Maria Montessori´s Cosmic Tales | Karin Gnaore | Skillshare

Maria Montessori´s Cosmic Tales

Karin Gnaore, Happy to teach you !

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27 Lessons (5h 15m) View My Notes
    • 1. What to expect from this class?

    • 2. What are Cosmic Tales?

    • 3. Why and how Stories

    • 4. N: Facts about small and great cosmic tales Function, learning goals, choosing stories

    • 5. About a piece of paper which was able to see and talk

    • 6. N: Flower 1 Introduction

    • 7. N: Flower 2 The Story

    • 8. N: Apple Seed 1 Intoduction Methods

    • 9. N: Apple Seed 2 The Story

    • 10. N: Numbers 1: Why a story about numbers?

    • 11. N: Numbers short and simple version story

    • 12. Introduction to the Story of James Cook

    • 13. The STory of James Cook

    • 14. Die Route von James Cook nachlegen

    • 15. Vitamin C in Apples and Lemons James Cook

    • 16. Numbers long version story Rotate

    • 17. Why the STory of the Great River is relevant

    • 18. The Story of the Great River

    • 19. Great River Methods

    • 20. Introduction telling the story of Mona Lisa

    • 21. The story of the painting Mona Lisa

    • 22. Methods Extensions Mona Lisa

    • 23. The Rosa Parks Story

    • 24. Why is the story of Rosa Parks relevant for our children today

    • 25. Rosa Parks: How to tell the story, tips for storytelling

    • 26. Rosa Parks Black and white original photos for middle school

    • 27. Extensions, work with the story of Rosa Parks


About This Class

In this class you get to know the cosmic tales of Maria and Mario Montessori and how to tell them for the benefit of the children. Storytelling as a method for teaching history, geography, biology and much more!

Which methods to use to continue working with the children on the topics of the tales and which materials to use for illustrating the stories.

Which pictures and experiments can be used to illustrate the stories?

