Master English: Improving your Speaking, Listening, and Writing Skills | Kendra Lucas | Skillshare

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Master English: Improving your Speaking, Listening, and Writing Skills

teacher avatar Kendra Lucas, Talk to more of the world!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

25 Lessons (4h 17m)
    • 1. Skillshare Introduction

      0:48
    • 2. Writing Lesson 1: Capitalization

      10:37
    • 3. Writing Lesson 2: Punctuation

      14:26
    • 4. Writing Lesson 3: Using Plurals

      10:03
    • 5. Writing 4 Articles

      15:47
    • 6. Writing 5 Subject Verb Agreement

      10:52
    • 7. Writing 6 Using Transition Words

      7:52
    • 8. Writing 7 Emails

      12:25
    • 9. Thinking in English Exercise

      7:17
    • 10. Using Superlatives

      8:28
    • 11. Speaking of the Past

      20:33
    • 12. Speaking of the Future

      12:40
    • 13. Vocabulary Builder 1: Mother and Daughter

      7:41
    • 14. Vocabulary Builder 2: Solar-Powered Cars

      12:21
    • 15. Vocabulary Builder 3: Stocks and Bonds

      10:06
    • 16. Vocabulary Builder 4: Angry Customer

      8:45
    • 17. Vocabulary Builder 5: Farming and Agriculture

      15:20
    • 18. Vocabulary Builder 6: Urban or Suburban

      13:29
    • 19. Vocabulary Builder Review

      17:15
    • 20. Listening Comprehension 1: Breakfast

      3:48
    • 21. Listening Comprehension 2: Sports

      9:00
    • 22. Listening Comprehension 3: Restaurant Dictation

      11:59
    • 23. Listening Comprehension 4: Human Resources

      4:14
    • 24. Listening Comprehension 5: Graduate School Dictation

      10:34
    • 25. Skillshare Congratulation Video

      1:07
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About This Class

If you are struggling to master English then this course is for you. This course offers many new methods for training your speaking, listening, and writing abilities so that you can improve in all areas of the English language. 

Course Content

This course includes:

  1. Writing and Grammar Lessons: Learn how to organize your thoughts clearly and precisely in your writing

  2. Speaking Lessons: Practice speaking English with frequent repetition drills, voice recordings, and  by answering questions out loud when prompted.

  3. Vocabulary Building Lessons: Cover over 50 vocabulary words that will increase your knowledge of the English language and will help you sound more professional

  4. Listening Comprehension Lessons: Take listening quizzes that will make sure that you are able to understand every word at full speed.

There are a total of 30 lectures consisting of about 4.5 hours of training.  Each video lesson has a downloadable handout attached which will review the grammar and vocabulary covered.  By the end of this course, you will be able to speak English with more confidence for work, for job interviews, and for university oral exams like the TOEFL and the IELTS. So if you are an English learner who is ready to sound more like a native speaker, then please sign up for this course.  

Meet Your Teacher

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Kendra Lucas

Talk to more of the world!

Teacher

Kendra Lucas is an English language instructor in the United States. She is TEFL certified and has been teaching English since 2008. She has helped over 3000 students worldwide improve their English and hopes to help you as well. Culture and languages have always fascinated her which is why over her lifetime, she has studied French, Spanish, Italian, Mandarin, and Swahili. She understands the struggle of trying to learn a new language which is why she always tries to make her lessons interactive and yet full of valuable content so you can improve as quickly as possible.

