Master the Tools: Moho/ Anime Studio Handy Rigging Tool Guide | McCoy Buck | Skillshare

Master the Tools: Moho/ Anime Studio Handy Rigging Tool Guide

McCoy Buck, Create and Animate!

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
21 Lessons (1h 41m)
    • 1. 01 What is a bone

      2:37
    • 2. 02 Pin Bone

      4:26
    • 3. 03 Bone Strength

      3:47
    • 4. 04 Select and Reparent Bone

      4:28
    • 5. 05 Offset Bone Tool

      2:15
    • 6. 06 Sketch Bone Tool

      4:15
    • 7. 07 Transform Bone

      3:41
    • 8. 08 Manipulate Bone

      3:05
    • 9. Layer Binding

      5:40
    • 10. Point Binding

      7:18
    • 11. 02 Flexi Binding

      7:08
    • 12. Bone Parenting 1

      7:55
    • 13. Forward Kinematics

      2:56
    • 14. Inverse Kinematics

      6:09
    • 15. 10 Control Bones

      6:07
    • 16. Angle Constraint

      3:58
    • 17. Arc IK Solver

      2:34
    • 18. Bone Dynamics pt 1

      4:41
    • 19. Bone Dynamics PT 2

      7:04
    • 20. Control Bones

      6:12
    • 21. IgnoredIK

      4:19

About This Class

In this class series we are going to jump right in to Moho/ Anime Studio and go over some of the tools that you will be using to make professional rigs for your animations. 

We will be covering in this course 

  • What are Bones?
  • The Add Bone/ Pin Bone Tool 
  • Bone Strength Tool
  • Select and Reparent Bone Tool
  • Offset Bone Tool
  • Sketch Bones Tool
  • Transform Bone Tool
  • Manipulate Bones Tool

We will be focusing on just the basics of each of these tools, how they work, and how you can quickly become familiar with each one! 

