert this subject into inevitable Polly object and go inside the elements of object mode Select this whole polygons hold Schiff and indirect is, like so in X axis direction to duplicate them to stoke onto element option Here, remember, to use the bridge command you need tohave. Both structures exist in a single object. You cannot perform the bridge command if each off the surfaces belongs to a different object. For example, we want to bridge this four polygons with these four polygons. So just like this for polygons. And in select this four polygons also, you can perform the bridge command in a polygon mode. So if you click this bridge button here, you will have something like this as a result. So this is one way to do it which just basically using the polygon Stop object Moder! Now if it'll it all off these resulting polygons We have two hosts like this. If we go to the border mode, select the supporter called Control and then click on an age in this border. Now we have toe border Select that if you click bridge we'll get a similar result just like the breach operation in a polygon modem. The only difference is that we are using host now instead off polygons. So this all depends on your model or your modelling process. If you already have holes, then using the bridge command on the borders of object mode is quicker to perform. But if you have polygons, then performing bridge in a polygon sub object mode will be quicker. Let me undo this Now if you need more control over the Bridge command. As with any other commands, Intraday S Max. You can click this bridge settings button. We can move this floating you I to decide so we can see the result preview much better. This segment value can be used to determine the number off Luke cuts in the resulting geometry. If you have a lot of these flu cuts, for example, let's type in 20. Here you can use the next perimeter, which is taper. Essentially, the taper of value will make the Centerbridge geometry Toby thinner or thicker again. You can always see the tape of result. If you have enough segments of value, you cannot use paper if you only have one segment now, when reading the tape of value, you may feel that the value changes too fast. If you want this to change at a slower pace or increase and decrease using smaller values, you can do that by holding the all key while dragging the spinners. Yes, you can see you can create interesting organic structures using this bridge feature. The next value is bias. Basically, it will strike the center off the taper to be closer to one or the other. side so quickly reset this value back to the default, which is zero. You can right click on one off the spinner buttons. The smart value here will order smooth the polygon loops along the bridge geometry based on the angle threshold. Basically, polygons that form angles below the value you specify here will have the same smoking group number. But in a current address Max version that I'm using, there is a bug in its perimeter. Sometimes even with the higher value, it will not produce smooth shading the next two perimeters. Here are the twist parameters. We have two off this because each is used for the different sides. Basically, this will twist the bridge geometry like so you can use positive value or negative value if you want to twist to go in the other direction. Okay, next is the option to introduce the current selection to perform the bridge command or use other borders that exist in the model. Now this option is only needed. If you haven't selected any polygons or borders before you click the bridge button, let me just show you what I mean. Let's click the X button here to cancel press control OD to dislike everything. Then click the bridge settings button again. Notice. Nothing happened as studious. Max has no idea off which borders you want to breach. So hotel which borders we want to use. We need to change this option. Toe you specific borders. If we have this option on, then these two buttons here become enabled. Click here. Don't just this border. Then click here and then just this border. Now we can see the bridge geometry creator. Okay, as I mentioned earlier, besides the border in a polygon murder, you can also perform the bridge command on ages just to proof this. If you select this age here and then hold control and select these h also then click breach . Here we get something like this. We can see that we have flood off segments here as the result. This is because two DS max, we'll try to use the less settings that we used before as the default for a new bridge operations. It is important to know that you can only perform breach on ages if those ages are on the border area. If you second age here, for example, and another one here which basically are not border ages. If you click the bridge button, then nothing will happen. Okay, One last thing that I need to mention is the breach works best. If you have the same amount off ages in the border or in the sector polygon groups, you can have different numbers off ages. I mean, breach will work also like that, but the resulting geometry will not be all quarts. You'll get triangles as the result in some off the areas just to give you an example. If I go to the polygon murder and then select this polygon and inflated and then go back to the border moored select this border and in this border we have toward or selected now, but each with a different number off ages. If we do a bridge command again, we can see that in this area we have some triangles. So this is something you need to be aware off when performing the bridge operation 28. Polygon modeling techniques: in this less and video we're going to discuss suffer all techniques commonly used in polygons up object mode. They are extraordinary insect and lever. The 1st 1 is the extra command. Basically, the extra command will extend the polygons out off the surface or into the surface to see how extra works. First, make sure you are in a polygon moder and instruct this two polygons. Then you can click the extra button here, or you can also use the extra button in the court menu here. Then move the mouse over the selector polygons and just click and drag up or down. If you direct the most upward, the polygons will be extorted out off the surface. And if you direct the most downward, the extruded polygons will sink into the surface, just like with the other modelling tools. Inside today's Macs, the extra tool also has additional settings to access it. You can click this button here, or, if you prefer the court menu, you can whitely and then click the small button in the extra settings floating panel you can, especially for a human off extrusion with more precision positive value, will make it come out off the surface. Well, negative value. Well, naked. Go inside the surface Now. Notice on top off the settings. You I There is an option here for the grouping mode to better explain this option. Let's like this polygon first called Schiff. Then click on this polygon. This will select the whole polygon loop. Okay, now let's open the extra settings. You again notice. If we set this option toe group mode, the whole sector polygons will be extruded together in a single direction to DS. Max will try to find the direction by averaging the selective polygons Normal direction. But as you can see in this case where the selection creates a loop, the group option does not make any sense. The next option is the local normal mode. Essentially in this mode, each off the polygons will move based on his own normal