Tips for successful storytelling


1. What to expect from this class?: So we are starting anemia model about Montessori education. It's a module about the cosmic tales. You don't find a lot of information. You don't easily find a lot of information cause me tails on the Internet or in other resources, because most people who study Montessori education and teach Montessori education focused on the 3 to 6 year old classroom so that Kinnock Garden or, as Maria Montessori called it the Children's house. But a cause me tales belong. So the next age level for Toda 6 to 12 year old Children Ah, and much fewer educators teach Montas are teach according to the monetary concept. In schools, there are less Montessori schools for 6 to 12 year old kids. Then there are kindergartens, Children's houses and then also the trainers, the teachers who are teaching, uh, teachers and the monster method. There are much less less teachers and trainers who are working with people who want to learn for school kits how to work with school kits. And that's the reason in this model we are going to look, we're going to get to know Ah, lot off Cross me Tales of Maria Montessori. I will tell you the stories, and I will teach you how to use materials, how to use the kids, how to use pictures, how to use experiments in order toe make these stories even more interesting. So in this model you will hear ah, lot of cosmic stories, stories which tell the Children about the world around them, really life through stories but facts. Scientific facts will be told as fear retail's. So I hope that you're very interested because it's wonderful method to engage 6 to 12 year old kids in science and knowledge. It's a great way to kill the interest on that hope that you go with me through the whole module and you're going to learn how to teach Children using stories. 2. What are Cosmic Tales?: What is this method of cosmic tales all about? It's about us. Teaches knowing scientific facts, history, geography, uh, and science, natural science biology So well that you can tell very complicated facts in, ah fear retail like engaging story that it's worth listening to. And here comes my challenge. The cosmic tells will be engaging only if you will tell them in an engaging way. You don't read them to the kids. You tell them to the kids. It's Orel literature. Look at your students. Talk to them. I change your voice. Modulate your speech, your peach, your speed. I have a lot of methods off variations in how you tell it. Keep eye contact. Tell the story fast enough. Don't tell it slow. It will be so boring for your kids and will be so very boring. So please speak fast. Not fast, like a nervous person who can't be understood but speak fast at engaging. Um, use you face your facial expression, use your hands for gestures and make it fun. Your preparation includes, as I mentioned, knowing of the facts, because 6 to 12 your kids, they will ask you, Is it really true? How did it really happen? What was the name of this person? When did it happen? When was the year and so on? And usually people paid for those questions. But also you're not giving a lecture. The main purposes you tell on engaging story that is friend to listen to and your Children should listen with ears like this, What does she tell you? Wow, that's interesting. And you, Kendall er interest. And then you can use further methods for the kids toe work on their own. What topics and facts that you mentioned in the story. Background information. But you could oh, so continue working with the kids through projects. You could have a project or seven projects that has to do with what you taught them in the story. You could have an exclusion that, uh, has to do with what you told the kids in the story. Make sure don't teme Valley Fear retails. Tell interesting science. That's a cosmic Till now. Maria Montessori started toe develop the cost details quite late in her life and in her career. Actually, as far as we know, it's only in India. That's just 30. To work more on this concept, off cosmic education on the 6 to 12 year old classroom for kids because there was a school primary school. Um, so she needed to have a concept for those school Children and also in India. She got to know a whole different world off thinking off culture a world had not known before. So for sure, what she saw experience and learned in India has influenced her, um, way of thinking when she was developing those cosmic tales that's important to know. As a perfect Montessori teacher, Uber wants to develop your own cause me tales for your own topics which are important for your classrooms, wherever you are. So the stories I'm going to tell you they are mostly common stories which are common to Montessori teachers to tell Yeah, known. Not all the stories I'm going to tell were written and develop my reply. Maria Montessori herself somewhere developed by her son Mariano onto Sorry and somebody either off her students. So her students developed also cosmic tales. We are invited to develop our own cosmic pills depending on what you want to teach. So I want you call. Ah, dig deep into the tails. I'm going to tell you and the methods I'm going to show you and develop your own stories. Because if you want to rely only on what I'm going to tell, that's not enough for teaching a 6 to 12 year old classroom. It's not enough. It's just Ah hint. It's just a beginning and that effect and that's number one. Learn to tell them in an engaging way. Tell only facts which are true, make science and so simple. Easy to understand engaging stories. Be ready to develop your own telling stories is wonderful. Children love stories. As a matter of fact, I'm not a child anymore. But I love stories, too. So it's something wonderful. Um, but if you have a story and you have the Children Toby active, that's much better then just telling a story. No matter how engaging the story is, you are telling, and no matter what a good storyteller you are, so try with the stories to fight methods to engage the Children, either curing the story or after the story. That's one. Let the Children be active. The other one is have something to show to them. So you could have realized things in your hand, which they can see which they can patch or maybe experiment with. But you could also have pictures which you're going to show to the kids and that make the story more engaging. Now, don't mistake cause me tail for a picture book. You are going to teach a class room, all the Children in your classroom at the same time. So a picture book won't stop you. Because if you have so many Children with you, how will they see what is in the picture book? You have, uh, tablets or big pictures, and they must be on cardboard so hard. So if you hold them in front of yourself, the kids will see them and the all the kids will see them. And if they're details on those pictures, all the Children in your class room have to be able to see the details. So have big cardboard pictures. And as I mentioned earlier, you can have projects you can continue working from where you are with that, um, with the story on the topic off the story, how that is, I will tell you for each and every story. So it's story. There's a method how to make it more interesting, engaging and how to learn further. One last tent. Don't pretend. Being a teacher. Every in the regular school, you tell the story, and then you examine the kids on the story. That's not what you're supposed to do. The story should be fun. Don't make an exam on the story. The story is like a starting point off a bigger picture. So for every story, if you have stories, have materials for the kids toe worker have experiments project and then the story will stay in their mind. But don't let them memorize the stories because they will lose the interest if they know that you will give them a test or an exam after telling the story stories. The only interesting. It's a free will choice to listen or to sleep, but nobody's sleeping. When I'm telling a story, they're all awake because how attended Children are depends on your way of telling the story. And that last tent I'm going to give you right now is develop a relationship. Kids listen to people. They have a relationship with much better, much more intensive, then to people they don't have relationship with So it's so easy to tell a story to kids who know you and you are being known by the kids, then toe strange kids. So the relationship you build with the kids also depends on your success as a storyteller. And that's my last stint for my last tip for now. And I hope you're curious to get to know the stories which will help you teaching your school Children. 3. Why and how Stories : So you know already the story about the paper who was able to talk? This is a story you comptel. Two young Children were just starting primary school that just six years old. Um, if you have Children who are not able to read and write in your classroom and they will learn this, they will. Ah, here. This story there will be encouraged to discover the secrets of reading and writing. Um, if you have mixture so some were able to read and write and some who don't the readers will discover the secret off. Whiter paper was able to talk to the other Children and this is really being This will be an encouragement. Now, why do we need the story off the paper? Who could talk now? All the Children, they're six years old. They are in the period off scientific discovery. But they're sensitive, period for learning how to read and drag has passed. That means the interest is gone and it wasn't used. It also means that in this stage where they should be able according to developmental psychology, they should be able to read and write already on that just learning to. But they're just starting to learn it. It's much harder than hats. They learned it earlier, so they need an extra encouragement and we need to kindle the interest on toe. How do we kill the interest we use? The period that they are interested are in. And we tell them stories because they love stories and they can imagine those stories in their own mind very well. We have them to imagine their stories in their mind because we give them pictures, Experian mints and other illustrations together with the story you doesn't know the story of James Cook on the Scurvy. This is the killer interest off the kids. In healthy nutrition. We take something they love exploration, adventure, journeys, big ships, sea captains and, uh, travelling the oceans of the world exploring the world discovered new countries something exciting. And, um, through this, we can do the interest in healthy nutrition. Now I'm going to tell you a story which is one off the very famous ones and another off the very important ones and adds about the body systems and which body system is doing what we have to teach to the kids. Understanding off physiology, physiology that is how the body functions. This is not fit for very young Children, because this story I'm going to tell you is there is a parable, and it's a very large parable. It's a long story, and it's a very complex story in the as a parable. Now Children start to sink in an abstract way from six years on work so earlier than that, parables don't make any sense. But as this one is so complex, um, most of the time it will be for older Children who have more patience in listening for a longer time and who have already as thorough and the sound understanding off. I'm not to me because they are not to me must be before the physiology, this story, the Great River. We know that the idea toe the story is directly from Maria Montessori. We know she has been a medical doctor, and so it's so clear that she has such an idea, thinking as a scientist, um, developing this parable off the Great River and the Great River. That's the blood circulation and the different stations. The Great River passes, uh, are the different internal organs and in in the form of a parable. She's explaining the functions off the different organs. Now we do not have the original version. How? See Wanted the story to be told. We don't know that any more. Um, we have a version off a student or assistant colleague off her son Maria Montessori. The way he you stayed and told it, this doesn't matter at all. We know she had this bright a deer off compere ing the blood circulation to a river, Um, a great parable and, ah, the different or against they are different stations, which the river passes through, and we can feel free according to the scientific knowledge that we have at that is the accurate scientific knowledge. Explain the different stations to the kids as I mentioned, it's really a parable now, because the story is so complex, it doesn't make much sense to just tell the story in a row because it's too long. Even older Children want want listening because I will lose interest. You will need illustrations for the story, and I'm going to show you, sir administrations, which I've been doing with my students, how on how to work with the story, either during the story or after telling the story. Cam Um what we know what Maria Montessori, her son and all the students were using in the original context, telling the great lessons The big story is the most important stories. They used large pictures, large large pictures. Um, we would call them pastors, but they were actually like tables that were fixed so they wouldn't bend while showing them so thereby usually using this large aboard pictures while they were telling the story. So the show pictures toe all the kids, and that's one the thing I really want to focus on for this story because we need the pictures for this story so much, um, they're often we tend are We want to read stories to Children. Now, if the story has pictures, there is no way we do it. Because if I'm reading the book and then I want to show the picture, it's too small for all the Children to see, and that was have to turn the book ground and stop reading. That doesn't make any sense. We need toe talk as we show, so we need to combine it, too, as you can see if there was a picture by my side right now. I would be able to look at you and tell your story at the same time point at the picture and the Children would pissing me. Who is the teller at the same time as a picture? This is very important. Now, in the year 2020 we might tend toe wanting to use power point presentations. So slides which you project to the wall. Great idea. But, um, I think personally that the person contact which I'm having with Children, as I tell the story and I banned over I moved towards them is getting lost when I'm doing a PowerPoint presentation because I'd be focusing on the power pond, the Children would be focusing on the Power pine. It needs to be a a little bit darker most of the time, but in any case, I will disappear. The power point will be in the center and the personal relationship which is part of storytelling world get lost, so I wouldn't advise it. I personally off course work with power point when a seat fit for speech ease before a big audience thinks like this, of course, but I wouldn't work with power Point with Children. And then there is another important reason why I wouldn't do it. Our Children today are being confronted with electric Elektronik media every day, hours and hours and hours, and they I usedto having any information or any entertainment being delivered to them through Elektronik media on, um, they can do it by themselves. They can switch on the televisions with gender computer, search the Internet, uh, sweet Chanda smartphones. What, you two videos, Whatever they can do that they don't need us to present it to them. Honest team. When I was a school girl, even in high school, when we were being shown a film during the time, it was really of film on big things and had made some noise. It was an event when her shown film in school. It was an event because most of us were even not watching television at all or on such a limited skill. It was an event was exciting. So whatever was in the film, we soaked it in. It was special. Today anything electron is not special anymore. A soon as we present of anything electronic, the Children lose the interest. Andan also if I'm presenting pictures, um, static pictures because I'm making slides off what should be really pictures. It's not interesting at all because of Children being confronted with exciting videos with exciting effects, exciting production. And we are not Hollywood to produce such things. And if we did, there's no use off as telling a story. Really. The stories about relationship me to the kids all year to the kids, and I want to use real things as much as possible. And if it's pictures I'm using, let me pick up one of my pictures and I want to show the picture on. No one will still be there, and they will remember. It's Karen who showed the picture to us. It's carrying who told us a story. It's the relationship, and only when there is relationship taking. Also ask questions. Our kids today need more real time, really Life things, rail pictures, simplicity, simple things in order for the brain toe work. Electronic media are wonderful. They're increased intelligence and prevent dementia for my 81 year old mom, Elektronik Media smartphone Computers are great for her, so dementia will be delayed and her intelligence will increase because for her. It's new and exciting, but for the kids, it's not. They are ahead of you, believe me, So don't even dare to think of it. You can use it in Adam for other purposes, but not when you work with the kids because you want to be with them. Okay, that was my introduction. So remember, um, we use stories to Kendall the interest off Children, four pa peaks. Either topics they might not be interested in otherwise, like, um, learning to read and write when the sensitive period is past or topics they might be bored at. Like eat more fruits, eat more vegetables. This sermonizing doesn't help. We want to kindle interest in a different way, then also stories of being remembered much better than facts. We hide the facts in the stories and for storytelling. We need to Ah, we need media. We need experiments, and we need extensions after the story. Um, and we need to use real life things, whether the realize things are real life pictures or objects or experiments. But we need real life, and our Children need real life. So with that being said, just wait for the next story. 4. N: Facts about small and great cosmic tales Function, learning goals, choosing stories: Great and small cosmic tells what's the difference? What's the purpose? And can you come up with your own cosmic tales? Well, great cosmic tails are giving the big picture. Maria Montessori wanted children to have the big picture. Her idea was cosmic education serves for children to find the row in life. Basically their purpose in life, their life is meaningful, Very important facts. So that Greg cosmic tells gave the peak picture of where we come from, where we are going to how the world and how the universe functions, which rules are there, which make it work. That is a great cosmic tell, giving the big picture of the universe. There's a big responsibility in telling those great cosmic tills. Because what do you tell the children might depend on your knowledge about it. And there's a lot of value. Personal values, ethnic values, religious, by use connected to it. We should be very careful in telling them and telling those stories. But they are really important. People who don't have a purpose in life. Their life must be unhappy. Number two, having understanding the big picture helps me to contribute to that picture in a positive way, to become a useful members of society who loves to serve and to contribute. And we, that's what we want. Those are the great cosmic tells. They are giving a big overview and the big picture. And it takes a little bit of time for telling. Actually did take a lot of time for talent. Maybe youth seldom impacts are gonna take set of five time for that. Don't rush into it. Think of a very well, what is that? The small cosmic tells are much easier. The small cosmic tales, basically, whatever you want the children to understand, whatever we want to candy the interest for, whatever we want to explain to them, theoretic scientific facts. We pack it and wrap it in a beautiful story. Now, that story must serve as a key. So the story is the beginning and not the end of the children learning by the amine. Kendall entrust, tell the story as if it was a novel, a fairy tale. Upgrade, Romans, whatever you think about a great story, be excited about that story. Don't tell them, you have to learn it. Be excited about story. Modulate your voice. Described the emotions of the people who are acting and the storing. Describe how it looked like, why you are so that the imagination of the children will be kindred. And because you are telling facts and not imagination, you, if you can't lay imagination of the kids, their mind will remember what you want them to learn. As easy as that. Generally in life, we do the contrary. We allow children to read novels or to watch films which have exciting stories. Their imagination is in candid. They remember those fairy tales. And then we give them dry facts and school books, which have nothing to do with their life. They don't touch their hearts, they don't touch their minds, they don't kinda their emotions, they don't let them feel anything. I've been forgotten because they're irrelevant. They didn't touch the, Anything in the kids. And Marie Montessori said the other way around. Those imaginary stories and fairy tales and fables. They don't do any good for kids. Leave them out. But tell the facts as fairy tales. And that's, that's very, very, very well possible. Only you need to research it. You need to research to find the stories. You can come up with any story which is relevant and based on facts. Tell the story, used pictures, real pictures. And after the story come up with more activities which, which allows children to explore on that topic. They won't be interested because their heart has been touched. Because you were talking about emotions, about feelings, about scenery. And you might work on the scenery, you might work on the emotions, you might work on the facts. Depending on your learning goal. Generally. Numbers, let's say from history, can be checked from the internet. That's not a very good learning goal, not a very relevant learning goal. They should of course, be always true and always the real ones you give. But if they understand how people felt about something, How they suffered, how The struggled, how they overcame. That's a good learning goal because those are the values you want the children to gain. Now, I'm Maria Montessori told a number of cosmic tails during her courses, the courses she was teaching herself. And students who were writing down. Lecturers who were taking notes, routes down those stories. So we know today some of the stories she told, but we are not very sure that this that the stories we have today are all of them because we're not sure that her students wrote all of them down. At that we have all the notes of all the students who took notes. Remember, especially the students in Austria. Many of them, if not most of them were Jewish and some died in concentration camps and suffered, all of them suffered persecution. So a lot of stories she told personally, unlikely to be lost. When Harrison Maria Montessori took over, I'm teaching. He told a number of stories, but we're not sure that we have all of them. People who came as I have a story which was being told by him, then we know it. But other than that, if there are students who will remain. And then an animus. Stories might be say last or maybe somewhere in somebody's active. Well, I'm at, gave you some ideas. And this is an incomplete list by giving you some few ideas, what you can tell us a story, and what Maria and Maria Montessori told us stories. So the first group is things children need to learn. And you want them to be motivated to understand that what they are going to learn is exciting. It's great, it makes a difference. So we are telling them how things were being invented or discovered or prescribed. And we take those tales from history, really history, and how it made a difference in those people discovered it. So like the story of the paper that was able to talk as about how being able to read and write makes a difference in somebody's life. Then how writing was being invented and developed. Talking about different writing system. Systems is also very interesting for children. Come up with their own stories, come up with their own inventions of how letters might look like with their own secret codes. And that makes writing then interesting for the kids. And they will easily understand how different languages are being written down in different letters or sines. And there we'll see it very cool in a very cool way, which makes learning languages it's easier for them. Then about mathematics had different mathematics formula were being developed. How, how calculation was being developed, how geometric got its name, and other things. Lots of those stories are from ancient Egypt, from ancient Babylon, from Sumerian culture, a searing culture. So you have a lot of history there. And you take away that serenity of mathematics, that you take away the theory of mathematics and bring it into a human background. And what I like about this approach is people who are interested in, as children, who are interested in history, in people and emotions in psychology and how a social life, they won't suddenly be interested in mathematics because it gets a connection to real life and it doesn't stay as a theory, theoretic, something that is not connected to real life. Bringing mathematics to real-life. It's really important and you can do it through the stories. You have a lot of stories from biology like the purpose of the flower, the purpose of the seed. About the plants. Those stories, they are transporting dry facts from biology, but in a story and a story so that children are getting a story about biology. But because it sounds like a fairy tale that will easily understand what's going on, why it's going on, why it's important. And it will easily remember because we tend to remember stories very easily. So everything about plants and flowers and insects could be packed in a story. And Maria Montessori did that. Remember she was a science person. Then. Things from Hadi call astronomy could be packed into a story and Maria and Maria Montessori data. The Earth moving around the Sun, for example, is a story. Other things from astronomy could be packed in a story. And today, it's even easier than in her time because we have all the real space explorations and can pack a lot of astronomy into stories of people who explored. And we have more of that than she had in her time. Grammar can be packed into stories. There are stories about the nouns, about plural of nouns and, and other things like that. Yes, and also other things like writing down notes, writing down music, writing down sheet music. How people develop that? How in the beginning it wasn't really clear how to play it and how it became clearer and clearer and more and more detailed. That's also a story. So basically everything. We had history, geography, mathematics, grammar. You can have literature and everything, which is that the so-called learning subjects can be packed into stories. And that will make all those subjects more interesting and more fun. Research to stories. Well, look for good pictures and tell them in an interesting way. 5. About a piece of paper which was able to see and talk: the following story was being told but Maria Montessori herself. It's a story which purposes to Kinler interests of learning to read and write because of the Children. Haven't bean in a Montessori institution or were not taught by appearance? Who who knew about Montessori education that will come to school. They don't know how to read and write and the sensitive period for learning out the reading brightest over by the time the Children start school. So we need special methods. Toe. Kill me. The interest Rekindle enters off the kids for learning how to read and write, and for understand its importance was learning toe reading and writing at the later stage. When the sensitive period is over, is match much more tiresome. So we need more methods. Special message. And we need methods that meet the interest of the child. Because while the child is interested in, the child will learn easily. So my ramen to sorry told his story. 