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Transcripts

1. Skillshare Introduction: Hello and welcome to this master English course where we will work on improving the quality of your writing. You're speaking and you're listening Comprehension. My name is contribute gifts. And I'm a English as a foreign language instructor here in the United States. I've been teaching since 2008 and I've helped thousands of professionals just like yourself , improve their English skills for work and for school. By the end of the course, you should feel more confident in communicating in English and understanding fast native speakers. So if you're ready to master English, let's get started. 2. Writing Lesson 1: Capitalization : in this writing lesson we're gonna talk about capitalization. Capitalisation is where you take the first letter of a word and you make it bigger, are you? Put it into upper case capitalisation. Help certain words to stand out like names and places so it makes your writing easier to read, and it cause attention to new thoughts and ideas. The most common mistake English learners make, though, is they use the same capitalization rules as their native language when trying to write in English. But you must remember English has its own unique capitalization rules, and you want to take the time to learn them. Ah, lot of people feel like it's such a small thing, and they don't take the time to really get the rules into their head. So they make what's considered simple mistakes. Tow us like not capitalizing English or not capitalizing I and they wind up looking unprofessional and they're writing. So I want to make sure that we all know the rules and that you don't make any mistakes so that you're writing couldn't look, claim and professional, so we'll start with the capitalization rules. The first thing you want to capitalize is the first letter of every sentence. So when you're writing or typing, you're going to in distance with a period, put a space and then capitalize the very next letter. You also wanna make sure you capitalize the word I sometimes English learners, will capitalize I one time or they'll capitalize I at the beginning of the sentence. And then they forget to capitalize I and other places you want to make sure that you're consistent and that every time you write I you capitalize it. Don't forget any, okay? You also want to capitalize all names, including people's names, names of buildings, Ah, brand names, company in business names, places, cities and countries. This could include places buildings like Palmer Halt uh, places like Times Square companies like Coca Cola, Ah, Samsung or be in W. But there are exceptions. You have some unique brand names like iPhone and E Bay, where the second letter is capitalized. But those are very unique brand names. So you would just pay attention if you see a unique brand name like that. And then, of course, cities and countries like New York, Dubai, Australia, Japan or Italy, you also want to be sure to capitalize titles, off books, articles, magazines, movies and school department names and also business department names. So, for example, you would capitalize, Ah, books a magazine like, uh, War and Peace. I notice you don't have toe capitalize the connecting words like and off and the if it's in the middle. You do capitalize the when it's at the beginning of the title, though all right, books like Harry Potter, you would capitalize books like The Jungle Book Time magazine. Now Time is the title of the magazine, so that's why he would capitalize Time. You don't necessarily need to capitalize magazine, Um, because it magazine is not the title. It's just what type of publication it ISS notice here, though you would capitalize Book because the Jungle Book is the whole title of the movie and also of the book as well. You would capitalize department names like the Department of History and the English Department or the I T department in a company up. You would also capitalize nationalities. Languages like English, Spanish, Turkish, Chinese are Dutch. A lot of times, when people write their essays about how long they've been speaking English, they forget to capitalize English every time. This is one where it may be different in your native language. Sometimes in your native language, you will not capitalize languages. Well, just letting you know in English. You capitalize languages every time. I want to make sure you don't forget. And that goes for any language. You'd also capitalized days of the week and months, Days like Monday, months like January. And you will capitalize all holidays and historical evidence. Ah, historical events like world War Two holidays like hollowing periods in history like the Renaissance. You would capitalize all of those. All right, so let's quiz your knowledge of these so we can practice and try to get them into your memory. So are the following sentences correctly? Capitalize? Rebecca and I are going to the store today. Is this correct? This is incorrect. I should always be capitalized, no matter where it is in a sentence. So this I should be upper case. Rebecca and I are going to the store today with a capital I Is this one correct. Can you pick up a magazine for me? Yes. This one is correct. You only capitalize magazine titles and not the word magazine itself. I need to study German because I'm going to Berlin soon. Is this capitalized correctly? This is incorrect because languages like German or always capitalized Berlin is a city and is capitalized correctly as well as the first letter of the sentence. The correct sin should read. I meet to study German because I'm going to Berlin soon. Next sentence. I'm off work on Mondays and two stays. Is this correct? This is correct. You must capitalize the days of the week and thes or capitalized correctly. I went to high school in Nairobi. Is this correct? This is incorrect. You do not capitalize the words high school. You only capitalize high school. If you're naming the full high school, for example, hair is high school. The same goes with College University. You don't have to capitalize the word college or university. The only time you're going to capitalize, though, is when you're naming a real school. So, for example, Harvard University, Oxford University, Colorado College. Thes air. The only times that you're going to capitalize school names is when there's that whole name of the college or university is included. So the correct answer would be I went to high school in Nairobi. Nairobi's capitalized cause it's a city and high school is in lower case or in small letters. My professor works in the mathematics department. Is this correct? Yes. This is correct. You should capitalize department names like mathematics department. The doctor will not have an available appointment until June. Is this one correct? This is incorrect because months should be capitalized. The doctor will not have an available appointment until June. With a capital J. I have something very nice plan for Mother stay this year. Is this correct? No. Holidays like Mother's Day should be capitalized. You'll have holidays like, uh, New Year's Day. Independence Day. All of these holidays you want to capitalize? Even Mothers Day and Fathers Day. All of these holidays. You want to capitalize? Do you think I should buy it? LG or Samsung Television? Is this capitalized correctly? Yes. Brand name should be capitalized. I'm taking math this year. Is this capitalized correctly? No, this is incorrect. General subjects like math are not capitalized. You only want to capitalize course titles like Algebra 101 or department titles like the mathematics department. So when you want to say things like I'm taking history this year. You do not have to capitalize history because we're being very general eso The correct answer would be I'm taking math this year. 3. Writing Lesson 2: Punctuation: in this writing lesson, we're gonna talk about punctuation. The most common forms of punctuation and English are using comments and periods. These ads, short and long, pauses to your writing, making it easier to understand when you're reading it, and also when you're speaking out loud. So when you come across the comma, even when you're reading aloud, you want to take a small pause, and that makes it easier for your listener toe. Understand what you're saying. We'll start with periods. First periods come after a complete sentence, which usually includes a subject and a verb. Periods create a long pause, and it's a complete thought. For example, my name is Kendra. I am from the United States. I am an English teacher. All three of those air three short sentences. They are three complete thoughts and are we use a period at the end, right a space and then capitalized the next letter. The's pauses are important because they make my writing easier to read. And also, if I'm reading my writing out loud, it also makes my speaking easier for listeners toe, understand? So when you're speaking, you don't want to just rush through, um, your writing. You want to go ahead and take some pauses in between certain words. So commas air the most challenging one to use and to know where to put them, said Let's review Kamas kamas at a small pause to one part of your sentence, it organizes your thoughts into small pieces so that they're easy to understand. Examples. My name is Kendra Comma, and I am from the United States. This structure is called a compound sentence, meaning I'm taking two sentences and I'm combining them into one putting a comma. Anna an. In between. You can also make a compound sentence with a conjunction zor connecting words like. But however so and or you also wanna use commas when you're listing three or more things. For example, I want to improve my English reading, writing and speaking, I I named three things, So I want to make sure I put a comma after the first the comma after the second, then an and then the last thing. Many English learners, uh, don't know or forget to put the second comma right here in English. You want to include the comma before the end, just like on the compound sins we put comma and then an You want to do that? Um, when you're making a list of three or more things. However, remember, if you're only listing two things, you don't need a comma Then So, for example, I want to improve my English writing and speaking because I'm only listening to things no comma is required. But as soon as I get up to three or more things Kama, Kama and the third Okay, you also have what's called parallel lis. You want to make sure the items and your list match our that are parallel, meaning that they line up and they look the same. So another example I love to ski, to hike and to ride a motorcycle. This list is parallel because it all includes the same verb type of to ski, to hike and to ride. All right, you want to avoid mismatch lists like I hate to drive hiking and slim. This is very difficult to understand because the verbs don't match their all in different forms. You want Teoh instead of saying I, um, hate to drive hiking, you want to choose one or the other, So you it say I hate to drive, to hike and to swim. Or you could say I hate driving, hiking and swimming. It doesn't matter which form you choose. You just want to make sure the forms are peril Well, or that they look alike. They look the same. Okay. And with parallel lists, you do the comma after the first, the comma after the second and the third thing. All right. Next one, you're gonna use commas after closets and phrases that are at the beginning of the sentence , for example, even one word phrases like currently I am studying computer programming. You would put a comma after currently also words like, however, I don't believe it's a good idea. However, comma words like also also comma. Also, when you're making a clause at the beginning of this sentence, for example, when I finish the project comma, I want to go on vacation. So when I finish, this project is not a complete idea. If I say that when I finish this project, you're on the edge of your seat wanting to know what am I gonna say next? So after you have a clause that's not a complete fault, you want to put a comma after that, I want to go on vacation as a complete thought that can stand by itself. Another example is grabbing her coat. Grabbing her code is not exactly a complete bought, so you want to put a comma after it. And she ran out the door wrapping her coat. She ran out the door. Next one, before you go to the movies, turn off all the lights before you go to the movies again is not a complete thought. You want to put a comma after that clause and then finish off this sentence. You also want to use commas when you're writing dates in the month day year format not in the United States and Canada is common to write, uh, dates in the month day year format, However, in other English speaking countries like the United Kingdom, Australia, they do use the day month year format. But for example, he was born on Saturday comma July 4th, Comma 1976. You wanna use a comma after the day and after the number after the July 4. All right, um, alternative date formats and no Comus alternative date formats like I mentioned in the United Kingdom and Australia don't need comments, for example, at applications or do by the 31st of December 2000 and 16. You also want to use commas on sentence interrupters, Not what a sentence interrupter is is when you have a small phrase that goes in the middle of the sentence that doesn't quite fit in. It gives valuable information, but it doesn't fit in with the rest of the sentence. Um, the most common example of this is, for example, so the color black, for example, is a color that most people look good in. Ah, for example, is a comment interrupter, and you would put that in the middle of the sentence. But you want to put a comma before a space and then a comma after, right, so the whole sends the color. Black is a color that most people look get good in on the color. Black, for example, is a color that most people look good in. Another sentence. Interrupter is Angela. Unlike Susan is very organized again. Unlike Susan, um creates a comparison and gives you some valuable information. But the whole sons is really mostly about. Angela is very organized and never example. Uh, the project I'm happy to see is almost complete. So the real sentence is the project is almost complete, but you add a little something in the middle. Um, I'm happy to see it interrupts this sentence, but it still gives valuable information. Whenever you do that, you want to put a comma around the little part that's interrupting the sentence are breaking up the sentence. All right, so now let's practice what we just learned about punctuation with for comments and, um, periods. So I don't have a pencil, but I have a pen. How many commas would you need on this sentence? You would use one comma. I don't have a pencil comma, but I have a pin. This is a compound sentences to small sentences being turned into one this year. I want to start exercising, eating right and cooking healthy. How many comments would you use on a sentence like this? It would be three Calmus. Now you use one for the beginning claws this year, comma. And you want to separate that from the rest of the sentence. All right, I and there's a list on this one. I want to start exercising, eating right and cooking have healthy. So in this list, the form is the I N G form of the vert exercising, eating and cooking. And you see, I can even have extra words after the I N G. Construction and it's OK. I just want to make sure that the first words are all parallel. All line up when I make that list. Next one. The war started on Tuesday, January 20 f 17 14. How many comments would you need on this one? Every two comments. The war started on Tuesday, January 20th 17 14 again This month, day year format is mostly used in the United States and Canada and actually in other English speaking countries. You would use the day month year format. After you do the dishes, please remember to turn off all the lights. How many commas would you need an lessons You need one comma for the beginning clause of the sentence. After you do the dishes comma, please remember to turn off all the lights. I, like most people, like to go out to eat with friends Now listens in particular, is very difficult to read and understand. Without Comus very very difficult. So how many commas do you think should be? In this sense, it should be to comments because there's a sentence interrupter in this one. It's I like most people like to go out to eat with friends if you read it wrong and you say I like most people, meaning that you enjoy our admire most people. You can interpret the citizens wrong if you don't have those commas there. That's why it's so important that you're using commas correctly so that you aren't misunderstood. Although his ideas air very good, he often goes over budget with his project over budget means he spends too much money. He spends money. Um, that's not on the budget plan. Alright, how many commas would you need on us since though it be one comma for the beginning clause ? Although his ideas are very good comma, he often goes over budget with his project 4. Writing Lesson 3: Using Plurals: So in this lesson, we're gonna review writing with Plural Z in this lesson will review both the singular and the plural construction of mountains. And we'll do some repetition drills so you can practice the pronunciation of plural words. And then we'll test your knowledge on how to construct thes plural words for yourself. So there are four ways to make a noun plural. The first and most simple way is simply toe add an s to the end of most any word. Now, this applies to nearly 90% of mounds and English. So when end out, simply, add a s to the end of a now and that should make the noun plural. So, for example, here we have hat and hats, wall walls, note notes, day days and belief beliefs. Now, depending on the spelling of the word, you also could have, um at a e s to a particular word. So words that I applied Teoh are words that end and c h like watch toe watches an S h like bush two bushes. Now the reason why that is, it's because the C H has a kind of s sound watch watch. So it's hard to double. That s sound. That's why we add a e s at the end so we can carnage break up. That s sound watches. Bush is all right. The same work box box has a kind of s sound African. So that's why we add a e s so we can break up That s sound boxes Kiss ends with an s So it's all obvious That would be a yes kiss kiss is and potatoes their cell full s words that also end in e s like potatoes. But with o words, there's loads of exceptions For example, photo photos, piano and pianos. So you want to be careful with the s words with the words river because the words can go either way at another way To make a noun plural is to add a i. E. S to the ending. And that usually applies to words that end with continents like l. Why, um, like a butterfly. So that becomes butterflies with the I. E. S at the end or lady that ends with two continents, which are d y. And that becomes D I. E s ladies. Same was skies ends with Scott. Um it ends with the I. D. S. Now, if you notice there are loads of why words that don't do the i e. S. For example, here we have ways, But if you know it, notice there's a vowel and then a consummate. And that's why you can just keep it with the simple s spending for ways. The same thing with days. There's a ball and then the white. So it's just a simple one. Um, so I kind of keep that in mind. There's gonna be a few exceptions, but not too many and naturally will have the irregular construction of plural words. Someone's. You'll have the double 02 double E construction, which includes foot, feet, two teeth and the birds, a goose and Aggies. You'll also have the to be change, so life lives, knife, knives and leaf leaves, and generally that's the rule. But there are some exceptions. For example, the F doesn't change in beliefs, not in the noun form. Um, you'll notice that there's a verb form of belief that is to believe, which is ending with a V E. But when it comes to the now of belief in both forms, it will stay with the F at the end, also with roof roof roofs. Um, with cooks like a chef. Chefs. You also are probably familiar with man men woman, woman, a person, people, child Children, mouse mice and the words that say the same. Both in singular an m plural form such as fish and many fish, sheep and a lot of sheep. So let's practice. Let's use some of these now owns and contacts. Repeat after me. My belief is that Santa Claus is real. Now repeat my belief. He has many beliefs about how I should live my life. Many beliefs my life. He has many beliefs about how we should live our lives, our lives. I like a sandwich. Please. We like four sandwiches, please. Four sandwiches. Have you seen my wife? Have you seen our wives? Our wives? Our book is on the shelf. Our books are on the shelves. Those shelves. I like a loaf of bread. We like to loaves of bread loaves. He's a nice person. They are nice people. I hurt my foot while running. I hurt my feet while running. All right, So now what I like you to do is test your ability to spell these plural constructions of mountains. So I'll give your word. And I like you to write down with pen and paper. What's the correct way to spell thes plural forms? OK, so one we have one tomato. How would you describe four that would be tomatoes with the E s at the end bus? How would you