Make a "Medieval Paperback" Journal using Indirect Tacketing | Hilke Kurzke | Skillshare

Make a "Medieval Paperback" Journal using Indirect Tacketing

Hilke Kurzke, Book Artist, Printmaker, Writer, Bookbinder

Make a "Medieval Paperback" Journal using Indirect Tacketing

Hilke Kurzke, Book Artist, Printmaker, Writer, Bookbinder

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12 Lessons (1h 1m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Lesson 1: Planning a Binding

    • 3. Lesson 2: Folding Signatures

    • 4. Lesson 3 Part I: Tackets - What they are and how to use them

    • 5. Lesson 3 Part II: First Class Project. Use a Tacket to Make a Simple Notebooko make a Simple Noteboo

    • 6. Lesson 3 Part III: Second Class Project. Use an Indirect Tacket to Make a Thicker Notebook

    • 7. Lesson 4: Prepare for Primary Sewing

    • 8. Lesson 5: The Primary Sewing (Unsupported Chain Stitch)

    • 9. Lesson 6: Designing and Preparing the Cover

    • 10. Lesson 7: Secondary Sewing (Tackets)

    • 11. Lesson 8: Final Touches

    • 12. Goodbye

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About This Class


In this class you are going to learn to make a this sturdy example of a medieval binding. Your book doesn't have to have paper covers, you can also use leather, a strong fabric (like for example jeans) or anything you deem sturdy enough to serve as a cover if you prefer.

This "indirect" tacketing is a method that is rarely taught in videos online. I can only guess that this is because a direct tacketing is also possible, and looks the same on a photo, - and is quicker to explain. It might also seem superficially easier. But using this technique here will result in a sturdier book, and this technique allows for more design options which makes this binding style much more satisfying in the end.

I consider this an interdiate class. Although I do explain everything, some vital parts, especially how to cut your cover to exactly the right size are covered very briefly. But if you know how to cut paper and how to make a cover fit, then this should be really straight forward. - If you don't then I still hope you'll give it a try, I am happy to answer any questions as they come up.

Here are some other examples with the same techique:


This class is packed with information, this is a breakdown of the individual lessons and steps:

Lesson I: Planning the book.
          You'll learn a bit more about this structure in general and get an idea of where choices were made in the design process. You do not necessarily need this lesson to make the class project, and if you are itching to get started, you could skip this or watch later.

Lesson II: Preparing  Signatures (for the primary sewing)
In this lesson you learn how to cut down larger sheets of paper to size for your book block. You'll learn about grain direction in your paper and why it is important.

Lesson III: Tackets
          Part 1: Here I show you how tackets are made and used to hold a pile of single sheets together - just like a staple.

           Part 2: Make a simple notebook using the tacket in the fold (like staples hold together a simple store-bought notebook). This is a direct tacketing method.

           Part 3: I demonstrate the indirect tacketing we are going to use in our final class project at a simple example. In this way you could make simple jotter journals with two signatures.

           Class Project One: Make at least one notebook using either a direct or an indirect tacket method.

Lesson IV: The primary sewing
           In this lesson I show you how to sew your text block for our final class project from planning your sewing stations and pre-punching holes to the final knot in your sewing.

Lesson V: Designing and Preparing the Cover
In this lesson we first make a mock-up of our cover from tracing paper. On this we plan the sewing holes for our tackets. 
           The cover material is then cut to size, and holes are pre-punched.

Lesson VI: Secondary Sewing
Finally we are ready to finish sewing on our main class project. With all the preparatory work we did, this is now easy and straight forward.

Lesson VII: Finishing Off
           Now that the binding is done, we clean up everything and cut the covers to size.

Meet Your Teacher

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Hilke Kurzke

Book Artist, Printmaker, Writer, Bookbinder


Hilke Kurzke is a book artist, writer, printmaker and book binder.

If you would like to know more about me and have a look at some of my works, why don't you head over to my website and blog here:

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1. Introduction: Hello and welcome to my studio today. I'm going to show you how to make this kind of book, which is found in a medieval technique called indirect ticketing. The stitches that you can see on the back, which looks slightly. Currently. This is what is called tech heads, and it's called indirect ticketing. Because the pages are not directly sown to the cover by the tech. It's but the book block. It's held together by a separate binding, a primary sewing and then the tech. It's our secondary sewing, so if you join me in this class, you're going to learn wealth off things. We are going Teoh bind first the pages together and something that's very similar to a simple Coptic binding. You might have heard that. Then I'm going to show you how to form these tickets. Tickets are the mid evil equivalent off staples and just like Staples today, they're everywhere, and they can be used for so many different things and super useful to know how to make them . And especially so we're going to make a first class project, a simple exercise. Really. If you think of how magazines have violent, they have these staples on the spying to hold the pages together and in just the same way. You can use tickets, and we're going to make a first simple, simple exercise book using tech it and then to make this main class project. Do you need a couple of different materials? Let's have a look at that. To finish the main class project, you'll need paper for your insight pages, a paper knife, a bone folder, a firm paper for your cover, together with either some Kotchman scraps, which is what I'm using all you could as a substitute. Use Tyvek. You don't need large amounts to cut this to size. You need a steel edge and sharp knife and the cutting mat. Then you'll need a sewing. Fred. If you're using an unwed X threat, and you'll also need beeswax toe to threat, or you can also used wax threat, you need an all to punch holes in your paper and your covering material. You need a pair of scissors to clip your threat. Oh, you need a needle that will hold your fret and for plenty work. We're using some tracing paper, a pencil, um, paper scraps. You'll also find the file with the list of materials together with substitutes and suppliers in the fire section. So I hope you'll join me on this adventure on making, um, it's evil paperback, and, um, I hope you'll enjoy the process. 2. Lesson 1: Planning a Binding: Hello and welcome again. I'm glad you joined this class now because this is a class and I'm going to tell you what to do. And I plan what I'm going to teach you. This is a somewhat artificial situation. Normally, when I start out making a book, I start planning in my sketchbook. And making the book is a very organic process for me. So while I do start out with some initial ideas, usually while handling the materials why, while doing something, I might change what I'm planning and doing. And, um, this is because making a book is really quite complicated because a lot of structural decisions you take have consequences for what you can do artistically and in your design process, and vice versa. If you already know, I want to use a paper for the cover like we're going to use than you know. You'll have to do something so that the stitches won't break through the paper. This thus, this has structural as well as aesthetic implications. And so it's usually a back and forth off what you're seeing and how it feels like. And let's for a moment pretend that we didn't know where we were going and I wouldn't tell you exactly what to do. And lot, let's start planning our book in a sketchbook, so we're going to make a book using the indirect ticketing method. That means the first thing we're going to do is our text block, which means just folded sheets of paper and will have to sew them together. So the first thing we need to choose is our paper. I'm going to use my standard sketching paper, which is the same I'm currently writing on. The paper you're using will play your role in what kind of former you're going to need, because you have to make sure that the grain in your paper lies parallel to your spine and we need to decide on a binding technique for our pages. I'm going to make this an UN supported chain stitch. That means that we're not going to bind it on courts or tapes or something like that. It will have a catalyst stitch at head and tail, and then we'll need to determine the number off sewing stations we're going to use. We're going to for our tickets. We use them in pairs, but that's not really that important at this stage, So we're going to decide on the number of sewing stations, depending on the former that you have and the height of the text block. Once this is done, we're going to fit a cover around here. Historically, this would have been leather and, um, with a leather cover. You usually fit aligning, which is Ah, like a nice color pattern paper underneath year, maybe even several. And also, if you're doing a paper binding, you could do that. You could introduce if you like that, a couple off patron papers here that are not attached to the text block, but to the cover. If you want to do that than you before punching any holes before sowing the textbook to the cover, you would attach your lining paper to the outer to the outer cover by, um, some some stitches doesn't really matter as long as they're holding together and depending on where you want to put the tech herds, that would change where you can connect them. If we want to put our tech kids here in the middle, then we could use ah stitch here at top and bottom to connect the lining paper with the with the cover paper and their tickets. If we're going to the south, it's my text block cattle stitch to sewing stations. Cut a stitch and I have my cover here. If I'm going to do my tech, it's at top and bottom. And if you want to do a lining paper than you could attach them in the middle, like here is now. As I said, let's imagine this year is ah, signature inside our book block. And then inside we see the sewing threat running inside the signature here, and these are sewing stations. And because the tech it's attached to this threat, the binding pools on on these holding on this Fred and historically a number off different guards have been introduced. And sometimes there are gods inside the signatures so that ah, piece off folded parchment would sit in here. We would have to if we wanted to accommodate something like that. You we obviously have to do that before the primary sewing. I don't think we need that, but you could could do guards inside the signatures and then, depending on the material for the cover, we're going to use paper here and paper just tears too easily. If you hold the whole weight of the book text block on the stitches here and these hold onto paper, That's not a good idea. So we're going to introduce Parchman guards here, just pieces of parchment that are a bit wider than the length off our tech