1944 during one off her Montessori courses in India and the stories called the Paper. Who could talk? Is there a paper? Kentucky. Have you met a paper who can talk? No, I will tell you today. A story about the paper who could really talk and task things. Listen well. There was a certain man, and this man owned a beautiful fruit garden. Andi, as much as the fruits were delicious, that was such an awful lot of work in the garden, especially during the time of harvest. But this man had a friend, and you knew that his friend love to eat fresh roots to, and this friend didn't have a garden. So the man called again, boy. And he said, Young boy, please bring this basket with the freshly picked piers to my friend so he can enjoy the Pierce. And if you have done this, I'll pay you a little money, a pocket money to say thank you for your services. So the boy was happy to do this service because he knew he would receive money after bringing the piers. The basket would appears to the friend off his neighbor. So the man filled the, uh, the basket with peers and describe the way very well to the boy. And he put the paper in the piers and he said this. I wrote some great things on the paper and The boy said okay. And he left to go to the home off the friend of the owner off the garden. But it was a very hot summer day. And the boy got so thirsty, not so thirsty. And he cooled Enberg anymore. He was carrying the pier, and the peers were so to see, they looked so juicy. And he thought If only I would eat one, my thirst will disappear and nobody would know anyway. There so many. So he took wine. Pierre Man, it was delicious. It was juicy. I'm After finishing this one, peer, he rapidly started on the way again because he didn't want to. Uh, yeah. Representation to eat a second pier. He reached the home off the friend he knocked at the door. And he says your friend is sending you greetings, and your friend is sending you this basket for off piers. The man took the basket and saw the paper. And the young man who just wanted to leave he called him back and he said, Young men come back. There's one peer missing. I'm sure you ate it. And the Youngman said No, no, no, no. I brought you all the piers. Nothing is missing on the man's that you are lying. I know exactly that. One Pierre is missing. Not two, not three. It's only one missing and the boy said, How do you know? And the man said the paper and the basket told me Pay but told you? Yes. The boy was ashamed and ask for forgiveness. He explained how thirsty has been, and he went back to get his money, his pocket money for bringing the peers to the friend. A few days later, more peers were ready and the fruit garden off the man and he called again the boy. And they said, You know already where my friend lives, Please take another basket of peers to my friend. The boy voluntarily agreed as he knew he would get some pocket money. In the end, it was against so hot the san he got more and more thirsty and the basket was so having. And he thought, Well, if I eat only one peer, it will not be missing only one sure, but I will do something. Don't be stupid. Like last time he took the paper, covered it with a stone. So to start them. Sorry. Does the stone on the paper covered a paper so the paper couldn't see him have any 8th 1 on the one Pierre. When you arrived in the friend's house, of course he put the paper back, put it on top of the piers. When they arrived in the friend's house, she knock and the friend, who is a basket, looked at the pay bump which wasn't top off the basket and said, My friend, you have already again eaten one peer you should have brought All appears to me, but your egg one on the way and the young men's. And how did you know? I covered the papers with Couldn't see me eat the pier. Now what do you think? How it's the friend? No, that exactly one peer. What's missing? 6. N: Flower 1 Introduction : The story which is going to follow is for children at the beginning of primary school age. So children six to seven years old. This story is a very, very simple one. This is why it's for small to simplify, don't complicate matters. We want the Qin let interests of the children in plants, in nature, in ecosystems. The story has been told by Maria Montessori herself. So one of the stories which has been written down during one of her classes, and she was a scientist. So that wasn't part. And for her, it was important for her to teach kids. But I believe any 20-20 while we experience bees dying and plans and be able to reproduce and fruits and be able to produce, to be produced because of lack of pollination by honey bees. I believe the story is more important than ever. We are experiencing climatic change, we're experiencing changes in ecosystems. So this is one of the stories you want to talk to your children as early as possible. The way it's here, it's for when small children. And when you tell the story, have pictures to show to what you are telling them. Because those young children, due to lack of experience, they might not be able to picture things in their minds so well. But pictures are, in any case powerful to let the children remember the story. Use real pictures which you hold in your hand. More powerful than pictures are realia, as we call them. And one could be pot of flowers. So when you tell the story, are you plan to tell the story colored children, to form a circle rank of the children can sit on the floor, it's much better, much healthier photos young children and put a pot of flowers, blooming flowers in the center. Those could be flowers grown from onions or from seed. If you are growing those flowers in your classroom together with the kids, much better even. But it's not a condition. If the children have been working with the puzzles, the wooden passes of Maria Montessori, which shows the seeds, the flowers, the parts of the flowers and other parts of plants, but especially the flowers and their parts. If they're able to name the different parts of the flowers, it will be really wonderful, but it's not a condition. What is that telling to you? So if the children happened to have been working with us things during that kindergarten aged three to six and able to name all the parts of the flowers. They will understand the story much easier, but it's also not in condition because the way we will tell the story is so simple. After you tell the story, you would want to do experienced, real same experience. Whether kids, where they can explore how plants function, how plants work, what they need for life, and how the things are working. Soda needs of a plant, like a light, water, fertilize them. You want to experiment on chlorophyll. You want to experiment on how plants grow towards the light. You want to the experiments how plants give water, how they need, what're, you want to in the experiment that roots are going growing downwards. That how, what has been transported from the soil through the plant, how the stem is transporting the 1r and any other experiments you can think about. The best experiments, I believe is always growing plants, growing flowers, taking care of them, being attentive to them, how they develop, which is also developing patients. So that's also important. So this story is for young children six to seven years of age in the way, and I will tell them. Pay attention how I'm talking about scientific facts. But I'm avoiding a lot of scientific language. I'm using everyday language and I'm kindling the imagination of the kids through the way in which I tell the story. So it will, in this way, it will stay in their mind and the will not forget when it can just their emotions. It will also, when they're hard disk being touched, it will also motivate them to act, to react. There will be interested in further experiments, in further exploration. If you don't touch their emotions, if it doesn't candy their imagination, they wouldn't. There will stay there and it's over for them. But you want at the store is always to be a key for further exploration and learning. 7. N: Flower 2 The Story : Today, I have a beautiful story for you. Can you imagine a meadow full of flowers? Flowers in different colors and of different species. And the flowers have a voice. Can you hear the voice of the flowers? You can't hear the flowers voice with your ears. You have to hear the flowers shouting where their neighbors and with their the flowers and the bees S, two S, different flowers are calling different honey bees, attracting them with their owners to us, drink from us. And the other is also shouting, sweet nectar for me to drink. The honeybees lab to drink sweet nectar. The honey bees know the pollen is full of protein, which is very perfect baby food for the honeybees babies. So the honeybees crawl, entered a flower deep, deep inside because the nectar is inside of flowers. So the honey bee has to crawl inside and drink, and drink, and drink from the sweet nectar. As the honey bee as drinking. Can you see what this here? This side part of the flower is full of something like best. It's like the brushes. And the best on the precious stays on the legs and the body of the honeybee. She's so happy because she got lots of nectar to drink. And unknowingly, her body is full of honey bees left to stick to one type of flower. When do, when they have discovered how sweet it is, they drink and drink and collect the pollen of one type of flower without knowing it. And then they go to the next flower of the same type. What did drink again and they go deep inside. But now the pollen is brushed off their legs. And it stays on the flower. And this is how flowers are being pulley, make TET, that's called pollination. In this way. The honey bee flies from one flower to the next. Drinking the honey. Leaving some pollen, they're collecting some new pilot flying to the next flower, drinking more sweet nectar, leaving some of the pollen which is on her body there, and collecting some pollen. Now, the flower is be pulling it. What does that mean? Let me show it to you. Then you see a pollen, which is here, will go through these tiny pollen tube to the egg, which is here in the lower part of that, a flower. And when the pilot reaches t, they can form nice sales. And from this news sells, fruits can grow. So what's happening is the paula, which was being brought to the flower Beida honeybee, goes through the bullet pointed to the egg. And now the fruit, the fruit is ready to grow. The flower has accomplished her purpose so that beautiful pedestals fall off to allow a fruit to grow. And the fruit grows from the which was brought by the B and the egg, which was initially there. And this is how every fruit which grows, which you eat, whether it's an Apple, are Petch, has been pollinated by a honey bee or maybe an adder insect, that the flower has done her purpose. And a next purpose is the fruit. But a honey bee goes home full of nectar and her body's still of pollen. And all of that together is being made into beautiful food for honeybee babies. And a honey bee babies will grow up. And next year they're ready to Palenik more flowers for more fruits to grow. So the flower gives food to the honeybee. But a honey bee allows the, the flour to produce fruit and more flowers next year. So the honeybee and the flower depend on each other. They help each other. It's not obvious. A flower is a plan a B as an animal. But they need for their survival. Isn't that great? And the flower would never refuse the honeybee to drink or to come in. And the honeybee would never refuse to fly to the next flower and to leave her pollen there for the pollination to happen. Can you see this part where the egg is, the plan of the whole plant is contained there. So when the UK has been pollinated, when the polymer has come down and the stem cell starts to divide. All the plan for the fruit. Maybe an apple, maybe eight. Maybe a walnut is already ready. And in that seat, or the plan for the full is contain like the plan for the tray on which the flour has been growing. The plan is here inside. The honeybee was doing for the flour. What the flower come to four itself. But the flower was doing for the honeybee. What the honeybee can't do for itself. So next time, when you go to the garden or when you go for a walk, remember how the plants and the animals serve each other to do for each other what they cannot do for themselves. And they never refused their service. They're happy to serve and let nature blossom and multiply. Isn't that wonderful? 8. N: Apple Seed 1 Intoduction Methods: The next story I'm going to tell you is one which is really, really simple. But you can make it as complicated. So it depends upon you for which age group you want your story to be fit. You can make it really easy so that five-year-old China will take great advantage of you telling them the story. But you can use a lot of history, geography, exploration of the world when telling that story. And then it will be fit for much older children, even up to 12 years old. Now the next term going to tell you is about how an apple tree grows from an apple seed. Well, for very small children are ready. You cut off an apple, you show them the apple seeds. You showed him how to APA has been built up. Very small children already like kinda garden is you start to plant seeds and they experience how from seeds really plants are growing. So that is something we should or must do, right from 34 years, all the children should be taught to plant seeds. What a term? Wait patiently until they germinate. And plants are there. Really from three years old maximum for years. They should be taught that and J should be taught to take up the responsibility. Well, in the story are some informations which are for much older children like which countries grow apple trees today. But actually the apple trees have been brought there through carrying the seeds and planting a tree which is not at home in that area. Because in the stereotyping to tab through the seats you, the Apple's, Apple treats who are being carried into all continents and all the world. And it would be such an geography and history activity to find out which countries grow apples today, where the apples are not at all a tone by the Web brought there. Well, that's an activity you could do with a lot of different fruits and vegetables which are being grown there. But there were brought there on purpose because people would just like to have them. But that's a more complicated work, more difficult work that is really for middle school children from 1011 and up, depending on the level of understanding of the kids. Also, in a story is the information about how every seed contains all the information of the plant. Every seed contains the tree which can grow out of that seed. That genetic information, that is the building blended genetic building plan. Now for small children, Newtown limits contained there. This is how it grows. And most of the time we can't know it when we plant the seed. But for other children, you have all the children. The same story will serve as a tool to explore what is the DNA information that genetic information in the I'm seed and how it's being, what influence SHE could have some laws of heredity about dominant criteria, our arm. Backward criteria, criteria. So what is being transported through the genetics? That would be something for all the children. Now if you have a very mixed age classroom, the story should be told that the way that all of the children can understand it, but then different activities will guide the children in the different way. Well, generally, I will tell the story as it is very fit for little children. Because I would want children to know that already. The vocabulary should be known so that children should have been working with pathless, whether it can take a part that different parts of the seats out. Consider the wooden pass you whether different parts of the seed very important actually when we do that before, as well as the puzzle, what's the tree where you have the trunk and the roots and all of the parts of the tree that they are familiar with, the vocabulary that you use. Of course, excursions into the garden, into fruit garden to a fruit pharma would be really exciting. But you will see the experiment which you should really do with your kids in the story. So actually this story contains the experiment that you will do with your kids afterward. And on purpose, I am using an apple, an apple seed because it's such a common fruit. And that makes it really interesting. So the experiment that I will be showing, I will explain it to you because I will be telling the story. I went explained experiment in short. Take an apple. Should be biological ones are organic one. This is an organic apple. Actually. Take an organic apple, pull out the seeds, take out the seeds, put them between paper towels. If the plastic container or a plastic bag, spray, so that paper is damp but not wet and wait for the seeds to germinate. And when you use this method, that advantages that the children can see the apple seeds germinate. That is what you will be seeing. And the pictures you could ofcourse plant and apple seed into the soil directly, whether it's in the garden outside or in a pot. At disadvantage here is that it takes longer because apple is a fruit that grows in regions where there is winter. So this apple is almost right now, not yet fully, but almost right now. When they are ripe. And they fall down. That seats will rest in the soil over winter. And then the tiny plants will come up in springtime. A lot of Apple farmers like to trick the seats out by trying them first and then putting them in the fridge. So pretending that it's when tank keep the seats in the fridge for two months, 60 days, before using them to allow them to germinate faster and then puts them in the soil. So there are different varieties you can do check them out. But I like them, right? You put them on paper. And the children can actually see the seeds germinate because it's really interesting how that tiny seeds pop open and that the germ and then later the leaf comes out and does not yet any saw, which is also part of the story. In the beginning of the apple tree growing the seed is nourishing the baby tree. So to see it in itself is nourishing the baby to it. And that's what you want the children to, to understand. And we can show them that by germinating them on paper. Well, and that u1, I will be using pictures to show you all the process. You are very welcome to do that so that children see what you're talking about. But don't use, in this case, don't use pictures instead of real fruit. So when you teach this story, will you tell the story? Make sure you have an Apple, make sure you have an organic apple. Because if your kids say we want to plant those seeds, organic apples tend to germinate much better than those who have been treated with pesticides and whatever chemicals organic apples tend to germinate battered in their seats tend to Germany better. Have a real knife. And as you tell the story, take U at time, bends down, carried up and take the seats out. And then emits a, you see, if I plant them, this, this, this, this, this is going to happen. You can use them, the pictures which I'm going to use to show to the kids. And then afterwards. And this is a story that is uncomplicated. Afterwards. Just start planting. Don't stay there. Wait for whatever you want to. Start planting the apple trees and wait for them to germinate and then try to grow them as much as possible and so on. So this is, this is a story where you act as soon as possible after the story when the fire is still burning, you kinda left. I have interests in that is still burning. If you happen to have all the children around and look for them details for more details, you could do that the next day and the day after for more things. But those basic activities are absolutely needed. And make sure you have enough of the organic apples so that each child and your group or in your classroom will have their own apple tree in the end. Always remember that not every C is germinating. So you might have many, you might need many more seats. Then you have children to make sure in the end, each job has their own apple tree. If you happen to have a garden, best activity ever plants the apple tree outside Lecture of the children of the gardens. So nice. Let them take their apple trees home and plant them at home. A plant one in a way you are in the school are kindergarten where you are and then the others for children at home, but that's later. Later. Okay, so let's dive right into our very easy and very simple to understand the story. It's about. Genetics, adds about taking care of plants as a bad purpose of seeds ads about how plants are growing at. It's about nature and put tonics. So that's so good. Lots of information there. No action. Very simple. This is why mainly for small children. 9. N: Apple Seed 2 The Story: Children. Today, I have an exciting story for you. And it's one of those stories which is happening again and again every day because every seat knows his duty and his purpose in life. And you know what we are going to look at. We're going to look at this apple tested, this apple from our neighbors apple tree. It's an organic apple. They are not using any chemicals to grow their apples. This is wide enough. Shape, little bit different, not perfectly round, but I like them. And I brought it for you. And now we are going to get our, let's cut our Apple. And let's see what it's, what is inside. Can you see inside the apple are apple seeds? Inside the apple are apple seeds. And these tiny seed, seed may develop into end BY apple tree. How is that possible? How can such a small and tiny seed? Each Apple has a lot of seeds and each seed can grow into one apple tree. So from what Apple, we might grow ten trees. Now at this point you can count that the seeds that you took, took out from one Apple with the kids. We could plan as many trees as we have here. Let's count the seeds. 12345678, but that's not yet all the seeds let take up all the seats. How it's possible. Each and every tiny seed contains all the information which is needed for a full train. So basically we could say apple seed contains an apple tree, but you can't see that apple tree. You cannot see it. But what we can see is, is how it works. Let's look at it. If we put the apple seeds in water, can you see they are on paper and the paper is wet. After a few days, the apple seeds get open. They opened up and there you see, can you see tiny germ comes out of that apple seed. The ADA one also has already tiny opening and a very tiny germ comes out of the opposite. The apple seed is sprouting. And if we wait a little longer, can you see? Those sprouts are becoming bigger and bigger. And what are they being nourished from? The sprouts are being fed by the seed. So that seed is feeding its own sprout. Isn't that great? So every apple tree not only contains an apple tree, but also food for the baby trees, those sprouts, because coding baby trees to feed them. It takes about six days to look like this. You see here, I took them with two to make it really big. The skin of the app was seed sprout up. And you see the sprout. And now if we plant the sprout in soil, we will get. And that's a tiny led apple tree. A very young one, just some days. Oh, this is why it's still not easy to recognize that this is really an apple tree. But if we planted in soil, very soon it will look like this. And if you know how Apple, who leaves look like, you already know this is an apple tree. It's not the pH and the Pierre cherry tree death as an apple tree because the leaves are already perfect. Apple leaves. When you have a lot of these tiny plants, you can plant each apple, plant many apple tree to one pot. And very soon, you will have a big apple tree. Of course. You need some patients from such a small, tiny plant concentric big apple tree. And you see this apple tree is full of apples. And each apple again contains lots of apples seeds. And if you take this apple seeds, you can carry them. Anywhere in the world. You can carry them. And the world and plant trees. Anywhere in the world. It's like among allowing his children to leave their house and to go into the world and to do something great and wonderful and different parts of the world. So today, we have learned how wonderful these has been created from just one typo on an apple tree. Of course that's not the tree. When one, an apple tree of apple trees can grow all over the world. And it all starts from piloted seeds germinating. Isn't that great? Let's try it out and make our own apple trees to grow. 10. N: Numbers 1: Why a story about numbers?: Maria Montessori didn't want children to just learn mathematics and accept the laws the way they wear, accepts the numbers, the word aware, accept the numerical system the way it is. She wanted them to build up a relationship with what the children were learning and with what the children are required to learn. She wanted that children will understand what they do and why they do it. And she also wanted children to understand that a lot of things like numbers were invented by main. They are man-made, kind of, yeah, there are manmade actually and understanding. And then also with the telling of stories and introducing other activities that children are being actively involved. And they learn that even the numbers have a story, a history. And in this way, children who are more interested in stories, in creativity, in history, in exploration, in inventions, Chavan who are more interested in languages, they will be led to being interested in mathematics because it's from a different direction. We're approaching, in this way, approaching mathematics from a different angle. And that was the goal of Maria Montessori because all the children should be reached through the methods which we use. I'm always bear in mind when you teach kids, don't use the method that you believe is effective because that's the method you were taught sinc of children who might be different and who would need a different method. As a matter of fact, Stories are reaching all the children. That's effect. Okay. I'm giving you two versions of the great tale. That's one of the great cosmic tells of a coming of numbers or the invention or the development of numbers. That's a great cosmic tale. I'm giving you two versions of it. I'm giving you a shorter version, which I believe is best for younger children because it doesn't have, include so many peoples, such a long history. It's less complicated, less complex. It deals only with our system of Arabic numbers, which we are using to write numbers. And that's the first version of the story. And giving you, if you are with younger children, children who are not used to dealing with test3, alot and different people groups a lot with long timelines. You might want to use the short version of the story. Always make sure you have pictures for the children to look at, to make the story alive. And here it's about numbers, it's about mathematics. But you also want the children's emotions to be touched. So even for those things, modulate your voice, make it entrusting, tell it like a fairy tale, but it's facts. Leave out everything that could be confusing. When you're dealing with a story. Make sure you don't go from that story to dry mathematics, go to fun activities that help the children to develop a broader picture. And the broader concept, what you want is for the children to open really their minds. And I want to give you some activities which you can use to this end. Number one activity would be to teach children to count in different languages. Let's say you are teaching in English because you are in an English speaking school, our school system, check it out from the Internet, even teaching children to count in Chinese. You can find it on YouTube. It's easy. So counting, learning to count in different languages is fun. Children will enjoy this activity. Then. Tried to write numbers in different writing systems. Most of the world is using the Arabic numbers, as we call them, for calculation, for writing equations, and for teaching mathematics. But languages have different writing systems. That is, have different ways of writing numbers. Like in Mandarin Chinese. There are ways to writing the numbers which are fun and they especially the numbers to 101 to ten. What 23 is just one bar, two bars, three bars. Very simple, very simple to understand. The larger numbers are complicated to write. But you would want the children to write numbers in different languages in order to, and then different mindsets. You can check that out front the Internet. All the information's are there. In the Arabic language, not a numbers are written in different ways. So you might want different language, but what do you want to do for these activities? Contemporary languages, contemporary writing systems. Just to really have a fun activity, a cultural activity at geography activity, a language activity, taking