write bus as a plural form? I'd be buses with E s ending fry as in French fry. How would you make fry a plural form that be fries with the I. E. S ending? How would you make woman a plural form? That would be ah, woman with a m e in Indy Day. How would you make day plural? That would simply be days adding a s at the end half. How would you make half plural? That would be halves that will be adding a B E s ending and changing out the F for a V. E s party. How would you make party plural? That would be adding up. I e us ending bunch as in a bunch of bananas. How would you make much plural? That would be Bunches Bunches of bananas 5. Writing 4 Articles: Now, in this lesson, we're gonna discuss how to use articles in your writing articles are the little words like a an MBA that modify. And now now, for many English language students, using articles can be easy because they use the same articles in their own language. However, there are several languages that do not use articles in their grammatical structure, so it can be harder for those people toe learn articles. And that's why I went to cover it here now, in English, every now requires some type of modifier, whether it be a possessive now or on article, like a or the um, we always need something to modify. And now so in this lesson, will review, um, the most popular articles. So a are an is our first article. It's used Teoh describe usually one object so you can say a book, a bunch of bananas, or if you use a word that starts with a vow, you would use an So you have an elephant or an animal. So if you look at this bookcase, her bookshelf, you can say, Could you please pass me a book? That means give me any one of these books that are on the shelf now the article the is a little bit more specific that is used to describe one or more specific objects. So I could say Pass me the book, meaning that we both know what book I want. I want a particular book and not just any of the books on the shelves. So if I say pass me the Red Book, I'm talking about this book right here. Or I could say Pass me the books on the third shelf and that will be all the books on this shelf. So when you're using that, it could be the book, the books, the bunch of bananas, but is referring to a specific group off items. So in your writing, when you're using, you'll use the article. A Teoh introduce a new object are a new, um, items in your writing. And then after that, after you introduce a word, then you can describe that word with the article. The So, for example, I saw a dog in the park the dog had golden for so as you see, I introduce the now the IDM a dog by using the indefinite article of A and then I describe the dog by using the definite article. The the same with this example in the woods by the lake. There's a willow tree. I love to sit under the willow tree and read a book. So here, um, the sentence is introducing ah willow tree. And then they describe the particular willow tree and read a book. It could be any book. So they read several different books under this Will A tree? No. When you're using propositions. Um, propositions are the small words that describe the relationships between words. So if you use propositions, usually you're gonna have to use an article in between the proposition and then now. So, for example, look in the book for the answer. So repeat that after me look in the book for the answer. It's on the table. Repeat. It's on the table. Repeat after me. Stand by the car, walk to the store. He thinks of nothing except the party. The planes fly over the aviation festival. Now, in case you don't know, aviation is anything involving airplanes, helicopters, anything that flies mechanically. So repeat after me. Aviation. Repeat, the planes fly over the aviation festival. Good. So But there are times when you're not going to use articles. For example, with any pro mountains pronounce modify enough that you don't need a article as well. So pronounce would be things like this that they're these and those so examples would be. Meet me over there. I keep my money in this walk toward those lights and you'll see it. No articles air needed on those types of seats sentences. And also, when you have ah, a possessive word on those words Don't require articles e ver. So where it's like his her your are in there. So in your bedroom no article is needed on his head again. No article is needed with these types of propositions and freezes. The exception to this rule is the proposition of okay, so of may or may not require on article. It depends on how you're using the proposition off. Okay, so this happens usually, Um, you won't need an article when the noun zehr describing me Trevor like adjectives, for example, able of cereal. So that's describing what's inside the bowl. So it's kind of like an adjective in a way, and for that reason you don't need an article, plus the a kind of takes care of it already. Also the man of steel. That's what we describe Superman is so you wouldn't meet to save the man of the steel. Maybe the man of steel, however, of Does report choir an article when you're describing a small piece of an object, a small piece of the whole, for example, the words of a sentence. So the words make up a sentence. So you're describing a small piece of the whole sentence, a piece of the puzzle. So you're describing a small piece of, Ah, whole big puzzle, the flavor of the pizza. So you're describing a small taste in the whole pizza and also in job titles. For example, the president of the Night United States. The Justice of the Peace. So they'll be several job titles that still use the after of. But now it's your turn. Let's try to test your knowledge of these articles, so but I want you to do is to get a pen and paper and write down the correct article For each question. Your answer choices will be a an the are not applicable, meaning that you don't need an article in this particular case, right? So let's try it. So every day I walk to blank park right down, whoever or not an article should be there and which article it should be. Every day I walked to Blank Park, the answer would be the every day I walked to the park. Repeat after me. Every day I walked to the park, the next one. There are always a lot of blank people write down whether or not not an article should be there. The answer is not act portable, meaning that no article is needed for this one. So repeat after me. There are always a lot of people. There are always a lot of people. Next one, I usually brain blank sucker ball with me. Write down whether or not an article is needed. The answer could be a or the It depends on the context. So if I say I usually bring a soccer ball with me, that means I have several soccer balls at home and I'll bring one of them with me. But it doesn't really matter which one I bring. If I say I bring the soccer ball with me, that means I only have one soccer ball. And for every time I go to the park, I only bring that one same exact soccer ball with me every single time it becomes the SEC Ribble this soccer ball when it's the only one, the special one. All right, let's go to the next one and I bring blank bag of blank food for lunch. Please write down if an article is needed. Okay, so I bring a bag of food so the 1st 1 would be a An article is needed. But after that, no article is needed. A bag of food. So repeat after me and I bring a bag of food for lunch. Okay? Our next question. Then I go to blank library right down. If article is needed and the answer is the then I go to the library in order to find blank book right down. If article is needed, the answer would be a. In order to find a book the next one, The librarian at blank front desk always has good book suggestions right down. If our article is needed, the answer would be the The librarian at the front desk always has good books. Suggestions repeat after being repeat that sentence for me. Okay? Our next question. When she's not there, I searched for books One blank computer right down. If the article is needed, the answer there would be the when she is not there I searched for books on the computer Next one I like books of blank nonfiction The best right down if article is needed No, on this one article is not needed So I like books of nonfiction The best repeat after me And if you didn't know nonfiction are books that are like academic books that air trying Teoh teach you something. Fiction means novels. Books that are about stories that are not riel and nonfiction are about true events, true stories and information for your reference. All right, when I find blank item that I like, I'll check it out. And here the answer could be an or the and just means when I find any object that I like, I would check it up. Or if you find a particular object, either one could work on this particular sentence. All right, well, that's everything for this article Review. So review the handout for Ferber practice and happy practicing 6. Writing 5 Subject Verb Agreement: So in this riding lesson, we're gonna talk about subject verb agreement and the present tense. There are two ways to make the present tense. You can make it with the simple present, such as I walk to the store or with the present continuous I am walking into the store and the present continuous form is the most common way to make the present tense in English. So the present continuous is used most often to talk about things that are happening right now. Currently, it's made by conjugating the verb to be, um and then putting that i n g. At the end of the verb, for example, I am reading. You are studying. He she it is working. We are eating. They are exercising. That is the present continuous form, the most common way to use the present tense in English. You also have the simple present tense, which is used to talk about what you do regularly, like your habits and also used to talk about general truths. Truths like the sky is blue. I go for a walk every afternoon. That's a habit so you don't use the simple present. He works in Los Angeles and general truths like success comes from hard work. Sounds much better in the simple present tense than saying success is coming from hard work . That's because, uh, its success doesn't come right now. This second, if that makes sense, So you want to speak more generally in the present tense. You also use the simple present tense to give instructions or directions. Eso I could say walk two blocks and then turn left. But the most common mistake English learners make is they forget to put an s in the third person singular form of the simple present tense. See? Wanna remember that singular equals and s ending, For example, You can see on this chart in the first person Singular. I walk. I do. I have. I am, I think, and pretty much all of the verbs are the same. You walk, do have our think the same as we you all and they. But when we get to the third person signal where all the verbs Adam s at the end. So he walks that does it has the car is the dog thinks and this goes for all third person singular verbs. So it could also be mounds like that is this is the businesses. The company does, uh, mounds like that. A lot of times, English learners forget that a certain now is 1/3 person singular now. And they forget to make the subject and the verb agree. So I wanted to draw your attention to that. So we're going to try to do a little extra sides with ease. So what I'll to is, I'll say a sentence. And I like you to change that sentence into the third person singular for so the sentence can include any of the following subjects. He, she, it an animal or anything. Okay. For example, I could say we are happy to see you now. You want to change that to the third person? Singular. So that would be He is happy to see you. Another example would be I move around a lot. So if you change that to the third person singular form, it would be the cat moves around a lot. So I just put any third person singular now and that spot so I can work one. My subject verb agreement here. So now let's try it. 1st 1 you smile All the time. Change that into the third person singular form. Um, one example. Could be. He smiles all the time. Next one, they dance beautifully. How would you change that to third person? Singular. One option. She dances beautifully. Next way. Where do we meet them? How would you change that? One to the third person? Singular. Where does he meet them? Next one. They hit the wall. How would you change that one? It could be. The bus hits the wall. Wonderful. So now we'll try it with a little bit more challenging vocabulary. The next one I collide into the wall. How would you change that to third person? Singular. That would be. The motorcycle collides into the wall. Okay, we unleash a new video every week. How would you change that to third person? Singular. One option would be she unleashes a new video every week. The I T guys adjust our computer settings every quarter. How would you change that into third person? Singular. The I T guy Adjust our computer settings every quarter, so this one could be a little bit tricky. You can see Guiza's puro, so when you have a plural mound, it's just a singular verb adjust. But when you have the third person singular noun of guy one guy you dio s and Dane on the verb adjust in the third person. Next flip. If you trigger the alarm, the police will come. How would you change that into the third person? Singular. That would be if he triggers the alarm. The police will come. All right. And let's try that with the present continuous form as well, Right? Next one. I'm calling you about work. How would you change that one Into the third person Singular form be. The chairman is calling you about work. So he is calling you about work. Next one. We are managing a small firm of 10 people. How would you change that one? Our bus is managing a small form of 10 people. They're causing a lot of trouble in school. How would you change that one? The boy is causing a lot of trouble in school. These medications are saving lives. How would you change that one? This medication is saving lives. So let's review the little bit of a cabbie. Larry, we had Teoh collide. Uh, polite is a verb. I said collide for me and collide means Teoh hit something. So a car accident is when two cards collide. All right. We also had unleash a leash. Means toe Let go of something are to release something say unleash for me on example, the man unleashed his dog in the park, letting the dog run free. Next one is a just say adjust. For me, adjust is a verb meaning to change by a small amount. So I could say please adjust the volume. The sound is too loud. We also talked about I t or information technology. I t is a now relating to the maintenance of computers and telecommunications and a school office company. Uh, so, for example, you can say that computer is running slow. Maybe I should call I t quarter In this context that we use with this lesson quarter is a noun meaning 1/4 of the year or three months. What are your sales goal for this quarter? And Leslie Trigger trigger is a verb, meaning to start something to initiate something or toe, activate something like toe, activate the alarm. An example sentence would be their complaint triggered dramatic policy changes. All right, Well, that's everything for this lesson. Please check out the hand out so you can keep practicing your subject verb agreement as well as the vocabulary that we covered. All right, keep practicing, guys. 7. Writing 6 Using Transition Words: in this writing lesson will be using transition words. Our goal is to learn how to use thes transition words to organize your thoughts clearly and respond to complex questions easily. So you will use thes transition words and at work, for example, with job interviews, any business meetings where you have to respond to the director's questions and any emails as well. Also, it could be used with college entrance exams when you have to write essays and explain your ideas clearly on the told full, Are I else you? It used the's transition words to do it and with any social conversations as well. So the transition words that I want to discuss today include one. I never in addition, however, for example, and in conclusion, but usually you'll only use the last one and conclusion informal writing and in your essays . So you'll commonly use thes when people ask you to compare the good and bad aspects of something so some good synonyms, a synonym is, ah, word that is, um, two words that are similar. So some good synonyms would include advantages, prose, benefits and strips. Some bad aspects are bad. Synonyms would be disadvantages comes obstacles, hindrances and weaknesses. So sometimes you'll hear people ask What are the advantages and disadvantages of going with this company? Or they'll might say, What are the pros and cons of relocating to a different country? What are the benefits and obstacles to moving and what are your strengths and weaknesses in this build? So there's several different, um, ways that these questions will come up, and I just want to make sure that you're comfortable with responding to this type of question. So one example would be like on a discussion question. If it asks you what are the advantages and disadvantages of running a home versus owning the home buying in the home? So one response would be, I believe one advantage of buying Ah house is that you have more freedom to decorate and renovate the home, however you like. Another benefit is that once you pay off your mortgage, then you don't have to make any more payments. You can live rent free. In addition, owning a house can be a good at that investment. In a strong economy, when you sell a house, you can earn a profit. However, owning a house has some disadvantages, too. For example, you are responsible for pain for all the repairs, which can get very expensive if it involves repairing the roof, plumbing or heating an electrical fixtures. So, as you concede, this is one way Teoh respond to a question like this. Um, it's just one short paragraph where you put and each sentence has a transition word in it. So the first sentence has one second schism sentence, has a number and goes in addition, however, and then, for example, um, you could use this both in writing and and speaking again when you're speaking, you'll hardly ever use and conclusion. Just so you know, now you can use thes and longer essays as well. So, for example, what you would do is use each transition word as the beginning of the paragraph. An example of that is, I believe one advantage of buying a house is that you have more freedom to decorate and renovate your home. However you like, you do not have a landlord toe limit you so you can paint remodel tear down walls without getting permission. In this way, when you buy a house, you can more easily display your personal style, as opposed to when you rent an apartment. Another benefit of buying a house is that your house payment is temporary. Most home mortgages can be paid over 15 to 30 years, meaning after that time, the home owner can live rent free for the rest of his life. Living rent free can make retirement significantly easy year and as a good long term strategy for obtaining wealth. So as you can see in this essay, I used each transition word at the beginning of the paragraph, and I could continue to make this essay longer. If I had more to say about the benefits of home ownership, I could continue with 1/3 paragraph here saying, In addition, these are also some great aspects of home on ownership. Or I could skip directly to the, however, and give the disadvantages of home ownership. And I would say, however, honing Owning a home also has challenges because of the costs of upkeep. For example, um, pain for a new air conditioning unit can be very expensive. So in conclusion, I believe that in the long term, home ownership is the ideal for the average person, and that's how you would use you would just keep on expanding on the essay in that way and really give, um, thoroughly responses that your examiners and your, um, questioners are really wanting to see if you're able to dio, right? So now it's your turn for homework. I like you did complete writing us that assignment just like this one. Answering the following question. What are the advantages and disadvantages of driving to work or school versus taking public transportation like a bus or a train toe, work or school? All right, so it can just be a paragraph, but I want you to use the transition words one another. In addition, however, and, for example, to express your ideas clearly, all right, as always, happy practicing. 