Transcripts

1. 01 What is a bone: Hi, this is McCoy, Buck with watch me work dot com and in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about bones in Mojo. As you can see here we have an awesome character design animation that was created by Petteri an Oscar. You can actually find this and many other talented character designs and animation here in the library folder that you can use to study, re rig and watch the different cool animations that others have made. So what is a bone? As you can see here, this character is made up of a bunch of different bones. They're basically what you're gonna be using in the rigging process. And they're also gonna be what you use for your animation. Bones are a pretty important tool because you're gonna be able to use them in mojo to make your animation not only easier, but this is one of the ways that you'll be able to move images. So if you take bit map images, this is one of the ways that you can move your images. So if you are a story illustrator and you want to bring those illustrations so life bones are definitely the way to do it. So let's go ahead and hit play and let's watch these bones in action. So as you can see here, these bones are playing a vital role in your animation process. These bones are actually being used. Don't go ahead, and I'll show you to move the character. This character itself was created an anime studio with the drawing tools on the drawing tools that it uses are vectors. And so these vectors are all made of shapes and points, and these bones are controlling all of those shapes and points, and we'll get into what each of these bones are in later tutorials. But just so you can see here, there's a lot of bones that can do a lot of different things, like head turns. They could manipulate eyelids, different eye shapes, opening, closing so bones. Even though they aren't absolutely necessary for your animation. There's actually other methods that you can use, such as point animation and frame by frame animation or a combination of all of those. It definitely will help you speed up your workflow if you're a story illustrator and you want to take your images that you have drawn and import them into mojo and bring them to life. You can do that using bones. One thing about bones is obviously they are only going to be in the program whenever you export or render your animation. So this is what your animation is going to look like. Once it's complete, you won't have any bones or anything like that on it. You'll just have this really cool animation. So be sure to join me in the next lecture, where I will show you how to add bones and mojo. We'll talk more about those we'll see you there. 2. 02 Pin Bone: Hi, this is McCoy Buck with watch me work dot com and this lecture were to go over the ad bone tool. So one of the first things that is really important to know about mojo or enemies studio is there going tohave dynamic menus. Basically, right now, all you see is your layer in your camera and your workspace menu. But you don't see anything related to bones. That's because that's gonna take place over here. This is your layers palette. I have this character that was created by oh gustan goon does that could also be found in your character library in Mojo Pro 12. So if I click here on this character group and I expand this, you can see all of the assets that make up. This character is head his arms, legs, etcetera. Now this character is inside of a group. What I can do in order to make bones work is I could actually right click, and I can go to convert this group to a bone. Now, if you saw there on the left hand side when I click that this tools palette dynamically changed in order to work with bones. But there's another way to do that as well. If you don't already have this inside of a group player, go ahead and hit back. So let's go ahead and let's take this character and all of his assets once Dragon outside of the group folder, William, and I'll delete that folder. Now what I'll do is I'll go to the top layer, I'll go to my new layer button. I'll click that and I'll go down to the bone. So now I just created a bone layer. Let's go ahead and give it the name of William. And what I'm going to do now is I'm gonna take all the assets and I'm gonna drag it into this layer because just like the group layer, the bone layer can also hold multiple assets. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna click the head. I'm gonna hit shift on my keyboard and I'm going to click on shoe. So that is the last layer. All of those air now gonna be highlighted now clicking and holding. I'm gonna drag all of those assets into the William folder. So you see that that is outlined like so And I'm gonna let go my mouse. And as you can see there, everything was indented, letting me know that all of these layers are now nested inside of the William bone layer. So now that you have a bone layer created for your character, this could be either an image or for your vectors. You could go over here to the bones tool now, and you're going to select the ad bone tool, which is a on your keyboard. To add a bone, you're simply going to click in drag, so to click and drag, you're going to be creating a bone in another bone that could be created. It's called a pin bone, so if I could just go ahead and click, that is a pin bone. Now there's kind of a lot to explain about both these bones, and it's best to show by example without getting into the details of rigging. Typically, when you set up your rig, you're going to be doing something like this you'll be setting up, and I'll explain these later a route bone, and then you'll set up your spine. So I'm simply just dragging and clicking, so I'm going to click and drag. So now I'm doing his chest area, click in drag for his head. And then what I would do is that hit Ault on my keyboard? This isn't necessary. This is about ad bone tool, but I get hit all to my keyboard to select my chest. And then I'd go to my arm clicking, drag, click and drag, and that is how you're going to use the ad bone tool. It's very simple now for the pin bone tool. This is going to be used for moving certain pieces of your asset. The pin bones is only available in Mojo Pro 12 so if you don't see this option, it's most likely because you're using debut or an older version of enemy studio. So if I click on say, for example, his elbow and I wanted to create a pin bone, this could be useful for rotating pieces as well. Once I get into parenting, this will probably make a little bit more sense. But that's just so you know what you can create using the ad bone tools so you can either create a bone or if you simply just click, you can create a pin bow. That's it for this lecture and the next lecture. I'm going to cover the bone strength in mojo. I'll see you there 3. 03 Bone Strength: Hi, this is McCoy. But with watch me work dot com and in this lecture, we're going to be talking about the bone strength tool. So if we zoom in here through this character, this character that was created by Mike Roberts is actually made up of a bunch of different images that were created in photo shop. So if I click on the main bone layer right here, I now have the options over here in my bone tools palette to select my bone strength, which is this icon right here or s on the keyboard. So if I zoom in here now, after selecting that, you can see that there are the semi transparent circles or ovals around the bones. This is your bone strength. The bone strength lets you adjust how much influence each bone has over the points in a vector layer. But in this case, over the images. So if I zoom out, you can't see it very well. But there are a bunch of different influence or bone strength around all of these image layers. If I expand the image layers, you could see that there's some for the phone for the hat for the face. And if I hit play. This is the animation of this character, and this is made possible by bones and how the bone strength is set up. So because thes air called target bones and these air only affected on frame one and after , I'm gonna go ahead and remove those for now. So now what? I have the ability to dio is that just my bone strength on frame zero. But also see what it looks like as I'm adjusting it. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go to my bones shrink tool or s on the keyboard, and so adjust your bunch strength. You're simply going to click and drag left or right. So if I click the bone and I dragged right, it's gonna increase that bone strength. If I drag left, it's going on. Decrease that bone strength. But the best way to see it is with the bone in action. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go back to my manipulate bones tool or a Z on the keyboard. I'm gonna grab this forearm bone, gonna twist this out, and as you can see there, this already has some warping because I was already messed in the bone strength. So to fix that, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna Slyke, This bone s on my keyboard for the bunch strength and then we to come over here, click, and I'm gonna drag right. I'm now giving it strength back to this layer or influencing the Slayer. When I decree such strength, you could see this bone does absolutely nothing. And the slayer goes back to how it was originally created in photo shop. So let's go ahead and spring the bone strength back to bring influence back over that arm. That looks pretty good right about there, I would say. And then you'd go over here to your bone strength here, Same thing. Fight, click, And I dragged all the way to the left. I'm gonna lose that strength so it's gonna go back to its original shape that it was created in Photoshop. But if I bring that strength back, you can see that it's now being influence once again. You would then go through with the same method throughout the whole body until you get a desirable result. So let's go ahead and show you what it will look like if I was to play out this animation, add back the target bones with a terrible result for my bone strength. All right, let's go ahead hit play. So if I zoom in here, I really mess with the bone strength right here. It's really visible. If I render this layer, you can see that this image is really warped. And so, with the bone strength, it's a lot of tweaking. It's a little bit of finesse in there that you got to get right for these images to work cause you got remember, this is simply images. That mojo is basically moving around in animating, and you are the one that have to set those parameters as to how much influence each of those bones are gonna have over your images. And that, in a nutshell, is bone strength and mojo. In the next lecture, we're to talk about two different things. The select bone tool and the repairing bone tool, and I'll see in the next election 4. 04 Select and Reparent Bone: Hi, this is McCoy. But with watch me of work dot com and this, like sure, we're gonna be talking about the select bone and re parent bone tool. So here we have this character that was created by Mike Bosso. If we go here to the bone layer that's labeled 3/4 I'm gonna be able to see all of my bones . And I also have my bone tool menu. Now, the slick bone tools very simple and goes hand in hand. When you're repairing, sing your bones. We'll talk more about parents in your bones in later lectures. So to select your bone, your it comes to this icon right here or be on the keyboard. And essentially, what the select bone tool does is what it sounds like. It literally just selects the bone. So if I want us like this bone and make some tweaks to it, I can. Or if I want to select multiple bones, I can click, hold, shift, click still holding, shift and click the different bones I want. This is useful if I wanted to either shy my bones, which is a option available in the pro version of the software or if I wanted to go and hide the selected bones, I have that option as well. We'll hit controls, um, a keyboard to undo. So this option is very helpful if I'm wanting to hide certain bones during the animation. If it gets too cluttered, say, this was a character with four arms and you have all these overlapping bones and you're trying to animate the one bone. Well, what you could do is you could either shy those bones, or if you have debut, you could hide those bones. Also, the other way that is going to be used is for re parenting. So if I go over here to my bones will menu my re parent school icon. Is this one right here or pee on the keyboard? Now, this might be a little bit confusing, and we'll get into this a little bit later. But parents in is essentially how you're setting up your rig. So if you look closely, there are arrows that are going from bone to bone to bone. So in this example, have the foot bone that goes to the parent, which is the calf bone which goes to the fi bone which goes to the crotch bone, which then goes to the main route bone, and you can see the same thing for the torso. Now, the reason why this is important is because your bones are gonna be working in a chain like manner. If you have a missing link in your chain, it's going to break obviously the rest of that chain. It's not going to work. It has to link up. So if I go to the chest right here and let's say this arm was actually parented to the I don't know to the leg, What I can do is I could select with be on the keyboard for the select bone, click on the bone with my re parent tool. I can then select the leg. So all I have to do is simply go back to your parents Hold, which is P on the keyboard. With the red bone selected, I simply click on the leg. A sincere The arrow is then going to go to the lake, but it's going to break that chain that I have created so you can see here as I move the leg. Now it is now going to move the arm because the two are directly linked, vice versa. If I move this arm, everything still seems good to go. But as soon as I move that leg, you see it's no longer connected to the body because that chain has broken. Then if I go back to this arm and another way that you could select bones already in the re parenting bone. So let's go ahead and let's click that if I select Ault, as you can see here on the shortcuts up here, if I select Ault, that is another way. You can also select your bone. So now that bonus highlighted Red Now to re parents it to the chest, all have to do simply select the chest bone, and now that arm will not be falling off or anything. When I move the chest bone because they're linked together, you can see the great difference. When I move that bone versus when I move this bone, the chain stays together. That is a quick run through of your select bone and repairing bone school again. This is more going to make sense. Once we get into parenting of these bones in the next lecture, we're going to talk about the offset bone tools. I'll see you there 5. 