math out of math, and making it more relevant for children who are not so much math oriented. Ben. And that a fun activity is to analyze how other languages call numbers. What do I mean by that? Fringe? Use say gotta vane. That is four times 20. And what do those French people mean? They mean 80. And that's a fun activity to analyze how other languages call their numbers, how they come about calling them. You have in French, it's really fun. It's fun if you have got the VA four times 20, this plus ten, that means 90. So French people are actually calculating as they just say numbers. Well, I have no idea. Maybe they don't. They just learned like this, but it's fun to analyze. Then there are languages. They have only means one. There other languages. They say one too many. Because not everybody needs mathematics for their life. People. Not all people groups in this world are mathematical bound even though there is always a way to explain, to communicate quantity. But the concept, one too many, for example, is an interesting concept. So you might want to analyze how numbers are being thought of in other languages. That's a fun activity. Of course, those activities like counting in different languages, you can do it with smart children, Evan, for years and five years of age. They will love it. Writing it in different languages. That is for, only for children who can write it in their language already. If they can't. That's activities not for you. So that would be for all the children analyzing how other languages called their numbers. That's also for older children because you need analytical thinking. Being able to compare comparative thinking, logical thinking. You need a lot of reasoning power for that activity. The rats for all the children. But every time you are making mathematic relevant and interesting for those children who don't find it interesting and relevant. And that's what we want to, we want to reach all the children. And NANDA activity would be to visit buildings and which actually roman numbers are being found. In the story you will, in that history, our story of the great tale of the numbers. You will hear that pupil Evan in Europe like to use roman numbers because for a long time they thought they were more exact and precise. Then the so-called Arabic numbers. So a lot of buildings, historic buildings have inscriptions in Rome and numbers on them. Visited buildings go there and let the children figure out what's written there. You might want them to have a code like a secret code to encode the numbers which are written on the buildings. But it's a fun activity to be actually able to read the numbers which are written there. And some of those buildings are not really old. I have no idea why they kept writing Roman numbers. No, actually, I have an idea because they kept writing things in Latin. And as they were writing in Latin, they kept writing the Roman numbers. So that's another activity which you want to do. One more activity which you actually can do with all the children as soon as you tell the story, find the journey on a map. So if you tell the short version of the story, like how the, in, the Hindus in India invented how the numbers should be written. And then it came to the Arabs. And from the Arabs to Europe, you might want to find those locations on the map. And if you get informed on internet, how wide a trade routes which were being used, you can really make an actual journey map where the children, how does travels finally reached Europe. And only from Europe then to us, from the, from Europe then to Australia. And that is much, much later, but how they reached Europe because from here, it started to go all over the world. Because at that time, Europe was the center of the world. Obviously are the center of the wall that later made up this superpowers or develop the superpowers to come around. If you tell the longer version of the story, it becomes more interesting. Doing a map word like finding were, was Mesopotamia, where did the Babylonians actually live? Where did the Sumerian people actually live? Where was the Greek empire? Whether you use the Greek writing system, where was the Roman Empire and how was the transition from the Greek to the relevant numbers? That's an interesting map work. Of course, going more interested in into math. But again, this makes all the story relevant for kids. You might not want to do that with six year olds, although you could, if those children are really interested, you could do it. But you might want to do that with all the children. Depending on Hydra children are I have had children. Even five years would be perfect to do that map work, Sumerian, Mesopotamia, Babylonian, Greek empire, Roman Empire, European would have been great for them. And I've had other children later during school age would have been much better. So just observe your kids, know them, but don't rely with your decision. When is the FET time for that on the curriculum of your school? Generally, our curriculum in the schools are not according to the sensitive periods of the kids. And relevant information is giving far too late when the window of opportunity has been closed already. So don't wait for those moments. Just start doing fun activities with numbers, creative activities, geography activities, history activities. To reach all your students. And tell the lambda, or the shorter version of the story to get the interests of all the kids and to make the story fit to the children that you are teaching. 11. N: Numbers short and simple version story : Today, I want to tell you the story of how our numbers, the way we write 12345, the way you learn to write the numbers with the sandpaper numbers, how those numbers came to us. And this story is really the story of a Junie alongs tourney journey. Around 3 thousand years ago. People in India called Hindus. We still call them that way. They carved numbers into stone in caves. And we can see them still today. The numbers which looked like our numbers into stone in case there was no number 0 then. But around thousand years later, they invented the number 0. Now, Indian people worked as traders and they were trading to many, many different countries. And Arabians, we're trading with Indians. There was a connection. Arabians when trading with Indians, Indians were trading with Arabians. Arabians got to know that numerical system of the Indians, including numbers 0. And those numbers were really simple. But as the Arabs had their own, including a number 0, they didn't meet the new, obviously to them new numeric ecosystem. They didn't needy. They knew, they got to know it like we get to know other languages and other numerical systems. But it didn't need it. But it was one Arab. And this Aram thought it was so interesting the way that Indians were writing their numbers. So what these Arab scholars did, he wrote a book on the numerical system of the Indians. Now Arabs laugh to trade and there were also trading, doing trade with Europe. And so the, the book somehow reached Europe. In Europe then only roman numbers were being used. So the numbers when new. And those numbers invented by the Indians, about which the Arabic scholar had written a book were really interesting. But do the Europeans because there were more simple and easy to use than the Roman numbers. So people started to write to use those numbers, Ledi by Leger. And I want to show you how they looked like. Can you recognize our numbers? Number nine, number eight, number 76 as a lead, the fret, five as a lead to the friends. And those people there was sometimes writing them upside down. That was in the year 976. In the year 976, those a rabbit. In the end, numbers were used in this way in, in Europe already, but they were not commonly used. And now I'll show you why. Because the people who got to numbers, they wrote them slightly different every time they wrote them down. You see, there was like the Francis between this and this slight differences every time they were writing them down. Number three from this, like this, you can still recognize it if you know it. By the people were afraid that there will be misunderstandings if they didn't write the numbers exactly numbers, you need to understand exactly what is being meant. So they didn't commonly used them. And till somebody by the name of Gutenberg invented, the printing of books, would movable letters. And now the numbers could be maintained how they were written. Always the same, not upset down, not left to right, no change the legend. At a level HUC, make it little more straight. Gothenburg used those numbers when you are sprinting his books and use them always in the same way because the lattice he made were maintained exactly the same. And, and this is how also through the printing press, which was totally new. But all of a sudden, written documents were widely spread. In a short time. People got to note this new way of writing numbers. And this new way of writing numbers they thought was really, really, really interesting. And as they thought it was more exact, more precise, and more simple than the numeric ecosystem. And they started to use it. And as they had a pattern, that is the way it was printed in the books of Guttenberg. They started to use them according to the pattern, to the printed pattern that they had. And if you look at the document that what I've shown to you, that is 14421 to three was written almost exactly, are actually exactly the way we write it today. And from then through Gutenberg, it became widely spread. People started to use it. We call the system today Arabic numbers. But let's actually run they should be called Indian numbers, or at least injured Arabic European numbers because in Europe we use them. In India, there were 20 invented, and I recall that the Arabic actually made known in Europe. So actually that's a worldwide system which traveled along way before it reached, as it. Isn't that an interesting stories how those numbers reached Europe. 12. Introduction to the Story of James Cook : so my students were going toe. One exciting story and this story is so powerful we're going to tell to the Children the story off James Cook, the captain, the one who officially discovered Australia although he wasn't the 1st 1 to discover the country as a whole, a country or a continent. Um and this story is very much engaging. Why is it engaging? Because it's talking about exploration, adventure, uh, heroes. We have heroes here. It's also talking about the value of hard work because James Cook waas the sun off a very poor family. They were farmers. He went to the poor people school only they didn't have ah university degree or something. He was somebody who normally couldn't have a chance in life. But from the very off, poor background from a disadvantaged background, he made it to be one of the most famous people. Until today four. He's discovering for his work. He was a man of self study. He was a man of hard work. So we have values there to teach to the kids. No, the cosmic tail off state as James Cook and scurvy is about healthy living. We want the Children to get interested in healthy living in the importance of taking in enough vitamins through eating vegetables and fruits and also giving them like an idea. It's our their attitude that determines whether they like it already. Don't like it. All of this is in the story of James Cook. It's a It has one learning go. Actually, the learning goal is vitamins are important. Uh, enough vitamins are life. Ah, poor diet with lack of vitamins is death. That's the learning goal off the story. Um, but because off the really historic background, because it's a really, um, event in history. And please don't invent details which are not in history, um, it becomes very much engaging. Normally, you tell a chilling you need to add vegetables. You need to eat fruit on defining boring. And if I don't find it interesting because there's nothing engaging there, so we use them. That means often engaging adventure story to teach them about at the vitamins. This is possible because this story is for school Children. It's not actually for kindergarten in this. It's really a story for school Children and what you have here, you have this historic event, its history, off exploration of the world, its history off mapping. It tells of the history off the time how people were living, what were the conditions off life. But it's also the history off medicine, how the vitamins have been discovered, and it's about a healthy lifestyle and making healthy choices. Um, when we bring this story first to the kids as a story telling it as engaging as interesting as, um, wonderful, as surprising, as mysterious as possible, they might then develop interest in more history, more health, more medicine, more exploration, more geography. There's a lot insight. So before you start telling the story of James Cook and the discovery of off the source off serving as curvy sorry, you need to prepare materials that allow the Children for mapping for, um, astronomy that allowed him for a different L. A. Getting to know different ethnic groups. Getting to know Vita means are getting to know vitamin C and so on and so forth. So you need a lot of materials, which you prepare prior to telling the story, so that after you tell the story that shall we can explorer, some things will be then under your guidance because they're hard for the kids to do under own. Some things can be done by the Children under own, and you need to prepare materials for both activities. For us, off both types of activities activities you will do as a group with the Children and activities that, um, the Children can do under own by himself. So basically Montessori materials. So in the next video, I'm going to tell you the story plane story telling the story of James Cook and the scurvy the way I would tell it for kids who haven't heard it before. Um, I will not talk about the activities I have, but I will tell the story. Okay, on the third step will be that we get to know that divinities that you can do after the Children have known the story I was remember. Stories are to be fun. They are to be interesting. Leave out what disturbs the story and don't put into mindsets that because it's history because it's geography because it's whatever they have to memorize it. No stories are stories they don't have to memories. They should love the lesson and the less brick pressure you put in them, the more they would love to listen. So the next video, you will hear the story the way I would be telling it to Children. 13. The STory of James Cook : today, I'm going to tell you a story that really happened. It happened around 250 years ago, and our story starts in England. Would a small boy who was poor, born into a poor family? His father was working on the farm. He didn't own a farm. He was working for other people and that he really had toe work a lot in orderto feed his family. So let it. James didn't have chance to go to school for a long time. He only wants the minimum amount to the poor people school. So as soon as possible, James needed to find work. He didn't have a chance to start in university. So he needed to find work. And he found work far from home, where it was working in a shop. And that shop was close to a port. A seaport. You know James Cook Waas a born in England in Yorkshire, far from the ocean. But as England or rather Great Britain is an island. They have a lot of ports all around the island. So when he found work in that shop close to the port, you got to know, uh, sailors, captains because they were buying in the shop. He had worked really hurt. But every day while he was working, when he was going to work, he was looking to report to the big ships who was sailing the oceans. His bus understood that Jen's cook love toe work on a ship. So he found have position on a ship for this boy. And he started working on the ship which was transporting coal from the north of Great Britain to the south because it was easiest and cheapest two transports the coal with the ship. He was excited. That wasn't a very long trouble, but it was on the ocean. It wasan a ship. He didn't mind the heart labor. He just did it because he had fulfilled one part off his dream. He learned whatever he was able to learn. Every night he sat down in front of books and he studied about navigation, about exploration, about ships, about foreign lands. And he was reading and reading how to draw maps every night after work. That's what he did. And in this way, people found out how courageous little chains was working, and his boss wanted to make him captain off one of those coal transport ships. But James didn't want to continue traveling up and down Great Britain. That was not of his interest. He wanted to explore the world at this time in the 18th century, as I mentioned 250 years from today, Match of the world had been discovered by ship by the Portuguese and by the Spanish and some parts also by the British. And he was British. So he thought he could explore more of the world because everything had not been discovered yet. People were thinking there must be as thousands, big South and content, just like America in the north. There must be something more himself. And I was thinking, if only I could be the one to discover that south and continent. So he turned down his offer to be the captain off a ship transporting coal. And he accepted the offer. Toby, a regular worker, a little bit low in great on one of the ships sailing the ocean. And as he waas on that ship as he was sailing the ocean, he's so what? Waas The big problem Because life on big ships which were sailing for months and months, sometimes weeks only. Sometimes months on the ocean was very big because people had to travel with all the food loaded. They had to load all the food. Now, 2050 years ago, there were no refrigerators that were no cans. So they had to load the food. What steak with pursuit. And then those. Another big problem in the tune. In 50 years ago, people were not really hygienic. So they were always troubling with all sorts of little backs and beat beetles that were trying to eat up the food which they have brought for people. So all the food that they used were sold it dried meat so salty that all the bugs and beetles would run away from the meat and it would stay for a sailors. And then they had a so called hard track that was double baked bread. It was so hard that you read needed to have really good taste to be ableto bite it because that was the only thing they could really preserve. Of course, some things they loaded life animals and hey hey to feed the animals and the animals to be slaughtered on board so they could have fresh meat, but a problem. Waas that when they were traveling for many months that the sailors started to get sick After three months, they started to get sick. They started toe have, um, bots and kind of egg. Ziemer spots dark spots under skin. They started toe, their jaw started to rot and the teeth started to fall out. But those were not the biggest problem for those sailors. They also became weaker and weaker and weaker, so they couldn't do their work on board anymore. But that wasn't the first. The worst waas that, uh, they, uh, died after some time they died. And this sickness was called scurvy and scurvy. What? Waas What People were most afraid off because it's like close to everybody Or many. Many people got it as soon as the were on board. For three months, they thought the ocean was causing it. They thought the boats or the ships were causing it. People know it did what it cost. And James Coupe was quite sorry for the people who suffered and died from scurvy. Soon James Cook discovered that he had a talent because he had been studying so much he discovered that he had the talent off throwing maps When he waas um, driving with a ship close to shore, he was able to draw the shore that he saw the land. Onda uh, he was also so good in navigation because it memorized all the so Deac signs and all the stars and their positions in the sky. He learned how to use the instruments that were used for navigation. Let me show one of them. That's a original. That's actually an original sex tense. That's what they called them. That's an original six tent. And that's the one which was really used by James Cook himself that is being processed, preserved and you can see in the museum today. And the buses of James Cook discovered that he was really good in this. So dame a team captain. So from the poor farmers boy, he became captain. And here you see a picture off James Cook Off course. That's a painting. It's not a photo, because 250 years ago, photography had not been invented on. You can see really that it was so long ago. The people who were in high positions on the people who had money they were were ing wearing weeks on the weeks were being powdered, so they looked white quite warm and also the rest of the custom. You can see that it was painted long time ago. This painting was made when James Cook Waas already a sea captain. This is why he is wearing what early rich and important people would wear. So James Cook was now a sea captain and the the British had the idea. We have to discover this south and continent the south land the unknown Salva land They called it Australia. No, they didn't call it. The street there called it did, uh, Australis. And it was thinking it wasa somewhere in the Pacific Ocean close to Tahiti. Maybe, but they didn't want that other sea powers like the Portuguese or the Spanish would be first, So they kept it top secret and they gave order to James Cook. Don't travel to the South Pacific in order to see the planet Venus go through the sun. This is a phenomenon which can be observed in the sky every 100 years, more or less so only once in 100 years. So people didn't have other means. They were ready to spend a lot of money, and they were ready to spend two years on the sea. Just observed that because up there was no otherwise toe to learn more about astronomy. So James Cook Waas being ordered to prepare this important mission. James Cook, who was a man of self study Waas, a man of self study, owes. At this time, he said, Let me not use one of those small boats because I'm going to travel for a long time. I don't want the small boat, a one robust big ship, and the big ship should be big enough to hold enough food for the long journey. And then also, when the ship is bigger and wider, it will be more stable on the waves. So one of the big cold ships the ones that were used for transport in cold, it could hold a large volume, and the large white of goods. This is what used. Of course, it needed to be adapted for its purposes, and he had it adopted. The British ground paid everything, so he got one of those cold ships. It was bought from a private person, a private owner. And according to what James Cook said it was being, um, prepared for the big Junie. It could hold a large volume of goods. Um, James Cook packed life animals as it was the custom of the time, and this is a painting off the ship. So I devoted the painting off the original ship, and historians were curious to find out whether such a ship could really make such a long journey. And so, in the 19 eighties, according to the paintings, according to the maps and to the notes of James Cook, they built a ship. So both makers, people who know how to make boats, um, and historians together has this boat made. They made this boat, and that's a photo you can see a modern small boats around. This is a replica. Karnik called it a replica off the endeavor, the ship that James Cook, um used. And we know a lot about what happened on that journey of James Cook, because James Cook wrote everything down. Whatever happened, the weather, everything he wrote about in his so called logbook. And this is a photo off the real and original logbook of James Cook, where we can read until today What happened? How it happened, What he saw, what encountered and so on James Cook being a poor person, being born as a poor person was interested. And in the regular sailors in the workers on his boat, he didn't want people to suffer. So I tried to find out. Is there anything I could do to prevent people to suffer from scurvy? And as he used a different ship, Then what was being used at the time for such journeys? He tried to find out what he could do against this curvy. And it was just then the people had started to, uh, explorer little medicine medical doctors that just started to explore about nutrition, allergic bit and the it waas, a German who discovered that sour grout that is pickled cabbage. Even in English, we use the German worth Sauerkraut could be preserved for a long time. That was winter food for Germans at the time, the Germans would pick up the cabbage, the fresh cabbage and 90 could be preserved for a very long time. And this pickled cabbage, uh, contain a lot of vitamin C, and then also it It has a lot of fiber, so it's good for the interestings. Also, that's a sight like a side effect. And who could hurt about lemons? Uh, toe prevent scurvy. It wasn't proven, but it was like a theory. And, uh, he wasn't a medical doctor as we know. He was just a self made the student. Uh, so you try to find out whatever could be. So what's curvy did it at what's a script? Is the sickness what James Cook did? He said, OK, pickled cabbage. Some abroad can be preserved for a long time on, and it seems it would prevent the scurvy. So let me pack barrels and barrels and barrels of it. And as I'm the capitain, I will oblige everybody toe it from it. Now you will say you force somebody to eat vegetables and they have grown up people. Yes, James Cook. First, he's always like this. James Cook. First, his sailors toe eat the pickled cabbage. The sauerkraut on those sailors were British. There weren't used to it, even from the world. We know it's a German dish. It's a German speciality. The British weren't used that they didn't know it, so they didn't know if they didn't want to eat it. So James Cook used a trick. He had the sauerkraut being served to only the elite on the ship, like himself and the high ranking officers and the scientists that were also on the journey . So important, people And, uh, the regular sailors. This so those important people eating the pickled cabbage and they thought it waas something so special something only aristocrats could eat something only important people could eat. So, um, James Cook had gotten them into the trick because the regular soldiers and the workers on the ship they wanted to get was the important people the scientists and the painters and the priest on the ship were getting. So does that give us also, Why do you treat him in a different way than you treat us? We want to be treated the same way we're working for. You were on the ship, and those workers were many, and they were like rioting. And James Cook had gotten them where you wanted them, and they started to eat it even though they didn't like it. But I thought it was a special treat on because I thought it was a special treat. There were eating it and what they were asking for more. And then there was something else James Cook could pack heat packed lemons Now lemma zone grow in great Britain. So there was something important. And also something the sailors did in the and the Jets Cop Waas squeezing the lemons. Of course, the team the cook was doing it, Uh, and they made lemon juice from the lemons. Lemons have this heart of P and he packs as many as he could and then squeezing them on the regular basis and giving it also first to the important people on the ship. And then the regular people were braving it because the sergeant was a special trip and in spite of being so sour, they're drank it because they believed they were being treated in a special way. And you know what happened? This journey? What's the big ship? De endeavor was the first journey where nobody suffered from scar, but from scurvy Nobody. Savit suffered from scurvy scurvy. Nobody lost their teeth and nobody died off this mysterious sickness. They didn't know then that it was the vitamin C that was are preventing this curvy. But ask Corbyn acid us is means the assets that prevents that scurvy. And he had proven that good nutrition can prevent sickness. For the very first time in history, James Cook prove to the world that good choices concerning food can prevent death isn't that exciting? And he was able to prove that because he was listening to people who want more. Now you double than him and the people whose lives are preserved, well preserved because they wanted to do the good thing. Not because they liked it. It was needed, but they were ready to try the knee. Anti. Today, James Cook is being treated like a hero in both Great Britain and in Australia. He didn't actually discover Australia. Other people had done that before, but still the continent Australia wasn't known in Europe. This is why. Still, he's being considered to be the This is the one who discovered it, even though it's not historically, really right. But he claimed it for the British ground, and this is a picture, a painting, actually that was being painted around 100 years after these events. I've told you, and this is a painting that shows how James Cook claimed Australia for the British ground. He also did a lot of map being off the coast of Australia. And his journey was a very long one. You can see it here. That was his journey with the endeavor very long and through unknown territories. Now what you will learn from the story. Can you remember the name off the captain? What is his name? Right, James Cook. What's the change to cook toe every day while he was working as a small ah, worker on the boat issue was starting every night. Was he ready to listen to other people? Yes. James Cook was listening toe other people when you're bored. And he did. And here we have his ship again. This name off his ship. Can you remember that? Was the in ever? Can you remember the sickness which was being prevented by eating lemons and, uh, cabbage? Pickled cabbage. Can you remember the sickness? Yes. The name of the sickness is scorer B. And they were drinking land managers and eating pickles. Cabbage? Well, they could have eaten fresh apples, but they didn't think wouldn't preserve apples for so long on a ship. Well, that was the story off James Cook and how to prevent a deadly disease cold Skirball. 