8. Writing 7 Emails: in this writing lesson, we're gonna talk about writing e mails in this lesson will cover tips for writing clear emails to your co workers, managers, customers and teachers. We'll talk about what to put in the subject line of your email. Greetings of how to say hello the body, which is the main part of your email, how to close it out and your signature. So the most important thing to remember when writing an email is that you want to keep it short and to the point. The job of a email is to be productive. You have a certain goal when you write an email and you want to get straight to that goal. And people really appreciated when your e mails are short into the point, because it helps them with their day as well to accomplish more things. So always write your emails with a goal in mind. Be goal oriented. So two of the most common goals when writing an email is to inform somebody about something , meaning that you just want to give somebody information, and the ever goal usually is to request action. You request them to do something to fill something out or toe? Ask a question. So we'll talk about both ways to either in form. Somebody are to request somebody take action for you. So in the subject line, you want to mention your goal? Um, it can be. If you want to inform somebody, you would save Mark your calendars. Save the date. This workshop is coming up for this training or this event is coming. You can also inform somebody about a project so you would put in the subject line update on the Waverley project or whatever the project name is. This is helpful because when you have a project name in your email, if somebody ever needs to go back a month from now and try to find your email, they can search the project name and be able to easily, far in your emails. You can also inform people that a project is completed or a project is still laid. Either way, you would want to put that in the subject line. Um, Teoh request them to take action, for example, if you need to schedule a meeting with someone about something, you would want to put that into the subject line, scheduling a meeting about that duck dot whatever it's about, um requesting messing data correction again. I want people to take action, so I wanna put an action word in it. A verb like requesting lets people know from the subject line that they need to take action on something. Please complete this. Require training also helps people know right away. Please complete Lets them know that they need Teoh. Take action and do something with this email. Also, if you have one thing that answer a question you can say question about the software project marketing eso You haven't put what your question is about s o they get some idea what they're gonna be responding to. So when you're saying how low to the person, if you've never met the person before, um or in real life you use their title. For example, if you always call somebody Mr Smith, if you always call somebody Dr Johnson in real life, you would want to greet them formally. So you would always use the recipients last name and their title. Usually, uh, Mr Smith. Miss Rogers. Mrs Rogers. Dr. Lawrence. Hello, Professor Black. Hello is still considered formal. Um, dear Dr sharp, you can say dear a swell, Um, and that's perfectly formal and correct. You can also say how low everyone if you're addressing more than one person on your email. And if you're unsure if this person isn't a doctor, for example, and if this person you're not sure if they're male or female instead of making a mistake with the Mr or Mrs go ahead and use their full name. So Dear Sydney Brown, for example, it's hard to know with a name like Sydney, whether it's a male or a female, so you would go ahead and just put their full name. And that's a way to get out of making an error when you formally greet somebody and it's still formal. So in formal greetings, we would save mostly things like Hi. Hi, John, using first names. Hey, John is okay as well. Hi, everyone. Um, if you're addressing more than one person, you can also say, Oh, our good morning as well is nice. Good morning, everyone. So, once you greet, you'll gettinto your the body of the email. If you don't know the recipient, you wanna introduce yourself by saying hello? My name is Kendra and I work with such and such what you introduce yourself. If your goal is to inform the recipient of something, you should, Right. I wanted to let you know I wanted to let you know about the workshop. I wanted to let you know about the update on the Waverley project. Um, that's a good way to get into the email about informing somebody of something. If you want to request your recipient to take action, though. You were right. Things like I'm writing regarding, um, you finishing your training? I'm writing regarding a question I had on. And that's a good way to get into asking somebody to do something in your email. You could also say, could you please answer? Could you please complete? Could you please schedule a meeting? Could you please correct this document? All of these would be a good way to request action out of your recipient. However, if you wanna, um, requests more than three questions if you're going to inform somebody about more than three things, you wanna put those things into a bullet points just like you see the bullet points here and really makes the email easy to read and easy to respond to because they can respond very quickly to three bullet points where it's it's harder toe. Understand what you want. If you write down everything in sentences, remember, emails should be short and precise. So if you want to do more than three things in an email, try to put it in bullet points right at the end of the body. Words of thanks and appreciation are always nice. You can say things like, I appreciate your time and consideration. I would appreciate it. I would appreciate it if you completed this. I would appreciate it if you do this right and to close out, you can use things like many things. Have a good day. Have a great week. Kind regards. Best regards. Thanks. And thanks so much. All of these work to close out the email nicely. Your signature. You want to include your full name and job title usually, um, company name and any contact information you want your recipient to have, including your company address, phone number, email website. So, for example, you would have Joanne Donald. Marketing and promotion for Easy T productions have the person's address, phone number and email below. So let's give an example. Email. So, in this example, we're gonna have the subject line be before your appointment. This lecture recipient know that they need to do something before their appointment. So hello, Mr Lamarr. My name is James Roberts, and I worked with Dr Aronson at Shank Hospital. I'm writing regarding your upcoming appointment. Could you please complete the attached paperwork before your appointment? We would appreciate it. Best regards James Roberts, patient service coordinator. Xiang Hospital. So this helps the recipient know what this person does at their location, and it helps them to be able to respond better and trust you more with the email. Um, and see how Mr Lamarr doesn't know James Roberts. So James Roberts introduced himself to make the recipient feel more comfortable. Say my name is and I work with helps a lot. Then he wants to request information. So he says, I'm writing regarding your upcoming appointment. So we now know what we're talking about. And then we go in and ask for the question. The thing we want to get done. Could you please a polite way of asking Could you please complete the attached paperwork before your appointment and we end with words of things and appreciation. We would appreciate it. Best regards for the closing and then a signature. I never example would be your annual contract renewal in the subject line. Let's the person know exactly what we're gonna be talking about. Hello, Dr. Sam's writing formally, I'm writing regarding your annual contract renewal. Please complete the following tasks to ensure that your contract is renewed again this year . Okay, so on this one, uhm, they're requesting more than three things. So he put in bullet points the demographic page, the conflict of interest form and the annual evaluation. This helps Dr Sam's know exactly what he needs to do very easily and quickly as well. And with words of appreciation. I really appreciate your time and attention to this manner. So to review, try to keep your email short and to the point use bullet points if you need to ask more than three questions. So you make your email very clear into the point. You can use things like, um, I'm writing regarding I'm writing to let you know and end with words of appreciation. I would really appreciate it. We would really appreciate your time and attention. Well, that's everything for this writing lesson. I really hope these tips help you write your emails a lot easier. Review that. Hand out for further practice and happy practicing. 9. Thinking in English Exercise: So in this speaking lesson, we're gonna practice thinking in English now when learning English. The biggest study mistake many English learners make is translating everything from English into their native language. Now, I suggest that you do not do that because it simply takes too long, and it causes you to miss words while you're in laments of translating. So, for example, if you have a person in front of you speaking English by the time you translate what they say you could miss the next sentence are the next phrase that they said. Therefore, you're always gonna be lagging behind. You're always gonna be missing something now to get in an English Onley frame of mine. I want you to start commenting on everything that you're doing in English. So that goes from like when you get up in the morning and you're like we came up. It's morning, and I want you to comment on everything you do. Say, I'm getting out of bed. I'm going to the bathroom. I'm going to brush my teeth. I'm gonna call my here. I'm going to make breakfast. I'm going to work or I'm going to school. I'm gonna work on this project. I'm going to work on this essay. Um, and then if something happens during your day that you don't know how toe translate are you don't know the words for in English. I want you to write those things down. So, for example, if you're working at work or if you're writing a paper and your computer freezes are stops working and you don't know the word for that in English, write that down. And at the end of the day, I want you to translate all those words. So at the end of the day, you should have a list of words you didn't understand or didn't know how to say, and then translate them all at the end. All right, so I want you to continue thinking and commenting in English for a full week of full seven days, and this process is gonna help you speed up your vocabulary Recall. And what I mean by that is that words you don't frequently use go to the back of your mind and there in that rarely used section, and they're kind of hard to think of and to remember when it's time to use you may even think of of, um, you may even think of the words five minutes later, but for whatever reason, you can't think of the correct English word when you want to use it. This is because it's used so infrequently. So our goal by thinking that English is to bring all these unused words to the front of your mind so that you can recall them more easily. So for your homework assignment, in addition to this thinking in English, I want you to also make a recording of yourself speaking English. So you're gonna go to the new york times dot com R n y times dot com and pick out an article there to read. I like you to make a recording of yourself reading that article out loud. Now you don't have to read the whole article. Um, but just read to our three minutes of the article and order to get a good sample of how you're reading and whether you're reading things smoothly and easily, or if it's still a challenge for you. Now I like you to replay the recording back to yourself and then listen for any mispronunciation of words and listen for hesitations, and you're speaking now both things or signs that you're speaking. Proficiency is not quite where you want it to be yet. So if you have trouble with mispronunciations, you can go to the website dictionary that reference dot com in order to verify pronunciation there. Um, but if you have trouble with hesitations, that means you're reading the word and you don't quite know how toe say it. So you're bringing pauses. It processes what it's seen. It tries to sound it out, and then it can finally respond. So what it, it means, is you use this word so, um frequently that it is taking you a long time to process it and use it. It's still in the back of your mind. So for those types of words, I like you to repeat those problem words five times a piece. That way, it goes from being unfree, quickly used at the back of your mind to coming to the front of your mind and being a more frequently used word. So remember, it's all about quality. With this come from master here, be satisfied with errors and her technique. She wouldn't want to be slow or sluggish or hesitate on any movements because that's not how you become a master. So in order, Teoh, be a master with English, try to do the same thing, really listen to where you are now and work on repeating these words and phrases until you master them and they come out smoothly and fluently. The same with this musician. Would she be satisfied with having mistakes, playing false notes or being on the wrong time as everybody else at a concert? No, she rehearsed, until she's able toe play everything fluidly and smoothly. So to recap what you're gonna do this week, you're gonna think in English and comment when everything that you're doing in English for the next seven days write down any words that you can't think of in English and then translate them once a day into English? Okay, then I like you to record yourself reading an English article out loud, listen to the recording and try to find any problem areas on and repeat those problem areas five times apiece. But that's everything for this lesson. Happy practicing 10. Using Superlatives: In this speaking lesson, we're gonna do a repetition drill with superlatives so that we can work on Mac grammatical structure. So we're going to first review the superlative construction. Then we'll complete the repetition drill to practice this structure and get it into your working memory. So what is a superlative? It's a type of agit of form that's used to compare now owns so used to compare two different objects into different things. An example would be I have a big house. So in this example, Big is a regular adjective. Now, if we're going to compare two different houses and say my house is bigger than your house, that is a comparative adjective. So by adding the ending E. R to the word were making it a comparative adjective. And if you say my house is the biggest, that means of all the house is my house is the most large. It is the biggest one. So as you can see below, we have a We have a big house, a bigger house and the biggest house. All right, so there's many different regular superlatives, and we'll start with tall. So he's tall. He's taller. He's the tallest notice Normal adjective at a e. R at a E S t and never won. He's smart, He's smarter. He's the smartest, He's hot, he's hotter. He's the hottest. And on certain adjectives, like at it adjectives that with tea and with G like hot and big, they're gonna double the continents. So if you notice here, Hotter has doubled the teas. And if you notice on the last page bigger doubles the G's you have Wendy. When Dear Wendy Iss. Now, if you notice this has a continent, why ending? Do you remember when we were doing our writing exercise with, um, doing plural Z and how the continent and why takes a i. E. S ending? Same rules apply here. Once you change it to the comparison form, it'll become on I e. R ending and that i e s t ending and another regular one would be old, older, oldest. Some common irregular superlatives would be for good and well, so you can say I'm good. I'm well, I'm better. I'm the best. He's bad. He's worse. He is the worst. The the theater is far the houses fervor. The museum is the bar vist now There are several out adjectives that don't use this, um, superlative form. Instead, they'll add the words more and look at the word most before the adjective to describe it. So, for example, beautiful, Um beautiful does not work with beautiful earth and beautiful ist. People would understand what you're saying, but it would be a very amusing answer for them. Teoh, hear you say that. So you want to say, Um, she's beautiful. She's more beautiful. She is the most beautiful. It's important. This is more important. This is the most important. He is popular. He's more popular. He's the most popular and this is delicious. This is more delicious, and this is the most delicious. So let's work on repeating these things. I like you to repeat the following sentences after me and try to remember the SILLUP these , um, superlative structures for your future use in your speaking, of course, try to mimic my time, main and accent so that it also helps to improve your speaking quality there. So let's get started. The movie last night was really bad. Was it worse than far away? Yes, it was the worst movie I've ever seen. I'm good I'm finally getting over the flu. Glad to hear that you're feeling better. Thanks. You're the best. I like to buy spaghetti because it's cheap and you can do a lot with it. Rahman is even cheaper. True, I think Rahman is the cheapest food ever. You look beautiful tonight. Thanks. Do you think I'm more beautiful than a supermodel? I think you are the most beautiful woman in the world. Heartwarming. I know that box looks heavy. It is heavier than the others, and you're stronger than me, so please help. Sure, it's the heaviest box here. It's late. I better take a shower and get going. You'll be even later. If you do that, yes, this will be the latest I've ever been for a party. It's a serious problem. It's more serious than before is the most serious problem that our company has faced to date. 11. Speaking of the Past: in this English speaking lesson, we're gonna be talking about the past. Our goal is to review to common forms of the past tense and to learn how to talk about your past education and job history for homework. I'll be asking you to make a recording of yourself speaking about your pass, and for that you can use your cell phone if you have a voice recorder app on it. You can also use your camera, digital camera or voicemail. But the most common mistakes English learners make once using the past tense is they Forget Teoh. Use it consistently. They may start, Ah, one sentence speaking in past tense and then as they go on, they stop using that and they go back to the present tense. And this makes they're writing, and they're speaking a little bit difficult to understand now. Also, forget about regular past tense forms, so they may put a e. D at the end of a verb that should not have a e d ending. So we're going to review some of these forms so we can practice and improve this grammar technique. So the most common ways to use the past tense in English include the simple past tense and the present perfect with the past participle. Um, a lot of times thes two forms of the past tense are interchangeable, meaning you can use either one and still be understood. These two forms just have different emphasis. The simple past shows that something starts and finishes in the past. It's a completed action, such as I graduated from high school or secondary school in 2000. I received my bachelor's degree, which is a four year degree in 2000 and four. The present, perfect with the past participle, starts in the past and usually continues for some time. So it's not a simple one time event. It's something that you've done continuously usually, um, something that happens more than once, and it's a wayto list your past experiences. It's a way to show the results of the past. Also, if you use any adverbs, things like never, ever already. Yet whenever you use the adverb like that in the middle of the sentence, you have to use the present perfect tense in order to describe that. So some examples. I have done computer programming for five years, so here we're talking about experiences, and we're talking about something that's happening more than once. This happened in the past, but it's continuous Over the last five years, Um, he has already studied English for 10 years, so you see that already is being unused. It's an adverb, so we would use the present perfect tense with this adverb. Also, he has studied for 10 years that happened in the past, but it's continuing over a long period of time. It's continuing more than once, so we would use the present Perfect. Also, I have never tried sushi before, so technically, this has never happened before. I've never eaten sushi before. I'm talking about my past experience, and I'm using the advert. So because of that, I would use the present perfect. So in the simple past tense, the verb will stay the same and all forms, including the 1st 2nd 3rd person, singular and plural. So we have the verb to go. I went, You went, he or she went. We went. They went with regular verbs. You'll simply add an E. D to the ending. So yesterday I walked to the park. This weekend we danced all night at the wedding now of regular verbs. Sometimes it's hard for English Mourners to hear that e d. Ending When you have ah, word like Walk that ends with a K ending The e d kind of turns to a t. It's like it's it's a unveil voice sound meaning and all I'm doing is pushing out a little bit of extra air. Walked what? It sounds more like a t really than a e d. And that's because the last letter of walk is a K so the e d can. A train turns into a T a little bit on a regular verb like danced, danced. It does maintain that d sound, and you're kind of putting a little the that one does have a little bit of, ah, voice sound. So it's walked. Walk the walk the All right, So some more regular verbs cooked you would have Ah, I cooked you to cooked. He cooked, we cooked, they cooked and in the present, perfect with the past participle. Remember the I you we they all use the