05 Offset Bone Tool: Hi, This is McCoy Buck with watch me work dot com and in this, like sure, we're gonna be talking about the offset bone tool. The offset bone tool is an old and not used feature anymore. Let's go to the bone layer. If I select this icon right here, this is my offset Bone tool. Let's go ahead and click that now back in the day of the older versions of anime studio when you would import an image and you had that image laid out exactly like you had. So in this case, the head was on the body. The arms were right where they should be. So you, when you would have an image and you would import it in just the same manner and when you would go to set up your bone strength on your arms, the strength and the influence on the arms would also affect the head. So as I bent the arms, the head would also distort. Or when I did the same for the body, the legs would distort. So what you would have to do is take your character and split him as far apart as possible in your design. stage and then, just like I showed with the offset bone tool. When you go to an immature character, you obviously don't want to be animated him split apart like this so you would use the offset bone tool to put the character back together and then go to frame one of your animation and begin animating. So this is a feature in a tool that is no longer even used or necessary. If you're using versions of Enemy Studio nine and above, cause all you simply have to dio and we'll talk about this in another lecture. Is you selected bones for flexi binding? So that's it for offset bone tool. I don't want you to worry about using this tool. It's not even a necessary tool to be using any more as it is old and outdated. If you're using any version newer than version nine and that is it for this lecture and the next lecture, we're gonna be talking about the Sketch bones tool, a really cool feature that was introduced an enemy studio 11.2. I'll see you there 6. 06 Sketch Bone Tool: Hi, this is McCoy, but with watch me work dot com. And in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about the sketch bone tool. This is a really cool tool that was introduced an enemy studio 11.2 and is also available in Mojo Pro 12. So, like all the other bones that we create first we need to go and create a bone layer. So now that I have a bone layer created, I'm gonna go ahead and name this sketch and right up here in the bone tools palette is the icon for sketchy boats. Go ahead and click that. Now, if you look at the top here, you have additional options. In this case, this is this, like your bone length. So with this tool, essentially, you are going to be sketching out your bones. So I'm using a mouse, and I just throughout this line, I'm gonna let go and you can see it created all of these lines of bones and you're probably wondering, Ok, why is that useful? I will take this cat, for example, if we select the cat, you can see the bones of the tail were probably made by sketch bones and it looks like they were. So let's go ahead and let's play out the animation and let's see what this tale is doing. So, as you can probably imagine, if you were to take an animation such as this an animate tail. And once you get into the animation portion, you'll know that with lots of bones, it can sometimes be pretty tedious. So Sketch Bones was created to make this process a lot simpler. So let's select a key frame right here at frame seven. The cat's tail is pointed up. If I go and I select my sketch bones, which doesn't have a keyboard shortcut, you can see that it's gonna bring up all of these different nodes, and you're probably wondering what this is. Well, to explain it shortly to you. This is a really cool feature, and it does something really cool. Watch what happens when I click on this beginning note right here at the tail. As soon as I click on that node and I drag out, you can see that there's a line being created in this line is actually representing the bones of that tail. Watch what happens when I let go. Did you see that? The tail move. Let's do in a more drastic way. So I am actually sketching out the trail or the path that I want these bones to go for the tail. Really awesome. Powerful feature. You can even look up here. He has a scarf. I could do the same thing for his scarf. So now if I play out the animation, it's gonna look a little weird, because now it's not gonna flow with physics. But as you can see there, his tail in a very quick frame move down as I had wanted it to. Now, if I wanted to go back up like it should have, I'm gonna select my sketch bones. I'm going to draw out his tail again. Now, the really cool thing about sketch bones is you don't even need to start at the end. Say, I only wanted to twist from the middle of his tail down. I can simply click on that sketch bone and just drag. Why? I want the end of his hail to go So you can imagine what you can do with this tool. Whether it's tails, scarves, chains, ropes, whatever it is, this is a really quick way to take those objects, such as a tale or scarf that uses principles of animation such as overlapping action and really make that process easier when you have a whole bunch of bone selected, not only can this be used for tales, this could also be used for the arm if I wanted to. So just like that, I could do a ton with this feature again. This is only available in the pro version of anime studio 11.2 in Mojo Produce. Well, that's it for this lecture. Be sure and join me in the next lecture. When I go over the transformed bone tool, I'll see you there. 7. 07 Transform Bone: Hi. This is McCoy with watch me work dot com. And in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about the transformed bone tool. Now, the transfer bone tool is a tool that you're going to be using a lot whenever you're going to be rigging. So to use this tool first, I'm gonna draw out of bone with my ad bones tool. And now, to select your transform bones who'll icon, you're either going to hit, see on the keyboard or select this icon right up here. Now, when you have your transform bone tool selected, you're gonna have to nodes that are gonna show up on your bone that you create. The first note at the top is two arrows facing away from each other. This lets me know that when I click in, I drag on this bone, I can shrink and expand this bone halfway down on this bone, there is a circular arrow that lets me know that I can rotate the bone so simply by clicking and dragging left and right, I can now rotate that bone. So the last one is right down here of the bone where the pivot point is this is the note that lets me know that I can translate my bone or move my bone around. So I'm simply going to click on that node and I'm gonna drag around now, depending on what version of animals pseudo you're using your maybe not going to see these nodes. But the translate bone tool still works the same as you would expect. So let's take a look at this rig right here. The bones that I had there previously. You can't see them there temporarily hidden because I want to focus on just the arm right here. Let's say while I was reading this character and I went through and I started testing the arm to see how it moves and see how it bends, I had a bend that I didn't really like. What you can do with the transform bone tool is you can with those notes that we talked about. You could shrink that bone, and as you can see, as I'm moving this bone around the parent bone, it is also moving the child bone. So typically, if I was rigging this character and if I wanted these bones to match up with the arm, what I would do is I would right click on the arm layer itself, and I would see where that point is in that point, because this is a stroke. I have 123 points. That middle point is where I have my elbow or where I have the joint. So what I would do if my transform bone tool is I'd go back to the bone layer and I'd make a mental note of where that point was, and it was right about there. So that now is where I want it to be before this part down here. I now need to translate this bone. And so when I pick this bone and I translate it, I'm going to move it so that those two bones are touching. And then for the end of the bone for aesthetic purposes, I'm going to drag it out to the edge of the stroke. Now, the thing about bones is you actually don't need to have the ends of your bones dragged out to it and of a stroke right here. Technically, if I wanted to, I could just leave it like that. But because when I go through and I animate this phone. I know I'm gonna want a little bit more bones to be able to grab. And the reason why I say this is because the rotational point of the bone is right here where the bone ends, it doesn't really matter. So that's something that you can keep in mind. So the transform bone tool is really useful when you need to make any adjustments, your rig. So when you have already gone through and connected your bones and then you start to test them and they're not working the way that you would hope they would With your transfer bone tool, you can select the bone that you want to move and move it with either one of those nodes. Whether you want to rotate it, translate it or shrink or grow that bone. That is what the transformed bones will is used for. And that is it for the transformed bone tool. In the last lecture of this section, we're gonna be talking about the Manipulate Bone school. I'll see you there 8. 08 Manipulate Bone: Hi, this is McCoy, Buck with watch me work dot com. And in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about the manipulate bone tool, the manipulate bone tool. We talked about a little bit briefly, but this tool is going to be the one that you're probably going to use the most out of all of them. It z on your keyboard or this icon right here. Now, you see, when I click on that manipulate bones tool, the bone strength is actually now visible. This shows me that this rig is flexi bound now. We haven't gone over flexi binding yet, but we will soon. But the one important thing to know about manipulate bone soul is it's going to be used for your animation, but it's also going to be used for your rigging. Now we're on frame zero right now. So what can I do with this? Manipulate bones tool on frame 01 of the best ways that you can use manipulate bones tool is to test out your rig to see if everything is moving and bending properly. So when you go through and you buying your bones to your rig, let's say I bound the arm. So right after binding the arms, I'm not gonna move on to the other parts. I'm just gonna test the arm and see how it bends. See how it works? Because what I can do with this tool while I have it active. And while I'm bending down or something like that, I can hit s on the keyboard to bring on my bunch strength. And because this is flexi vining and it's being influenced by the bone strength, I can adjust those parameters. So however, I would like same thing with Body Benz. If I wanted to manipulate his torso, I would simply select the torso and I could bend his body down. And from there I can see what I need to do in order to fix this character now, because this character is simple and I created it for a simple walk cycle like the one you see there. The bones that I'd be mostly testing is his spine for leaning back his head bone, which is moving good. Everything's in the right place and his legs, so let's check out his legs. You can see that these have target bones and we'll talk a little bit about those later on. But these target bones I could manipulate and I could move around. But as you can see there, I'm not getting very desirable results. And if you aren't familiar with Target bones, one of the things that you cannot manipulate on frame zero or any of the Children bones of the target bone. So, for example, this foot. So in order to manipulate those bones and test those out to see how those work, I would go to frame one. Therefore, I now have that ability to manipulate those bones. But the one thing to remember about the manipulate bones tool is it basically allows you on frame zero to test your rig and see how everything is moving. As faras target bones and things like that. We'll talk about that later flexi vining as well. But just know that Z on the keyboard or manipulate bones tool is how you're going to be moving your character around for testing, and that is it for this section for the bone tool palette. Be sure and join me in the next section, where we go over the different methods of finding in Mojon Anime studio. I'll see that 9. Layer Binding: Hi, this is McCoy, but would watch me work dot com in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about layer binding in mojo. So fine is essentially taking bones and connecting them to vector orbit map images. So whatever your character that you had created is made up of bones are what are going to be bound to those, and that's what's going to help with movement. So there's a couple different ways that you can bind in mojo. There's layer binding point binding flexi binding. But one of the ones that we're gonna