direction. But they are still extruded together s one piece. The last option is the by polygon mode. Basically, this option is almost like the local normal mode, but each polygon will be extruded separately. So this option produces the most amount off polygons. Compared to the other options. The second model in command is incent insect. It's almost like the extra command in terms off human off polygons generator, but instead will not add any high to the process. Instead, it will push the resulting polygons tenor in the same surface plane. Visually, it is like reading a frame to distract the polygons. Toby More clear. Let's just like this polygons here and then right click, then click instead. Here we are now in inset mode. If we click and drag the mouse on top off this polygons, they will string and from a frame like this. So this is insect. Now, if you open the settings panel, you can find him one value and also the grouping methods just like the extra command. But you won't find the local normal option here. As Dean, set command does not produce height like the extra dust. The last one is the bevel command. The bevel command is like the extra, and the insect commenced, combined together in a single operation. To use the level command, you can either click here in a modified panel or right click to open the court menu and then click here after you have the revel, more active to use the rebel command you need to perform toe clicking and dragging processes. The first clicking and dragging well defined the height. This is like the extra process, so drinking up well, extra the polygons out off the surface while dragging down. We make them sink into the surface. After we released the mouse, we are now in a second face off the bevel operation. We can move the mouse up and down to define how much the outline value is. Basically, this is like the insect command, but with the ability to make the resulting paragons grown as well as sharing. If we move for the most up, it will grow, and if we move the most down, it will string after you are satisfied with the outline value. To finish up the bevel operation, you need to left click once. The Devil Command also has settings parameters just like the extra and insect commence. But there is really nothing new to discuss, and I believe you already know how to use them by now. 29. Project Oluce Atollo table lamp: in his project Less and video. We are going to create this table. M called the apology a Tollo table lamp. I hope I pronounce the name correctly. This is how the lamp looks from the side view, and from this image we can see that there is a small poll inside holding the lamp shade. We won't be modeling the upper parts off the pole, as in most cases, they will not be visible anyway now because until now, we haven't discussed how to use the real measurement unit. So for this project, we are just going to rely on our eyeball to approximate the measure. German. The Focus off the project. It's not on precision but more on how to use the modeling tools that we have learned from the previous lessons. And in his project, we're going to learn how to use a modifier called the shell Modifier. Let's start by creating a cylinder click drag to define the radius, then release the mouse and then adjust the height off the cylinder, click to finish and in what break to exit the cylinder creation Moder. Now to move the cylinder, Toby exactly at the centre off the world. We can press W to activate the move mode. This is so we have a recording. It's displayed at the bottom area. Then 20 them all quickly. We can rightly, on the spinners here. Next, let's open the modify panel and just adjust the radius or the height or any other parameters that you see fit. For now, I want to change the sights number to see the ages in the view port, we can press F four. I think I want to change these toe 32. So we have some artery geometry along the side and for the horizontal segments, we can adjust these. You seem to hide segments parameter here. I think four is enough. Next, we need to create a cone shape at the top. For this, we cannot use the primitive cylinder object. Let's convert this into inevitable party object. Let's activate the polygons up object mode by pressing four on the keyboard, then select the top face. Now the best tool for this job is the bevel tool. So right click and then to smell here, click dress up on a selected polygon, then release the mouse and move the mouse down So we have a smaller polygon left click to confirm and then rightly, to exit the bevel mode. Next for the pool, we can use the extra command click dressed up like so, then rightly, to exit the extra modem. Now, if you press therefore to hide the ages, we can see that in his sloping area, the polygons look face. It'd toe fix this. We need to select them first. There are many ways to do this for now. I'm going toe activity, the ignore back facing option and then the by angled threshold. Let's try clicking on a slope area. We can see too many polygons get selected. We need to reduce the anger threshold. Let's try 30 degrees here. Click again and we have the selection results that we need. Let's scroll down all the way down until we see the smoking group parameters for this area , you can use any numbers here as long as it is not used by the neighbouring polygons. Let's try number 24 here. It looks better now, although still a bit visited. This is due to the like off horizontal segments, but let's just assume this is good enough for Now let's fix the smoking group for the pull part. Also, let's use number 28. Now the pool area looks smooth. Next, we want to make this corner part Toby less sharp and also this corner. Don't here for this. Go to the H mode by pressing number two on the keyboard. Press a four again to display the ages. Then select this age Hold Schiff and then this age. So we have a whole H A loop selected next. We need to use the chance for command, work, leak and just the champ for setting smooth. Let's move this to the side for the segment. I think one is enough for the Amman Value. We can try making it smaller now. If the value changes too fast, we can hold the alky while dragging it to make it slower. I think this is enough. Click the OK button here. Next. For the bottom part, we need to charm for the ages. Also, in order to use the Loop Command, you can select the polygon and then inside it first. But I'm going to show you a different approach. You can hold control and click on the age subject I can. Here we can see two DS max converted the face selection toe age selection. Let me repeat this again. So it is clear you cannot use the shift click method in this case or clicking on the like button here loops. Election wouldn't work because the ages here does not form court intersections. Okay, now, another way to access the face to age selection conversion is by using the court menu. So right, click and then just this convert to H Command here. After we have the ages selected open the champ for settings, you again. We can see it still uses the settings we have before, which is exactly what we want. So dis click the OK button here, Leslie. I think I want to insect the bottom part. Just a tiny bit toe. Get the better smoothing effect at the bottom. Let's like the polygon here. Oops, sorry. Let's turn off the angle threshold. First select the polygon again and then inset about the size. Now we are done with the bass part for creating the lamp shade, part force. Let's go back to the top level mode. Open the create panel. The shape shape