have half court and just in the third person singular, he she he she has quote right. We also have talked have talked. He she has talked. Now we'll talk about the irregular past tense verbs, and there's quite a few of, um, there three groups of a regular past tense verbs. You'll have the hybrid verbs that could end with E. D or whiffed. He You'll have verbs that don't change in the past tense at all. And then you'll have verbs that are completely ill regular, like you saw with the verb to go changing to went all right. Hybrid verbs. As I mentioned, they could end any D or with tea in the past tips. So we have verbs like to burn, which could be burned or burnt so it could be I have burned or he has burnt. Either way, it would work to dream, dreamed drafts toe learn, learned alert to smell, smelled smelt and to spell spelled spoked. So some examples. He burned his hand on the stove. I burnt the soup. I dreamed of you last night. I dreamt of winning a $1,000,000 last night. I learned a lot at that workshop. I learnt a lot from that teacher. The garbage smelled really bad. The sewer smelt horrible. Okay, the next group of irregular verbs are those firms that stay the same in the present and in the past. So we have verbs like to bet, cost cuts, hit, hurt. Let put quit Read to read is tricky, even though the spelling stays the same in the past tense, we pronounce read as red like the color red. So you would say in the past tense last night I read a book. You read a book? He read a book. We read a book. They read a book. The pronunciation changes, but the spelling stays the same. Also set shuts, split and spread. Also, you want to keep in mind that in the present tense, the third person singular of these verbs is still he hits the ball. But in the past tense, you would say he hit the ball. So you remove. That s making shorts the past tense in the third person. Singular. But the most common mistake I say English learners make with these types of verbs is they put a e d at the end of these verbs. So when they write about a break up our talk about a break up, they would say we split it up and it really hurted me. And this is incorrect. One thes particular verbs You will not at a e d. You would leave them in their infinitive form. So the correct way to put these in the past tense would be we split up last year and it really hurt me. All right. And now for the irregular past tense verbs, there are a lot of these. So you want to make sure you're downloading the handout and reviewing them thoroughly? We'll talk about a few of them, though, and then practice with a little quiz in a bit. So we'll start with two a rice. So in the past tense, you it put a rose, have arisen or has arisen to be is always a little irregular. So you can say I waas he waas So the first person and the third person singular used waas Um And then for you were we were they were says a second person singular And then 1st 2nd and third person plural uses were right. We also have, uh, have been or has been to begin would be it began. It has begun. We can also say to bring something I brought food to the party. He has brought food to the party. Um, to buy something. I bought a gift for your birthday. He has bought a gift for your birthday. I came to see you. We have come to see you. I did my homework. He has done his homework. I ate lunch already. He has already eaten lunch. Oh, right. Some moral regular ones. There's a lot to work with here so we can say things like, um Teoh give You gave him good advice. You have given him good advice. I'm to go. We went to the movies yesterday. We have gone to the movies this week to make We may take this weekend. We have made a cake this year. We can review words like to say I He said he was coming with us. Um, he has said that he's coming with us to sing. I sang with the choir this weekend. Um, they have some with the choir this year and we have to take I took math this year. I have taken math as my major this year to right. I wrote to her last night. He has written to her every day for a year. All right, so now let's practice a few of those. Um, I want you to put the following sentences into the simple pass and into the present. Perfect. Okay. So, for example, if I say I am sending three email in the present tense, how would you put that into the past? Well, you would say I sent the email and now asked, how would you put that into the present? Perfect. It would be. I have sent the email. All right, so let's try that together. Next one. We split the bill between us. Put this into the simple pass. It would be We split the bill between us. All right? Remember, there are certain verbs that do not change and will not add a e d in the past tense. And now put this into the present. Perfect. We have split the bill between us. Okay? They take the test this morning. Um, put this into the simple pass. That would be they took the test this morning. And now the present perfect. That would be they have taken the test this morning, right? I eat lunch at noon. Change this to the simple pass. I ate lunch at noon. Now change it and to the present. Perfect. I have eaten lunch at noon. Great. Next one. The phone rings all day. Change that to the simple pass. The phone rang all day And now try to change this into the present. Perfect. The phone has rung all day. This one he writes a blunk change this into the simple pass. He wrote a block. Now change this into the present. Perfect. He has written a block. All right, so now that we practice the past tense a little bit, we're gonna talk about our education and job history, so I'll give you a little bit of my job. History is an example. So my name is Kendra. I grew up in Detroit, Michigan. I finished my bachelor's two great in 2000 and four. I have worked as a coal center representative where I learned how to provide excellent customer service in a timely fashion. However, this was not my passion. So I found another job as a clinical trials assistant at a local medical center There, I learned how to interact with patients and conduct study procedures. I have enjoyed this field greatly so far, I've worked on 12 different studies and have been promoted three times because of my ability to lead a team, effectively trained new employees and meat department goals. When I'm introducing myself, I use the present tense. But after that, every sentence includes the past tense. I want to be consistent in my writing and my speaking. And I've used both the simple past and the present perfect to express myself. Um, I used the present perfect to talk about my experiences and other jobs I've done on and things that happened. More than once. I have worked on 12 different studies. I really enjoyed this, meaning that I enjoyed it for a long period of time. It's not something that happened once and was done. So now it's your turn. I like you to make a voice recording of yourself, using the past tense and disgusting, your education and your job history. What degrees do you have? Do you have a high school diploma or a secondary school certificate? Do you have an associates degree, which is a two year degree? Are a bachelor's degree, which is a four years? Do great are a master's degree or a doctorate degree. What jobs have you done? What skills did you learn on these jobs? What computer skills do you have? Do you have special on programs that you could use that other people may not know? What language skills do you have? Discuss how long you've been speaking other languages, including English and your native language. So, to Redcap, be sure to review the attach handout on all those different past tense forms and practice the simple past tense as well as the present perfect tense so that your able to use those easily and fluidly record yourself speaking about your past education and job history. Then listen to the recording. Write down any words that you had trouble pronouncing are where you have long pauses, hesitations or where you make errors. Repeat those problem areas five times in order to practice and improve the quality of your speaking, Um, and I would recommend you repeat this exercise every week until you're finally able to discuss your education and your job history fluidly and easily. Uh, this is gonna come up very often when you go on a school interview, a job interview, and also when you meet new people. Um, a lot of times and professional environments when you're meeting new people, you're always discussing your past experiences, the knowledge that you have, and you want to be able to do that with confidence when you're meeting new people. So it is in your best interest to keep practicing. Keep rehearsing this until when you listen to your recording. You feel very confident and very happy with how you're speaking. Well, that's everything for this lesson. Take the quiz to test your knowledge of thes past tense forms and happy practicing. 12. Speaking of the Future: So in this lesson, we're going to work on speaking about the future. In order to do that, we're going to review the future tense. And we're gonna do some repetition with some verb conjugation zin the future tense. Um, and we're also gonna use the future tense in your homework assignment. So for the future tense, it can be expressed several different ways. You have both the simple future where you say things like I will travel. Ah, you will travel, he will travel. So all you do is you use the auxiliary verb will in order to change, um, any verb into the future. But you can also create the future tense by using the present continuous form of verbs. And how that works is you're going to be saying things like, I'm going to travel to China next month. He's traveling to Spain next year, and we're cooking dinner together tomorrow. Now we'll get enough to a little bit more detail about the simple future first. So what the simple future consist of is the subject the auxiliary word will and the infinitive form of any verb. So, for example, I will cook dinner tonight. You will laugh. When you see this, he will be angry when he hears what you did. We will go to the movies this weekend. You all will have a lots of homework this week. The Children will play at recess. The bank will open at 9 a.m. and that will be good now. The things that keep in mind is when you're using the simple future, you wanna keep in mind that will is usually contracted down into a blend. It sound. So instead of saying I will cook, nearly everybody always says, I'll cook dinner All right, So let's practice that because that sound of blaming blending will down to just the double l can be tricky to both here and to say yourself. So repeat after me. Oh, dinner Tonight. You'll laugh when you see this. He'll be angry when he hears what you did will go to the movies this weekend. You'll have lots of homework this week. The Children will play at recess. The bank will open at 9 a.m. That will be good, So if you'll notice the ill, it'll be with pronounced like um I and you you'll I'll the the ending kind of changes just ever so slightly. So is it Hooks onto the U. It just makes it like the word is you l l all right. So you want to keep that in mind? Also, when you're using regular words like, um, the Children will play, So it sounds like old The Children on this one here, the Children will play at recess. The bank will open the Bengal. So you want to think of it is like a u l l owe the bank alot open. And here that'll be good. That'll be good. All right. So we're gonna have you practice that a little bit. Fervor. Answer this question for me. What will you do? Tomorrow? You get say things like, Oh, I would go to work tomorrow or I'll go to work, Remember? Pay close attention to those blended sounds. I'll go to work, then I'll go home. Then I'll cook dinner. Then I'll watch some TV, Then I'll go to bed. Uh, okay. And again, blended sounds. It could be the blended sounds could be part of anything. So it could be that'll this whole barrel. So, for example, I could say they're old. Be troubled tomorrow if you don't do your homework, things like that. All right, So answer these questions in the simple future texts. Remember to pause the video if you need to, in order to answer the question fully fully. Ah, what will you do this weekend? I'll play some soccer this weekend. When will we study English again? We'll study again tomorrow. How will you know when you're fluent in English? Positive. He needs you all right. An example would be I'll know that I'm fluent when I can speak with confidence and without any errors. So now let's talk about how to use the present continuous in the future tense. Now the present continuous is used quite often to represent the future tense. I actually believe most native speakers use the present continuous more than they use the simple future when they want to talk about things that are happening in the future. So how that works is it consists of conjugating the auxiliary verb to be using the infinitive form of any verb and adding i n g to that form. So the most common way people say is to use to go are going to, so people say I'm going to go to the movies to mean that they're going to the movies in the future. So let's practice that a little, Um, repeat after me. I'm going to go to the movies. You're going to go. He's going to go. We're going to go. They're going to go now. Remember, we talked about blended sounds before going to becomes Ghana. It's used, quite frankly, frequently as a blended sound in English. Most people don't even know that they're shortening going to into guana. And even in work of environments, professional environments, nearly everyone still blends down, going to into Glenna. All right, so repeat after me. I'm gonna cook dinner. I'm going. The Seattle said it wrong. I'm gonna cook dinner now more less rarely used, But still, I've heard the sound before. People will some times change the to and toe a tough so you they'll say, I'm going to see you tomorrow. I'm going to see you tomorrow, so repeat after me. I'm Glenn to see you tomorrow. All right. So I want you to be aware of all three forms of going to to express the future. You have the regular. I'm going to go. I'm gonna cook. I'm Gwen CIA. Yes. OK, so now is your turn. I want you to choose a form of going to and use that to express the future tense. So what is she doing tomorrow? Pasta video. And answer that question for me. An example. She is going to go out on a date. When is he leaving? On his trip. An example would be He's gonna leave next Tuesday. Where are the office supplies being delivered? An example would be there going to be delivered at the back. Doc, Hi. Now you can use the present continuous with any verb. It doesn't just have to be going. So, for example, I can say I'm leaving tomorrow. He's working all next week. Um, they're running in a marathon in two months. All right, so now it's your turn. I want you to use thes verbs in the present continuous form. So answer this question Pauses. You need to, um when will you buy a new car? An example. Answer would be I'll buy a car this weekend. You could also use the present continuous form and say, I'm buying a car this weekend. Where are you giving your speech this year. An example? Answer would be. I'll give my speech at Harvard University this year, and never potential example would be. I'm giving my speech at Harvard University this year. So for homework, I'd like you to review the hand out on the future tense. Also, please make a voice recording of yourself talking about the future. Your discussion question is, what is your five year plan? What type of work will you do? How will your family change? What are your financial goals for the next five years? Once you make this recording about your hopes and aspirations for the next five years, review the recording to check it for errors and you're speaking and to see if you're having any things that you're hesitating on. Remember to repeat problem areas five times for practice so that you can try to improve your speaking this way and continue the exercise. We started earlier on continued thinking in English all this week, but that's everything for today. Said Keep practicing. See you next time 13. Vocabulary Builder 1: Mother and Daughter: So in this section we're gonna work on building your English vocabulary, and lesson one will discuss the relationship between mother and daughter. So in this section will work on your English vocabulary. I'm first. I'll read a short paragraph to you, Um and then we'll review the vocabulary words and grammar afterwards. So let's get started. When I was a child, my mother was unyielding, really strict. She would not let me have sweets, but once a week and she never let me stay up late if I ever disobeyed. I got a slap to the hand and was sent to my room. I would cry and cry to elicit a response from my mother, but she always remained unmoved. Eventually, I discontinued my disobedient ways and became a model child. So let's review the words that were in that short paragraph. We'll start with unyielding Now. Unyielding is an adjective that means not moving, changing or bending. So an example sentence of Aneel Dane would be. She has unyielding faith in this project, meaning that her faith in it is complete. It doesn't change, and she's not wavering. Alright, so repeat that word after me. Unyielding, unyielding. Now I like you to use unyielding and a sentence of your own. So just think of how you it use unyielding in your business. Life in school are just in your daily life. Pause the video if you need to. Good. So let's go on to the next word. The next one is disobeyed. Disobey, babe. Disobeyed is a verb. That means not to obey and not to follow the rules. An example of disobeyed is the child disobeyed the teacher and got into trouble. So repeat after me. Disobeyed, disobeyed. Now you try to use disobey in a sentence. And what is the opposite of disobey is product probably pretty obvious it would be to obey you. All right. A listed as our next word. So, um, illicit is a burb meaning to bring something out to evoke or to reduce. So repeat after me. Um, illicit elicit nine examples sentence for illicit would be. I ask questions and order to elicit a response from you. So now I want you to try to think of a way to use a listed in a sentence of your own. Go for it. Go ahead. So now our next word would be unmoved. Unmoved is a verb, meaning not emotional and not changing An example Sentence would be. I tried to change his mind, but his opinion was unmoved. So repeat after me. Unmoved, unmoved and try to use unmoved in essence of your own. Now, our next sentence. Um, not our next sentence. Our next word is discontinued. Discontinued is a verb meaning to stop doing something. Um, are to stop making something an example. Sentence would be there discontinuing my favorite perfume, which means that they will no longer make that perfume. So repeat after me. Discontinued. Discontinued. All right, so try to use discontinue in a sentence of your own. Okay? Our next word is model Model is an adjective meaning an ideal example of something are the perfect example of something. So in this context Ah, good, um, example sentence would be She is a model student who has received all A's now model has different forms. For example, um, the noun form of model means that if you could be like a fashion model and you model clo vein shoes or accessories and still there, like the ideal example of how to show off clothes. Um but as an adjective, um, it's kind of the same. Just just an adjective form. Okay, so I like you to use the adjective form of the word model in a sentence. Give it a try. Go ahead. All right, So now let's review some of the grammar in the in these words. So if you notice most of these vocabulary words have a priest fix of dis are unknown in front of the word. Now, when you have a dis or an un in front of the word like this, that changes the meaning of the word the meaning of the root word to the opposite of the meaning. Okay, so it reverses the meaning of the word. So, for example, dislike. So you have the word like and dis so, um, this'll like means to not like something and naturally like means to enjoy something you also have undue versus To do something. You have disapproval versus approval. You have happy versus unhappy. You have yielding versus unyielding. You have continue versus discontinue. You have mood versus unmoved, and you have obey versus disobey. So not always, but quite often you'll see that those, um, descent unworthy reversed the meaning of the words, but that's everything for this lesson. So please review the hand out for fervor, practice and happy practicing until next time. 14. Vocabulary Builder 2: Solar-Powered Cars: in this vocabulary building lesson, We're gonna talk about solar power cars. What I'll do is I'll read a short paragraph to you, and then we'll review the vocabulary together. So let's get started. The Fredericks company has come out with a new, innovative car design that runs on Lee on solar power. And environmentalists worldwide are rejoicing about the ingenious design that produces no harmful carbon emissions. For the last 20 years, the Frederick's company has been the leading seller of commercial solar panels in the United States. However, in 2010 their research and development team decided to branch out and try implementing their solar panel technology and automobiles. It was a potentially risky business venture, but the research team has been so industrias that they finish the first prototype in just three years. They forsee