be focused on in this lecture is layer binding. So layer binding is what you're gonna be using when he wants move an entire layer. So when you should use it, is when there is something without any joints such as this head. Here, As you know, ahead does not bend backwards and forwards, So this would be a perfect example for a layer binding. So let's go ahead in Let's get started. Let's add a bone with our ad bone tool. So let's go up here to the tools and the keyboard. I'm gonna hold down shift to constrain my bones to keep it perfectly straight. And remember, with the ad bone tool, what we're looking for is adding the bone in a position where we want the rotation to be so right about here is kind of more guessing his rotation for his head would be. So I'm going to simply click and I'm good drag up. And there you go. We created a bone now, something that will get into a little bit later as we do more advanced rigging is we need to create a route bone, and the route bone is what's going to connect all of your bones together. So don't worry about this part right now, because what I'm simply explaining is the method of layer binding itself and how it can be useful. So I'm going to de select the bone that I just created, and I'm simply just good and go down here, and I'm gonna create a pin bone that's going to represent my route bone right here. And then we'll get more into this when we talk about parents in in advance rigging. But I'm simply going to click now on my parent option here. I'm going to parent the head bone to the root bone. This is called the parent child relationship. The parent is going to be the root bone of all the other bones that I create. If you're doing a full body, the route bones gonna be typically down here in the hips because the legs, the torso in the head are all going to connect in this portion down here. So this particular case, what I'm going to do is I'm going to select the head bone using Ault Left, Click go to my re parent bone tool, which is already selected. And I'm simply with this bone already highlighted red going to click on my route bone. As you can see there, the arrow is going down to that route bone showing that those two are now connected. So now when I go to manipulate bones tool on the keyboard or Z, you can see that my bones have strength. Now, the thing about layer binding is because you're buying it to a layer and not necessarily to region or points. You don't need any strength, so let's go ahead and hit us on the keyboard. So you remove the strength as we did before. We're going to click and drag left, click and drag left. As you can see, there are strength is gone. So let's go to the manipulate bones to a little more time. And let's click on this head right here, and it's going to rotate down here at this point on his head. Okay, and as you can see there, his whole body is rotated and it shouldn't be doing that. And the reason why it's probably doing that if you run into that situation, is because it looks like the bone strength is still on just a tiny bit. Let's go ahead. Let's highlight that bone by s and the keyboard. Yet you see, there's 0.97 strength still remaining. So what I need to do is I need to bring that down to zero. So now when I wrote state the head bone, this bone will now not be controlling anything. So now what we need to do next is we need to bind this bone to the head. Now this character is beautiful and has actually pretty complex. This character was made by Augustan, and as you can see here, there's a lot going on. There's a lot of assets inside of the head years. The textures. There's a lot that's happening. So what the character designer had done is he created a head group layer, and we'll talk about this. This is going to be really helpful in the future. But what he did is he took all of these assets. So rather than having to bind them one by one to this bone, As you can see, there's a lot. There's bangs. There's not for the bandanna, all the different bangs. The top of his hair is head. He took all of those layers and he grouped them inside of a head group layer, which is a really smart idea. So now what I can do, because those are all inside one group is I simply just take this bone and bind it to this head layer. So to bind layers, I have to select the layer that I want to bind. If you watch right here in the tools menu. As I changed between the main bone and the head layer, my dynamic tool box will change, giving me less tools work with as I moved to the head layer. So I still have my select bone, my manipulate bone. And this one right here is what we're gonna use. This is called You're buying Blair. And this is what's gonna allow me to buying this bone to this layer. So I'm gonna click this button. Now I'm gonna click on the bone, but I want to buy into that layer. And there you go. Now this bone is bound to the head layer, so let's go ahead. Let's collapse that. And if I hit Z on my keyboard to Dubai manipulate bones tool, I can now rotate this head backwards and forward. And I have to worry about any of the assets not being connected because they're all inside of this group. And that is how you bind a layer in mojo. Be sure and join me in the next lecture where I talk about flexi binding. I'll see you there 10. Point Binding: Hi, this is McCoy, but with watch me work dot com And in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about point binding and mojo. Now, here we have a really cool character that was created by Troy Peak. Ooh of a bird. And as you can see, it is separated into different portions of this canvas here. And the reason why the character designer did this is because when all of these are together and at the angle, But this bird character is at, it's going to be a little bit crazy. It's a rig. So what the designer did is actually separated these out, which is a really good thing to do in this case. But well, we're gonna focus on today is we're gonna focus on point binding and we're gonna do point binding for the leg. So all I'm doing is I'm getting the assets from that character, and I'm just pacing them on new layers, and I'm just gonna focus on the legs also like the leg. Now, one of the things that I need to do is I need to create my bone layers. So one of two ways to create bone layer is in comes here to bone or you can right click group with the selection. If you're using mojo, just call this leg So it's gonna create a group leg layer that's gonna contain the leg vector. And I'm gonna right click this and then convert it to bone so point binding is best used when you want to take vectors that have joints in different parts that you wants control individually. Point binding is a really flexible way of binding and mojo, and you'll see its results pretty quickly here as I get started. So one of the first things I'm going to do is I'm going to like the others, use my ad bone tool. I'm gonna create a route bone, which in this case, I'll just make a pin bone. If you don't have mojo pro 12 simply just drag out your bone there. So I'm gonna create my pin bone connecting to that, I'm going to create my leg. Then I'm gonna create my lower leg and then I'm going to create the foot Now. The animator, he had also created separate bones for the toes. But I won't worry about that for now. So the next thing that I need to do is make sure that all of these bones have been made properly and it's by parenting because I had started with this route bone here and then dragged out all these bones will be the child of this route bone here. So what? I'm looking for us for arrows to be leading back from the foot to lower leg, upper leg backs the route. So I'm gonna hit P on the keyboard or click here on the repairing bone icon. As you can see, I did that correctly. The next thing that I want to look for is my bone strength. So I'm gonna hit s on the keyboard. Now with point binding and layer binding, these are the two things that you don't want to have bone string for. So what I'll do is I'll hit control A on my keyboard bone shrinks, tool selected. I can either click and set this zero or it could simply click and drag left, which will also remove all that bone strength. Now that that is complete. The next thing that I'm gonna dio is I'm going to select the layer itself. So I'm gonna hit control a Now you can see all the points that make up this leg. So what I want to do is I want to take the upper leg and I want to bind it to the points that would be necessary for the upper leg. So to select the layer, I'm going to hit be on the keyboard, which is our select bone tool that we have right here. So right now I'm in my layer. I'm not in my main group player. I'm in my layer, seeing all of these points selecting the bone. I am now gonna go here to this icon, which is my buying points icon, and I'm gonna click on that. You can see all the bones are in different colors. I wouldn't worry about that right now. Simply know that we're gonna be focusing here on this bone right here, which is our leg bone. So there's one of two ways to go about doing this. Selecting your points you can go and simply drag out a square which will select the points that you need to. But sometimes there's gonna be points that are a little bit tricky that you want to highlight. So simply click here on the lasso mode tool, you're gonna click and you're gonna draw out the points that you want to select and then simply connect the last so back together. So now you have all these points selected. Now there's two ways of finding your points for me. It's enter on the keyboard. Yours might be Space bar, or you can simply click on this button. So always remember to look at these little tool tips right here. These will really help you out of knowing what's going on. So I'm just gonna hit enter on my keyboard. So now all of these points are bound to this bone. I only have this bone highlighted in selected. And then I selected all these points, and now I could see that it's bound. I can see this by simply hitting beyond the keyboard, selecting a bone. As you can see, I'm now selecting the lower leg bone. There's no highlighted red points. If I go back to the main bone layer, you can see that there's highlighted red points. So so far I'm doing that right. The next thing that I'm going to do is I'm gonna hit be on the keyboard. Select the lower leg. I'm not gonna go over here to the icon. I'm gonna draw out what points I want to have selected for the foot. It's a little bit difficult. There's a lot going on down there. So really, what you could do if you wanted Teoh is you could actually take and you could select this whole entire thing, cause right now this bone will have control over this whole foot. But now, when you get to this portion, your now I'm gonna want to recent state your parameters of which points you want selected for this bone. But for now, this is pretty good. It's the same thing I can either hit, enter or even hit the buying points. All hit Enter. You can click that button. Now, the last one that we're gonna select is here in the foot. So let's go ahead and select that. So be on the keyboard, selecting this icon. Click on the bone. As you can see, nothing is highlighted. Now, this is where a little bit of tweaking is going to come into play because now you're gonna have to play around with it to see what is working so far. So real quick. Let's go ahead and just test our rig and see how he's doing. All right? So just as what we would expect, this bone is going toe move. Just this portion right here. This bone is gonna move the lower leg, plus the foot. Now we're gonna want to control this separately. So we just like the bone. It's like the bind points icon. And now with this bone selected were now I'm going to draw out which bones we want to control. Okay, so now it's selecting those toes, connect them back together. There we go. So now all of those air selected So I mean, hit enter on the keyboard to buying those points to that part right there. I'm gonna bend the foot and you can see for the most part, that works pretty good. You can see if I take off my bones. My points as I've been this foot. There's a lot of bending going on right there. And that could be fixed with smart bones. So all of these bones are now being controlled by points. So this is now all regs. I have my leg and my foot. All right, that does it for bone binding. That is your three different ways that you bind and rig your character with layer. Flexible, binding or point finding. I hope you enjoyed the section and I'll see in the next one. 11. 