is basically a prolific hemisphere, So create a sphere object, then rightly to exit from this fear recreation mode, make sure that this fear is at the centre. Also, we need to adjust a few things here. Force the radius off the shed part should be about twice the radius off the base. And we also want to make it a hemisphere in modify panel. You can find this hemisphere perimeter just increased these toe 0.5 for a perfect hemisphere. Although usually with 0.5 value, you will get some double vert ASUs at the bottom area. But we can fix them later. For now. Just move this up to about this position and has changed the radius. Toby, about this ice again. Currently, we are not using any measure. Hman just appear approximation. Next, we need to edit this shade part further. We can rotate the view to see the bottom part. We want to remove this polygons at the bottom. We can only do this if we have the object as an inevitable object. So converted toe inevitable. Polly. Object. Now we won't work on this object exclusively without distraction from other objects. We can do this by going to the isolation mode. And let's hide this great. Also, by pressing g on the keyboard. Okay. Now, to remove the bottom cap, we can press one to go to the Vertex mode, select the center of Vertex, then hit the lead. So we have something like this. Now, this kind off geometry is not good for joy rendering, nor for two D printing, as it doesn't have any volume. To fix this, we can go back to the top level mode and add a shell. Modify error. We can click here on the matter if I release and then quickly type in S H. This will help us to find a shell modifier. Faster. Click on the shell. Modify error. Now, we have some volume on the model, but instead off coming out, we wanted to become ticker inward. So change the outer amount value to zero and an increased dinner amount value, but not too much as the original product is actually a very thin now. Notice don't. Here we get this black areas. These are flip normal problems. This thing happens because we have a double vert assists in the model. If we hide the shell. Modify error and go back to the irritable Polly object and activate the Vertex mode. If it's like this Vertex, for example, and move it up or down, we can see we actually have double vert ASUs here at the bottom area. We can fix this easily using the world operation. But first you need to press control A to select all over it. Assists, then scroll down until you see the world command click on a settings button. The 0.1 number here is the threshold, meaning overdoses that have a distance to each other smaller than this value will get march together. We can see before the operation we have 289 vert assists and if we apply this world operation, we will get 257 vert assists. So definitely there will be some vert assist their get merge. Click the OK button here to apply the world and we can check the vert ASUs again just to make sure And yes, we don't have any double What does this problem now? Okay, now this is very important. Before you go back up to activate the shell modifier, make sure you are in the object or club level Moder. Not in over picks mode. This concept applies to all modifiers. Introduce Max. I need to stress this out because this is a common mistake that happens a lot to beginners . If you have the Vertex mood active like these and you have some virtuous is selected, anybody fires on top. We only be applied to the selector, the vert ASUs which is in our case, not what we want. So again, make sure you are in a top level Moder. Now we can safely go back up to the shell modifier and turn it on again. As we can see, we now have clean geometry without any black shadows and that's it. We're done modeling to exit the isolation mode. You can either open the court menu and click the and isolate command here. Or you can also click this small icon at the bottom. Now we can see the base object again. You can just use the models like these. Perhaps you want to use object grouping toe combined them later, or you can also march them together into a single object using the attached command to do that you can select the base subject, click attach here. And while the attach mode is active, we can click on the shade object to make it part off the base, subject rightly to exit the attach murder. And now we have a single object. 30. Measurement unit: in this lesson video. We are going to learn how to use real my German units inside two DS max Every time we create an object, for example, a box in a modified panel we can see suffer parameters for controlling the size we can see . It has length with in height values, less input, some numbers here just, for example, double click here. Type in 100 pressed ebb, then type in 50. Press step again, then type 30 and impress escape. As you can see, as these values change the boxes, dimension changes also. But what are these values represent? Actually, is it centimeters, or is it inches? Or what? The most important setting when defining moment German unit into DS max is the system units set up to access it. We can open the customize menu you need to set up and then click this button system units set up. You don't need to change all of the settings. Don't hear you're Lainey to pick the unit type that you want to use in the sport on lease. Are you centimeters here? Because the metric system is the default my German system used in my country and also dress off the world. If you live in the US and you are more familiar with the imperial measurement system, then you might want to use Dean just unit here. Just be aware that I'll be using the metric system for the rest off discourse. Okay, Now, even if I stick with the metric system besides centimeters, there are also meters in other metric units here. I have a simple rule for Reese. Essentially, you should just these units based on a scale off the project. For example, if you are working on an interior scene or modeling for richer or small objects, then you should use centimeters. If you are working on a large scale seen such as buildings or on aerial view, then you should use meters instead. After you are done, just click the OK button here and click this OK button also now to DS. Max will consider every union in a scene s centimeters. But as you can see the dimension values offer, these books are still not showing any unit symbols behind them. Well, this is actually not the problem. As to DS, Max will still consider all off these values as centimeters If you really need to see the unit simmers behind these values, then you can go back to the customize menu, then go to the unit set up again. In this window, we can set how to DS Max displaced the measurement unit. I strongly recommend you to use the same display unit as the unit setting we set before in the system unit. So click metric here and into centimeters. If you click the OK button. Now you see the centimeters simmers behind these values again. This is the ideal set up. Although you are using centimeter now two days, Max still understands other unit types, and we'll convert them for you automatically. So, for example, you can type in two than M. Then press, enter or escape. You will get 200 centimeters. As a result, you can even input in imperial units. For example, if you type in 20 then double quotes symbol, which basically means 20 inches. Two DS max converted the value two centimeters automatically, so you don't really need to use an external scientific calculator app just for doing unit conversions. Let's change this