releasing a model for mass production by this may. Alrighty. So let's review that vocabulary. The first word became would be Come out Come Out is a phrase a verb, um, meaning to introduce something, or to debut something. A good example sentence would be. When will the new Batman movie come out? People use that all the time when it comes to when a movie or a play or anything is going to debut for the very first time. So repeat after me. Come out, Tom. At now. Try to use. Come out in a sentence of your own. Go ahead so our next word would be innovative. Innovative is an adjective, meaning to be new. Teoh never be done before to be very fresh. So a good example sentence for that one would be. She was promoted at work for her innovative ideas. So repeat after me. Innovative, innovative. Now try to use innovative and a sentence of your own. Go ahead. Next word is solar. Now solar is an adjective that is related to the sun, So meaning anything that's based off of the sun. So, um, a good example would be there is a solar eclipse twice a year now what a solar eclipses that is in the sky when the the moon and the sun cross pass. And it makes so weird change in the light in the atmosphere. So repeat after me solar, solar, and try to use solar in a sentence. Now think of this. If solar is theology active for the sun, what is the adjective for the moon. Have you heard of it before? It would be lunar. So we have solar eclipse for an eclipse of the sun. And we have lunar eclipse, Foreign eclipse of the moon. And naturally, we have the solar panels. Like I'm innocent. So you remember those words? Okay, let's move on. Our next word would be environmentalists and Mayer melon. That sorry. Environmentalists is a noun. Meaning a person who cares about nature and the well being of the environments. So a good example sentence would be Many environmentalists are working to reverse global warming, so repeat after me. Environmentalists, environmentalists. All right now you try to use environmentalists. Innocence. Our next sport. Word is ingenious. Now ingenious is an adjective meaning very smart, like a genius. A good example, Sons would be He had the ingenious idea that solved all of our problems. So repeat after me and genius. Ingenious. Now try to use ingenious in a sentence. Go ahead. So if ingenious means smart savvy, could you think of what is an antonym for? Ingenious? All right, that would be like dumb, Stupid along those lines, OK? Our next word would be emissions Now emissions is a noun, meaning the dust smoke are any particles that are released by machinery or a factory. So a good example sentence would be. The factory was closed because it released harmful emissions into the city. So repeat after me. Emissions emissions. Good. Now try toe use emissions and a sit a sentence of your own. Go ahead. Moving on our next word would be commercial so commercial in this paragraph that we read was used as an adjective. Now, when it's used as the adjective, it means it's related to business. Our businesses. So a good example sentence for commercial would be. He sells both commercial and residential real estate. So commercial real estate means that you're selling businesses and residential real estate means that you're selling houses. Okay, um, now, commercial also has a noun form. And when you say when you're using commercial as a now, that means that you're watching an advertisement so usually it would be a commercial on TV , a TV commercial or advertisement. So make sure that you are able to kind of listen for the differences in those two words. Remember, commercial as an adjective means businesses and commercial as, um, and now means advertisement. Right now, our next word means to branch out. Branch out is a never phrase Alvar verb. It means to expand or to try something new. All right, so Ah, Good example. Sentence up to branch out. Would be she normally accent movies. But this year, she has decided to branch out and do a play. So repeat after me. Branch out, branch out now, try to use branch out. In essence of your own good. Our Nets word is implements. Implement is a verb meaning to finish to fulfill our to carry out example would be he failed to implement the new project successfully. So repeat after me. Implements implements. Okay, Now try to use implement and a sentence of your own. Go ahead. All right. Our next word is venture Venture is a noun, Which means a risky undertaking are a business enterprise that hopes to make a profit. So an example would be he's adventure capitalists. Um, and what that means is he's a type of investor that invest in somewhat risky, um, stocks and bonds and in the hopes of making a big profit. Um, so venture could be used in mostly in business ventures, but it can also be used if you're going on. Ah, hike up mount at Everest. Are any more adventurous mountain climbing, rock climbing things like that. So repeat after me. Venture, venture and try to use venture in a sentence of your own. Go ahead. All right. Our next word is industrias. Industrious means to be hardworking and diligence. A good, um example. Sentence would be. It pays to be Industrias. It pays to be hardworking. So repeat after me, Industrias, Industrias, and try to use Industrias and a sentence of your own. Now can you think of the opposite of Industrias or an antonym for Industrias? That would be lazy. Let's hope none of us are lazy already. Let's move on. Our next word would be prototype. Now a prototype is theory. Jinnah Lmao model of something So an example sentence would be When will the prototype of the new airplane be finished? So when will the first design? When will the first model be finished? So repeat after me prototype predator type. Now try to use prototype in a sentence. Go ahead and our last word is porc. Now foresee is a verb meaning to predict. You'll often hear fortune tale tellers say I for see a great fortune in your future, meaning that they're predicting you when the lottery are. They're predicting great prosperity for you in the future. So repeat after me, Porc. Foresee? No try to use. Foresee in the, um, sentence of your own. Okay, great. Well, that's everything for this lesson. See the attach hand out for further review. Unhappy practicing. 15. Vocabulary Builder 3: Stocks and Bonds: So in this vocabulary building lesson, we're gonna talk about stocks and bonds. I'll read a paragraph to you and then we'll review the vocabulary together. What's kids started? Stop. Prices plummet after news of the recession stuck. Advisors caution that now is a time to be vigilant and tow. Watch your stock portfolio closely. Economists believe that this recession is caused by risky baking tactics that failed Teoh yield profitable returns. Now many investors are looking for more lucrative investments such as real estate, while others are demoralized by the downturn and are investing and bonds and foreign court currency. How are great? So malice review Those words are first word is plummet. Plummet is a verb that means to decrease dramatically. A good example. Sins would be. The skydivers jumped out of the plane and plummeted to the earth. So repeat after me. Plummet plummet, not try to use plummet in a sentence of your own. Our next word is recession. Recession is a noun, meaning a period of economic decline. Um example Sentence would be millions of people lost their jobs during the recession of 2000 and eight, so repeat after me. Recession, recession, Try to use recession and, in essence of your own, go ahead. Our next word is vigilance. Vigilant is an adjective, meaning to be cautious and to be careful. An example would be He is very vigilant with his finances and never wastes money. So repeat after me vigilance, vigilance, not try to use vigilant and a sentence of your own good. Our next word is stock performed Leo. Now stop Portfolio isn't now that describes a collection of investments in different companies, and that could be in stocks and in bonds. So an example would be my stock portfolio has an annual rate of return of 25% which is really high. I really wish that was true. Uh, so repeat after me. Stop portfolio stop portfolio. Now try to use stock portfolio in a sentence of your own. Now in the US, for example, most people have a stock portfolio with their job. We get enrolled, and these things called for a one case, and what happens is our job just makes us sign up for that, and it helps us save for retirement. So it is quite a common thing for people working. Teoh all have a stock portfolio, even though they don't know much about it. All right, so our next word is economists, now an economist. That's a noun for somebody who studies the economy or a country's financial system. An example would be the city counseled, hired on economists to review the city's potential for job and business growth. So repeat after me, economists Autonomous and try to use economists in a sentence of your home. Go ahead. Our next word is tactic. Mount Tactic is a noun, meaning a strategy or a plan to get it a desired result. So an example would be what tactics should I use to get a job? So what strategy could I use to get a job? All right, so repeat after me. Tactic, tactic and try to use tactic in a sentence of your own. Our next word is yield. Yield is a verb that has two different meanings the way it was used and the paragraph we reviewed. Um, yield means to produce something to cause something arctic. Give up and you'll deal your you'll hear yield use frequently when it comes to financial things, so it's always about your savings account. Yielding interests are your stock portfolio yielding a profit so it produces money. It produces a profit for you. So in this example, I could say my savings account yields 1% annually. Now, yield also has a never definition on, and that's used when you're playing a sport, are your in competition or you're battling someone. So if you're playing us sport like boxing, you're wanting your opponent. Teoh Yield. You're wanting your opponent. Teoh, give up to Reese. Resign. Um, if you are in a battle, if you're at war, your again wanting the opponent, Teoh, give up to, um to resign to surrender Teoh Yield. All right. And if you remember, this is the opposite of what we did in our former lesson of unyielding. Okay, so remember, yield and unyielding. All right, so repeat after me. Yield, yield, and try to use yield in a sentence of your own. Good. Now our next word is lucrative. Lucrative is an adjective meaning to be profitable and to produce lots of money. An example would be the month before Christmas is the retails industry's most lucrative time. So repeat after me, lucrative, lucrative, and try to use lucrative and a sense sentence of your own good. Our next word is demoralized. Now demoralize is a verb meaning to satin or to discourage someone. So repeat after me, demoralize, demoralize. Now, an example of how to use demoralize innocents would be the troops are the soldiers. The troops were demoralized after losing so many men in combat. So now you try to use the MRI's and a sentence of your own. Our next word is bunds. Now, Bonds isn't now and it has a kind of tricky meaning. Um, it's upon is a cash investment in your government or in a business on. And what you're doing is you're giving them cash. And then that company are that government, um, agrees to pay you back with interest at a certain date. So it's like a contract. Um, so for an example, he earned $1000 by investing and buns. So repeat after me, bunds buns and try to use buns and essence of your own. Go ahead. And I believe this is our last one. Um, this one's currency currency is a now meaning money. An example would be over. The centuries are over the hundreds of years, currency has changed from gold coins to paper money, so repeat after me. Current C currency. Now try to use currency and a sentence of your own. Okay, good. Now remember to review the hand out to practice fervor. Unhappy practicing. 16. Vocabulary Builder 4: Angry Customer: So in this vocabulary building lesson, we're gonna discuss dealing with an angry customer. I'll read a paragraph to you and then afterward will review the vocabulary. So let's get started. The customer was irate because we did not have the new flat screen TV and stuck. She was very hostile and even broke my coffee mug out of anger. I tried to get a manager to allay your concerns, but once he intervened, she was even more aggravated. I we're dealing with living customers. It's it fleets, all my energy. And as a consequence, I want to find a number job. So let's review. We started with some angry words. Words like I rate a rate means to be very angry, are furious. So an example. She was irate when I found out what she was irate when she found out that her son was expelled from school. So she was angry when she found out what expelled means is that her son was kicked out of school for bad behavior. So repeat after me. She was I raped. Repeat, She was out. I rate When she found out her son was expelled from school. Quit our next word is Live it. It means the exact same word as irate. Very angry. Furious. I live it because you stood me up for dinner. Livid. Repeat. Livid. If he I'm live it because you stood me up for dinner and what stood stood me up to stand up in this context stand up doesn't mean Teoh stand on your feet. What it means is that you didn't come Teoh an appointment. Say you we schedule Look a date and you didn't come to the date. That means you stood me up. It's a bad thing. Don't do that. Okay? More angry words are words of disappointment, I guess with the hostile has tell is an adjective meaning to be aggressive and unfriendly. An example. The vice president planned a hostile takeover of the presidency. So people both say hostile and hostile. Both are correct pronunciations and in this mean he's being the vice president is being aggressive and he wants to kick the president out and take the president's job. He wants to take over the position. So repeat this sentence with me. The vice president planned ah, hostile takeover of the presidency. Repeat. Ah, Hostile takeover. Good. A poor a poor is a number word to mean Teoh Hate I a poor going to the Dennis. Now the Dennis is a doctor that cleans your teeth and takes care of any problems with your teeth. So a lot of people, because going to the dentist can be painful people, a poor going to the dentist's. So repeat after me. I a poor going to the Dennis. And so it has a lot of feeling. It's even stronger than the word hate. Okay, next, we have words of unrests like aggravated. Aggravated is a verb, meaning to annoy Teoh. Irritate toe agitate are to make worse. So an example would be he aggravated the rash even more because he couldn't stop scratching it. So a rash is like in this picture. He has some red irritated bumps are marks on his arm, so if you let it believe it without touching it, it will heal faster. But if it itches and you scratches crack, scratch your arm, it'll take a long time to heal, so he makes the rash worse by scratching it. So repeat after me aggravated. Repeat to aggravate. Repeat the sentence. He aggravated the rash even more because he couldn't stop scratching it. God, our next word is away. A laser verb meaning toe lesson to calm our to suit. An example is talking to you Always allays my worries. Repeat the word away for me Repeat the sentence. Talking to you always allays my worries. Good. Our next word is intervene. Intervene is a verb that means to come in between two disputing people to mediate. So that's actually two new words for you to mediate to intervene to come in between two things all kind of the same Meaning Okay, So an example. The security guard quickly intervened during the bar brawl. Now a bar brawl is a bar fight. So brawl and fight both These words mean pretty much the same thing. So repeat the sentence The security guard quickly intervene during the bar brawl. Good. Moving on. Our next word is deplete the pleats is a verb meaning toe lesson are to drain So an example We have depleted all our resource is and can no longer afford this project. So repeat after me deplete and repeat the sentence we have depleted all our resource is and can no longer Fourth this project now common mistake is to mix up the words deplete and delete notice. Deplete has a pee in it Deplete means toe lesson delete means to erase something completely so you can delete a file you can delete, um, as sentence on your computer. Things like that. Our next word is consequence consequences and now meaning the negative results or negative effect of something. An example since you did not do your homework. As a consequence, you cannot go to the party se repeat after me consequence and read this sentence for me. Good. So that's everything for this lesson. Please review the handout for fervor, practice and happy practicing. 17. Vocabulary Builder 5: Farming and Agriculture: so I miss vocabulary building lesson. We're gonna discuss farming and agriculture first. I'll read a passage to you and then we'll review the vocabulary together. So let's get started. The cultivation of the land is essential for human survival. Everyone must eat to survive. And that's why responsible use of fertilizers to nourish the crops and irrigation systems to water them are essential. When there's a drought, there is a lack of rain, so the crops do not get the precipitation that they need to flourish. If a drought persists, it can cause a poor harvest and lead to food shortages and even famine. Many countries do not have the infrastructure to survive a catastrophic of men like a drought. For example, if a country is not able to import the necessary food and water, people will starve or be forced to migrate to another country in search of resource is so now let's review the words we just covered. Our first word was cultivation. Cultivation is a noun, meaning the process of preparing the land for growing crops. Cultivation originally started as a word strictly for agriculture and growing and planting crops, but eventually people started Teoh use it to describe the act of educating Children and cultivating your mind. So an example since could also be, um, she studied hard to cultivate her mind, so repeat after me cultivation cultivation. Now pause the video and try to use cultivation and a word of your own are in a sentence of your own. It. Our next word is survive. Survive is a verb, meaning to continue living. Survive also has a noun form, which is survival, and that is the act of surviving so an example for the noun form. Would be survival is not guaranteed, meaning Teoh continue living as not guaranteed on before the verb form of survive. He was in a car accident and did not survive. So repeat after me, survive, survive and try to use survive innocence of your own great. Our next word is drought. Drought is a noun, meaning an extended period without rain, snow or any type of precipitation. So an example sins would be the drought caused people to die of thirst, so repeat after me drought, drought and try to use droughts in essence of your own. Our next word is fertilizer. Fertilizer is a noun, meaning anything used to enrich the soil and the environment. An example sentence would be The book fertilized her mind with knowledge. So again, this one's talking more in a abstract way, not the physical for the fertilizer that you used to put in the soil for your plants, but it's using something like a book. The education in this book conf. Fertilize your mind and make it, um, able to come up with new ideas and produce the fruit of ideas. So repeat after me fertilizer. Fertilize and try to use fertilize and a sentence of your own. Our next word is irrigation. Irrigation is a noun, and it means the system for watering plants and crops. So an example sentence would be. The family installed a new irrigation system to water the lawn. Repeat after me irrigation, irrigation and try to use irrigation in essence of your own. Our next word we kind of mentioned it before. Precipitation. Precipitation is a noun, meaning when moisture falls from the sky. So that could be anything that could be rain, snow, sleet and hail. And what sleet and hail is. Sleep is like a mixture of rain and ice and hail is ice balls falling from the ground are, I suppose, falling from the Sky River. All right, so I'm an example Sentence would be There is a 50% chance of precipitation tonight. You hear a lot of weatherman on TV used the word precipitation. All right, so repeat after me. Precipitation. Precipitation. Okay, I our next word flourish. Flourish is a verb meaning thio Thio grow well toe prosper and to thrive. An example. Creativity flourishes in this environment, Or crops can flourish in a well fertilised soil. So repeat after me Flourish, flourish. Now keep in mind on this one The root of this word is to flower. So think of how a flower opens up in his Really? Um pretty. So you want to think of things opening up for you to do well to be beautiful Eso try to use flourish in essence of your own Next word is persists. Persists is a verb meaning to continue to endure and to last a long time. An example. The legend has persisted for many centuries, meaning that the legend continues to live on. It continues to survive for many sensors these centuries, many hundreds of years. All right, so repeat after me. Persist, persist. Now, try to use. Persist in a sentence of your own. Our next word is harvest. Harvest is a noun meaning Teoh gabber up all ripened crops. All the seeds that have grown and are now been sure