02 Flexi Binding: Hi, this is McCoy, but with watch me work dot com, and in this lecture, we're going to be talking about flexi binding and mojo. So flexi binding is found here in the bones menu, and we'll talk a little bit about the bone has been you later on any statutory ALS. But as you can see right here, you selected bones for flexi binding. It's a method that allows you to quickly buying your rig. Flexi Vining has always been around, but it was perfected an anime studio 9.5. So let's take a look at this character here that was created by Mike Roberts. This character has made completely up of images that were imported from Photoshopped. So, as you can see here, this whole character was drawn in Photoshop and then imported in two mojo. So in order for flexi binding, so work it uses bone strength. So if I hit Z on my keyboard to use my manipulate bones tool, you can see that all over the body There are the little semicircle is that let me know that there's bone strength, so just like what we learned, bone strength influences anything that it touches whether it be vector or whether be images . So in this case, we have a character that's made completely up of images. So, for example, for the right arm here we have the bottom of the arm and the top of the arm. So real quick, I'm going to take off the bones and to show you we have the bottom arm and we have the top arm. And as you can see there, those are two separate layers. So flecks of mining is gonna be actually your number one binding method when it comes to mining your imagery. So if you are a Children's story illustrator and you want to bring your animations life flexi binding is going to be the best binding method in order to do this. So as you can see here, as I move these bones around, you have a lot of flexibility in the legs and in the arms and the torso. If I play out the animation, you can see how the flexi binding method works and how awesome this animation looks. But the one thing to know about flexi vining In order for its work, each layer has to be bound to a bone. So what I'm gonna dio is I'm going to take this character that has bones bounds each part of its body, and I am going to unbind everything so I could show you an example of how flexi binding works. So now what I did is I unbound everything. So there's no more flexi binding being used. Now, let's go ahead, manipulate all of these bones and see what happens. As you can see, everything is distorting. All of the images are pulling apart. And this is by default. What happens when the bone strength is influencing other parts of the body? So flexi binding allows me to select each and every one of the layers to flexi buying those layers separately. So, like I was seeing a little bit about the offset bone tool where you had to do in the old enemy studio days is you had to separate each one of these bones far enough apart that the bones wouldn't influence other parts of the imagery on your character. So now what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna show you two examples of flexi binding. I'm gonna do one for the arm and the other for this leg right here. And then I'm gonna speed up this video because we're not quite ready to get into the rigging section yet to show how everything's gonna look with its flexi bound. However, I will have the video sped up enough so you can still see what is going on. So one of the first things that were going to dio is we're going to just take a look at the layers. So I'm gonna highlight the bone that I want to work with first and right below it, I could see I have my arm layer. So I'm gonna do a keyboard shortcut instead of having to go through and look through the layers. I'm gonna do an Ault right click on this image. And as you can see, it's gonna take me straight to that layer. So I have right upper arm. As you can see, the layers are separated for the right arm for the upper arm and the lower arm, because that's how the artist wanted to separate his layers. So now what I'm going to do to buying this bone to this layer, right upper arm is I'm gonna come up here to my bone menu, and I'm going to select this option. You selected bones for flexi binding or use the keyboard control shift F, which I use the keyboard shortcut. So now the next one that I'm gonna do. So I'm gonna select the next bone down here, and I could see that the right arm now the right arm open is actually made up of two bones . So this one controlling the forearm, this one controlling the hand. But it's the one layer. So I'm gonna do the exact same thing I'm going to just like that bone with my sucked bone tool. Then I'm gonna hold, shift and select this bone, and now I'm gonna do control shift F on my keyboard, and now those bones will be bound. So to test this, I'm gonna use my manipulate bones tool or Z on the keyboard, and I'm going to move this around. And as you can see for the arm itself, it's working pretty good. Well, like I said, because everything is affected by bone influence for flexi binding toe work, every layer has to be bound to a bone. So now let's go to the pants here So to select that layer, I'm going to Ault, right Click and let's see how this layer is made So you can see here that this whole leg is one big layer. So the bones that I'm going to bind her all of these bones that are inside of that leg and I'm gonna do it all at one time So I'm gonna hit be on my keyboard to bring up my slick bone Click on the bone Hold, shift Click on this bond Still holding shift Click this bone Quick, This bond quick this phone because I can see all the bones there in the leg, Not me to hit control shift f And now all those bones are now bound. So now when I manipulate this bone, you can see that the leg is moving pretty well there there's still a little bit of distortion, but again, that's because everything is not yet bound. So what I'm gonna do from here is speed this video up so you can see how everything else is going to be quickly flexi bound. All right, so that is now all flexi bound. So when I go through now and I test this with my manipulate bones tool. That's all moving good. That's moving Good. The heads moving. Good. The leg. Okay, so there's a little bit of tearing still in the legs here. And this is one thing that I want to mention It is because of the strength that is there on the target bones. Target bones do not need strength. Originally, the animator had it working with strength. I'm not too sure how. But you don't want to have strength for your target bones, so you can see there as I'm reducing. That's already coming back in there. So now when I hit play on this animation, let's go ahead and play it out. You can see everything's flexi bound. Everything is good to go. And that is how you do flexi, binding and mojo. Be sure and join me the next lecture where we go over point by. I'll see you there 12. Bone Parenting 1: Hi. This is McCoy, Buck with watch me work dot com. And in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about bone parents seen in my home. Okay, so everything that we have learned is gonna go hand in hand to lead up to this point where we learn about bone parenting. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna like all the bones that I have created, and I'm gonna delete them because I'm gonna walk you through as I do this some my rigging process, how the parents in works. So the first thing to know is, whenever you created bone using your ad bone tool, you drag out a bone and you usually have another bone that you connected, Teoh. So I'll drag out one more and let's do one more, just in case. So right here I have what could be probably on arm. Let's go ahead and remove the artwork real quick. So I have what could be an armed. So this could be the arm to the forearm to the hand. As you can see, it would move somewhat like a Armwood. This arm would actually need to be a little bit longer and the forearm would need to be a little bit shorter. But anyway, this would be your arm that you would be creating. Now I use what was called parents a child relationship. As I was creating this bone, as you first saw when I created this bone, this bone itself was highlighted Red. Anything that I created after this highlighted red bone would then turn red. And then anything I created after this red bone would turn red. So what does that red mean? So if any bone is highlighted or is read in such a way, that means that any bone that you're going to draw after it. So right now I'm just gonna draw another bone. Those bones will be connected. Anything that was connected here will be connected here, so I'll show you what I mean. So this right here is your parents a child relationship. So, as you can see here, we were talking about I keychains before, and that goes in hand in hand with what we're talking about now. So the main bone that all these arrows are leading to that's gonna be called your parents. So this arm bone right here, that is my parent of this which would be a forearm of the hand. It is also apparent of this bone down here. Now what does it mean when you have a parent and you have bone's connected to it? Well, just like we showed in the eye keychain. Anything that does connect to it is also going to be moved by it. So if I take this arm and I rotate it, you can see that not only are these bones being affected, but this other bone that I just drew is also affected. So now you know anything with an arrow coming from it, going to another bone is going to be child. The bone receiving the arrow in this case, this bone to this bone which is bone B three, the bone be to this bone now would now be the parents of this child. So be to is the parent of B three and as you saw be to connects the B one but also be three also connected to be to. So just know that now this is the parent of these Children. Bones, these are your child bones. So this can get a little confusing. I know So what we're gonna do is we're just going to use this really simple rig to show what we want to dio. Sorry, Removed all the bones from this character. The first bone that I'm going to create is called the Root Bone. I'm simply going to click. If you're using older version, you can drag out something like that, and that can be a route bone. So this is going to be the parent of all the bones. All the bones are going to connect to this one spot right here. It's usually good to make your route bone here, and you could make it a little bit bigger because this is what you'll be grabbing to move your entire animation once you begin animating. So now from this bone right here, you can see it's highlighted red. So what I can do now that it's highlighted? Red is I can click and I can drag. And also you can see that that bonus now highlighted red. But what happens when? Let's say I disliked the bone and I create another bone? Well, now there is no parents, a child relationship. As you can see. There's no arrows. I clicked on my parents ing and there's nothing there. So now how do I connect those two? So what you can do is you can click on the child, and now you want to connect it to its parent. So I hit Ault on the keyboard, click the bone, and now I'm going to select the bone that I want to so have for its parent, which is going to be a route bone. Everything will connect to this main route bone right here. Now that that bonus violated Aiken simply draw my next bone or if this bone wasn't highlighted. This is where you select bone will come into play, or you can again use alls as a quick selection. So if I use Ault and I click on that bone again, this is now going to be the parent of whatever I create. So there we go. Now we got for the chess going to do the same for the neck, which is actually just connected all as one big bone. But typically what I do in this situation is I would create two bones because the character designer I would have to fix these points, But he does have points right here. So technically, this head can still wrote, say, a little bit backwards and forwards on this head. I don't wanna have this bone highlighted from the head and then create the arm because look what it does the parenting. Now this bone is going to control the head. Remember in Briskin a Matics If I moved this whole arm now it's going to do something funky to his head and get a move the head. So I need to break that parent child relationship between the two again. I could reset that, either by selecting this bone that is already selected and select the chest. Or if I never created the bone and I still had the head layer selected as it is, simply click off and it's going to de select that bone and what you can dio is Hold Ault and click on the chest, hit your ad bone tool and then draw out your bone. Now, I'm not gonna do the whole entire character because this basically makes sense from here. As far as the upper portion, you do the exact same hold bolt and then draw out his arm. But for the bottom portion. This is where I want to explain how this route bone works. I would then highlight the route bone once again holding Ault and then clicking. And it's my ad bone tool dragging out my bones for the legs. So just find one another. I would then go back up, seized the main bone here, the root bone, hold bolt, click and then use my ad bone tool to again create those bones. So by the end, besides the bones right here, everything should be connected again. To check to see if your rig is connected properly. You're gonna use your parents a child relationships to see. So I'm looking here. The child's connected to the parent, which is connected to this parent which connected to the root. Perfect. But if I see anything like this, say the last thing I drew was his hand, and then I quickly came over and drew his leg because that was last selected. You'll probably see some error like this, but this can be quickly fixed simply by selecting, making sure the bone is red with your repair int bone tool, and then selecting the bone that you then wanted to connect back to in this case would be the forearm. And that brings you one step closer to being able to create your rig. That is it for this section. We're gonna take what we learned in working a regar character. So state seemed for that next section because that's when the awesomeness starts. I'll see you there. 