back to 100 centimeters. Now you might be wondering What will happen if we set the display unit different from the system unit? If we opened a unit set up window again in change these two meters instead and click OK. As you can see, nothing has changed in terms off the objects dimension. But now the numbers are displayed in meters, not in centimeters. So instead, off 100 centimeters, it displays one meter. We also have 0.5 meters and 0.3 meters here. Basically, the objects dimension never change. Only the values are presented in a different union. But notice if he opened the union set up window again and then go to the system units set up. Then change these two inches. Click OK, then change the display unit. Tow us standard and just decimal inches here click. Okay. As you can see, the books is not 100 by 50 by 30 size but in inches. So from this example, we can conclude that the dimensions off the objects will not change if we only change the display unit. But if we convert the system unit, this will cause fundamental changes in our file because the size off the objects in our sin will actually change. This is a very important concept to remember. Usually you should always set up the system unit first before doing any modeling process in three DS Max, if you have your two DS mix system unit, settle centimeters, for example. And then you open a three DS max file that uses other system units such as meters or interest. Two days. Max, We will show you this pop up window. It will ask you whether you want to re skill the objects or adopt a far system unit. So which off? This options that you should choose then. Well, first, you need to know that none off this options will break the objects dimensions, so you don't need to worry too much. If you select the first option, the system unit will still be in centimetres and all the objects in the file will be automatically converted to the correct size in centimeter units. But if you select the second option, the system unit will be converted two inches. This is like opening the file just like how the other off the file created the fire in the first place. Personally, because I always like to work in the metric system. I always choose the first option if the incoming file is in inches. But if the fire is in meters, I will assume that the scene is large. So in this case I will adopt the file unit and continue working in meters from that point forward. The next question is, what if we already have a C in and we need to import on the specific objects from another file that has a different system unit? Well, you don't need to worry about a thing because two days Max will take care off the conversion for us automatically. The objects will be important in the correct size into the air smacks importing objects from another two days. Makes file is called Merging, not importing so too much objects. You can go to the file menu import and into smart here, select the TDs mixed file you want to use, then click open here. The most window will open, displaying the least off objects contained in that file. Pick the object you want to march, then click OK here. Now the object is important to our scene, and the size of it will be converted automatically without you having to do anything about it, which is nice 31. Project Tamtam stool: in this project Western Video. We're going to create this stool called Hampton 10 20. You can see the products information from the sling, what we are interested to know now. It's not just the overall shape off the product, but also the dimension of it. This is because we're going to model the stool using a real measurement unit. As we can see from this ling, the height off the product is 45 centimeters, and with and also the length of it is 30 centimeters. So to start, let's make sure that we are indeed working in centimeters goto the customize menu. Then you need set up. Click the system units set up button, and yes, we are using centimeters. Currently, click the OK button for the display unit. Make sure we also use and the meters Okay, let's maximize the screen by pressing out W. The stool ship is sailing recall, so it just makes sense to use a cylinder. Primitive object for the be subject. That's center the object by for expressing W to activate the move tool and rightly on the spinners to make sure that the coordinate values are also 20 Next, we can adjust the Syrian to refer burger by going to the modify panel force. Let's fix the dimension. We know that the width and the depth of it is 30 centimeters now. Unlike the box objects sitting there, objects have radius value, so you need to input the have value or 15 centimeters. Here, pressed ebb for the height type in 45 then enter next for the segment Inside values, we can press F four first to make. The age is visible in the view port for the segments along the vertical direction. We won't be needing too much off these for now, so three should be enough Next for the site segments. Let's input 36. So we have a smoother surface at the side. For the next step, we need to convert the object into an anything. Hopefully object. So right leak and it just convert toe, then just convert toe irritable Polly. Next we went to scale and then remove this polygons at the center. To do this, press for toe, activate the polygon murder, select one polygon called Schiff and inspect the polygon next to it. This will select the whole polygon loop to scale this up press are toe, activate the scale mood and just drink up dizzy excess handle until about this high, they impressed the lead to remove the center polygons. Next, we need to select the upper and lower borders in order to reach them. To do this, we can press three to go to the border mode to select the two borders. Simply click direct to create a rectangular selection region. Because we are in border Mordor. Only the borders get selected to breach these two borders. Quick, the bridge setting spot on here. Let's move this to the side for the bridge segments. We need lot off them to form a smooth curve, so let's input 16. Next. Let's adjust the Taper perimeter here and try to find the best value. Let's try minus 2.2. No fighting minus 2.3 is better. Okay, I think the curve now looks pretty similar to the actual product. Treat the okay button to confirm. Previously, we used charm for modeling operation to smooth out sharp corners. In this project lesson. We're going to explore a different method. Basically, we're going to chance for these corners here at the top and at the bottom you seek a modifier called the Champ for modifier. Make sure we are in a top level mode. Then click the modified release and then pipe. See then h quickly. So the list jumps directly to displaying the chance for a modifier, then click on it to add it to the object. As you can see, right away, the corner areas become smoother. It looks good, actually, but it doesnt reflect the store design we want to create. Now this is just to smooth compared to the actual design. So let's reduce human value here toe three millimeters or perhaps two kilometers. I think this is a better value. Then here you can specify the number off segments in a chance for Ragen for our case. I think one is already enough Now. Until this point, you might be wondering how come the chance for a modifier knows exactly where to have the chance for effects. How come only this age is up here in the ages, don't hear get affected while the rest it's not Well, the reason for this behavior is the minimum angle of value you see down here. We just defaulted toe 