and are ready to be eaten and stored. That's what you want to do. Is the time of year usually in the fall or in the Harlem autumn, when all the farmers air gathering all the corn, the wheat, all the crops that they've grown. So, um, an example. The harvest of corn was plentiful this year, and plentiful is a word is an adjective form of plenty to have plenty of something. All right, so repeat after me, Horace Harvests and try to use harvest in a sentence of your own. All right, Next one. Sorted. All right. Shortages, amount. Meaning toe lack something. An example. There is a shortage of electricity. So we've been asked to conserve power. Conserve power are to save power, meaning not to use as much power as we normally would. All right, so shortage. Think of the word short. He have just a little bit of something. All right, so repeat after me. Shortage short, it's and try to use shortage innocence of your own good. Our next word is famine. Faymann is a noun, meaning an extreme shortage of food affecting many people. So an example The famine and Somalia has affected 3.5 million people. That means that there is such a lack of food. It affects the whole country are a whole region. So repeat after me famine, famine and try to use famine in a sentence of your own. I see our next word infrastructure. Infrastructure is a noun, meaning the systems that serve a country. And that includes things like the roads that you drive on the power plants that provide electricity and lights, the water plants that provide your drinking water, and the school systems that educate the kids. So all of that, everything that the government provides for you, that is the country's infrastructure. So an example sentence would be The infrastructure in our country is worsening due to improper funding, so that means money is not being funded properly to the places it means to be so. Repeat after me. Infrastructure, infrastructure. Now try to use infrastructure innocence of your own, So our next word is catastrophic. Catastrophic is an adjective, meaning to be disastrous. It also has a noun form, which is catastrophe. So repeat after me. Catastrophe, catastrophe and the adjective form as well. Catastrophic, catastrophic. So an example sentence would be the hurricane caused a catastrophic lost of life. All right, so try to use catastrophic in a sentence of your own. Honey, At T import Teoh import is a verb meaning to ship supplies from a foreign country to your own native country. An example would be he loves imported cars from Germany. Maybe he loves cars that are main made in Germany and then shipped to where he lives. So repeat after me in port imports and try to use import in essence of your own. Teoh migrate. Migrate is a verb meaning when a group of animals or people move from one part of ah, one area to another. All right, so the noun form would be migration. An example sentence would be the birds migrate from, um the birds migrate to the south every winter. So repeat after me. My great repeat migration at possibility of and try to use my great in a sense of your own , okay? And our last slide here to starve starve is a verb, meaning to not have enough food to survive. The noun form would be starvation. An example since would be. I'm hungry. I'm starving. People say this a lot when they're really, really hungry and their stomach maybe growling. And it's almost to the point where you're getting so hungry. It's kind of painful. Of course, they're just exaggerating. Meaning there, um, telling, not really telling the truth. They're trying Teoh overplay how they're really feeling because when you're really starving , that means you're close to death. All right, so repeat after me to starve starvation and try to use starvation and ascendance of your own, are you and resource is resource is is a noun, meaning the source of supplies or money for an example, we do not have The resource is to open a new store, so repeat after me. Resource is resource is and try to use resources and a sense of your own. All right, well, that's everything for this lesson. Please review the attach handout for fervor, practice and happy practicing 18. Vocabulary Builder 6: Urban or Suburban: So in this vocabulary builder lesson, we're gonna be covering the difference between urban, suburban and rule communities. I'll read a paragraph to you, and then we'll review the vocabulary together afterward. Let's get started. Disparities between an urban and country life are numerous. For example, large metropolitan areas are field with diverse communities from quirky hipsters, two business professionals, two communities with an abundance of dish, different nationalities. With so many people nearby, it enables you to forge new friendships. Some people enjoy the anonymity that the city provides, because there are so many people that you can walk unnoticed if you want. Others find the crowds and traffic in the city to be a huge deterrent because with urban living comes traffic, pollution and crime. This is why many people prefer to live outside of the city in the suburbs, so perfect communities exists just at the outskirts of big cities. They provide easy access to the conveniences of a large metropolis while still feeling like a small town with cute single family homes, more grain spaces and more family oriented events and festivals. For some, however, the suburbs air still too crowded, and they offer to live in rule communities and the countryside, rule communities have just just a few 100 people, meaning that community members may be better acquainted with one another. However, due to its small size, many rules communities air not equipped with the best medical care facilities, our education systems. For this reason, rule people are sometimes stigmatized as being backward, uneducated, old fashioned and clinging to an old way of life. But every community has its pros and comes, and every individual is inclined to favor one community over the other, in which type of community do you prefer to live and why? So I like you, too, possum video and take a moment to answer this question out. Lap in. Which type of community did you prefer to live urban suburban rule, and then go ahead and tell us Tell, um, why we're just practicing are speaking so that you can get used to using these words. So go ahead and paused the video. Okay, great. So now let's review the vocabulary that we covered. We'll start with disparity. Repeat disparity. Disparity isn't now. That means the difference between two things are not equal. It's not balance. An example sentence would be. It's sad to see the disparity between the rich and the report. Repeat that sentence for me. Great Now. Usually, disparity has a negative connotation or a negative meaning. It means that things are unbalanced, usually in a bad way. All right, Our next word is numerous. If you comptel numerous has the word number in it to think of many numbers, it's an adjective, meaning having many numbers are a button abundant. An example. Sentences. The child was very sick and went to the doctor's office numerous times. Try to repeat that sentence. All right, try to make a sentence of your own. Uh, could you think of a way to use numerous and a sentence of your own? Try it. Hi, Kate. So our next vocabulary word is Metropolitan Metropolitan is an adjective, and it means related to the city or Metropolis. An example sentence would be the Metropolitan transportation system extended into the suburbs, meaning that things like buses and trains exit extended. Our started to go out into the suburbs, so repeat that sentence for me. Okay, And could you try to think of a way to use Metropolitan and a sentence of your own all right. So you find Metropolitan is used a lot with city run organizations like Metropolitan, the Metropolitan Library, the Metropolitan Transportation System, the Metropolitan Water Company, the Metropolitan Electric Company. It's something that's related to the entire city, all right, quirky and hipster, I put these together Corky's and up adjective hipsters. And now, um, quirky means unique. Different are a little bit strange. And hipster is a person, usually a younger person, who's into the latest trends and in fashion. So an example. He is kind of quirky and would never leave the house without an umbrella, even on a sunny day. So meaning that he's kind of strange, a little different Teoh never go out without an umbrella. But these are examples of kind of the dress of a hipster. All right, Our next word to forge to forge is a verb meaning to make something by putting steel into the fire and beating it into shape. Uh, an example. Sentence the blacksmith, forge that iron into a shield for the night. So, uh, back in the day, this is how you afford something. You literally heat up metal and beat that metal into shape. You're a forging it into something. You'll also hear the word forge and the terms of forging a friendship in the sense that you're beating the friendship into shape, or that you're putting a lot of effort into making the making your friendship. So repeat this example. Sentence. The blacksmith forged the iron into a shield for the night. All right, great. Next word anonymity. Repeat anonymity. It's a bit of a truck. Tongue Twisters, which tried again anonymity. Okay, so it's a noun, meaning to be anonymous. Nameless are unknown. An example. Sons. Many famous actors wish for the anonymity of their younger years. Repeat that sentence for me. Okay, now try to use anonymity and a sentence of your own. All right, Good. Let's try the next one. The next one is the tier int. Repeat, deteriorate Now D tearing is a now it means anything that prevent something from happening . An example sentence would be. The city hoped that more police officers on the street what act as a deterrent to criminals , Try to repeat that sentence for me. All right, so positive video tryto make a sentence of your own using the word deterrent. All right. The next one, um, suburbs and, um, outskirts says suburb means sub urban just outside the city on the outskirts. So an example. He lives on the outskirts of the village. And it captain. So just out outside the village. All right. That's a pretty easy one, actually. Next one was family oriented. Family oriented is agitated. Meanest meaning focused on the family. Um, since they had a baby, they only go to family or hinted events. Repeat that sentence for me. Okay, pause the video and try to use family oriented in a sentence of your own. All right. Next word is acquainted. Acquainted is a verb, meaning to be familiar with something. Our toe have knowledge of something or knowledge of someone. An example sentence would be. I've seen him before, but we're not well acquainted. Repeat that sentence for me. Why not try to use acquainted in a sentence of your own good? Next word equipped. Equipped is a verb. Meaning to furnish are to supply whatever is needed. It also could mean to be well prepared. So for the example of, um, to be well prepared, it would be like a well equipped car. So, for example, this car has GPS air conditioning, power, everything. MP three player. It is equipped with everything that you need. A never example can be used with people as well. So if this, um, girl here graduated from collar college with honors and has all these Internet experiences , you can say the girl is well equipped to handle this drop. All right, so it can work that way as well. So repeat this. The girl is well equipped to handle this job and try to use equipped in a sentence of your own. Great. Our next one is stigmatized. Stigmatize is a verb meaning march with negativity or disgrace. An example. Hiss Crime stigmatized his whole family, meaning his crimes. Um, put a negative light on his whole family. So repeat that example sentence for me. Try to use stigmatized in a sentence of your own. All right, then take cling Klingons over meaning to stick to our toe. Hold on tight to something. An example. She clings to her boyfriend, meaning she's holding on real tight to him. So repeat that example sentence. She clings to her boyfriend. Okay. And try to use cling in a sense of your own Great Well, that's everything for this vocabulary builder lesson. Remember to review the handout to review this vocabulary and happy practicing. 19. Vocabulary Builder Review: it's time to review. We've reviewed over 50 words so far, Um, just in this vocabulary builder section alone, and I believe it's important to review these words regularly so that you can master them and keep them in your long term memory. The ideal review schedule would be to review new words, new vocabulary words the very next day, a week later and a month later to make sure you're not forgetting these words and that you're retaining them in your long term memory. So what we'll do in less review section is I will say a definition of, ah, word that we've covered in this vocabulary builder section. Um, then I like you to write down the correct word for the definition, Um, and as you write it down the coolest to make sure your spelling the word right and test your spelling, then we'll repeat the word twice so we can make sure you're pronouncing the word correctly , and then we'll say a sentence, using the word in context so you can get an example of how to use the work correctly. So this review session is going to review your listening capabilities because you have to listen to the definition. It's gonna review your writing ability to see if you were able to spell these words well and will practice speaking all at the same time. So let's get started. So first, listen to the definition. Our first word is a noun, meaning the system of watering plants and crops. So write the word that means a system for watering plants and crops. That word is irrigation. Repeat, irrigation. Irrigation. Repeat. I've set the irrigation system toe water the lawn twice a week. All right. Our next one. Uh, the next word is an adjective, meaning to be profitable to produce a lot of money, right? The word that means to be profitable to produce a lot of money. That word is lucrative. Repeat, Lucrative. Lucrative. Repeat. The sentence Selling real estate is a very lucrative business. Okay, so our next word the definition is a verb meeting to sadden, to discourage to dis harden our to depress somebody or something, right? The word that means to discourage artist sadden that word would be demoralized. Repeat, Did moralize for me demoralize and repeat the sentence? The troops were demoralized after many battles in the war. All right. Our next word is an adjective, meaning to be cautious, to be very careful. What? Write a word that means to be very cautious. Very careful. The word would be vigilance. Repeat vigilance, vigilance. All right. And repeat the sentence. He is very vigilant with his money and never wasted. Their next word is an adjective meaning to be new. Teoh never been done before to be fresh and creative, right? The word that means to be new, fresh and creative. That word would be innovative. Repeat, Innovative, innovative. Repeat the sentence. His innovative ideas made the company more productive. Good. All right. Our next up definition is an adjective, Meaning not moving. Unchanging, not bending, right. The word that means not moving. Unchanging. Unbending. That would be unyielding. Aim. Repeat, unyielding, unyielding. I don't repeat this sentence. I have unyielding faith in your abilities. Okay, so our next word is an adjective. Meaning very smart to be like a genius. So write the word. That means very, very smart. Okay, that would be ingenious. Repeat. Ingenious, ingenious. Repeat the sentence. His ingenious ideas solved all our problems. Our next definition is a verb, meaning to decrease dramatically to fall very quickly. Right? The word that means to fall quickly are too decrease dramatically are to drop. That word would be plummet. Repeat, pup. Plummet, plummet. Repeat the sentence. The sky divers jumped out of the plane and plummeted to the earth. Good. Our next definition is a verb, meaning to stop doing something or to stop making something. So write the word. That means when a company stops making something or when a person stops doing something, I would be discontinued. Repeat, discontinued, discontinued. Repeat the sentence. They're discontinuing my favorite perfume. Okay, Our next definition. It's an adjective meaning related to the sun. So write the word. That is the adjective for son. That would be solar. Repeat, solar solar. Repeat. I use solar power panels to power my home with the sun's rays. Great. All right. Our next word is a noun, meaning a risky undertaking. A risky, been business enterprise that hopes to make a profit. Write down the word that means a risky business enterprise. That would be venture repeat, venture venture. Repeat. The merger was an exciting new venture for both companies. Great. Our next definition is a verb to predict. Um, now to predict. Write down the word that means to predict something that would be four C. Repeat, foresee four C. All right, and repeat. Thus example, sentence I for see great fortune in your future. Good. Our next definition is a noun, meaning a strategy, a plan to get a desired result. So write down the word that could be used as a strategy. Are making a plan for a good results? That would be tactic. Repeat tactic, tactic. Repeat the example. Sentence. What tactics should I use to get the job? Nice. All right. Our next definition is an adjective meaning very angry. Furious. So write the word that could be very, very angry. Very furious. Now that could be your irate or live it. Remember, both words mean the same thing. So repeat ire. It repeats livid and an example. She was livid because her boyfriend stood her up for dinner. Here we go. Our next definition is a noun meaning any type of rains? No, um, sleet or hail. So write the word that means any type of rain, snow, sleet or hail that would be precipitation. Repeat precipitation, precipitation and the example sentence. The weatherman says that there's a 90% chance of precipitation tomorrow. Okay, Our next definition is a noun, meaning a period when there is a lack of precipitation. Right? The word that means there is a lack of precipitation. That would be a drought, drought, lack of rain. Repeat drought, drought and repeat the sentence. Okay. The drought will lead to a poor harvest this year. Our next definition is a verb meaning Teoh ease to soothe our toe lesson. So write down the word that could mean Teoh ease to suit our toe lesson. That would be tow away. Repeat L A. Away. Repeat the sentence. The doctor was able to allay the patient's pain with medication. Our next definition is an adjective meaning a disastrous event. Write down a word that could represent Teoh. Be disastrous to be terrible. Terrible. That would be catastrophic. Repeat, Catastrophic! Catastrophic! Repeat this sentence. The hurricane caused catastrophic loss of life in the city. Okay, Our next definition is a verb, meaning to bring out to evoke our Teoh tryto bring a touch, some type of response. So write the word That could mean Teoh encourage to bring out to evoke something. All right, guys be elicit. Repeat, elicit a lesson. So on example, since I ask questions to try toe elicit a response and our last definition. It's a noun, meaning dust, smoke and particles released by machinery. So write the word that could represent dust particles and, um, smoke. Released by machinery are a factory that would be emissions, repeat emissions emissions and repeat the sentence. The factory was closed because it released harmful emissions in the city. All right, well, that's a good job. For now, remember, keep reviewing these words and keep practicing until next time. Goodbye. 