14. Die Route von James Cook nachlegen : James Cook on the scurvy is Kirby scurvy Yet James Cook and this Kirby a first idea. This idea is for adventurous, for Children interested in geography, Children or like to be very active Children to lactics Explorer, especially for boys, Boys love adventure. Um, the story about the importance of health and nutrition. We'll stay in their mind because it's connected to the exploration off the world. So don't be afraid that that lesson will be lost. The whole idea of cosmic education is that topics are connected. You cannot separate geography from history because, uh, in his ST James Cook discovered the geography of the world, or at least a larger portion of it. You can't separate the two, and why it was that way has to do with how the time waas and why the time was like this. So geography and history are so closely intertwined. But the problem of it had to do with health and nutrition with a healthy lifestyle which people didn't have there were unhygienic. They didn't know how to preserve their food. They were eating and imbalance. Tyra, This is what it fell sick and even died. So healthy lifestyle, healthy Joy says healthy nutrition is connected to history is connected toe geography on, and we shouldn't separate them. It's one story. It's one person. It's the biography off one person, and we can do a lot with it. So in this video, I'm going to present your idea Number one. And this is, um, seeing worded James Cook really travel. How far was his trouble? How long was his trouble? Where DT trouble? Well, I have for you, that is. Hiss Route number 123 Yeah, that's as you can see, a map for Children on each route that he did the 1st 2nd and third voyage. Waas um, in the different is made in a different color. It's a lot. I don't know whether you should said, with all the three travels at once, our story is about the scurvy, so we could maybe focus on the first journey, and that's the first journey. And you see, it becomes much clearer on this map what you will find very often in the Internet. When you research about the first journey of Jim Cook James Cook, you will see mostly maps that look like this. That's an unusual view of the globe. That's the back side of the globe. Can you see? This is Australia, Australia, South America, North America. So that's the back side of the globe. And this being Africa, he was coming from here. Europe, Great Britain. Children are used. The this'll be off the globe in de maps, mostly. So if you turn it round, all will become unusual for them. But what is not so clear on this month is that actually went around because the map is flat , It has an end. And you see, it goes on here and it ends here. Onda. It's good if we can do like this because the world is, uh can you see that the world is round? And that's the journey. You went around the globe? No. So if you want to do, uh, trace, he's during on the map, his first journey on the map. What you will do is a large map. Don't use one that is green, green, green, green green will be confusing because in a Montessori classroom on the Africa screen, he was one that has someone to serve colors. Use a big one. Um, easy the easiest that the cheapest way is by a map toe color and then paying the continent in the Montessori colors. Just color the continents and the Montessori colors and cover them with four. When it's a really big one, which I would advise you self A t sent foil or good toe a copy shop which can laminate big things that was impossible. And then you can cut out clashes like this. This is cut out from foam and the former's little bit sick. So it's quite handy toe handle and you need a lot of those arrows. And, um, you have these Eros and then you place the word ity. Start in Great Britain. Where did he go? Next? Where did you go next? Where did he go next? And you'll find a lot of resource is online on his first journey, all the steps on where he wants. It's quite easy to see from this map you can see start in thymus in Great Britain, he went around Ah, the African continent. We went down the African continent. What? This year, Um, this is between the two Americas. I know this is Asia. You see, huh? From get aside. It's hard to see. So he went around Africa. He went around Australia to go to Tahiti. Him cup horn. Uh, and you just let the Children read. Where did Zika find one Easy and easy resource. It doesn't have too much information on just the travel. 123 1st sub seconds up, thirds up. Where did you go and let the Children lay out the way using these Harris on the big map? Um, off course. You could provide blank maps like this as a like this and then let them draw it. But that's much harder because to trace a journey when you don't know yet where you're going is really hard. But all the Children might be able to do it. They would just go from one to the next, but then it wouldn't look so nice that's buried in my better first laid out with her arrows . Then you need a big map. The bigger the map, the more fun remembered, cheapest way to get such a big map by online a map toe color maps for coloring. Not for us. Great being, uh, off, but for coloring. And then you paint the continents and the color off the continent. In the Montessori classroom, just playing coverage would fall, and you have a very big map, which you can roll and unroll all the time. Second option for such a paper map, which you can buy. Use a blue, which is used for wallpaper, wallpaper glue to solve it and glue the map toe aboard. That could be cardboard that could be a wooden board, not toe. Have use plywood uh, lightweight, because it will be so big, then you cannot. Then it is on the flat surface. Um, when it's flag, you pick after you have included you paint again the continents, and you cover it all with by niche with lacquer. So it becomes you can wash it off when they're some dirt on, and you can use it over and over again. And that advantage. If you use the lacquer on you could use, um, white board off Penn's toe right on it or draw on it and you can wipe it off after you don't need it or you don't want it anymore so that you can use it multiple times and it will be your permanent map in the classroom, which you can use for lots of activities. So activity number one for James Cook and the scurvy Matt The first journey using Eros. Yeah, If you do that, your kids will get to know so much geography as they don't get to know with any other lesson. Because if you tell them you need to learn, uh, the geography off the ocean off the whole world and the roots of the whole world. And, uh, where is Tahiti were Is Australia how to get from, uh, Greg Britain toe America by ship. There will be no way that your kids would be ableto learning, but this is a fun activity. They will do it. And as they are active, they will remember it forever because they have done it. So this is a very powerful Joe Griffin. Listen. 15. Vitamin C in Apples and Lemons James Cook : no. If you told to the kids the story of Czech think Captain James Cook and the scurvy you need to work more on vitamins. Otherwise the lesser will get lost. So, um, focus more on this one and again, talking doesn't help anything because it will enter here and exit by here. So my advice work on the vitamins and do it through experience as a mentioned earlier 6 to 12 years. That's the period where the Children's mind is open for scientific knowledge, and we want to give them really scientific knowledge. And this is how we can do this. You can be sure that your Children have seen already. Apples like this. Can you see? It's all brown and, um, the fruits get brown when they lack vitamin C. When there is more vitamin C, then they don't get brown. This is white, Um, when you make a fruit salad, you use squeezed lemon juice. Fresh lemon. Choose because this is very rich in vitamin C and you pour it on your fruit salad and some my two MNC and the lemon. Cher's will prevent prevent your cut up at both your apple pieces M. And if you have peeled them from getting brown and the fruit salad will stay appetizing, and we'll look fresh and well, look healthy and attractive. Now you know this. Hopefully you know this, but your Children don't notice. And they also still like, um, experience. We want them to experience, to find out through exploration when Children are very small. No matter what we tell them, they believe young Children believe in Easter bunnies and in, um, Santa Claus bringing Christmas gifts. Or is the eggs or whatever young Children believe? Whatever we tell them, this is why do not tell anything, which is not true. Toe a small child because bigger Children, that is, Children six and above. They want to explore and the want of very fighter information to give them by themselves more effectively. Don't give them any information, but let them verify from the beginning so there will never be rebellion because they found it out for themselves and what they find out for themselves. There was addicted on. The knowledge will stay for all their lives. So here's what you do. You need at least one apple. That would be success and even more effective if you have several types of apples because different species of apples have a different amount off vitamin C and them. This is why some species of apples don't get yellow tang brown. I want where it's at a spacious of apple. Get brown very fast and very much. That's um so you could explain it further to the Children on that bull, even though it's very healthy, doesn't contain as much vitamin C, not even close to the amount of vitamin C, which is contained in Lemon's. This is why James Cook took lemons with him on his journey with Dear Endeavor, and they squeeze the lemons made lemon. Choose from it because lemons are for for richer in vitamin C, then apples. Harris. What did you could take at least one apple and cut it up? Then you take lemons, or at least one lemon so you need at least one apple and one lemon and you squeeze the juice out off the lemon, and then you poor carefully pour the lemon. Choose on the apple. Here is how the experiment looks like the half it looks white and appetizing has been sprinkled with lemon juice. Just let munches and it didn't become brown. Where's the other half? Was left as it is normally, and it became completely brown. But what? You what you can see from this picture to a different species of apple. One is more brown than the other one. The one that is browner contains less vitamin C and also through the lemon. Choose it stayed entirely white. Where is the other one? That is, um, good. You see, it has a different color Now. Vitamin C prevents apples from getting brown, and vitamin C is much more in lemons, many, many times more than in Abbas. Very simple experiment, which you can do even with very young Children. Six year old Children. They can do this all under own. You could maybe just give them directions and then normally, if there are able to read, you could even right the directions step by step on cards, and then they can follow. Step a step to it by their own. And if they know how to write, they can even writes a report about their findings off the vitamin C. So this is how to teach them the amount of vitamin C in certain types of fruits and what it causes on what it prevents. So this is an extension to just telling the story off Captain James Cook on the scurvy. 16. Numbers long version story Rotate: Today, I want to tell you the story of how people came up with writing numbers, the way we write them today. And that's a really long story. It took them quite a while to figure out how easy it is to write down the numbers. In every culture in this world. There is some way of expressing quantity. Sam languages have very complicated system of expressing quantity. Some cultures languages have simple ways in clear ways to express quantity. But how to write it down on paper to make it precise. What you're talking about. This to people along time to, came to cut up with the system. The first people started to write down numbers. Maybe not the first, but the first endeavors that are relevant for European history, let me call it like that or for world history. We're the Babylonians. The Babylonians left in Mesopotamia, that is today's Iraq, were today Iraq is, this is where the Babylonians left. And they a day had the wooden stamps. And they used to press the stamps inside soft clay. And because it's very hot in Iraq, the clay dried very fast and it was preserved. Babylonian with traders. They left to keep book, keeping about whatever they did. They loved to write it down the left to give account on their great deeds. So writing down numbers was part of them. Writing down whatever day date. Very important to them. And until today we have thousands and thousands of clay tablets and which we find the writing of the Babylonians. All what stamping wouldn't stems in oppressing rather wooden stamps into play. Goes. Stems had triangular shape. So all their lectures and all the numbers were triangular. And here you can see how their numbers looked like. Number one, just one triangle like this. Number 102 triangles who are meeting that? Well, that looks complicated. That is six times ten. Well, if I didn't have the solution, I wouldn't know that this should be 60 times ten. It's a complicated and not very clear way of writing. For sure understood it, but we also have to understand few people were able to read and write. Then. Can you see that? This is 23. We have 1010111. That's number 23. This is how we write it very short. That's how they wrote it. So complicated. So the Babylonians were able to write numbers down. They for sure understood their own system and was precise, but it was complicated. It took a lot of science to write down those numbers. At the same time with the Babylonians in a different area, lift the Egyptians. And you know, the Egyptians day like they were writing with pictures. They had pictures. Writing. The Babylonians. That was a writing system that resembles more what we use. Signs by the Egyptians used pictures. Until today. Chinese are using picture writing, not letter-writing, not sound writing, not phonological writing. So the Egyptians, as they were, whatever they were writing, they expressed it in pictures. So they had to come up with pictures of the numbers. And it's interesting that drew a person with open arms. And they knew that meant 1 million, not more or less. That meant 1 million exactly. And it's something they, they understood because this is what they taught. Maybe Moses was being taught like that. If you want to write 1 million, you write a force them with open arms. Okay. They wrote Number 10 thousand. Was one finger being bent. 10 thousand. That's And they understood what it was or if they had 100 thousand Well, the road tiny little animal, let me show how it looked. One was one rot, ten was one bridge or one. Actually, to us, it looks like a bridge, but what they meant was one Kate, 101, rho was 100. Then one zen. That is a lotus flower. 10 thousand, a bent index finger. 100 thousand was this tiny little animal and one million, one person with open arms. So if they wanted to write a number like 13,015, it looked like that. 105153 times 1010 thousand the bent finger you have 10 thousand is the bend finger. Three times tau, 12 as a basis, ten, and then five times one. So actually, I understand the Greek dad, this way of Egyptian writing. I find it quite understandable. Once you have memorized how the numbers are being written, you understand it quite easily. But still, it needed a lot of learning. It needed a lot of learning. The Greek people haven't that the idea that Greek people came up with the idea to use letters to write numbers. So they use the beginning letter, often number. Two writes the number and then when the letters didn't make up a word, you understood it was a number. The Greek cab letter p. And number five is Penn. Penn starts with lead the P. So for say, for writing phi, they wrote letter p. Well, that might work for the Great. But it wouldn't work for us. Because let's say in English, you want to write number 1010. T, three is t, two is t. So this system works for the Greek and this is how it looked like. 151000, sorry, 100000. And then this is how they are numbers looked like. I find that less understandable than the Egyptian way. But out there the numbers as they are just the lectures and they knew already the electors and the new their language, how things have been called. So easier to learn than Egyptian way, but harder to read. My chartered to read. And a system that worked in their language but not in other languages. The Romans, On the other hand, they mixed up. They said, well, we used letters as the Greek did. The Romans depending for their knowledge, mostly under great. Okay, let's use letters, but he didn't use let us for everything actually. And those Roman letters, you can still see them and a lot of buildings today. Whenever some Ns N inscription is in Latin, Roman, numbers are being used. Now if number one, actually, I always used to remember one. You have number five. That's just the outer shape of my hand showing phi. You have number ten. Maybe that's my two hands. This is how we remembered it was construed to ends together. That's just to remember it. You have number 15 is L. I have no idea why they came up with L for 50. C as 100, that is the letter $0.04. Centers Centrum. That's one hundred five hundred is the 10000 m, like Millay, that's 100. So those are the beginning letters. So their system is a little bit a mixture of signs, particular signs and of letters. This was widely used because it already allowed a very clear and precise writing down. And with these clear signs, no misunderstandings were possible. So as Latin was the language of learning, those signs were being used widely all over Europe and till the 18th century, those numbers way being used. But even in the nineteenth-century, whenever people are writing anything in Latin, they used this type of numbers. So basically imparting to know them and understand it. But you could always also Google it. That's easy. And what is also significant is you have the Roman, Babylonia and the Greek. And our system number one is always one stroke fill located. Greek and European countries. Babylonian one, egyptian, one, Roman, one. Interesting. Number one was always written in the same way. So number one was just this for people all over the world, all through history. They thought that's the easiest way to write, number one. Well, the far, far away from this area of the world, European history is an outcome of the history of the a Middle East. We are, our, whatever we do we learn we think is based on Babylonian, Greek, Roman, and then it became European later. So that's our history, European history. But the numbers that we use today, they are not at all European. And they're not European in history and not Europeans invented them. In fact, Europeans refused to use them for a long time. And here is where those numbers came from. So I've already told you the roman numbers, they were being used. A long time. And until everyone, almost contemporary 19th century when people were writing let in this they use them. 17th century people still use those. Number two, write it down. At the same time. There was another numerical system. And now I want to tell you where it came from. Far, far away in India. People then weren't using paper to write on. They were carving into the stone walls of caves and the carved numbers. In, among other things. We're writing by carving into stone. And the numbers they used were more or less than numbers we used today. In the beginning, they didn't know number 0. They had not come up with assigned for it. But after sometime they said, Oh, writing Nothing is also part of writing numbers. Nothing is also something, I mean, is also a quantity or a quantity of nothing being there. We need to come up with a sign and they came up with the sign for 0, which actually looked more or less like our number 0 today. Well, in yay, so far away. But Indians are traders and aerobes at traders and both countries are in Asia. So Arabs and Indians were training with each other. And this is how the Arabic people got to know the Indian system of writing numbers. For a long time. They didn't, they had no interest for it because the Arabic people had good system of writing numbers which worked very well. They also had a number 0. So they didn't need what the Indians used. But rather speaks Arabic. People always had a lot of scholars. There were a lot of scholars, and the scholars were interested in just knowledge because they love knowledge. So when one particular color I got to know the Indian system of writing numbers he founded so relevant and so interesting in spite of his own, that he wrote a book on the Indian system of writing numbers. Well, I said Arabs like trading. And the Arabic countries are also on the so-called Silk Road, which was a training rode up to Europe. And this is how these Ledi Bach and the immune system of writing numbers in the Arabic language came to Europe. Well, there was a lot of Arabic influence in Europe any ways, because Arabic people was ruling in Spain. So this is how the book reached Europe. And people read it. And they thought, well, that's a practical system. And they started to use the system. But You see, if you look at numbers 345, it's not really 100% clear what is what. So people used it but they didn't use it widely. 789 are quite clear. They didn't use it wisely, are widely because it wasn't very clear. There could be mess understandings happening. And it's people who people were handwriting, basically everything. Then somebody changed a little bit because of his own handwriting. It wouldn't be clear. So people use to continue using the roman numbers, especially as most of the writing was done in Latin. There were writing in Latin, so they were using roman numbers. But you have seen a Roman numbers are, take quite an effort to writing numbers. So people tried to using those Arabic numbers as they call them. And it's AUC. They developed them. To make them more clear. Is C, they got this from the tiny little book. And I said, well, at a practical system, but let's make it more clear. And this is what they did. And in 1442, that's the last row. 123, looks like our 1-2-3 looks today. And then a name, a man by the name of Gutenberg, invented the printing of books, would move up or letters. So he produced the letters, those Arabic letters. And they were always the same because he produced the ones and they remain the same. And this is how people use those patterns to handwrite the numbers. And it is then that the system of writing numbers, the way we write it today, became really widely spread because it is so very, very practical. Very, very practical. And this is how people started using it. Because of its practicality. The word a rabid numbers we use. This name is not really exact. Shouldn't it be Indian, Arabic, European numbers, or at least Indian numbers, since it was the Indians who invented them. Well, I would love to hear what you think. 17. Why the STory of the Great River is relevant : So why tell the story to the Children? The story of the Great River And this is one off the really, really important stories for kids to get excited about the body system and about being aware how important is to keep it clean, keep it healthy. That importance off the blood. Ah, the Bible says the life is in the blood. But actually that's the truth. Life is in the blood. If there is no blood, we will be dead. This is why we need over often patrons, recent transfusions because of the black is too less. We need a more blood because our life depends on the blood. Now, um, the stories, some party because our life depends on the blood and we need to teach physicality drunk. It's now How would you teach it? Kids, Can you see it? A map of this country. I have a map often interesting country here. Can you see the river? Can you see the color of the river? It's a red river. Is it only one river or doesn't have branches? It has a lot of branches, wider ones and finer ones. And the river and the brooks and the strings. They're connecting the different parts off the country. The river The same Red River is going toe All the different parts of the country can you see In this country there are also inhabitants and inhabitants are so numerous that we cannot count them. There are uncountable off course on my picture. I've already put a few so you could see because if I put the real number you wouldn't be able to see anything because it will be completely full. Can you see the inhabitants somewhere? Why Summer black. Some are gray, some are brown. The inhabitants off the country have different colors. Because I have different duties. I want to show you some of them. Well, those are the song just And now This is how you get the boys. Because all the boys in this love the one to be soldiers and they want to fight. It's in their genes. They are like this. So this is for them. So you see the soldiers they are white soldiers. Can you see there large spears. They want to defend the country. Every any media enters. They will fight team and defeat him because they are responsible for the well being off the country. Can you see those brown people? They're Karen big sacks and their sex off wheat and maize and potato and they're carrying it into the mill for processing. They are workers for the Ministry, off nutrition. Can you see that man here? The gray one? What does he have? A big barrel off waste. That great person is the Ministry of hygiene he wants. He's part of those people who want to keep the country clean and neat and orderly. He's not alone working, Can you see? They are many. They are collecting the waste and they carry out. They don't want the waste to be in the river. Because if there is a lot of waste in the river, the waist, the waist with pollutes the river and then the whole country will suffer. So they take good care and fulfill that duty Very well. Can you see the cost? Ah, fortress. It is a big fortress and important fortress and ah, the river from all the for all the country are going into this fortress and going out off the photos in and out because this is where the government is living here the government decides what to do and how to do and how fast to do what's needs to be done. And whatever the government decides is being executed by all the inhabitants of the country . They never mourn. They never complained. They just died, not because they're being forced. It's because they have perfect peace and perfect harmony. Can you see? Some of the inhabitants are also there in the governmental fortress. And there, once the well being off the whole country, can you see the windmill? It needs to process the nutrition day and night, because without nutrition, inhabitants couldn't be living. So you see, um, you need to memorize the story, and you need to know when to show which picture and to, um, draw the attention of the Children through to the picture German who are here, a story they will remember much less than when they also see it on. As this story has many levels. The level off the parable, the level off the rial body, its lengthy. It's long, and you can do a lot of experiments, a lot of activities with the kids on it. Take your time. You might want to uh, maybe do it in seven. Part is several parts, but as I mentioned, it's actually for all the Children. So if you tell the story at once, um, 15 minutes, if you prepare it very well, could be enough showing the pictures telling the story after those 15 to 20 minutes of rate , telling the story very well in an interesting way. Then you go to the activities and your first activity. You want to build the country with the river on the one they hurt in a parable that's your first activity at activities might follow, so it's not the only one, but it's like a starting point. So have fun start to tell this important lesson off physiology to your Children. 