20 degrees. This is a threshold value, meaning it will try to find ages that form corners larger than 20 degrees. Because this age is create a 90 degrees angle, the champ for operation will be applied here. The same thing happens to these ages. Also, because this ages form around 30 to 45 degrees angles, which is larger than 20 degrees. You can change the minimum angle threshold value to any number you like, but for our case, it already works as expected. So no need to change it. Next. We want to continue modeling the stool by ending the less detail on the center area here. For this, we need to collapse. The modifier collapsing modifier means that the money fire will be removed. But the effects off it will be permanently embedded into the geometry. There are every two ways do collapse modifiers for us. You can rightly, on the money for your you want to collapse then to scraps toe here. If you have multiple modifiers, deception will collapse the current modifier and all of the modifiers below it. The upper modifiers will not get affected. The collapse all option Here, on the other hand, will collapse all of the modifiers that exists on the object. Another way to do this is by using the court main ume and just convert toe, then convert toe irritable. Polly, if you do this, basically this will collapse all off the modifiers in the stack. So we are left with just an ordinary, irritable Polly object. Okay, now presto goto the H mode select These age, you can click the like button here to select the H Liu, then right leak and then click the champ for a settings button. I don't want to use the uniformed mode here because this more creates additional age is at the center. Let's use the tri mode instead. So the center is empty. Next for the with off it, we want to make it only three millimeters. Now this amount of value here is not actually showing the total with off the chance for but only half of it. So to make the with three millimeters, you need to type in 1.5 millimeters here. If you are done, you can click the OK button. No, we have least two h loops. Select up at the center. What we need now is to select all off the polygons at the center. For these, we can convert the age selection toe, a polygon selection, ho control and trick on a polygon. I can then click sharing here. We want to extra all of these polygons inward. So right Leak and M plea on the extra settings. Button the group more moves, the extrusion in one direction. What we need now is the local normal mode. Let's bring the height the value down to about negative three millimeters and it is done. We can go back to the top level mode, turn off the H display and here is the final result. 32. Scale modes: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss more in depth about the scale modes. If you press are you, activate the scale mode. But notice in a scale input fields only the X input field. It's active. Do y and A Z access input fields are all disabled. Why is that? Well, this is because, unlike the move more for the rotation mode, the scale mode actually consists off sufferers. Sub moods. The uniforms scale mode do known uniforms, scale mode and finally, the squash Mordor. And when you switch to the scale mode from the other modes, the uniforms scale mode will become the active mode by default. And in this mood, only the X axis is enabled. If you change the X axis scale value like this door access and the Z axis follow automatically. Now, if you want all off the scale input fields to become active or enabled, you need Toby either in the known uniforms, scale motor or in the squash mode, you can just this Mort's using the spoon down button here, or you can also press are several times as you can see pressing our multiple times, we recycle the scales up moods. Now, if you are in the known uniforms scale moder All off the scale input fields become enabled so we can adjust the X Y and Z scale values independently. There is the difference between the non uniform scale mode compared to the uniforms. Scale Mordor. Now what about the squash mode here? Well, essentially the squash mood. Close us to scale the object on one axis and automatically alter the other access in reverse. Just imagine if you push a balloon down on a Z axis, the balloon will expand on the X axis and on the Y axis as he tries to maintain its volume . Well, there is exactly how the squash more works we can see in this example. This is a known uniforms scale moder, and this is what happens if we use the squash mode to scale the object on a Z axis, you can see how the X and Y access expands and contracts automatically. You can use the scale toe precise objects, but you need to be aware off the difference between scaling in the object mode for says in a sub object mode. If you create a box like this and then precise the object using the scale toe on the X axis , for example, like this notice don't hear the object now has known default scale values. Do y and A Z access still have the default value off 100% with the X axis is not now. This condition is bad, especially if you are still in the process off modeling the object or creating rig for animation just to give you an example off. Why this is a bad thing. If we convert this to inevitable Polly object, go to the polygon mode, select this polygon and then you try to do in set on this polygon Let's input one centimeter, then click the OK button. As you can see, the inset with results are not uniform the upper and the lower inset with our once and the media. But the left and the right sites are not another example. If we select the upper polygon, then extrude, then tight into centimeters. For the amount of it we get two centimeters height extrusion. But if we do this on the side polygon extra it again and then input two centimeters just like the top polygon we get longer than two centimeters extrusion as a result. So essentially from this example, we can conclude that's telling on the object level will distort the whole measurement. When we perform modeling operations on the subject now, you might be asking. So how can we re Sison object if scaling is forbidden? Well, scaling is not forbidden in two conditions Force. You don't have any plan on performing any modelling operations on the object and you also are not going to use the object in a rigging process. Second, it is okay to scale the geometry in a subject mode as this will not alter the objects scale values to show you what I mean. Let's create an under box again and convert this into inevitable Polly object. Now go to the subject Mordor. Any subject will do, for example, overtakes Mordor. So like all of the vert Asus, by pressing control a and then scale them like so as you can see the effect off, the scaling looks similar to the previous method. But notice if we go back to the top level mode, all of the scale of values are in the default value, which is 100% This is the ideal scenario for doing any modeling because none off the measurements will get the starter when you perform the modeling operations just to prove it . If we go to the polygon mode, select this polygon and then try to inset it. Let's input one centimeter, just like before. As you can see, the inset wits are uniform and they are all exactly at one centre needle. If we do Extrovert editor polygon for two centimeters, we get something like this. If he performed the same extra on the side polygon, we get something like this. We can see the extrusion heights off the side and decide are the same, which is at two centimeters. No. What if we already have a known uniforms killed object and we want to perform modeling on that object? We don't changing the size of it. Well, we can do that by force resetting the transformation. We're going to discuss this in the next lesson. 