13. Forward Kinematics: Hi, This is McCoy, Buck with watch me work dot com. And in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about Ford cinematics in mojo. OK, so we just learned about inverse Kida Matics and how that all worked forward Kingdom attics is the exact opposite and it's actually a lot easier to understand as far as what's going on. So we know via inverse Kida Matics, whatever you move is going to move other things following it. Now Ford cinematics is a little bit different. Let's now take this example for the arm when I rotated this arm backwards and forwards because of what we knew about the I keychain that we knew that this was branched or broken right here that this arm wasn't going to be influencing anything else. What it's going to be influencing is everything in front of or Ford of it. So this arm would then be influencing the forearm and the hand. Same thing for the forearm. If I hold Ault on the keyboard to rotate a single bone. This is what it's called Ford Kinnah Matics. So again, if I was not holding all this is what it would be doing now with all to press. I am going to rotate that single bone. And as you can see, the bone itself is not moving whatsoever. Let re remove the artwork so you can see that better. So, as I wrote, say, this bone backwards and forwards, it is not affecting this bone whatsoever. Same thing for the hand. I can actually now move the hand holding down Ault on the keyboard. I can use Ford Kinnah Matics to move just the hand. So four Kinnah Matics is really easy to remember. It's just the motion of an object of anything that's connected to it. So, for example, will use his chest right here. Anything that's connected to it, which is all of this upper part right here, because this is the parent. When I wrote Say that Backwards and Ford's that's an example afford Kinnah Matic when I wrote State Just this bone by holding down Ault. That bone is not moving whatsoever. That's for Kim Matic. This if I rotate both, is inverse Kinnah Matics. When you see both of them moving. Same thing for a leg. This is inverse schematics. When he lifts up his leg, it's moving the rest of his leg. If I remove that target bone, which allows me to do that in verse, cinematic and I just moved his knee. So again, let's just highlight the bone that is an example of four Can Matics. This is an example of Ford cosmetics. So I think at this point you basically got the idea that anything that is Ford of it, or that it is apparent of it's going to affect the rest of its Children. And that's the Ford Kinnah Matic. I hope you enjoyed this lecture on Ford Kinnah Matics and the next lecture. We're gonna cover something very important and that's gonna go hand in hand with Ford Kida Matics and Inverse Kinetics. And that is your bone, Parenti, I'll see you there. 14. Inverse Kinematics: Hi, this is McCoy, Buck with watch me work dot com. And in the next couple of lectures, we're gonna be talking about forward cinematics in inverse cinematics. For this lecture, we're just gonna talk about inverse Kinnah Matics I k for short in i keychains. So by default, Maho uses water called inverse Kinnah Matics or I keychains. For example, When I select this hand with my manipulate bones tool and I move it backwards and forwards , you can see that not only the hand is moving, but also the forearm and the arm. This is an example of inverse cinematics. It's basically when you take a bone that is a child of a parent which will get into a little bit later. But this is set up as a child parent relationship. So just now that the hand is a child to the forearm, the forearm is a child to the arm, thus making the arm the parent of the forearm making the forearm the parent of the hand. That might be a little bit confusing. So we have another lecture to explain that as well. But what I want to focus on is your eye keychain. You're I keychain can be seen when you click on your re parent bone tool. We talked a little bit about that when we're going over just these tools. So if I click on that, I can now see what my eye keychain is. As you can see, the hand is connected to the forearm, the forearm is connected to the arm and the arm is connected to the chest, which then connects to what is called the root bone right here or the pelvis. So with this knowledge of this current I keychain, you know that anything connected to the arm that connects back to the fore arm that connects back to the hand any movement that happens here or here will move this arm. Let's go back to our manipulate bones tool. When I move, the hand is going to move the arm. When I move the forearm, it's going to move the arm. But now the next thing you're wondering is Okay, well, why isn't the arm moving the body? Well, the reason why let's go ahead and open our eye keychain. One time is right here. Now the I keychain is kind of being broken. That is to say that is now being shared or its branching off. At this point, not only do you have this arm, we have this arm and the head that is also connecting back to this main chest bone. Now, watch what happens when I re parents these bones. So now I'm going to remove completely the chain from the head to the chest, and I'm also going to completely remove this arm from the chest. So I'm gonna go back to this arm now with my manipulate bones tool, and I'm gonna move just the hand. Now, remember, I just broke that chain, so watch what happens now. You can see that not only is the hand affecting the forearm in the arm, but it is now affecting anything that that chain was connected to, which in this case, was the chest, the stomach, and then the root bone is going to stay in place always. So, just like that, I broke my eye keychain and now everything is becoming disconnected. Now for this arm. This arm is completely disconnected from anything. It's not connected by any sort of chain. So you could probably guess what's going to happen. Let's go ahead and grab this arm and manipulated. You can see it completely pulls away from the body. The bones themselves aren't even moving. It's the artwork. This is Vector that this was all made from If I select his T shirt. As you can see the character designer who was Oscar, he completely took this one layer and made hands, arms and a shirt from it. So essentially, when I go to my bone for this arm and I move it out away, it's basically grabbing the points that this arm influences and dragging those points with it. That's why you can see that that bone is not moving. So to be the same for the head. If I took the body and I now rotated away, you can see the head is not connected. So one at a time just to show how this chain works, I am now going to connect. I'm gonna disconnect the arm and I'm going to connect the head back to the chest. So now you can see that this is now one continuous chain. So if I were to move his head than his neck were to move following that would be his chest than his stomach. So let me move his head. Now watch. Don't watch the artwork, Watched the bones. You can see that the bones themselves are now moving. This might be better illustrated with just the bones visible. So now that chain is broken. So let's go ahead and let's now put that back in place for the arms. So now I want to connect the arms to his chest. Now, as you can see, when I rotate this bone, the rest of the bones are now going to follow because that chain is connected back together again. So once again, remember, the I K chain is what is going to be connecting everything together in verse Kingdom attics , which basically stands for the motion of an object without getting too technical or scientific terms. Usually this is used more for robotics, but in this particular case, just know it is the motion of an object. So in this case, this is an inverse motion. Whatever is moving, this arm moves everything else in a snake like manner that is up until the I keychain itself is broke off or it is branched into other chains. And that is it for inverse kingdom attics in the eye keychain. I will see in the next lecture when we go ahead and talk about forward cinematics. I'll see you there. 15. 10 Control Bones: Hi, this is McCoy Buck with Watch me work dot com and in this lecture, we're going to be talking about control bones. So in short, a control bone is a bone that controls another bone. I'll show you an example for this gorilla character right here that is created by Victor. Part of this, You can see that the top here, there's labeled, I write, and I left. If I expand this, you can see that this layer consists of those labels right there. So that's nothing to do with rigging. That's just something that the designer had created to better reference. Which Bone does what? So I'm on frame one and now with my transform bone tool, I'm going to click on this bone right here. Remember what we said about transform bone tool? There's that second node, and when has that cross hair appear? That means I can translate it or move it around. So watch what happens to the guerrillas. Right? Pupil. You can see that that awesome is around, and that's what a control bone does, so to create a control bone. It's very simple. Somewhat the designer had done is he created these two little bones for the pupils. Now check out the parenting real quick just so you can see how that works. So those pupils, those I've bones to those pupils which were most likely bound by a layer, are parented to this head bone right here. So nothing too fancy there and nothing that we haven't learned so far. But these bones that are up here, these are also parents into the head. And the reason why we'll get into this when we go over smart bone controls. But it just makes it easier for the animator when animating, to keep all of his labels close to the character that he's animating. And that's the reason why, in this case, those bones air parented to the head. So let's go ahead and let's create a control bun. So these bones right here these what will be called our control bones. So to see clearly which ones are your control bones, I'm going to rename these to rename your bones. All you're going to do is click on the bone and then you're gonna have your little filled up here which gives you your name. This one's already called. I write what I'm going to call. This is control. Right? So I'm gonna go ahead and I'm going to highlight that. And then I'm just going to type in control. So we have that as control. Right again. I'm going to select this bone now, and I'm going to rename this control left. So now we have our to control bones named. Now it's a buying these two bones together. So one controls the other. What we're gonna do is ready. Come appeared to our bone constraint menu and were to come down here to our control bones. So you have three different ways that you can use your control bones. You have your angle control bone, your position control bone and your scale control bone. So now what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select this bone right here, B 26 I want it to connect to this bone right here, which I know I labeled control. Right. And now you see, when I linked those bones together, now it gives me to fields with the number one in it. This field is a value representing the X axis, and this represents the Y axis. So if I have this set at a value of one. This is going to be the default value. So however, I move this bone, this bone down here will move the exact same way. If I set this bone to to on the X axis in this to to as well on the Y axis and I move this bone around, this bone will also move twice as fast. So let's go ahead and show an example of that. So what I need to dio in order to move that bone around is I have to be on frame one. Because remember, whenever you're rigging and you use your transform bone tool on frame zero, it's only going to move that bone around so you can rearrange your bones. Well, if I want to move that bone around, I have to go to frame one. So what I'm going to do is just grab my little time indicator right here and just drag. It's a frame one. Now you can see I'm on frame one. So now what I'm going to do. So I'm going to take my transform bone tool and I'm going to click and I'm going to drag. And as you can see it's moving that bone around at twice the speed. So to set that back at its default value, I'm going to select that bone. I'm gonna go back to frame zero. I'm going to select this bone, go to my bone constraints, and now I'm just gonna set those values back to one. So now the X and Y axis will now move at the exact same speed as I move this bone. The same can also be done for your angle control bone. What's go ahead. And let's also set that to control. Right? And then we have our scale bone. So let's also go ahead and set that to control. Right? So your angle control bone, as you might figure, is going to control the angle of your bone. So it's rotation, the scale, the exact same thing. When you squash and stretch your bone, it's going to squash and stretch the artwork that is here in the eyes. So if you double those values, that's gonna be twice as big, and that's going to rotate twice as fast now with my psych bones. So I'm going to select the other bone, and I'm going to do the same thing for the left side. All right, very good. So now let's go back to frame one. And now what I'm going to do is I'm going to temporarily take off these labels so you can see the bones little bit better in what's going on. So now if I translate Bone Soul, I just highlighted both of those bones so I could move those together. Now I'm going to translate those bones at unequal speed. So if I wanted to do any sort of like eye movements for his pupils, this would be an easier way to be able to animate those eyes. Same thing. Let's drag him to the outside of his head. Now those two pupils. And now let's rotate those. And as you can see, they are rotating backwards and forwards. It doesn't like it when I want to rotate both of them at the same time, soldiers to use one for an example. With my transfer bone tool, I'll just rotate it so you can rotate your eyes and you can also squash and stretch your bones. So when I pull this up, it's going to squash the artwork down and I pull that down? It's going to squash the artwork up so you can do any sort of I animations with those control bones. Not only can be controlled bones use for pupils, you can use them for all sorts of things. But this is just an idea to get you started and get your imagination flowing on. How these can be really useful. That is it for this section for the bone constraints. In the next section, we're gonna be going over the bone menu and its usefulness. I'll see you there. 16. Angle Constraint: Hi, this is McCoy, but with watch me work dot com and in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about a mile Constraints and mojo. Let's go ahead and let's create one real quick here. If you use and the keyboard add bone tool and you draw the bone. You're gonna have your highlighted bone there. If I select it with be on the keyboard or my select bone icon here, I am going to get this option appear that says bone constraints. So I have this bone constraint menu. Now, if I drop that down, you can see I have lots of different options. Depending on the version of anime studio that you're using, you're gonna see different options as well. When you select your angle constraint, you're going to see that it's going to create these two lines right here, and this is going to represent your constraint sighs. You can see here, this is fully adjustable. I have negative. 