18. The Story of the Great River : the great lesson off the great, either. Today I want to tell you a story. It happened in the past and it's happening right now, so I don't really know which tends to use. But it's an exciting story. It's about a country, um, that has more inhabitants than the whole planet. Do you know how many inhabitants has planet Earth right? Over 7.5 billion people? That's a lot. But this country, just one country has more inhabitants, then the whole planet Earth. And it's a story which is true. But at the same time, it is a parable. The country I'm going to tell you about has divided itself in different regions and in different groups. But this one river flowing through all the country through all the parts of the country, every region, even the further away. The river is going upto that region. And this river has a lot of tiny, tiny, tiny, tiny branches. The action of river anymore. They are like Brooks, But there are state park off that river. Isn't that exciting? One river going through all the country and there are small brooks point of the river. Uh, why in the streams that part off the same river. Some are Stein and small and some little bit bigger. And there's a lot of traffic on the driver. Even on the tiniest branches of the river, there is a lot off traffic and but ongoing traffic on the river is reaching every village of that country. No village, not even the first is the way is being left out. Isn't it exciting? One big river for one being nations. Most of the inhabitants of this big river are living in a hidden I'm invisible. And this is how the river also flows invisibly. You cannot see the river is flowing in secret To meet the hidden inhabitants off his country, he's flowing through. Hm. What a strange river. What a strange country was strange inhabitants off that country. Well, there are things stranger, even stranger than what I told you right now because they inhabitants off this strange country. They are working day and night. Their only purpose in life is to work. They never rest and they focus on the one duty they have been given. They don't look to others. They're not jealous. Yes, so happy with what they're doing and they're doing it would all the heart. All the work is being done. As I mentioned all the inhabitants of being divided into working groups, that different work groups and each and habit done is specialized, very, very specialized on his own duty and the inhabitants that even changed their own bodies in order to fit their city. So they really work with all DEA heart. The inhabitants of this country are very different from us. They're not at all like like us. They have specialized tools for their jobs and the tools they have their own bodies, so their bodies are get to and they can change the bodies and the work day and night, even in the night, every day, 24 hours, seven days a week, they never rest. They never quarrel. They never fight. They don't work to live on. No, they leave the wood. It's the purpose off life. And they know that their job is absolutely necessary for the well being off the whole country. So each one knows that what he does is so important for the well being off the whole county . As I mentioned, the river is connecting old inhabitants now the river is passing by and the river is bringing toe each work group whatever they need for dear jobs. Now the as I mentioned, the river is bringing to them whatever they need for their jobs. But whenever you work, there is some waste. So the river is carrying away the waste too. This country, um the river is also their communication. They're communicating with each other through the river and by the river. And everybody's working hand in hand. This country is a country, just as God wanted it. Full of peace and harmony, working hand in hand, being courageous as the work. Isn't it great? There's complete peace, There's complete harmony and everybody is working together. No. Does thes country have an army? Does this country have government who is telling them what to do? Well, this government is very particular. The government is never being changed. There are no elections and, um, the government exchanges staying the same all the time. And those inhabitants there so happy to follow the leading off the government all the time . Evan Dough. It's never changing, but the inhabitants a happy they follow. They don't think why they do what they do. They don't rebel against the government. All the life every inhabitant is working and working. And if the end of life comes, the Dag inhabitant is being washed away by the river. Nobody sheds a tear for that person. That inhabitant who died, they just continue the work. Um, they are not wanting, but still they're working. Um, everybody's equal because everybody is equally important Now the government. We could liken it to a big and strong castle the same river which keeps the country clean. The same country which, at the same river which nourishes the country and brings the foods toe every even the most distant place of the country, is also flowing through this big governmental ghastly. And in the government there are different ministries and the castle has the power over all the ministries. What? There is Ministry off nutrition. There is ministry for breath. There is a ministry for defense, a ministry for perception, a ministry off hygiene and cleanliness and a ministry off transportation. Well, what's the Minister of Transportation? Exactly. That's the river. The river is at the same time. The Ministry for transportation. Well, I managed. I mentioned the Ministry Off Perception. Minister of Perception. He's the Carson and them all. The perception which comes in through the senses will be left toe the government which lives in the Qassam. And because off that those informations, the government will give he's instructions so they can do what needs to be done because of that information coming in through the senses. But all this is happening unbelievably fast, less than the twinkling of an eye. And information is there. The government has made the decision and it's being executed. Every part, every ministry, every work and they're always in contact with each other. Every ministry works on their own, but still they're connected through the Great River Will. All that happens is so important for the health off the country, the river, Whether it's the big stream, all the small streams or the brooks must be entirely clean and reached the furthest past parts of the country on lonely. The railroads clean and will the country can be well. Do you want to know where the sea could? River is flowing. Can you guess where the sea Good country iss located. Would you like to know the name off the country through which the Great River is flowing. This strange and amazing country in which all inhabitants are working and live in harmony with each other. This is the human body. And the name off the Great River which flows through the body, is the blood circulation. Plant flows and transports glad brings nutrition. Blood cleans and defense the country and is inhabitants glad, gives life bland, keeps then have intense healthy. This is why. And now, Yeah, who are the inhabitants off the country? I mentioned there are many, many, many more as people on the whole planet Earth and our planet is so big. Inhabitants are the cells of our body, our body cells. And this is why we can be sure There are many more than people on planet Earth. Can you feel the river which flows through each one of us? Can you see? Can you see that strange nation through which, um, this strange blood is flowing? Can you see this strange country? The river flows toe each and every part of our body nourishes it. Even your fingertips, even the tips off your toes, the smallest parts of our body, the cells which I called inhabitants there so time and we cannot see them with our eyes. But still the Great River, the bland reaches each and every body cell and works together with each and every body cell to keep our bodies alive. The human body is an amazing creation, and everything works ended without making a break. Working you complete harmony, perfect harmony without ever making a break. So we have called our black circulation the Great River, the sales Ardian happy, tense off the country and in our blood circulation. It's the blood vessels in which the blood is being transported and the duty off The Great River is the transportation. And this is why we called it the ministry off transportation. Well, the castle is our brain kiss. Our brain is the castle, and because the brain is so important is being protected by your scuff scalp. It's some part. It's by a sorry bite it by the bone off your no you scuff. It's being transported by its being protected by the bones off your head because it's a party needs to be put. Text it. We have the windmill, the wind Minister, Ministry off beautician. She represents the sales, which are busy with, um, keeping everything r full off as a nourished, well nourished. And it's well equipped for that. The process off, um, digestion starts when you put food in our mouth and we to it. This is like grinding grain into flour. And this is why we have pulled dread the new Titian Minister of nutrition, as went me when people who bring sex off food a lot of food which will be processed in our cells, we have the ministry off breath or breathing. Well, breathing is so important to carry oxygen toe each and every body cell. And of course, ministry off breathing is our our lens, our nose and our month and the blood brings the oxygen we breathe in tow the body's cells in every part of the body. So the ministry off breathing Arda Lance, the nose and the mouth together. Yeah, they work together with the Ministry of Defense. They are We call them soldiers. Yeah, represents the sales which a specialized to defend our body against sickness is against the infections. Um, it's the white blood cells and they defend a body against any miss which might make us sick . Well, we have talked about the ministry four cleanliness and hygiene with taking a lot of things every day. Ear or gas, liquids or food and all the good things which are being needed by the body cells. And they're being used by the body cells. But waste. These are the leftovers off all these processes, and the body has to get rid off all that weight waste. And so the person who is separating the waste from the good product produce these are the kidneys, right? They separate waste from the good produced a clean our body. Well, let's go back to the castle. The ministry, uh, ministry for perception with mentioned the nose at the hand, the eye and the ear and the tongue. Each of these organs allows us to take in, um, information. And this information what we taste, what we hear, what we see. We'll be, as we perceived with the eye or ear, and it's being let into that brain. And the brain decides what needs to be done. And the right decision would come in only a moment. It's enormously fast now. Do you want to find out more about our buddy Well, that was the story. I said. It's quite lengthy, and it's not easy to tell me to a video because I'm not having your reaction. When I'm talking about the story while telling the story, I would. So the pictures and that would show you that in a minute. 19. Great River Methods : As I mentioned earlier, the Great River is part off the great lessons that Maria Montessori put together. It's about the blood circulation in our body, and it is a parable on before I will tell you just a story, which is quite lengthy. I want to introduce you to the methods. No, what I did is I used the original pictures, which are being used all over the world. When Montessori teachers tell the story off the Great River and my students love the content, they love them. The pictures and I encourage them to build their own illustration. Not remember. The Great River is a story which you don't tell to the young primary school students. It's not a story we'll tell token the garden kids. It's for older students. Um, this is why building a replica off the river with all the organs which I mentioned in the story is exciting for them. It's an activity. They are being active, and as they do, they might want to re re portions off the story by themselves in order to see what they have to build and how to have to build it. And the pictures I'm going to show you they are from such a process off making dumb radical from the From the pictures that I was showing, they made a really life great river model Quite a big one. It was in one classroom and I will show you the pictures first so you can see what is on the pictures before I will tell the story. So you will not be You might might not be diverted. So you see here the brain, the brain is the center That's the governmental center off the bodies. And it's so nice because in the story, the brain is the center off the government, and this is why they made it like a castle and all the census enter into the brain and whatever and the story of the senses will be processed in the brain. Then the different cells are being portrait as people and, uh, the one carrying the bags. Can you see the bags? The sex action does supposed to be sex. You see, the people we just made them from fluffy wire, the one made from fluffy wire. And because the flat fee why isn't standing by itself by using some Uh oh, some clay self trying play on you. Put the fluffy wire people on that clay pieces so they could stand. And those sacks that was the idea of my students. And they're carrying the nutrition into the mill. You're here more. All of you. The river has a lot of different ways. It's going many, many, many ways. And you have, like, the defense unit and see all the wife blood cell. So we used white fluffy wires and they're defending the body against the enemies. Um, you're having the kidney. That kidney is What is it? It's here. Is put processing the waste. It's processing the waste, the will, the mail. Sorry it The mill is processing the food. This is why the bags off. We'd have been carried into the mill. Here, you can see closer The wife let cells who are defending the body. Now what? You see, we were using, um, those, um, to fix big to ***. Um, that's a box that was cut, covered with paper and painted the flat fee wires. I've mentioned before the roads that the friend went not worlds. Actually the raper how the river is flowing action. That's upside down how the different peace as a hard river, splitting the different ways of the river, all the branches of the river, they were just being painted. It's a big white manila paper that you still you concedes on the floor. It's really big. White Manila paper just painted the different branches of the river, all the houses amid from boxes. The meal is from a toilet paper, and you can see how my students showed up. And that's actually a copy off the region of the senses. Sense of smell, sense of touch, sense of side sense appearing and, um, sent the pace. That's the tongue. So all the five senses the information that they collect and thus into the brain and the spring processed here. And that's the government off the body. And I like the parable, really, Because the brain being the government off the body, he is a nice idea. Now, we took this further, and this is from an adult education class. Were, uh yeah, I was educating Montessori teachers, all of the working either in Kindergarten Island or in schools, and they were doing this as the further education being already Montessori teachers or being in the process off becoming Montessori teachers. I had both groups in these, of course model what you see being done here. I did end, of course, with my adult learn ISS. But you can do that with your kids and it works, I assure you. So the first thing we did waas one child, of course. That's a grown up lady. Um, we laid her down on a big roll off Manila paper, and we dressed her body because he wanted to throw a body really person's body. And it's important when you work on anatomy or physiology with the kids. Use the kid's body. That's the most powerful, um portrayed or the most powerful picture you can use as the really kids body. So because I have my my students, I taught them how to do with the kids. So we did it all the way they supposed to do it with the kids. So my student lay down on the big manila paper, and the night a student traced her body on what you can see here, that's exactly her body and you see the how her body was being drawn. And now Oh, the, uh, wide and fine read threats on dribbles. They are the blood vessels. We have a lot of blood vessels. We have wide blood whistles and find blood whistles, and they go through all the body on. What they tried to do is, um is the UPS truck parable that's the blood vessels in the parable. And now we were going from the abstract to the concrete, a real person and her riel blood vessels, as you see in them and the parable off the great. Remember, we have the body or against being, uh, governmental centers Minister, Ministry off defence Ministry off. Whatever Government Palace, That's a parable. And that's the real thing. Now we have here the really Why? I guess as they were mentioned in the story, we now made it into concrete like we have here. The brain and the blood is going into the brain, and we have the different organs him, the intestines delivered kidney, the lamb and so on. So we now translated the parable in tow concrete. That's another sign how you can do this story only with bigger Children. That was another group who was doing that? They were just trying to lay it. They were really following a really a really chat on, not anatomy chart off the blood circulation and they were trying toe lay it. And this is concrete because they were using all the ropes and ribbons for their blood vessels and really trying to follow the way off the blood the way they were being explained from the anatomy chart here. No, um but the shape was being used, so this is really very, very abstract. Actually, I said, just always use the shape off a real child of real us to death and let them do it in their body because it will be much, much more effective. If it's their body they would experience. It's me. It's really my blood. The materials. I used a really simple and very cheap on the only thing that was costly. I bought many, many, many, many, many meters off, a red ribbons, red threat off different sicknesses, different sickness. So the different implant versus vessels Cooper's show and you need many meters. If you really want the Children to understand what's going on in our bodies, you need a lot off meters. But that's only sing after the after the course, we rolled those ribbons up again. Andi, I might be able to use them again another time, so I bought them. But it's not a waste, actually. Um, and when you do it with your kids for this one, I would suggest also draw the shape off the body. They were just using a blanket so that they thought they used them the blue. So the red blood can be seen very well. But I said, just always use the Manila paper with the shape of the real kids. And then my suggestion you might want toe medical use those ribbons to show the blood vessels because they're also roundish. Then if you want them to say that you need to glue them in one word and Ordina or you take also what I did. Photos off each kid, um, have each get for what? Their own body systems the way you did. So how I was working with a story. Tell the story using pictures. Then make the story the way they heard it. The abstract one, the parable one and then go to the concrete. The rial blood vessels, the real body system off the blood circulation and work on the real one afterwards, it's easy when in Children who are able to sink in an abstract way, who can understand parables already hearing the parable ministry off defense. Oh, we need to defend the body. Then we'll let that hear what it is in the real body. There will always remember it, because there was an interesting story beforehand. 20. Introduction telling the story of Mona Lisa: I want to give you a small introduction telling the story off a painting or a painter? No, The most or the most highly insured painting in the world is the painting off Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci's This The story off this painting is so interesting. This is why Children, boys and girl will relate to it. Uh, it's the story off a beautiful woman. It's the story of being thankful it has a journey from Italy to France, from France to Italy and back to France. So there's a journey inside. Um, it has It's a story about 1/5 because it was stolen. So on this story about how it was stolen white was stolen is a little bit mysterious, so boys might relate to that in a special way. The painting, The story of the painting, can be used as an introduction toe renaissance, thinking what is new in Renaissance in the Renaissance time about people about how people was thinking about what was being developed, what was being invented on the life in Renaissance. So using the painting and the story off the painting justice spending of this very rich ah woman, you can talk about social history during Renaissance time. Ah, what you can tell about at the life off people. It's the Renaissance period. You can tell a lot when you talk just the story of the painting. Of course, this is art history, and when I will be telling the story in a moment, you will hear a lot about art history on what is so special about this painting compared toa earlier paintings. So, um Mon Eliza being such a famous pointing and you can be sure that most general will have said seen one picture poster or any may be made up picture off model is a So it's something no, and you can use it to teach many things as I mentioned artistry history of this off the Renaissance period. Um, the, um, Social history of the Renaissance period, of course, our history and actually world history until that 21st century, because the history of this painting actually reaches today, and I will end my story with today. So it's a long story on the Children understand paintings, pictures, half a story, a story to tell and discovering the story behind just a picture will help them to really get a deeper understanding and how scientists are working, how historians are working, how art historians are working. But I also understand the values off the time. What were the concerns off the time? So it's not just the painting, it's all behind it. Still, I will ignore many, many, many facts in telling the story. Otherwise, it would be far too long and not interesting enough for the Children. That's not what I want. I wanted to be short and sweet. I wanted to be interesting, and that's the way I will tell a story. So let's stick into the story right in the next video. 21. The story of the painting Mona Lisa : I want to tell you the exciting story off one off the most famous paintings in the world. The paintings name is Mon Eliza and a painter is Leo Nadeau, 70. Let's hear the story. You, not a DaVinci was living in the town off Florence. In Italy. He's see how Florence looks like Florence is a beautiful city. And Leonardo What? Devin She was living in Florence, Um, in the 15th and 16th century, when the Middle Ages were coming to a close and the Renaissance time was starting. He was a painter by profession. That was his profession. And he was being employed by emperors by princess by aristocrats changing, um, people. But he was being employed. But he always accepted pride. But, um, paintings. So one day, when Leonardo da Vinci was already very famous for his paintings for his extraordinary paintings, one off the richest people off Florence came to him. The name of this man was Francesco Kanda. He was dealing with them. Silk was making a silk cloth off fabric. Andi, as you can imagine, silk was only for very rich people, very costly material. So he was enormously rich. And this time, when he came toe the workplace off. Liana joke. You're not at that time was already elderly. And this is how he was painting himself. This is how you another looked like long hair, Long beard. Francesca at your condo said Master, I'm so thankful this time from the several reasons Imagine my young wife Lisa has given birth to our second child and she is well and the baby s well master. You're not imagine before that she was giving booster baby but it baby died. And Lisa, what's so sad? And I didn't know how to comfort her, but no, she had another baby. It's a boy. We called him Andrea, and he is very healthy and she's very healthy. So I'm so happy and I want to make her more happy. Please, Please, master paint my wife painter the way she really is as beautiful as tender though why I love her. And then he said, you know, I mean, I'm having a second reason why I'm asking you this. You know, I just bought a new house, and this house will be just for me and my wife and of course, my Children and all those walls there so empty. And I want to hang some beautiful pictures and I think it would be exciting. The have a picture off my wife hanging in our house. Well, at that time, many, many, many times women were giving birth to babies. But the babies died for Liz that the Gioconda, her first baby, had survived. Her second baby died. A child birth during giving birth on the third baby survived but her husband, I had already lost two wives who died steering champers because at the time, they didn't have hospitals that didn't have Caesarean sections. So it was so dangerous to give birth this this way. Francesco the Gioconda was so very thankful for having a healthy wife for having two healthy Children at the time of year. Not a DaVinci and Liza the condo. This Waas a special blessing. So we understand this special effort. Now what else do we need to understand? What did Francesco ask? You nodded toe pain. Pain My wife as she is as young as beautiful as tender. There were no photographs. Then folders had not been invented. So people, the only way to have a picture of a person is to draw the person that is a droid drawing off. They're not at the Da Vinci or to paying a person, but at the time, very often paintings looked like this. It's like a sticker on the background doesn't go for me, Natural doesn't look very attractive on the current. That can't be seen on Evan, it looks out. Actually, it's not even possible toe. Have a person looked like that? If you want to know But united the Davinci Waas doing special paintings and he was famous for his very special paintings, paintings that looked like, really and as United 11. She understood the special request and why the request was so special for painting Mon Eliza, that means man. Madam Lisa. People wouldn't use the last name to call a person, but the first name and at a type like man, madam to it. He really put all this effort all his knowledge, into painting the special painting, and he really tried to make it very special. Now, if you look at these two paintings, one besides, it's other. You can easily understand that the friends, the quality difference but to paint in this way. Leo Nadeau, who didn't study painting had to invent a new technique on this technique off making soft lines which were not really lines. They were shadows. Look at the face. If you look at the chin under the chin has no line. He didn't may draw a line to draw the chin. Look at it. He was painting shadows toe give the frame off the other shape off the face, even by the side. He didn't draw a line where the here stopped. But take it out. There's a shadow. There is no lines, but you look at this. There are clear lines. So Leo Nado the Vinci was trying out new techniques, and this is what costs a lot of time. He wanted to make the painting a life, but imagine inventing a new technique off painting, not having studied painting, not having learned painting like a university study like what we do today. It took so long, so Madam Liza had toe come. So the work office to the workshop off Leonardo Davinci many, many times, and she went to Leonardo da Vinci's workshop for over three years on a regular basis. Imagine that it's like she enjoyed it because Leonardo DaVinci always had musicians ready to play for her to make her relax and to make Chris smile. The husband was getting impatient. Leo Nadeau How long does it take you to pay for my wife and do not have told him? No. Only fools are impatient. Be amazed at the outcome off your painting. As a matter effect. Francesco never got his painting because Luna continued to paint, experiment and paint over it and paint over it and paint over it. The, um, this is the original is painted on wood that was happy trails during the time. It's not painted on. Can was. It's painted on wood. It's an oil painting. So he was painting over again, painting over again, painting over again until he was happy. And as this was a totally new technique he was using, he was never happy. Wherever he went, he took the painting with them and continue to paint. So Francesca Gioconda never got his painting. Look at the some off the things which make this cell extraordinary. Don't you think that the dress really looks natural and then look at the background? Okay. For us there is a landscape at the background. I don't know how he did it. Maybe he was looking at the last, painted it or draw it and then painted it at the back off monoliths because model is a was sitting in his workshop, not outside. But if you look at it, the two sides do not fit which other day look as if they're part of the same landscape, but they don't really fits to each other. This is what makes it to look. So what's right? What people keep looking because it's creating a special effect. If you look at the face left on the right side, do not look the same at all. If you look at this chin, it's going more up, making a more nearer face. Where's Disch? In looks more like somebody's little bit fatty was eaten enough. If you look at the two eyes, this guy is much smaller like squeeze together. So the face also has the friend left and right is not the same. Even is that no matter where you stand in front of the building after building of the painting it look, you have the impression that she always looks atyou. Moon Eliza's always looking at you whether you are sending left. All right, let me try this out if I hold it like this and this is just a print out, Of course, off the painting Look suspicious looking at this, are you? I'm holding it like this. It still looks as if she's looking at you and I'm holding it like this Stare looks is as if she is looking directly at you any side. I'm turning her sick in reality to stand in front of the painting, Whether it's the left or right or in the middle, it will always you would always have impression that she looks directly at you and it's created through how the way it's painted. This is what makes the painting soul very much alike, so special. But you're not a was never satisfied with it. He continued to pain. He continues to pay, and he didn't give this painting away. Kept it for himself wherever he went. Now Leonardo was getting older and older. He wasn't able to paying anymore. He had suffered a stroke and his left arm was paralyzed. He wasn't able toe hold a brush again, but people appreciated him for his intelligence and his knowledge. So the emperor, friends, friends, is the first invited Leonardo toe. Come to France and stay with him. He left to talk to Leo Nadeau because Leonardo da Vinci was so intelligent. Why am I showing you the picture off this castle? This is the castle when well, you're not Awas living at the end of his life. A staying what? France is the first off fronts and people who visited the castle in contemporaries of France's The First Contemporaries of Leonardo da Vinci report that they have seen the painting. And it's not one there. Several people who testify that the painting off Donnelly's at the condo that's the full title, as she should be called Waas in this castle, amb Woz is the name of the castle. Well, 200 years later, as a young for of course, the another Vinci passed away, the painting remained in that I'm Waas casting. Can it stay there? 