33. Resetting transformation: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss how to reset the transformation. Previously, we've discussed that we should avoid having scale values other than the default if we are doing modeling on the object. But what if we already have a skilled object and we want to do modeling on that object? We don't notice icing it. So, for example, we have least box here and then we scale this like so in a top level modern. Before we do any modeling operation, we want to make sure that all off the scale values they fault up to 100%. In order to achieve this, you cannot just type in 100 in its input field because if you do that, the object we'll just refer back to its previous size. Basically, Now we just want to scale values to reset back to 100%. We don't changing the current size into the air smacks. This kind of operation is called transformation reset. To do this transformation reset, you can go to the utility this panel, then click this reset X from button Here. Do what ex form here actually stands for transform. If you click this button, The reset selected button will appear at the bottom. You can click this button to reset the transformation off the selected object. Yes, you can see the objects. Size does not change, but all of the scale values are reset back to 100%. This is great, but you still cannot start muddling on this subject. Yet you see, when you quickly reset button, what actually happens is there too? Yes, mix will add a new modifier called the transform modifier to the object to compensate for the current transformation. So you need to collapse the modifier first before you can start modeling again. To do that, you can right click here and in just collapse toe or collapse. All in this case, both will produce the same result. Then click. Yes, here. But notice the collapse result. It's not inevitable, Polly. Instead, it is inevitable mash. So you need to convert this back toe inevitable, Polly. Afterward, let me and do this again. Personally, I prefer just to use the comfort method to collapse the modifier steak. So just right, click and in just convert toe and then convert toe irritable. Polly, if you do this, the modifier. Steak will collapse just like before. But we have inevitable Polly object right away as a result. Now, the next question is, what if we already have some complex modifier steak? But we want to reset the transformation. For example, let's create a teapot unless reduced the segments toe for then at somebody fires, for example lattice money, fire, then a mild modifier. No, we do a non uniforms scale like this. Okay, let's say at this point we want to reset the transformation, so we have all of the scale values back to 100%. We don't changing the current size and we don't collapsing this modifiers. So how can we do this? Well, first we can open the utility spaniel, just reset turns from here, then click the reset selected button. Now, the scale of values are all set to 100%. If we go back to the modifier panel, we can see the term so modifier at the top off the modifier stake. In this scenario, you don't want to use the collapse or command or convert the object to inevitable Polly directly because that will cost the existing modifiers toe get collapsed. If you want to preserve the modifiers, then you need to move the transform modifier down. So it is located just above the base object. But if you right, click on the transform modifier and then too perhaps too click. Yes. Here the resulting be subject will be inevitable. Mesh object. Let me under these. So the way to softies is by adding a new modifier called the Edit Polly modifier. Then read this modifier So it is located just above the transform modifier. Then we can right click on it to slaps toe and then click. Yes, again here. Now we have inevitable Polly. Object is the base object. We still have all off the modifiers and we also have all off the scale. Values reset back to 100%. 34. Resizing objects precisely: in this lesson video we're going to discuss how to precisely change the size often object to a certain value. If you create a primitive object, for example, a box, you can easily change its dimension in modify panel. You can change the length do with in the height of it using the provided parameters. But what if we converted into inevitable Polly object now? It doesn't have the size parameters that previously existed when it was a primitive object . So how can we just decides than, for example, we want this box? Toby Exactly 50 centimeters strength in the X axis? Well, to do this first, you need to make sure did the object is selected, then go to the edit menu, then too strong from two books here for changing the size often object. First, you need to specify the axis that you want to target. For example, the X axis here. Then you need to type in the size for the current access, so let's start in 50 centimeters. Then, to execute the change, you need to create this set size button here, and it is done. Now. The next question is, how can we really tell that the length off the object in the X axis is 50 centimeters. Well, there are several ways that we can do this. The first method is by going to the utility Spano, and then click on this measure button here. When this is active, we can see the measure user interface at the bottom. Here, the selected objects dimension will be displayed, and it indeed has 50 centimeters length in the X axis. The second method off measuring the objects dimension is by using the transform to box window. So if you still have this window open toe, get the object size. You can simply click this get size button. Here, a new window will open, displaying the size off the selected object. The coating about changing the size you seem to transform to box is that it immediately Recep the transformation. So as you can see, the scale of values are always at 100% which is great. But you need to know that this thing only happens if you recites irritable objects. If you try to resize primitive objects, the scale values will not be reset back to 100%. For example, if we create a teapot object here. Well, the object is still a primitive object. Open the transform. Two books said the X axis size toe 50 centimeters. Click the set size button. Notice the scale of values are not reset back to the default, so you may want to reset the transformation after setting the size off primitive objects. Besides using the reset transform feature in the utility spinal, as we discussed earlier, you can actually reset the transformation. Using this are button here. But just beware that pressing this are button will add a transform modifier to the object and then right away collapse the modifier stack. That is why, if you click it to Yes, Max will give you a warning message like this. Just great. Yes, here. And the scale of values are no reset back to the default. But because it collapses do modifiers. No, the object is not a primitive object anymore. It is now inevitable. Mesh object. So this is something you need to be aware off when researching the transformation. Using this are button 35. Snapping: in this lesson, Video will discuss snapping in three DS max. There are several types off snapping modes. For now, we're going to focus on position or snapping and rotational snapping. First, let's