20. Listening Comprehension 1: Breakfast: in this listening comprehension lesson. Ah, man is ordering breakfast at a restaurant. And I like you to answer this question. What did he decide? Toe order. So I like you to listen to the following dialogue and then choose the correct picture to answer the question. Here we go. Good morning. What can I get you today? What comes on your classic breakfast plate? It comes with toes, eggs and bacon. But you can substitute and Adeline anything you like. How much extra is it? Toe Add pancakes. It's to 99 extra. Well, I better not. I should watch my way. Would you like juice? What type of juices do you have? We have orange, apple and cranberry. I really wanted grapefruit juice, but orange juice will do. I'll have some of that. Great. I'll get that to you shortly. So what did the man decide? Toe order. Good morning. What can I get you today? What comes on your classic breakfast plate? It comes with toes, eggs and bacon. But you can substitute and Adeline anything you like. How much extra is it? Toe Add pancakes. It's to 99 extra. Well, I better not. I should watch my weight. Would you like juice? What type of juices do you have? We have orange, apple and cranberry. I really wanted great fruit juice, but orange juice will do. I'll have some of that. Great. I'll get that to you shortly, I said. Did you get it right? Let's review road quick. So the man is in a restaurant asking about, um, what he can add or subtract to the classic breakfast plate. And the classic breakfast plate includes toes, eggs and bacon. So pretty much he's trying to decide if he wants to. Adam can't cakes and juice or not. So when he asked about the cost of the pancakes, he later decides to change his mind for a completely different reason. He decides he doesn't want the pancakes because they're high in calories and how I am fat and he wants to watch his weight or he doesn't want to gain any weight. So because of that, he decided against the pancakes. Therefore, in this, um, this picture answers B and C would be incorrect because he did not get the pancakes. So that just leaves. Answer A and D left, He goes on to ask about what juice is that they have. He really wanted grapefruit juice, but the restaurant didn't have it. So he says orange juice will do. And that is a confirmation of Yes, I do want, um, orange juice. Um, so we a lot of times you'll hear people say that will do me name that. Guess they will take that. Yes, they like to do that. All right. So the correct answer for this'll listening comprehension lesson would be the letter, a orange juice and the breakfast plates. All right, so I hope you get it right. And I hope you got a lot of this listening comprehension lesson, and we'll see you again next time. 21. Listening Comprehension 2: Sports: So in this listening comprehension lesson, we're going to discuss sports. Two parents will be discussing what, after school program to enroll their son. And so what I like you to do, Please look at the picture, then listen to the dialogue, and I want you to try to answer the question by choosing the correct picture. So let's get started. The school has several after school sports programs in which we could enroll her son Jimmy , their soccer, basketball, football, hockey and baseball. Do you have a preference? Uh, not really. Maybe baseball. It would be a good first sport for Jimmy. Try. It's not too difficult to learn true, but I think baseball is boring to watch. I don't think I could sit through dozens of baseball games. Well, hockey is definitely interesting. It will be cute. The Watcher, all the little kids skating. But it's so cold in the ice rank. I don't want to be cold for that. Many games will. I really don't want him to play football because too many kids get injured. So that just leaves soccer and basketball, which sounds better to you. Well, they are both interesting, at least, which one has the better coach. Do you know, for soccer, the coaches? Joe Smith, who's nice enough, But he's really not that experience. The basketball coach has a lot of experienced up. He even got a scholarship to play college ball, but he got injured and could never go prune. Mm, that's Dubai. But his experience makes some the perfect coach for our son. Let's go with him. So which sports teams at the couple choose and why past the video to respond? Okay, now let's review the dialogue. The school has several after school sports programs in which we could enroll her son, Jimmy, their soccer, basketball, football, hockey and baseball. Do you have a preference? Uh, not really. Maybe baseball. It would be a good first sport for Jimmy. Try. It's not too difficult to learn true, but I think baseball is boring to watch. I don't think I could sit through dozens of baseball games. Well, hockey is definitely interesting. It will be cute. The watcher, all the little kids skating. But it's so cold in the ice rank. I don't want to be cold for that many games will. I really don't want him to play football because too many kids get injured. So that just leaves soccer and basketball, Which sounds better to you. Well, they are both interesting. At least, which one has the better coach? Do you know, for soccer the coaches Joe Smith, who's nice enough? But he's really not that experience. The basketball coach has a lot of experienced up. He even got a scholarship to play college ball, but he got injured and could never go prove That's too bad. But his experience makes some the perfect coach for our son. Let's go with him. So the correct answer was B basketball. Did you get it right? Let's review So in this dialogue, the parents are discussing their preference for what sports they want their son to play. Preference means Teoh favor one thing over the other. So why did they decide against baseball? The mother said it was too boring, said That's why she decided. No, we don't want him to pill a baseball so people off often decide against something. Repeat after me, decide against decide against, and what decide against means is that you choose not to do something so try to use decide against in a sentence of your own. A good example of decide against would be, um, we decided against going to the movies this evening. So pretty much We're just saying we changed our mind. All right on. The next thing they discussed was hockey. So why did the couple decide against hockey? All right, the wife said it was too cold, and she didn't want to sit in a cold ice rink all day while their son played hockey. Why did the couple decide against football ne for this one? The husband said that it was too dangerous and it caused a lot of injuries, and he didn't want his son to get injured. And why did the couple decide against Sucker that this one was tricky? Um, they decided against sucker because the coach had too little experience now when they were discussed saying the basketball coaches experience, they said that he was really good. He played big basketball in college and that he could have gone to the professional league . But he was injured and couldn't go. So to express sympathy, the wife said, That's too bad, and that's too bad as a common way to express sympathy for someone's problems So, for an example, if someone tells you, Oh, I had a car accident yesterday, you say, Oh, that's too bad. Sorry to hear that. You can also ask them if they're OK or how they're doing. Um, never one would be. I felt my test yesterday. You could say to a friend, That's too bad. Sorry to hear that. And then I never won. I was laid off or I lost. My job means the same thing there. Is that all? That's too bad. So sorry to hear that. Now again, these air things, even though they're really bad problems toe have thes air things that it's assumed that you're going to recover from our that you'll bounce back from after a couple of months. So even though it's bad to have a car accident, if the person wasn't injured, they'll just get a car. They'll be UN convenience for a while, but they'll be able to get another car when six months or a year of the latest. Or if they have insurance, they'll be able to get a car within a few weeks. Actually, if you fella tests, there's always the notion that you're going to do better on the better test on the next test that comes up or if you lose a job, the idea is that you're gonna find a never drop in a month or two. So not to worry too much. And that's why off that's too bad is the more mild way to express sympathy now for more significant problems. You would say that's horrible. So sorry to hear that, um, and that expresses sympathy for a more significant loss, usually involving death. Unfortunately, So, for example, if you say Oh, my co worker was killed in a car accident last night, you would say off. That's horrible. So sorry to hear that, because that's the end, that there's no bouncing back from that. So that truly deserves more emphasis. More sympathy. Or you could unexamined all. The soldier lost his leg in battle again. The soldier can't grow his leg back, so the legs gone forever. So you would say, and more significant problems like this. That's horrible. So sorry to hear that. All right, well, that's everything for this lesson. Please review the attach handout for fervor, practice and happy practicing 22. Listening Comprehension 3: Restaurant Dictation: in this listening comprehension lesson working. I change things up a little bit. We're going to do a dictation. What that means is that I will read a paragraph at full speed. Um, but I will read each sentence twice. Um, and I'll give you time in between each phrase and order to, um, write down word for word everything that I am saying now. I also like you, Teoh. You can rewind the recording as many times as you need Teoh right down everything. But I like you to keep a tally or to keep count of how many times you have to rewind the video and order to complete this assignment. Now the goal with this exercise is to make sure that you're able to comprehend everything that I'm saying and that you're not missing any words. For example, if there's some things if there's some words that you consistently mishearing, you need to be aware of those and try to work on improving your listening comprehension of those particular words and phrases. All right, so I'll go ahead and read the paragraph to you, um, get a pen and paper handy and write down word for word. everything that I'm saying. Okay, let's get started. I can't believe the bad service at that restaurant last night. I can't believe the bat's service at that restaurant last night, the hostess had a peculiar way of talking. The hostess had a peculiar way of talking. I swear she told us that it would be a 20 minute wait. I swear she told us that it would be a 20 minute wait, but it wound up being an hour, but it wound up being on our. I was so upset that I was going to complain to the manager. I was so upset that I was going to complain to the manager, But then we were finally said seeded. But then we were finally seated, and I simply wanted to enjoy my meal without getting agitated about the weight. And I simply wanted to enjoy my meal without getting agitated about the weight. Unfortunately, that proved impossible. Unfortunately, that proved impossible. Our waiter was incompetent. Our waiter was incompetent and almost immediately messed up our drink orders and almost immediately messed up our drink orders. Then I asked for the state cooked medium rare. Then I asked for the steak cooked medium rare. And he brought me one well done. And he brought me one. Well done. The steak was so horrible that I refused to pay for it. The steak was so horrible that I refused to pay for it and requested a refund and requested a refund. I cannot comprehend why the wait was so long for such a terrible restaurant. I cannot comprehend why the wait was so long for such a terrible restaurant. Who would stand in line for such bad service? Who would stand in line for such bad service? It's beyond me. It's beyond me. So how'd you do? All right, go ahead and look at the attach handout and compare what you wrote down to what's on the handout. If you made any errors, I like you to really listen to the recording, and I'd like you to repeat, um, those sentences five times trying to catch the nuances of what you missed. Also, try to repeat those sentences five times out loud. There's something in those words that maybe you're not familiar with them enough in order for them to be understood immediately. They're still words that may be in the back of your mind again. When you're learning another language, everything has to be on the tip of your tongue. It has to be in the front of her mind are You're always gonna be a little bit too slow to speak to respond and toe listen and comprehend at the same space as a native speaker. So the reason why we're doing this dictation is to make sure your list name is very quick and you're able to understand the meaning very quickly. So if there was something you were not able to understand, we want to repeat that until it becomes easy, until you can get it very quick. All right, let's also review if a few vocabulary words that with in this paragraph um, peculiar peculiar means strange. The passage, says the hostess, was peculiar. Repeat that word. Peculiar. Peculiar, tricky one. So he's a peculiar character who only comes out at night. Repeat that example, since I think great on the next one was agitated. It's avert. Meaning Teoh, um to move. Artists shake, um are to disturb something. Um, it's one of those words is kind of like agitated as well, where you're making things angry all right. So an example, since the woman was agitated because the dry cleaner lost her dress. Repeat that example. Okay, great. And never. Vocabulary word incompetence and competent is a adjective meaning toe lack ability to be incapable to do something. So an example. I would not trust Sam to complete that project. He proved incompetent while managing the last one. Go ahead and repeat that example. Okay, great. And try to use incompetent and a sentence of your own. All right, well, that's everything for this lesson. So be sure to review that. Hand out and practice of vocabulary. Unhappy practicing. 23. Listening Comprehension 4: Human Resources: in this listening comprehension lesson. A man is starting a new job and he needs to go to human resource is to get started. So what I like Teoh you to do in this lesson is to look at the following picture, listen to the dialogue and then answer the question by choosing the correct picture. Are you ready to get started? Let's try it. Good morning. Good morning, sir. How can I help you? My name is Desmond. It's my first day here. And I'm supposed to meet with Jeannie to do my new heart paperwork. Could you direct me to her? Yes, of course. Jenny is expecting you. Do you see the lady with the black hair? Yes. Does she have long black hair? No. Her hair is short and she usually wears a blazer every day. Okay. Is the blazer black or navy? Let me check. She is the one at the corner desk with the black blazer. Great. I see her now. Thanks so much for your help. No problem. Which woman is Jenny? Let's listen with subtitles to find out. Good morning. Good morning, sir. How can I help you? My name is Desmond. It's my first day here, and I'm supposed to meet with Jeannie to do my new heart paperwork. Could you direct me to her? Yes, of course. Jenny is expecting you. Do you see the lady with the black hair? Yes. Does she have long black hair? No. Her hair is short and she usually wears a blazer every day. Okay. Is the pleasure black or navy? Let me check. She is the one at the corner desk with the black Blazer. Great. I see her now. Thanks so much for your help. No problem. So this is Jenny. Did you get it right? Let's review Human Resource is or h R is a department in large companies and they manage the hiring firing payroll in the benefits of all employees. If you start a job at a fairly large company, chances are you have visited the human resource is department and order to get your paycheck and to do your new hire paperwork. New hire means someone who is starting a job fresh starting that a new company. Eso It means that you were hired into the company. Knew and they talked about the ladies blazer. What a blazer is It's like a jacket, but it's, um, of ah, thicker material. It's like a suit jacket. So this is more like a cardigan. Are a sweater that I'm wearing? Ah blazer would be a bit thicker and more structured. We also talked about colors Black versus Navy. Now navy is a dark blue kind of life is dark blue. Is this right here and you have in the center. This would be royal blue and it fades out to a dark navy blue. So sometimes people don't know the specific colors for different variations of the color blue. So always get to review that. That's everything for this listening comprehension lesson. Happy practicing. 24. Listening Comprehension 5: Graduate School Dictation: So in this listening comprehension lesson, we're going to do a dictation where we will discuss graduate school. So for the dictation, what we will do is I will read a paragraph to you. I'd like you to listen carefully to that and then write down word for word everything that I say. So get out a pen and paper, have it ready and let's get started. I was just accepted into filler Universities Master's degree program. I was just accepted into filler universities Master's degree program, and I'm so excited and I'm so excited. I plan on enrolling as soon as possible. I plan on enrolling as soon as possible because they have a Great Business Administration program because they have a great business administration program. I really want to learn how to manage an international corporation. I really want to learn how to manage an international corporation because I loved my internship abroad at an international shipping company because I loved my internship abroad at an international shipping company. It was fast paced and really interesting. It was fast paced and really interesting. Now I know that I want to continue in this filled Now I know that I want to continue in this field, but I would prefer to work at management level, but I would prefer to work at management level. That's why I think this program will be great for my career advancement. That's why I think this program will be great for my career advancement. Even with two bachelor's degrees, even with two bachelor's degrees, one in business and one in international affairs, one in business and won an international affairs, I could only get an entry level internship at the company. I could only get an entry level internship at the company, but the manager has already told me. But the manager has already told me that if I complete my M B A, then he would consider me for a more advanced position that if I complete my MBA, then they would consider me for a more advanced position. It was the incentive that I need it to take the next step and continue my education. It was the incentive that I needed to take the next step and continue my education. So how did you do? Let's review the words and the vocabulary that we covered, and this listening comprehension lesson We'll start with terminology about college and graduate school. So after you graduate high school, you'll go into college and usually complete a bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree is a four year degree, and you can get a bachelors of science. A bachelor's off. The arts students have different majors are different, focuses that they choose once they get to college. For example, I have a bachelor's too great an anthropology because I enjoy studying about cultures both in the past and currently and in love with linguistics. After your bachelor's degree, you can return to graduate school and get a master's degree. Now a master's degree is a two year degree on, and it is completed after your bachelor's degree. Um, an N b A. Like we were talking about in the dictation that is a masters of business administration. It's a very popular masters degree for people who wants to go into business or to become an op tra preneurs, which means that you're going to run your own business after Masters agree is a PhD, and that's the highest degree that you can get. The PhD takes about five or seven years to obtain are two gets Um, and it. You can start your PhD directly after your bachelor's, or you can start it after your masters. It depends on the program that your take cane. Um, what Ph. D stands for is philosophy a doctor. It's in Latin, so I'm not sure if I pronouncing it correctly, but that's how we get the initials P H. D. And that's doctor of philosophy, as opposed to empty or a medical doctor. Okay, we also said things like Enroll so on the person in the paragraph she's going to enroll in school. That means she's going to register for classes. She's gonna sign up for classes. So an example of Enroll I want to enroll and dance classes this year. All right, another thing she said. Internship. What it in terms ship is It's a temporary job that she, um that's done by students are somebody who is freshly out of college and there are doing this small job in order to gain job experience, said These positions are usually unpaid future, strictly doing them for the experience. But sometimes there are some paid internships as well. On the next word. Be covered was abroad abroad means to travel overseas are out of the country out of your home country. So an example they traveled abroad for an international business conference. So repeat abroad and try to use abroad in a sentence of your own. On our last word was incentive. Incentive means it's a noun. That means a possible benefit that motivates a person to do something. So an example. I love Buy one. Get one free cells because it's such a great insensitive to buy the product to brought on by the product. All right, so you repeat after me. Incentive in center. Now pause the video and try to use incentive and a sentence of your own. Great. So I hope you did well with that dictation. Um, look at the attached hand out so you can test yourself. See how well you did with the written transcript. Circle any words that you have written incorrectly and try to say those words out loud five times a piece, and this is to hopefully improve your working memory with these words. We'll also have some vocabulary on that hand out, so please be sure to see that unhappy practicing to next time. But by 25. Skillshare Congratulation Video: congratulations. You made it to the end of this course. So great job learning the language requires a lot of repetition and ordered a lot the new vocabulary and concepts into your long term memory. I encourage you to review these videos and review the PDF handouts to refresh your memory and to strengthen your knowledge of this material, please ensure to leave a review for this course your you really helps other students find me and find this horse. Plus, I would love to hear some feedback on how you enjoyed. Of course, I'll be making more English horses, so be sure to follow me here on Still share Teoh here whenever I post a new Inglis course, you can also follow me on social media at the following links. It's really been a pleasure helping you improve your English happy practicing until next time. Bye, guys.