200 years passed by 250 Evan French Revolution. No marking them no more. No more French empire. Those very costly paintings were brought. So the first museum worldwide, the first museum public museum where anybody could go and see The facings was the Louvre in Paris, in France. And now everybody could look at those paintings and those at the Mona Lisa baking Everybody could see it was hang them well during French Revolution. Worse a young men who became a very successful general arm in general. And he became so proud that he made himself emperor that is not going upon apart and a polling Bonaparte considered himself so important. That model is a painting should hang in his very own bedroom. So he had the painting taken from the Louvre and put it in his own bedroom. But because he was so hi nose. So proud. So say fish. The French people just didn't like him. And he was sent away from France, toe a lonely island to spend the rest of his life there. And the Mona Lisa was brought back to the louver. Well, the monitor is a painting was brought back to the Louvre and people knew about it. And there was a worker in the loo over He Waas, a Italian. He was Italian and he was working in the Louvre, looking at the paintings, knowing about the paintings and Then there was a very rich Argentinian gentleman. Go ahead several copies off the Mona Lisa painted. He ask Penders, who were artful, who were skillful painters, to go to the louver and copy Copy them on the Liza as well as they could. And he paid them for painting those paintings and to bring them to him. Toe Argentina. And then he got in contact with this Italian guy who had been working in the liver, and he asked him to steal. My model is a painting And why would you want that? Well, let's see. So this guy knew of a Louver museum very well, because I've been working there. So one fine Sunday, he went to the Louver as a visitor. But when the museum closed, it didn't leave. He stayed there and spent the night. And when all the cleaners skate came, he put on a white coat, as all the cleaners had in the Louvre. At the time he took the model, is a painting off the wall, wrapped it in fabric and left the museum as if he wasa cleaner who had finished his job just like that. He took them on Eliza to his very small apartment in Paris just close, very, very kills. Few minutes walk from the Louvre and teeth, the painting wrapped in the fi break in his apartment. In the meanwhile, that Argentinean guy Solt the fake the copy off the Mon Eliza. He was way back in Argentina. He would advertise the one first painting I have. The real Montel is that I have it. People knew it was stolen. I have it you can buy for me from X Y set a month, and Rich American would want to have that famous painting and but the copy thinking it was the real one. And in this way this Argentinian businessman became enormously rich. But now that guy's still had the Mona Lisa in his apartment. What would you do? He erupted a little bit more and took it toe. Italy. He was Italian, so he just went home. And that's a real photo off him. Black and white photo. Because we are in the year 1911 the world. No color for Justin. So he took the picture well wrapped back to Italy. Back in Italy, he hit it again in his apartment after two years off all these stories that Argentinean who had paid him for stealing the painting had made ah lot of money from selling copies off. The model is a painting. He's that why this guy would become so rich and not me. He had a brilliant idea. I know what it was. Brilliant are not so brilliant. But he wrote a letter toe. One museum director close to the city where he was staying isn't Yes, sir. I have the real Mon Eliza. She is back in Italy, where she belongs. Leonardo da Vinci was Italian literature. Khan was Italian. She belongs here. If you want the hardback, just pay me a little a man for my efforts and you can have her. Well, that director of the museum was an intelligent man. He accepted a deal. Check that out. The painting he was given it Waas the real Mon Eliza. He paid the amount to him. But that a symptom. He was arrested by the police and put in jail and tried for stealing. The model is a from the louver. But guess what Italian say Here is right. Leonardo da Vinci is Italian. Lisa Gioconda Waas Italian money's air shipping acting Italy. So he is the biggest patriot off the time. And after spending just seven months in prison, he waas, I'm set free. And this photo you concede there is a number. That's a photo taken by the police at the moment he waas put in jail. That's her fault. A police photo. After only seven months, he was released, released because Italian said, This guy is a patriot. We don't need to put him in jail. We need to help him. So he waas set free at the Mona Lisa painting as it was being believed that it's an Italian painting for many as Italian woman banded by an Italian. So it really made a contract with friends that they would show the painting in Italy before sending it back to front. So Liza made a journey all around Italy, all important cities in Italy, from the north to the south, from the south to the north. Every city was people were able to look at this famous painting and it was in all the newspapers and it's because of being stolen and being displayed in all the Italian cities. This became so important she was sent back to the Louvre, and there is what she is now. She can't be stolen anymore, even though the director of the Louvre Museum says that 80% off the base interest off to the Louisville are coming just to see Mona Lisa's painting, Look at the's masses off People. Look at this crowd everybody trying to take a picture with the mobile phones, but she's protected by bulletproof glass. You see that guy who is watching for people not to come too close so nothing can happen anymore. She's back in the louver back in France because Luna today, when she wanted died in France, he left her dear. This is why that's the right place for her to bay. And that's the story off the famous painting off the real, an actual person. Don Eliza the condo. But the painting we call it Mon Eliza 22. Methods Extensions Mona Lisa: no. After telling that exciting story or history off Mona Lisa, what can you do? Um, toe, make your lesson more impressive. First of all, while you tell the stories you have seen me using a lot of pictures, I've just printed them from the Internet. I was looking as the Ben. I was really looking for the best picture of models I could find. And I printed it. Um, yeah, I worked on the picture, actually a little bit to make it look like this. Um, it's really, really that original as it is in the Louvre today, even though it has been restored and maintain it looks really, really dark. And if I want to do this lesson with the artist story Children on this very, very back picture, they wouldn't see much beauty there. So I worked on it and a made it lighter. And I made it clear just by using a program on my computer to make it clearly seen the water, the mountains, the sky I really wanted it to be clear. And as a friendly colors as possible. Uh, there's no problem there when you're out of the Vinci. Um, painted the picture the colors who used They were bright and beautiful colors but because off five more than 500 years having passed ever since the painting was completed in the way we see today all the light it has been exposed to made it to be dark. So the time is not original. This is why I felt so free to just change the lightning off my photo. So what? You have seen me using the pictures, all the pictures. I've just checked them. I've just downloaded them from the Internet. All those pictures so use pictures. When you when you want to work further concerning this story, there's a lot of things to do. Like you could look at Florence, um, and find it on the map. Where is Florence? In Italy. Then you could look at how were people living at the time off? You're not a DaVinci. There are a lot of pictures because of Leonardo da Vinci of the city off things. So you just look for pictures. You look for informations. How are people living at the time when the painting was being painted? Another thing you can do is then look at the journey off the picture. So that is geography, that is, the picture was going from from Florence to a Moi's castle at the Loire River. This is located at still, but it's not Paris directly, then going from from the Wa from Boaz to Paris, then from Paris to Italy again, and then all around Italy and back to front. So that's really between France and Italy. It's going back and forth and going around, and that will give a very nice geography lesson off how those two countries are connected or not connected. What journeys, And it's quite remarkable you could you could look at what people are interested in from Ford AB that a picture like, um, the stolen Mona Lisa. A film has been turned. Of course. It's a Hollywood film, so there is a left story there, and they have changed the real story. But you could look at how interested were people in this picture ever since it has been painted. So the first interest Waas, the husband who wanted to have a picture off his wife, which was so special at the time to have a picture of his wife, how she really looks then the interest off Leo Nado toe paint a woman the way she really looks to make her look alive, Then the interests of the people who were looking at the picture at the time off you nado What did they find? Special then, um, the interest off Napoleon point about why he put this picture in his bedroom. Um, why are people Yeah, What? Why did he steal it? Just for money. But Italians like to believe it's for patriotism. So the interest in the picture then you could also look at the interest today. What? People want to see this picture life. Even though they can't come close, they can't examine it. They can't really appreciate it. Um, I'm always feeling when I look at the Louvre Museum having a print out like this, I can appreciate much, much more than the people going to the loo over. But why are they going? Those who look at interest, why are people interested in paintings back then and today back then because it was so special to have a picture that looked like the real person. And today, because the picture has been there so long because of the history connected to it and the styles that were being used. So the interest in a picture, um you could look at the history. Um, Why France and intellectual. It was so easy from Florence to go to France. The importance of France at the time. That's also something then you could also look into How did Liana Davinci become a paint? Or actually, he became, um she learned painting from a painter. He never went to school for that. Never went to university for that. That's also something you could look into. So, um, you could, of course, do a floor puzzle with all those aspect. Make it into a floor. Passell. Uh, you could make it a project where the Children you print out informations about this. This the safe off the model is, um, there are informations online about the safe. You could print out informations about the rial Donnelly's Aja condo and her husband Make sure they're also wrong. Informations. There you get the right ones, print them out, quoted Children. Then you could print that information's about Luna, the DaVinci and you could print up, um, like an anally analytics off the picture. What is special about the the techniques he used and then what? I found interesting. A lot of research has been done on the picture, and people actually found there was a picture painted under the picture. So on the despicable as another picture hidden, which has been recently discovered with special lightning techniques. So how research is being done concerning very old paintings? That's also, um, something about Artie straight. Something about, uh, science. I was a very, very interesting. So just elaborated more when you have the story, tell the story with pictures of Children can imagine something, make it as simple as possible, but then continue the next day the next week. But best is the next day with other projects concerning this add activities concerning this . My advice when you told it the story right away after half the Children do something went pictures. Maybe they could be They could have the pictures that you have been using. Put it, make it into a goulash. You could have, um, several pictures of Leonardo da Vinci put together several pictures off, um, Florence. Several pictures off the I'm Waas Castle and then collect them so they get really a view a visual view about what you have been telling. So the story stays in their mind and it will help them really, for history to make sense. 23. The Rosa Parks Story: Today I have a wonderful ended True Story of you. It's the story of a girl called Rosen. Rosa was born and raised in Alabama that is in the south of the USA. And Rose's parents and grandparents, they have still experienced slavery. That is when people owned people. Imagine how bad and that slavery had been abolished. But still, the white people in the USA didn't like to mingle with black people or people they thought were black. Rosa was quite fear, almost like me. But people still Coulter colored or negro. And she felt that a lot. And in order to really make the laws and make them to be kept, they didn't even call the people black, the cotton colour. That means you're a little bit different from me. Not that's not nice, that's not good. That's not how we should treat people. People are people. We are unequal. And Rosa knew that because their parents told her that. Rosie knew that because our grant bad pulsar that. But when she went out from the her grandparents farm, her grandparents were living on a farm and she went to town with a grandma or with her mom. She saw a world like this. Then what different toilets for white and for cullet, what they called Negroes. And as you can see, the toilet for the white people was, was mean and modern. But the toilet for the black people was in disrepair. Rosa was wondering, we all made by the same God. Why are get to toilets? In restaurants? There were restaurants for white people and restaurants for black people. There was seats for white and seeds for colored rows. Us thought, we, human beings. What's the difference? There were even drinking fountains for black and white. And people wouldn't dare to use a different fountain. If a colored person or negro as they were called at that time, would place, which was only for white. That person would be chased, like the shop owner is changed, chasing this colored lady from his shop is at my shop is only for white. You can't chapter even if you have money. That was the world that Rosa was seeing all around her and it didn't fit. What, what her grandpa told her about people, about humanity. It didn't fit with what Herman totter. And she just couldn't figure out why the world was like this, but she couldn't change it. Rosa was just a school goal going to school. And you know what? White children could ride the school bus to school. But there was no school bus for black children. Black children had a school, but they had to walk all the way to school. And sometimes that way was very, very long. They also had only one school room for a lot of children. And most children were not able to finish school. And this is what happened to roast them. Rosa love going to school. She loved to learn by the way, her mom was a teacher when she was already extraordinary. But rose is grandma feels sick. She became so sick. Serosa had to stay home from school and take care of her very sick. Grandma. Grandma passed away, and then mom became sick. And again, it was Rosa who took care of her man. When her mom had also passed away, she got to know a very nice young man by the name of parks. His last name was Parks. He was a barba and people liked him because he was very friendly. He was treating everybody equal. But he himself was a colored. So somehow that it make a difference. But still, he proposed the Roza and Rosa became Mrs. practice. They got married. They will happily married. Rosa started tour because you need it to help her husband to pay all the expenses of the home, pay for the food, and for the house, rent, medical bills, clothes, whatever they needed. Roza and her husband didn't live look serious life. But because both of them were color, as they were called, they needed to work several jobs in order to get along would just pay the minimum. So Rosa was working several jobs at the time. She was mending clothes. She was washing clothes, she was sweeping, hospital, ERs. She was serving food. So that's already four different jobs. She got every job she could get because she needed to gather around and pay for her expenses together with her husband. One fine day. Rosa was very tired and she was sitting on the bus. Now for school, color were not allowed to take the best for EPA, adult colored could take the bus to work or from work. But they had to sit in the back. And if a white person came on wanted to sit, the black people had to stand up. And if there was no muss standing space, they had to get off the bus, even. So black people had to get off the bus. If a white person came in or it's several white people came in, that they Rosen was tired. She was tired from work. She was tired from treated, from being treated and eat an evenly. She was tired from being looked down on too. And when several white people boarded the bus, and the best driver said, Get up, you should then give a seat to those white people. She remain seated. She herself, she cuddled herself, she held herself because she made the bus driver met, might as well call the police. And that's what he did for refusing to stand up for a person who was fear in skin complexion than the police came and arrested her, and Rosa was put to prison. Now, people heard about Rosa being put into prison just for not standing up on the best for a white person. The white person could have stood and still write the same bus, but she was put into prison and she was found guilty for breaking the law for disorderly conduct. Gene was found guilty. Imagine. And now all those people who heard about it, they told their neighbors, they took other neighbors and colored. And some of the white started to protest. And they say the day of the trial when you will be on trial. They would not use the bus and they were protesting. They were not fighting. They were not screaming the we're not doing anything bad. They wanted destroying anything. They just protested and they said, Don't use the best. On this day. If you have to go to school, what? If you have to go to word boards, the car of a friend Board, the Board attacked C or walk. Now, many of the taxi drivers wanted to help that movement because there were also convinced what had been then to Rosa Parks putting her in prison, putting on trial was not right. So the bus drivers charged a very low fee for driving, alert, for helping them. Many people walked. People had to help each other to buy their groceries because most colored people didn't own cars. And here you can see how that one day, the day of the trial of Rosa Parks became the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott. Why Montgomery? That was the name of the town were Rosa was living in where she was working, and that was that town where she had refused to stand up for a white person. So her, at her act motivated the other people to stand up for their rights. Because you have to know what people did to the color was not according to law. That did it to the color because they had more money and because they had more power, the Polish politicians were white. So they could impose things which weren't really according to the law and the judge, what judges walls away. So they were making judgments which were not according to the law. The Constitution forbids it because the Constitution said we're all equally created. But still, it happened like this. And Rosa Parks was a believer, and he was going to assert a Baptist church where there was a certain Martin Luther King Junior and he was her pastor and he heard about it. And the church members who are concerned for the church member helped greatly in that peaceful protest. And the Montgomery boycott lasted. 24. Why is the story of Rosa Parks relevant for our children today: Why is the story of Rosa Parks relevant? Is it relevant at all? Is it relevant in other parts of the world, but the US? Well, if you are watching this with you and you are living in the US, it is so relevant. Maybe more than ever before. We are having things going on there. Racism is still beer, and children might have a lot of questions about it. It's hard to talk with especially small children, younger children, let's say primary school children, about races and about things going on. So stories are very fit to help the children answered their questions. And if you are living and listening to the story in another part of the world, maybe in Europe, do not think the story does not concern you. We are living in a world where we actually know that people are created equal. We know today from biology, from medicine, from everything we know. There are no races. Races are made up by racists. And this is why they are called races, but there are no races. And I want to show it to you by show giving an illustration to it. This is the real real photo are one of the rea photos of when Rosa Parks was being arrested. We look at a policeman, he and that there are two hands, the policemen, it is white. Rosa Parks is a so-called Colored. Can you really see how culture is? Not very much, right? Because of her dark eyes. If you look at the new photo, high-quality photo, her eyes are darker, nose is a little bit flat, but she doesn't even have really clearly here, as we would expect from an African American. She doesn't, because Afro-Americans and mixed with white our aren't. So they are not, they don't look like africans actually. So that's what they call color, even though they are actually more or less equal in skin complexion. So it, why is it relevant we are all equal and we shouldn't make any differences from outward appearance. Lighter or darker skin, complexion, how the here are the eyes look like are no reason for making any difference between anybody. And we're living in a MOOC, Thai culture in society. All societies are, most societies by today are being mixed up. You have children from different backgrounds, social backgrounds, cultural backgrounds, ethnic backgrounds. Children should learn, there is no difference. Now it depends on how you tell the story. You can focus on the bus, you can focus on the life of Rosa Parks. It's important to focus on that address. Looked at her to be indifferent while she thought she was just a human being, an ordinary led to good. That's what she thought about yourself. So the story is very relevant to give an answer an explanation. What is racism? Racism is an lawful, as it was in the US at that time it was happening, but it was actually against the constitution. You could focus on this point when you tell the story that people were really doing it and it was really happening, but it was against the Constitution. And it took, it took the Court 381 days to just find out and to clear that it was against the Constitution. And when it's against the law, it doesn't mean that it's not happening. People are still being racist. They just be still being too judgmental, even if it's against the law. People told me should awesome being brought to understand that even if something is against the law, it is really happening. They should also understand that when people join together, they are strong, they can reach their goals. What is very, very important to teach values, to reach children with his story. Rosa Parks is a later told that it was some Parton for her to stay calm. Not too shall not to screen, not to defend herself, but to just stay calm. The bus driver side and I have to call the police. And she said you may as well do that. And that was important for her. It's to stay quiet. It's awesome. Pardon? To teach the kids. That those children, those people who are protesting, they were doing it in a peaceful way, in a peaceful manner. And the protests led them to helping each other more. Because those colored people not having cars and living in remote areas, it was a big issue for them not boarding a bus because buying their process was a big issue for them, going to school was a big issue for them. And what was remarkable that those so-called white people join them and helped them, as did some, many white fat drivers and some white people who just join them in walking to work. So joining an effort, doing it, p53, if you want to declare, you write, if you want to fight for the right, do it in a peaceful way. That's by you. So the value of the story is we're all created equal. We are equal. If you fight for the right, always did, do it according to the law, not against hour. And do it in a peaceful way. Help others, help those less fortunate. And it wasn't nice for Rosa Parks and all that group, ethnic, so-called ethnic group of the so-called colors then. But children should learn to detect where are the injustices of our world today. This is a very important issue. And if you want to teach values to kids in 2020, maybe 2021. And if you're going to watch this video in the future, if there is no ground whatsoever of treating any body differently based on any thing or anything outward. But even anything. So that's one of the most important values here. Of course, the story is very relevant because it's teaching us history. If you're teaching all the kids like middle school and high school, it helps to understand protests in the US. It helps to understand why things are happening in the US the way they are happening. Because 1955, when the story really happened, that's not that long ago. Many people who are alive today in the US, also here in Europe. They have been alive then. So it went, if it was the mentality, when, why shouldn't it be the mentality today? That's also very important. Politics have recognized the importance of what Rosa Parks initiated without wanting to initiate it. But decades after really happened. And then what I find so interesting about the story, she never plan to start a movement. Even though some people say that the GTG didn't, she didn't want to start and she didn't plan to start a movement. And if you do what is right, it might start a big movement. If you do what is right, it might change the world. And that is what she did. And she received numerous honorary doctorate degrees because of what you did and what she continued to do. Actually, this day, December 11955 changed her life to SHE afterwards, dedicated her life to fight for the rights. If you do what is right, and that is for older children, it might also change your life because she was in a danger in her home city and in her home province. She had to leave the south of the USA and move back. Move north. She moved to Detroit where she lived in was she passed away because it became too dangerous for her because white people didn't like her, even though the court and politics advocate that she was right. But still they didn't like it. They didn't want to abide by the law, the atmosphere unlawful and she kept her piece and moved north. That's also an important part. And if you do the right, people might not like you, but it's still the right. And the reward for doing right comes later as it came for her much, much later. That's also what makes a story very relevant. So there are a lot of values in the story. But other than that, we have US history, contemporary politics, contemporary prejudices. So we could also talk about it when we look at contemporary things happening in any country of the world. Whether it's different religious groups against each other, whether it's different ethnic groups which are white against each other. While it's different language groups against each other. It's relevant for all those stories. And I believe that's one of the important things to really teach to kids, those values. But better than that, children should really know who was Rosa Parks if they don't have just missed education. So if you teach cosmic education, that biography. 