talk about the position or snapping. If you see up here at the main toolbar, there are three types off positional snapping available in two DS mix, so the snapping 2.4 50 snapping and really snapping. But before we discuss the difference between these three options, let's open the grate and snap settings window to access it. You can go to the toast menu, then grits and snaps, dentures, great and snap settings here or the faster way to do this is just by right, clicking on the snap button. Here, go to the snap tab here. This is where we decide the type off Jim entry elements we want to snap toe for now, to make things simple, turn off everything except the Vertex checkbooks. At this condition, the snapping feature will only taking account of Earth assists as the target. Now let's open the option step here, Make sure this option that stays enable access constrain is off. If this is on snapping will use the axis constrains for now. We don't need them, so make sure it is un check. Now let's talk about the difference between two d 2.5 D and really snapping this snapping. We let you snap objects that are exactly placed on the same plane, and you usually want to use this more into the views such as Top View Port from View Port left, etcetera. Not the perspective view port, for example. I have these three plane objects to off them are placed on the same plane, which is at zero the X escorting it, but one off them is floating above the others. You can go to the top of you port by pressing T. Then if you want to see in a solid mode, you can press F three. Then press. Therefore, if you want to see the ages currently, we are discussing position or snapping, so make sure you have the move tool active, and finally, you need to make sure that the 20 snapping button up here Eastern Don to snap displaying object to display an object using this Vertex and its vertex as the reference First you need to move the most cursor as close as possible to this vertex. Then plead dreck and move it. So it is close to this Vertex, as you can see displaying object just moved based on this verb assist location. Now we can do this because both off this plane objects are located at the same is the excess coordinate. Notice if it right to do this again but are getting the spring object instead. The snapping one work again. This is because displaying object is not at the same level as displaying object. And currently we have the two D snapping mode active. Now, if you turn on the 2.53 snapping, this snapping mode will snap objects in space as if they are on the same level, although they are not so, for example, if I drink this one toe this one again, look how this subject now is able to snap as if they are at the same level. If you breast be to go to the perspective view part, you can see that this plane object is still on the ground plane. It doesn't really move to level up with this plane object. So this is what 2.53 snapping feature It's all about. Generally, you want to use the snapping mode into the view ports. Also not in the perspective view port. The last one is the treaty snapping Morgan. For this mood, you can notice both into the view ports and, in the perspective, view port in three D snapping mode. Objects can freely snap toe other objects in three D space. For example, if I drink this spring object to display an object on top, it will move up and precisely snap based on the target vert assists. You can select multiple objects by holding the control key and move them together while snapping toe the spring object, for example. Personally, I only used 2.53 snapping and really snapping modes all the time and almost never used the Tour de snapping mode. I use the 2.53 snapping mode when into the View ports such as the Top View Port from view poor or left you poor etcetera and used really snapping mode when in a perspective view port. Now, if you prefer to use keyboard shortcuts, you can use the s letter key Toto, go the position or snapping on or off. Another snapping we're going to discuss in this lesson is the rotational snapping or also known as the angle snap. Introduce Max if it's like an object and impress E to activate the rotate tool and then rotated like so notice down here. The rotation produces many fractional numbers after the period. This is OK if you only need to do a free form animation, for example. But if you're doing modeling, especially for architectures or for richer you off the need to looted objects at exactly 90 degrees or 45 degrees or 30 degrees etcetera. This is where you need traditional snapping to activate the younger snapping. You can't like this button up here, or you can also press a for the keyboard shortcut. As you can see if you rotate an object. Now the angle result is a whole number with a five degrees in Cremin. This five degrees value is the default. If you need a different value, you can open the grate and snap settings window again by right clicking on any off the stamping buttons up here. In the option step, you can find the angle value just change this to any number you like for the rest off the lessons in this course, I will use the default value, which is five degrees. 36. Project Etna side table: in this project. Lesson video. We're going to model this table, called the Aetna Side Table from Artemis, is you can find a product information from the sling. Now, if you look closely at the dimension off, the product with and length look normal but noticed the height. It is six centimeters. There is no way for a table that looks like shown in the photo Toby six centimeters high. This number has to be a mistake. For now. Let's just assume that the height of it is 60 centimeters. We will be modeling with the Help off reference image. The plan is if we can fit the length and order with toe the reference image, we can adjust the height proportionally. Now I know this may sound cumbersome with the techniques you learnt from. This project can be very useful in a real life project situation, because eventually you will stumble upon this careless product specifications at some point in time. So you need to know how to deal with them for us. Let's discuss how to import reference image into three DS max. If we examine the reference image provided on the manufacturer's website, the product image already has a square aspect ratio, we can see both the width and height of it. It's at 1400 Spitzer's. This can actually make our life easier for the reference image. We need an object to contain it, and the best object for this purpose is the plane object now, because the image is square instead off in putting the length and with values manually, we can just turn on the square option here. We also don't need extra segments in a plane object, as those can interfere when we try to read the image. So just right click on the spinners to get the minimum value, which is one Let's click direct to create the object in a front view port. Next to put the image into the plane object, you can simply click direct the image from the File Explorer or your image browser and then release it on top off the plane Object. Now we can see the image in a perspective view port, but we cannot see in a front view port Well, this is because the front view port is in wire frame mode. You can press F three to go to the salad mode. Or you can also click this menu and induced default cheating. Now we can see the reference image in his view port. Also later, we're going to model the object at the center and we don't want a reference image toe. Overlap with the object, so we need to push this backward for us. W and then just move this along the y axis. Let's start modeling the tabletop part for these. We can start by creating a box object. Go to the modify panel. Let's input the dimension. We know the length is 45 centimeters and with IHS 80 centimeters for the height of it, let's input. 