70 and 70 is my values. So if I wanted to, I could simply click and use the mouse wheel to rotate to create my new value. Or you can click and the drag change your value. That way as well. So obviously pretty self explanatory as far as how that works. So I'm gonna set my value Negative 70 by 70. So I'm gonna use all when I wrote State this because it's not parented to anything. So holding down all its on the keyboard, I'm gonna rotate to the left. And as you can see here, this is Faras Aiken. Go. So this metal portion of the bone to this angle constraint is going to be your maximum angle. That's going to give you likewise on this side. So let's go ahead and sleep this bone. And let's apply this to our character that we have set here. If I select the arm with my select bones tool, you can see that there is angle constrains already set up here. And if I open this up, it looks like it's negative. 70 and 70. Now, why exactly would you set angle constraints? Well, for a couple different reasons, let's go ahead and let's take thes angle constraints off. And let's side during my animation, I want to rotate his arm at a pretty extreme angle. Well, I gotta know how extreme the angles getting beat because as you can see there, if I rotate it really high up there, there's gonna be a little bit of distortion. So an angle constraint is really gonna help you determine how far your arm can actually go with the artwork that you have created. Obviously, you can fix this with smart bones, but a lot of times is not really a need to have super extreme angles. As you can see here, so right about here is when the artwork kind of becomes distorted. So let's say I want to set his angle constraints of right here. So for this bone that I'm rotating, I'm going to select it now. So I'm gonna be on the keyboard. And as you can see there, it's going to go back to its original position. I'm going to go to my bone constraints. Drop that down, making sure that that bonus highlighted. I'm going to click on the check mark when I click on the check mark. It's going to by default, create value of negative 70 By 70. However, this could be adjusted, but for what we want, that looks pretty good. So now I'm going to go to my manipulate bones tool Z on the keyboard. I am going to rotate this bone, and as you can see, there's a little bit of distortion again. This could be fixed with smart bones, but this is going to allow me should not have such an extreme position. As you can see, there pops out just a little bit that stroke there. But it's allowing me to set up constraints for the movement of this arm. This would be more ideal for something like elbows. You don't want your elbows be moving as far back is that same thing with your leg? If I move this leg forward, I also don't want it to move the other way. Hyperextending it. So now you can see how uranium constraints can be really handy when you're using this for your animations so you can go through, you get set it up for every part of your body that you feel you would need to set up in England and that is it for England constraints. Be sure. Enjoy me for the next lecture. When we go over Target bones, I'll see you there 17. Arc IK Solver: Hi. This is McCoy, Buck with watch me work dot com and this lecture we're gonna be talking about park I case over. So, like I said, this is also going to be used in tandem with Target bones. However, to be quite honest with you, I have never used this feature before. But in the case, if you ever do need to use this feature, I have an example that could help you to understand how this would work. So, first off, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna have my bone group and with my bone group, I'm gonna hit a on the keyboard, create my room bone, and then imagine that I'm creating the side bone. And then I'm created an extra bone that you would think would be after the thigh, which this would make the knee. But it's not. This is just a extra bone, and I'm creating then the shinbone. So let me do the same for the other side real quick here. So what's going on is this is in case you were to make, like, some sort of character with multiple bones for a leg more than just two bones. This is what you can use this r KY K solver for. So the next thing I'm gonna do is I'm going to create a target bone. So I'm just gonna create my target bone like we have learned before. Make sure they're not parented. Go into my repairing bone tool, then make those target bones as we have done before. Okay, so now when I take this and I move it down, you can see that all of those bones are moving. Kind of like they should. Then, you see, everything gets really mixed up as you keep moving stuff around. Well, what the arc, like a silver does is solved. This our king issue that you're having right there. So what I would do is I It's like all those bones that are bending in words that I don't want to bend, and I want to keep him at an art. I'm going to go to my r ky k silver hit Click my check Mark that close. So now, no matter what, those bones are not going to be bending the other way. So if you think of like a spider character or something, something that would use a lot of bones in its limbs. This is what this would be ideal for. Or if you're making some type of machinery type arm and you want to keep this arc, this is what you would use the ark like a silver. So that is it for this lecture? Be sure and join me in the next lecture. When I talk about squash and stretch scaling, I'll see you there. 18. Bone Dynamics pt 1: Hi. This is McCoy Buck with watch me work dot com and this sexual we're talking about bone dynamics in mojo. So what are bone dynamics? Well, if we go up here to our menu, let's highlight some bones here. So we got our two top ears mean hit be on the keyboard, disliked my select bone tool, and that's gonna pop up my bone constraints menu. Let's go ahead and drop that down. And right here we got bone dynamics. So we got our torque force, our spring Force and our damping force. And this is our bone dynamics. But what is that exactly? Well, let's go ahead and hit play and see what those dio All right, so it's go ahead, drop down menu again. OK, so we have our torque force are torque is going to be basically controlling movement, and your movement is going to be controlled by the parent bone. And let's go ahead and let's mess with it just to see what it does in real time. So now I'm gonna just the value I'm simply going to click and I'm gonna scroll. My mouse will up now. Look at his top two years Do you see them getting a lot more floppy? Er, a lot more crazier. Well, again. Remember, the movement of those ears are being moved and controlled by the movement of the rest of the body. So if I go and I scroll these down and give it a lower value, you can see is top ears are a lot more stiff. Go ahead and sit that back to where it was, I think is around 90. All right. The next one is the spring Force. Let's go ahead and hit play and let's drop down on bone constraints. So let's see what the Spring Force does. The spring is going to control how far it goes. So how far that rotation of those bouncing back and forth goes? So the lower I have this value, you can see they're just gonna be bouncing everywhere. So I wanna have a higher value, because what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna take those extreme movements. So when the movement of the torque force reaches its maximum rotation, it's gonna bounce back to the other side and so on. And that's going to be the spring for some. When I increase that value. You see, it's now not moving all over the place really weird. And if I keep on going really high, you can see it's just bouncing back and forth. Whenever it hits those extremes, it bounces back to the other extreme, bounces back to the other extreme and just creates that spring movement. So let's go ahead. Let's lower that back down into the three value. So right there, there's a really weird movement. I don't really like that. So I'll probably lower a little bit more. But I also want when he touches down onto the ground that his ears are gonna bounce in front of his face. All right, so looks pretty good right there. So we got about 80. Okay, So the last value is our damping force now, the damning forces going to control how long it moves. So let's go ahead and let's just drop that value down to zero. All right, so now we can really see how the damping force works. So think of your damping force and think of damping as this whole movement or this whole character moving through Ah, water or through jello or some thick substance. So you see all this crazy movement of his ears. Watch what happens as I increase that damping force. This is Get a control now. How long those crazy movements are going to move for, so you can see there's still a lot of pop. Well, let's go ahead. Let's increase this really high up. I'm gonna keep on going and you can see what it's doing is it's basically taking that movement, and it's just damping it. It's making sure that it's not moving for very long. So when I had my value really low, there was nothing that was controlling it, really. And that's actually kind of where we want this type of ear structure to G. Oh, so this is actually how a had the character in mind when I originally made an animated him So LA looks pretty good right there. So that is your bone dynamics. So now that we learn how to do this in the next section, we're going to go ahead and go to this character right here who has no bone dynamics whatsoever, and we're gonna play toe and I'll show you how to do that. I'll see there 19. Bone Dynamics PT 2: Hi, this is McCoy, but with Washington works dot com and this lecture, we're gonna cover part two of Bone Dynamics. Okay, so you just saw how bone dynamics work in real time and everything. Now we have this character that has absolutely no bone dynamics, and we're going to apply everything that we just learned to this character. So what I'm going to Dio is I'm going to hit beyond my keyboard, and I'm gonna get my selection bone tool, and I'm gonna select that year. I'm gonna hold down shift. I'm gonna select the other year. Now, I'm just selecting the bottom bones because what we're gonna be doing is using the bone dynamics for torque Force. So the best method that I have found that I haven't really seen anyone repeat but really works well for me is testing in real time. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come here to frame one. Now, remember, this is when you have your animation already created. This is usually when you go to your bone dynamics because bone dynamics are basically like your principles of animation. So right now we're gonna be playing secondary type animation, overlapping action, those types of things. So I'm gonna go to my frame one of my animation, and I'm gonna go. But here's my bone constraints, and I'm gonna make sure that this is checked. And when it's checked, it's going to create a channel. And in that channel's gonna create a key friend. So this is my Bun Dynamics channel. So now I know that everything is good to go. So now I'm gonna hit play, Okay, so let's go ahead and apply some toward force. All right, so there we go. Now we're seeing some crazy stuff going on. You can see that as I just applied that little bit of Torque force, his ears are already often going behind his head. And if I increase this, you're gonna see some crazy. It's gonna be wrapping around his head and all sorts of craziness. But all I know with my Torque force for right now is that is the movement, So that's pretty good for now. Now I'm gonna go to my spring. I know that's how far the movement is going to be. So I'm gonna increase that. There we go. That looks a little bit better. So Now that I have my spring, it's not controlling how far it moves. So it's not exactly to be going behind the head because now it's gonna be controlling how that is going to be moving now me to go to my damping force, which is how long it goes. So if I have this really high, it's not gonna go anywhere. It's gonna bury, really go back and forth, and that's perfect. So I'm gonna put that value around, too. So I don't have any preset values already. We're gonna be testing this in real time, and we're gonna be focusing on what we should apply for these values. But I do know that I'm gonna have my force a little bit higher than that. I'm gonna have my spring a little bit higher is well, and you just gotta really play with it. And you know what? For me, that looks pretty good right there. So let's go ahead and hit close now. All right, Now we're gonna stop that and we're gonna go to frame zero. Select our bones now. So I'm just like this bone. You just like this vote. You come over to frame one make sure that my bone dynamics are on now for those bones. And that creates a key frame. I'm gonna hit play Zima a little bit. Okay, so now we have zero torque force here. Let's go ahead and put some torque force on. Okay? So now his ears are gonna be bending all weird. If I increase that value, there just could be propelling around all over the place. So I'm gonna take my force. About 70. Bring in my spring force now, so we're gonna control how far that balance is going to go. All right, so that's going pretty crazy. But you can see that those air just bouncing back and forth. Now, let's put some damping on it. So it's gun control. How far that's moving now. Okay, that looks pretty good. So I can see as is bouncing up. And he's reaching the arc of his jump. His ears are bouncing backwards