25. Rosa Parks: How to tell the story, tips for storytelling: How to tell the story. Now, number one, choose your medium very well. In my case, I like to be myself the medium. Why? I'm telling a story. And that's one of the most important teaching methods in the world. This is how parents, grandparents, and other elderly people, have been teaching children and youth over generation for hundreds and even thousands of years through stories which were being told to their children. They didn't use any other thing but themselves, meaning their relationship with the kids to whom they told the story. Knowing though all the stories by heart. So facing the children as the one telling the stories and then knowing why they would tell certain stories. So the medium and the medium and my relationship to the kids, the way I, how I interact during the story with the kids is very important. Don't tell a story you're not convinced of. If you had done the stars you're convinced of. You rather gets to know stories and build up your ONE story, Trisha house of relevant stories which transport not only information, also values, value and information goes to get them. When I'm telling stories, I like to inform the children. I'm a teacher. I love to teach. So I went to get information. I want to convey information. That's what I like to do. This is why when I choose stories, there's a lot of information packed in. So that makes the story interesting because I have all those informations in my head and I pass it on. Don't tell a story when you're not sure about what was the condition was, was the environment, why is it, how is it? And so on. Read about it. Wikipedia as they're sometimes it wrong. But you could always get good information. In 2020, it's easier than ever before. So you are the medium. Number two, know your story by heart and tell it by heart. The danger is you won't forget some relevant information while you tell it. Nevermind. It's more important that you build that the relationship that you look at, the kids, that you interact, that you're active as you tell the story. This is more important than getting all the information through. If you forget some facts, as long as you don't lie or invent something, that's fine, maybe it was too much information anyways. Okay. Then. So always know it by heart, interact with the kids, look at them. Number whatever. Don't be afraid to act. The story, act. If you're timid person and you're not moving SU speak as I do. I even try not to move as I'm doing these videos. But if you are not moving and active as you talk with your mouth, start to practice opening your mouth as you talk. So what do I mean? When I speak? You see my mouth is making a lot of movements and I'm using a lot of muscles around in and my face and my mouth. I use a lot of facial muscles. Most people don't, and that makes them hard to be understood. And children who might not always be there with all the concentration, it's important that every word is well pronounce. Well pronounced means that your mouth looks different when you pronounce e and a, conceded the friends practice it, or why music? Or the math looks different and social yours. So articulate. If you're not articulating now. After brushing your teeth every morning, every evening, practice oh, and move your mass. A very good tip is also talk. Why you have something in your mouth and tried to talk in a way so that you could be understood. You could use a felt pen. Make sure it's your own. Don't use any one. Otherwise it's not hygienic and wash it after you have done the exercise. My name, if you should be understood, practice it. Hold it with your teeth and talk. You who grew weak, wig, dish in front of the mirror, speak. You might even want to recur and less than if it could be well understood. This is teach YouTube, pronounce well, men, use pictures. Really pick just like those all the day's news, read pictures them and sell them. If depicted biography, you can show the pictures. I don't have too many. Depending on the story and depending on your audience. Might have more or less, but have catchy pictures. Pictures who have a message. Whenever you tell a biography of a person who is important, who is famous, you can find lots of pictures online. All the pictures I'm showing you in this videos. You can find them online. Okay. Be judgmental when it comes to your pictures, be judgmental. Don't allow any pictures because pictures have. Powerful messages to convey powerful messages. So please make sure don't use pictures with which transport prejudices or wrong messages are messages which could be understand stood, Graham, I'm having this wonderful book here. Let it be, let people bet trends. That's a series of biographies. One focus, a picture book, one book, one important person. It has been translated in several languages. It's there in German, it's there in English. The story of Rosa Parks is very well told. The pictures, the famous photos which you can find online from the life of Rosa Parks and her contemporary, how the US was like. They are like drawn very well. You can recognize them if you know the real photos which you can find online, you will recognize them in the book. But still, I love the way they tell the story. I really enjoyed reading it, but I'm not using that book. Why? And I'll show it to you. Well, that's the Rosa Parks of the book. And that's real Rosa Parks. This Rosa Parks look, looks like an African, real african from Senegal or from Molly. She looks like a real dark African cruelly here. But she is in the US considered to be a Black and African American. At her time she was called Negro a colored. But look at her. Her hair is straight. And she is just, if you compare, maybe a little darker than myself and I'm really white. While she's having dark eyes might not blue. That's about all the difference. My nose is a little bit more pointed, but there are people with very straight nose is in Africa. If you go to Somalia, you have people really very fine and thin nose is. So that's real one. I don't see a wonderful racial differences. But this book is conveying racial differences and this is why I'm not using it for kids. I'll show it to you. And yeah, maybe they even have real photos inside. So if you look at those photos, that's real. Her that's real. Rosa Parks is special in this photo. I think she looks like a white on this picture she is she looks like a white. So the point of all this progress is were equal and then I wouldn't use a book that shows all the African-Americans to look like this. Not even Obama, whose father was a real African, looked like this. Most Afro-Americans are very, very fair. If me, I'm a European, quiet and married to an African. Really dark brown and I'm having brown children. I look at Afro-Americans. I consider most of them white. So those racial differences here, they are being made, racial differences. They are being made up. And I don't like it because it doesn't correspond to the reality. And you will make the children to be more, having more prejudice than than before. You're teaching them prejudice when you teach them with such pictures, make sure you choose your pictures well. Now, I like to teach stories, a positive wire with a positive feeling. This wildlife pictures like this. It's sad because she's working in the nineties, working on law out. But still because of the choice of colors, the red bucket, the yellow doors. It's not giving a tau atmosphere. There realities being portrayed, but it's not giving a negative atmosphere. And really peaked to transform our character by what we look at. So choose them well. What all the children, I might tell the story with those picture book pictures, which convey a very positive atmosphere. And I made all the children tell them, You know what, Rosa Parks, she was a real person and because she didn't live very on and go, all I told is not very long ago. I have even some photos. You want to see real photos of her life. And that is now giving more or less than about her Look. I'm having a photo. That's a real photo off the farm where she grew up. That's the farm of Rosa Parks. Grand parents. This is where she grew up. This is where she took care of a great man. And this is how we see how tiny the house was. This is the school runs away to can you see how many children and going there, but a very tiny school room they were using. When she was a young woman. This is how it should look like. And again, on this picture you can see she's perfectly straight hair. She looks like a white behind her that this Martin Luther King, the famous one. He was attending the same church. That's how she looked like. Here. You can see her at her suing job. I told you she was working several jobs at the PSI at the same time. Because until today, most Americans are not paid the same way, just like white people can imagine. They work the same job, but they're not getting equally made. You think you can see one of those buses? Can you see it? There is a front entrance and the back entrance. And you know what? White people are not allowed to enter by the front entrance, but some people trying to enter by the front entrance, Well, maybe get paying their tickets. Coca-cola said, look the same, but imagine how unjust was that. This is Rosa, how she's riding on the best, sitting with one of her also so-called Afro American. People in a row for just black people cannot, is the quantum. She's also setting on the bus. And now I'm having very sad pictures. She was arrested. And this is when she was arrested. Her fingerprints, what being taken as if she was a real criminal gets something very bad. But what she did wasn't bad, was even not against the law, was lawful. But she was treated like a criminal. And, you know, I need take prisoners when they put people present a tankless type of photos. And this photo can be found in the archives of the Montgomery police station until today. That's the picture they took off her candidacy. She's wearing a prison suit. But I'm so happy she was liberated. And this is after her liberation. And I'm really happy. And that's after the Montgomery bus boycott was successful and they were allowed to take the bus is now together. Life has changed for the better in Montgomery, Alabama. Now, Rosa Parks became very famous. She's the most famous, yes, a lot of unrest, but other women's fit the same she did before her. And then somehow, somehow I'm really sure She's thinking about those other women is leaving ME Bradford. She had also remain seated. Before Rosa Parks did this Claudette convect, she also remain seated on a bus. Before Rosa Parks day, I had to stay in her seat to remain seated. And are in Mark and look at how elegantly Is she was one of those people who are having less rights than other people. And they dared to remain seated on the bus. And when Rosa Parks did what she did, I think she thought of Codec, Irene and Lily May. And she said, well, let me do it. And let's add a C equal, not the frame. So that's an important message you might want to convey by that's enlarging the story. So my advice is start with just telling the stories. These pictures are rather small. The small ones they are A5 size. If it teach a class of children, make sure you use a for two S3, there is A3 nominator, a4 to a3, so that children can see very well what is on the picture. If your proper children is small, A4 might be more than enough anyways, their school children. Yeah. These stories are not fit for kindergarten MNIST is too complicated, too hard at that peak. But for school children, varying part in topic, the older they get, the more important. So if you have 12 year and older, perfect topic, perfect, perfect topic. After you tell the story, they gets the story like a story. Not like history, like a story, not like biography to be a real story. Then you tell them, you know, she was a real person. She didn't live that long ago. This is why we have felt who's not a lot. But we have some look at them. And you might include those women in the story. But I actually, depending on the age of the Johnny5, all the children, I would tell them she was sitting on the bus and the bus was four. She was so tired. And she was wondering why am I paid less. She was wondering if she will need to stand up when some white people would come. If shaven needed to leave the bus, if more white people would board that bus. And she might she was maybe thinking about Laney may flow that. And those were people there was a quote color. You might want to include it, or you might tell it later when you talk about the story to the kids. So those are a few tips on how to make in telling your stories more lively. Make sure no power pine, no screen, no computer screen, no tablets. Don't use a tablet to show the picture so that kids, that's not what we want. We want to convey the children the story as a person and the person, not the screen. So use pictures, print them out. It costs a little bit of money, but it's worth it. Don't use your mobile phones, don't use your tablets, don't use computers, don't use PowerPoints, Make it as traditional as possible, and then it will be as effective as it has been in tradition. 26. Rosa Parks Black and white original photos for middle school : Well, the story of Rosa Parks, I like it. I find it fascinating. I find it important. If you happen to teach older children like past primary school, if it's middle school, for example, or end of primary school, skip the step with the picture book. So if you have children, all the ones, don't use this picture book. Pictures at all. Don't for all the children use only the real pictures, okay. In this case, I will start with a color picture because children would jump on that. It's a person, say kids. And this photo, you can see one very old lady. And this photo, these happy lady, this GIF or lady is 86 years. All. But of course, you know, people are not born when the 86. So Rosa Parks was born in ordinary girl and she was raised on a farm in Alabama, to be exact, in Montgomery, Alabama. That's an a south of the USA. Her grandparents too who define rely on, they were quite poor. This delicate. Remember slavery. When people whose ancestors had come by force from Africa were forced to work for white people. This was still in the brain of the white people. In Montgomery, Alabama. The P point, Montgomery, Alabama. There was still remembering the time of slavery. So by all means, they didn't want to give equal rights to so-called Colored People. They even use nasty words like calling them Negroes. So it is cause they allowed the children to go to what black schools? Lots of children in one tiny school, broom. And the children were not allowed to ride a bus, passes to score. They had to work. No matter how far it was. Most color people were not able to complete school. Rosa Parks dropped out of school because she had to take care of her sick gray offer sick Mom later. It's only after she got married, she completed school. When she grew up. She started to work and she wrote torque on the best like this. Can you say that's not that long ago. Coca Cola was already the same. Coca-cola we know today. Not that long ago. People address more alive, more or less the same way we're dressed today. But the big difference, there were seeds for white and black. And if the white seeds were full, the black people had to get off the bus or stand. Well, you can see Rosa, she wasn't really black. This is why the Americans found the word colored for them. Whatever column, I have no idea. Yeah, you can see a riding on the bus. One fine day. She was being forced to stand up. And she was not the only one being forced to what free women's Casey, she was sitting with somebody and there was another person. So three women, so-called cameras, were forced to stand up because a lot of white people came in. Two women stood up, but rosa remains sated. And the police was caught and she was brought to the police station, have fingerprints, what being taken as if she was a very bad criminal. Her picture was taken and she was given a number, a prison number, and she was given a prison uniform. Can you see the prison uniform on the picture? And that is what made people so angry. And they started the Montgomery Bus Boycott and so on. You could ten tests using the real pictures. What's the difference? The difference is you make sure your middle school children get a story which has their level of understanding. And they can understand those black and white pictures that they are historic. They can understand that they don't need the joyful gate pictures. You still tell a story as a story. Don't tell them as you would as you were teaching history. That's what I wanted to tell me. Middle school children tells stories as stories. I can assure you the left stories, because even me, I love stories, everybody loves stories. So still tell the stories as a story, but give a different type of pictures. So your pictures must fit the age of your children. 27. Extensions, work with the story of Rosa Parks: Geography activities, working on the story of Rosa Parks. So the first geography activity, what you can do with your kids is finding out where East Alabama, because you mentioned that in the story. Finding out worse Alabama. So you find Alabama on the map. Next one. Worry is Montgomery. Find Montgomery on the map. And then you would want your children to find out how is the environment of Montgomery, number ones, and Alabama in January and let the children find pictures or provide picture so you want to have pictures about the environment of Alabama, that is the city. How does Montgomery look like today? A people, the market markets, I guess sites, famous site, mountains, rivers, lakes, famous far as natural reserves. What is, what do farmers plant there? To the plant? Cotton, peanuts, or do they plant things for warmer, colder regions like we do they planned, then what do people live on in that place? So to make it short, using pictures, using Maps, find out everything you can about alabama and Montgomery in Alabama. If that's the only thing you kids learn. They they know more than most Europeans. No, because I I'm so short. Ninety-nine point nine people, persons in Europe don't know where is Montgomery in Alabama. That's Geography. Okay. Apartheid, racial separation. And the system that was under which Rosa Parks was suffering is called a pipe, pipe. That is racial division. That is when in one country So-called black and so-called white people live, but they live in a separate, they live separated, and they're not allowed to transgress it out as territory's school wise, hospital wise, public transport wise and so on. So you might want, and that's history today. It's still happening in real life, but according, there are no more loss which would allow it. Fine countries find regions which also had apartheid. That is history, that is social history. And your children will be shocked to find out that in one African country that South African apartheid had been abolished. Just recently, so much after that Rosa Parks story, and that's an African country. So find out about apartheid and which countries had an apartheid society. Okay? That's history or social history. Okay. Next activity is diversity. Find out or let the children find out depending on the age in which countries to people of different Qin complexion or different how they look like, different outward appearance, how wanted to say leave to get the It's not traditionally, so it can't be traditionally so because all the white and all the black art in America are immigrants or leader, Native Americans are negative. So the immigrants, and in Australia, all the white are immigrants. And only the Aborigines are native. But I'm fine. But countries were different. People from different ethnic backgrounds. Lift to get them and find out how are the numbers, how are the percentages? And find out how did they come? They're so geographies, where at those areas that would be like South Africa, it would be Australia, it would be US. Breezy. Some South and some other South American countries are like this. Then you can find countries like Tunisia. While you have brown, black, and white of all the skin tones or the nose shapes or the types of here possible in one country. And they are more or less Native. So that's an interesting example to all countries have some of different ethnic backgrounds, but those were the groups are prominent and traditionally there for some time. That would be also geography. Where do which people are people, groups live? You could go more into history and then find out when did which people group moves there. Like Australia, the only natives are the Aborigines. But the living conditions also bad, worse than those of the white people. The white people, the immigrants, Chinese, other immigrants of fine, when did they migrate toward or South Africa or the white are immigrants? When did they migrate? There? So migration is very, very interesting for children in this world because very often we think the immigrants are those who come to us. And we don't see that migration is something that has been happening throughout history. When you talk about migration, you could do a lot of activities like finding out other countries which have sizable, uh, groups of Jews. That would be also very interesting. And when did they go there? If ever you are able to find that out. Okay. Going to history, you might want to find out about slavery. That's very important because Rosa Parks grandparents still experienced slavery themselves. So that would be important endosome. You might go more narrow to the US, which parts of the US have more Afro-Americans, which have less. And then y. I can just tell you that when you tell a story, the story will stay in the mind. And then through the story, the ad, the facts will say Nevermind. This is why I start with a story always. And then later you can work on the story. Which of the topics you use depends on the age and level of understanding of your children. Younger children might have a high level of understanding. All the children might not have a light high level of understand that's always possible. But make sure the information you give also fits to the age of the kids. Because if you go along it, depth of slavery or racial discrimination that might be too overwhelming for smaller kids. I can tell the story like a picture book to young children. And then tell them, look how good. And people protested peacefully and Venice was everything. All right. They can figure that out and effort. The person they've heard those words like Montgomery Bus Boycott. And later, they will dive more into those details. Not from the beginning, but all the children that might be very relevant because they are receptive for social discrimination, for racial discrimination, for injustices. And when get 12 and above, those topics become really, really relevant. Now, very often, we let the children find that information and we don't guide them. If you are working with younger children. You should provide information and they can work with the information which you have provided. Light, like making floor, so-called making posters, making picture books maybe, or work on different topics like what, what are those people eating at that time? What was their nutrition? What were the way, jeez, what was the value of $1 compared to $1 today? What could $1 by those things? For younger children provide the information? I don't think it is safe to let children below for it in Google and formations, the Internet is full of wonderful relevant resources. But how would and 12 year old know which one is relevant? That's not yet it. If you want the children to learn how to find information, the first step is teaching them to check from encyclopedias or you providing books, or taking them to a local library. So taking them to a local library is very good thing. If you have children. When they're older. You might want to show them how to look for the information on the internet and then how to verify the information, how to be critical about information. But that's really for all the children. Not until the end of middle school because I had to really judge how valid the information is. Even most grown-up people can't do it. You need to teach it to kids, but not yet. They first need to find a transport information. You need education in order to and get more education. So educated people easily find information and educated don't. That's just a bit difference. This is where the difference between educated and educate becomes always bigger and bigger because the educated increased information daily and the educated status thing. So it's important to teach a child how to get information, but a first resort source should be books. Okay, we said find countries which have a prototype. Fine. Countries who have mixed ethnic groups which lived there find migration. Who migrate it where, to where, and to migrated voluntarily. Who was forced to migrate, like all the Afro Americans, they were forced to migrate. It didn't migrate voluntarily. Find other countries with apartheid. Yeah. So work on the story going from there. K. So you can spend maybe two or three weeks Evan working on just that story. So have fun with it. Work with it, have more ideas, how to work with it.