60 centimeters will adjust this later based on the reference image. Currently, the box object is not at the center off the world, so rightly on according it spinners to zero out the X Y and Z values. Next, we want to precise reference image, so it follows the book's objects dimension. We should do this in front of you. Poor force. Let's hide the grid by pressing G did impress, therefore, who display the ages now, while transforming the reference image we want to see through the book subject for these. We cannot simply press a three as this will make everything displayed in wire frame mode, including the reference image. We only need to make the box object to become transparent too soft. This we can use the see through object at reviewed toe access it. We can do this in two different ways. The first method is by using the object properties window. Make sure the object is selected, then right click and into subject properties. Turn on the see through option here. So this is one way to do it. The second method is by going to the display panel scroll all the way down. You can see in the display properties section there is a see through option here. OK, next Select the reference image Movies up and Skelly So that the left and the right parts lined with the box object. I think that's about it. We can move this up again under this bottom part is aligned. Now from here we can tell right away that the height value is not correct. So let's adjust it again. Select the object and open the modified panel break beside value under the work stop area lined with the reference image. I think 69 centimeters is just about right. After the dimension is fixed, we can convert the object into inevitable Polly object, and let's not forget to turn off the see through option. Next. We only need these two polygons here press for to go to the polygon mode Selector two polygons press control I to invert the selection, then impressed the lead to remove them. So we only have these two polygons. We can press therefore, to see the ages and impress toe to go to the H mode. We want to jump for this age so it creates a curve. Dislike the reference image. We cannot do this precisely in a perspective. View port. So press f to go to the front view port. Zoom in a bit. Work leak and interest jumper settings for the jam for ages. Let's input then I think this is enough to make a smooth curve used to try option and just direct the jumper amount value. Until we get something like this, I think this is enough. Let's click the OK button if we press be toe goto the prospective you port. This is what we have so far. Next to a thickness to the tabletop, we can use the shell modifier. And remember, if you want to add a modifier, you should always avoid being in a subject modes. After you are in the top level mode, click the modifier list, then type S and H quickly. Then just the shell modifier here by default. The shell modifier chickens the outer side. What we were now is dinner side, so rightly on the outer amount spinner to zero it out, then click direct up the spinners off the inner amount. Here. I think we can just round this value Toto Centimeters and we have the tabletop finished. Next. Let's model to base part for the bass part. We can start by creating a cylinder. Let's center this object for the X axis. We actually don't need to zero it out as we are going to dust it later anyway, the values that need to be zero our door access and also to see access. This is so debased. Object is located on the ground plane, just like the tabletop object. Go to the front view port and adjust the x X escorting it so it is lined with the image. We also need to change the radius value for the height segments. Just right. Click at the spinner so we have the minimum amount. Adjust the height so that the top part is aligned with disconnecting area. Where do what material starts. Finally, for the site area, we need more segments to make it smoother. That's input 36 here. Next, let's convert this into an irritable Polly object. Go to the polygon mode. We need to select the polygon at the top. There are many ways that we can do this. We can create a rectangular selection like these Dennis ring the selection by pressing control pitch down. Or you can simply click this sharing button here, then used the extra settings to extract the top polygon. For now, you can use any values for the amount. Then click OK now if we go back to the perspective, view port and hide the ages, you can see that the upper area produced by the extra command is not smooth. Unlike the bottom part, so soft this issue quickly. We can use a command called the auto smooth. To do that press control a to select all off the polygons, then scroll all the way down Until we see the Smoothing Groups section. Here we can find the auto smooth button. Essentially, with this button, we can automatically assign smoking groups two polygons Based on this anger threshold value a just that form angles lower than its value will be smoothed out in ages. The form angles higher than 45 degrees will become sharp. So click this button. And as you can see, we just saw off the smoothing problem very quickly. Next, we want to snap this polygon so it is lined with the bottom. Overtax here. For this we can use the treaty snapping mode. But notice even if I used dizzy access to move this up and snap it to the Vertex, the whole polygon moved to the target Vertex in the X and Y access. Also, Of course, this is not what we want. To fix this, we can open the grate and snap settings window in the option step, Turn on the naval access constraints Checkbooks. Due to this now, if we direct the polygon on a Z axis the snap feature, we respect the excess constrain so it won't move the polygon on the X or Y excess. Just direct. Does he handle and snap it to this Vertex and you cannot press s toe turn off the snapping mode. Next, we want to add a small gap detail in this area. For this, we can activate the H mode. So, like this age here, hold Schiff and select its neighbor. So we have a full HD loops like that, right? Leak and open a chance for setting spaniel. Use the tri mode and let's input 1.5 millimeters for human value, click the OK button. Next, we need to convert this age selection into a polygon selection. To do that, we can write, leak and then click the convert to face command here. Then you can sharing the selection by pressing control. Pitch down next, open the extra setting spaniel. We don't want to use the group more as this option moves the extrusion in one direction. What we need now is the local normal mode. Then to make the extrusion Togo inward, we can input minus than three millimeters, then enter. So until now we have something like this. Let's combine the two objects using the attached command. Scroll up until you can see the attacks come in here. Currently we have the base subjects selector. So if we perform the attach command, the tabletop object will join this base object click, attach here and then click the tabletop object were likely to turn off the attach mode, and we have a single object Now. The modelling process is practically done, but we still want to add some tampering details on the corner ages to make it