and forwards. That looks pretty good. Now, let's go ahead and hit close. Go back now. I'm gonna select my top years now with those selected, I'm going to go to frame one, and you pretty much know the drill from now. Announce it play and test it. Okay, so now we're gonna deal with our torque force again. Now I'm going to control how much those air movie. See, there's a lot of movement going on. It looks pretty good. So I know I could see how far those extremes we're going now. I don't want them to propel around. I wanted to bounce back. There we go. Looks pretty good. And now let's go to our damping for so it's damn thought up a little bit. Cool. That looks good right there. So you can really do whatever you want. What animation you want this to do Like this is like a floppy sock looking character. I have no idea. I just created this really quickly for this example, but basically, you can see that his ears are flopping all over the place. If you wanted to, you can go through and you can adjust these values. So how have you want before me for this character? Because I know what I wanted to have in mind for this character. That looks pretty good. So that's basically how you're gonna be doing your bone dynamics. And again, this is a principle of animation. This is your overlapping action right here as he lands and his ears flop in front of him. That's an overlapping action. So it's really cool, because enemy Studio and Mojo is already applying principles of animation for you built into the program. Now, the one reason why I do it in real time like that and I have it cycle back. So all I did, if you're not so familiar the timeline is I basically took my beginning frame and I took my end frame. So my end of my animation, I know is that frame 29. So I took this end frame and I placed it at 29. So if I wanted to take this and place it at 48 is going to play all the way through to the end. So that's gonna go all the way, and you can see that the Bone Dynamics air still actually going because it's built into the program. It's somewhat of using a physics engine. Let's go back to 29. So what I have is I have it looping constantly. Now you're gonna get some really funky results. If you're saying okay right here, Oh, that looks really weird. I want to change it. So it's not moving so much. And you make your changes. All it's gonna do is it's going to balance back to a straight year Exactly how it was before you applied bone dynamics. So don't try to go through and adjust things as you're going through the frames themselves . It doesn't work. The best way to do is put on a cycle, Let a hit play, and then do your value adjustments. All right, that is it for this lecture. I hope he enjoyed that in the next lecture. Where to go over our control bones. And this will be finishing up our bone constraints minute. I'll see you there. 20. Control Bones: Hi, this is McCoy Buck with Watch me work dot com and in this lecture, we're going to be talking about control bones. So in short, a control bone is a bone that controls another bone. I'll show you an example for this gorilla character right here that is created by Victor. Part of this, You can see that the top here, there's labeled, I write, and I left. If I expand this, you can see that this layer consists of those labels right there. So that's nothing to do with rigging. That's just something that the designer had created to better reference. Which Bone does what? So I'm on frame one and now with my transform bone tool, I'm going to click on this bone right here. Remember what we said about transform bone tool? There's that second node, and when has that cross hair appear? That means I can translate it or move it around. So watch what happens to the guerrillas. Right? Pupil. You can see that that awesome is around, and that's what a control bone does, so to create a control bone. It's very simple. Somewhat the designer had done is he created these two little bones for the pupils. Now check out the parenting real quick just so you can see how that works. So those pupils, those I've bones to those pupils which were most likely bound by a layer, are parented to this head bone right here. So nothing too fancy there and nothing that we haven't learned so far. But these bones that are up here, these are also parents into the head. And the reason why we'll get into this when we go over smart bone controls. But it just makes it easier for the animator when animating, to keep all of his labels close to the character that he's animating. And that's the reason why, in this case, those bones air parented to the head. So let's go ahead and let's create a control bun. So these bones right here these what will be called our control bones. So to see clearly which ones are your control bones, I'm going to rename these to rename your bones. All you're going to do is click on the bone and then you're gonna have your little filled up here which gives you your name. This one's already called. I write what I'm going to call. This is control. Right? So I'm gonna go ahead and I'm going to highlight that. And then I'm just going to type in control. So we have that as control. Right again. I'm going to select this bone now, and I'm going to rename this control left. So now we have our to control bones named. Now it's a buying these two bones together. So one controls the other. What we're gonna do is ready. Come appeared to our bone constraint menu and were to come down here to our control bones. So you have three different ways that you can use your control bones. You have your angle control bone, your position control bone and your scale control bone. So now what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select this bone right here, B 26 I want it to connect to this bone right here, which I know I labeled control. Right. And now you see, when I linked those bones together, now it gives me to fields with the number one in it. This field is a value representing the X axis, and this represents the Y axis. So if I have this set at a value of one. This is going to be the default value. So however, I move this bone, this bone down here will move the exact same way. If I set this bone to to on the X axis in this to to as well on the Y axis and I move this bone around, this bone will also move twice as fast. So let's go ahead and show an example of that. So what I need to dio in order to move that bone around is I have to be on frame one. Because remember, whenever you're rigging and you use your transform bone tool on frame zero, it's only going to move that bone around so you can rearrange your bones. Well, if I want to move that bone around, I have to go to frame one. So what I'm going to do is just grab my little time indicator right here and just drag. It's a frame one. Now you can see I'm on frame one. So now what I'm going to do. So I'm going to take my transform bone tool and I'm going to click and I'm going to drag. And as you can see it's moving that bone around at twice the speed. So to set that back at its default value, I'm going to select that bone. I'm gonna go back to frame zero. I'm going to select this bone, go to my bone constraints, and now I'm just gonna set those values back to one. So now the X and Y axis will now move at the exact same speed as I move this bone. The same can also be done for your angle control bone. What's go ahead. And let's also set that to control. Right? And then we have our scale bone. So let's also go ahead and set that to control. Right? So your angle control bone, as you might figure, is going to control the angle of your bone. So it's rotation, the scale, the exact same thing. When you squash and stretch your bone, it's going to squash and stretch the artwork that is here in the eyes. So if you double those values, that's gonna be twice as big, and that's going to rotate twice as fast now with my psych bones. So I'm going to select the other bone, and I'm going to do the same thing for the left side. All right, very good. So now let's go back to frame one. And now what I'm going to do is I'm going to temporarily take off these labels so you can see the bones little bit better in what's going on. So now if I translate Bone Soul, I just highlighted both of those bones so I could move those together. Now I'm going to translate those bones at unequal speed. So if I wanted to do any sort of like eye movements for his pupils, this would be an easier way to be able to animate those eyes. Same thing. Let's drag him to the outside of his head. Now those two pupils. And now let's rotate those. And as you can see, they are rotating backwards and forwards. It doesn't like it when I want to rotate both of them at the same time, soldiers to use one for an example. With my transfer bone tool, I'll just rotate it so you can rotate your eyes and you can also squash and stretch your bones. So when I pull this up, it's going to squash the artwork down and I pull that down? It's going to squash the artwork up so you can do any sort of I animations with those control bones. Not only can be controlled bones use for pupils, you can use them for all sorts of things. But this is just an idea to get you started and get your imagination flowing on. How these could be really useful. In the next section, we're gonna go over the bone menu and its usefulness. That is it for this section for the bone constraints. In the next section, we're gonna be going over the bone menu and its usefulness. I'll see you there. 21. IgnoredIK: Hi, this is McCoy. But watch me work dot com and in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about ignored by inverse cinematics and what that is. So here we have this character that was created by Victor part of this. You can obviously find this in your library character polder. Like the other characters I have been showing so ignored by Enbridge, cinematics is also going to work in tandem with target bones. So everything that we're doing now is building upon target bones and the use of those one of the ways that it could be used. For example, this tale. So in this original character, if you downloaded it, you probably noticed that there actually isn't spikes there. I just added those in for this tutorial sake. So for this tale, if I move this tale around, you can see that the spikes are going to follow. But something that you also probably notice is there isn't a target bone for this tale. So everything I'm gonna show you can be applied to other limbs. Say, for instance, his arms. If I wanted to add spikes to his arms, you could do the exact same thing of what I'm going to show you that you can do with the tail. Likewise with the legs. So what we're gonna do is we're going to give this tale a target bone, just like the feet it's on Lee going to be manipulated when you move the target bone itself . So let's go ahead and do that with the knowledge that we have before I am going to hit a on the keyboard and I'm gonna create my target bone right there and I'm gonna take off the bone strength. Now, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hit altar on my keyboard and I'm gonna slick that bone hit p on the keyboard to bring up my repairing bone tool or click on this icon right here. And then I'm gonna hit control holding down control. I'm gonna left click. And there we go. We have a target bone that's created. Be sure whenever using target bones that you don't have your target bone parented to another bone. It needs to be all by itself and to have no bone shrink for its work properly. So now let's go ahead and go to the manipulate bones tool And let's manipulate this. And as you can see, that part works pretty good because it's connected to the same bone that the spike is connected to. But if we pull up our parenting, if you remember from our I keychain when we were talking about inverse cinematics when we were referring to the chest, when there is that breakage, it breaks that inverse kida Matics straight to the arm. So when I manipulate this arm, it's not going to move the chest unless there's Onley, one chain running from the arm to the chest and everything else is broken. So in this case, if we're looking here, we have breaks in our I keychain. We have our one solid I keychain that connects to the pelvis to the tail. But then we have these little breaks or these little split offs of these spikes also being connected. So when I move my tail around, you can see I can only manipulate some parts. If I go to here, it's not going to manipulate with the target bone using inverse Kinnah Matics. So then what I need to dio is I'm going to apply, ignored by inverse cinematics. So you want to apply the or ignored by inverse schematics to the bones that are, in this case, breaking the I keychain. So in this case, it's thes spikes that I created So holding down be on the keyboard and shift I'm gonna hold on shift Click on those spikes Go up to my bone constraints and I'm going to click on Ignored by inverse schematics Hit close. So now when I move this tale, you can see there's inverse Kinnah Matics applied. It's not only just moving that one bone is moving everything else so just quick refresher. Remember, this is going to work on Lee with target bones again. I showed you an example where you could use it without target bones. But whenever used target bones, it's going to mess up your inverse Kinnah Matics. So to fix that, you're gonna use your ignored by inverse cinematics. So just like in the example of the tail, if I wanted to add spikes to the feet, you're probably gonna get the same result. It's not going to move the foot where you want it, Teoh. So what you're gonna do is you're gonna do exactly what we did there for your feet. If you wanted to add spikes the feet or to the arms that you wanted to attach. Target bones too. So that is how you would use ignored by university automatics. Be sure. Enjoy him in the next lecture. When we continue talking about inverse schematics by using our arc solver, I'll see you there.