kids. And we're stitching through them. Historically, they can be found both on the inside off the wrecker, and this would be had hidden or on the outside. And this is also something we could decide now, in our planning process, we already know. We want to put them on the outside and just like other limp bindings thes could be done with a variety off closures if you want to. To imagine this is the book lying on the side and the back cover could extend like this so that you can then put some kind of closure here, ref around closure or whatever. But I don't want to do this going to do a paper cover that will be all very that I will just cut to size the the same size as the paper pages. So we're not going to do a closure. So and from this, what we just planned, we can develop a brief plan off what we have to do. We first have to, um, do our primary sewing. We need or make the text block. Then we'll make our recover, which in this case means if you want to do aligning, you attach it to the cover. We attach the guards to the cover, and then we pre punch the holes where the tickets are going to do to be. So we have to do prepare our cover, and then we have to do the actual ticketing. This are essentially the three steps we're going to go through now. 3. Lesson 2: Folding Signatures: holding our paper and forming signatures will be our first step. Take the paper you have chosen and the very, very first step when you before you start doing anything in bookbinding is to German grain direction in your materials. To do that snap clip of he's off pay from your sheet that isnot square so that you know how it was oriented and wetted from just one side. And normally this will curl up immediately, and you can see that one direction's day straight and in one direction and curl. So this is our favor fiber or grain direction. And it's best to mark this on your stack off paper because it will be the same for all papers in this. In this deck, normally, when you buy paper, it will be long grain, which means that the grain direction is parallel to the long side. So if you're working with the A four cope your paper, then you will make a six page A book books from it, so we need to cut this to cut paper. You match up the corners at the upper left for me, Paride. If you're left handed, then go straight to this corner and enforce this fold with a fleshy part of your finger, and then, if you want to, you enforce it further with a bone folder. This will make the cut a bit crisper with the paper knife, which is essentially a letter opener. You insert the paper, lie it flat on the table and you at an angle and you pull towards you. Not so you're not going through like this, but you're going like this. So now I'm just forget for a moment that I have clipped yourself thing. We now we do not want to form signatures like this because we want the fiber. Director should always be parallel to the spine. So we're going to cut this one's more. And also with this piece, these are now the fiber direction, all of them ISS going like this. And now this. We can fold. Now this we can fold in half and will have the fiber direction parallel to the spine. This curling action, by the way, is exactly the reason why you need this. There's moisture in the air that will work on your book no matter what you do with it, and it makes the pages in a miniature way, move like this. And if you had it bound cross grain in a miniature way, it would work on the pages like this. So it was constantly work on the tear on the binding. We won't don't want that. And there are other reasons too, just to make a good book. Make sure you have this parallel grain direction parallel to the spine. And once you have a couple off short grain paper, you put them together in a stack. Eight pages would be a good idea, and I like to fold them all at the same time. Hopes straighten this up a bird. Look at how this arrow shaped at the front is which is called the creep. And then you first enforced the fold with the fleshy part of your finger, and then you can take the bone folder. Um, do this with as many pages as you need for your book for my book. I'm going to do 10 signatures with a cheats each that gives me in the end a book with 320 pages. Once you've done that and you have all your signatures folded and ready, those go under a weight. You see that this year still wants to open up. A well rested signature just lies flat, and this is essential to make a good, tight binding. If you want to speed things up, you could now make sure you really wrote this down well with your bone folder and at least put them under a wait for, Let's say, one or two hours, and in that time you can practice your ticket. 4. Lesson 3 Part I: Tackets - What they are and how to use them: while our signatures are resting underweight. Here, let me show you what tickets on how to use them. We start with a loose paint payoff paper which we want to hold together. So, Doctor, I'm a little on then in a corner where you would put a staple, make two holes, then thread a needle with wax Lynn and thread. I already did this year. And then we go through one hole out through the other, and then we do the same round once more. Make sure you don't hurt the threat that's inside this whole Now. It depends on how permanent you want to fast in this. If, you know, you give this to someone and they'll take the threat out immediately. I would leave it like this. Um, if you wanted more permanent, you wind this a bit. This also takes care of the ends. You could do one or two and then with the other end. I think it looks really nice if you this is what we're going to do. If you wind this threat like a coil around here and then just too neat and things up, we we could leave this in the front but it's nicer. I think we not it in the back. Go through here and then make a Not there. But where the ends off your second Elias more design decision than anything. Looks like this there. Very nice. Very need very friendly to any paper Freder you might be using. And if you wanted to take this off, you just Clippard and then all that's left is to hold. 5. Lesson 3 Part II: First Class Project. Use a Tacket to Make a Simple Notebooko make a Simple Noteboo: the next use for a staple would be to use it for what? We want to make a small drescher with direct ticketing. So all I did here is I had a sheet of papers I put to Decker Typhoon decorative paper on top, and I made attacker threw two holes here. And then you have a small small notebook are journal. And this is what we're going to do for a fat first class project. Now, I took a pile off scrap papers, which I already cut to size. You have to make sure for every project how your paper grain lies. My paper grayness like this. So I'm folding a signature from it. This you could also attack at first and full later. This is not super neat. And then I chose from my pile of scrap papers this year. Um, by folding, I determined that the paper grain lies like this. So this has to go like this over the as a cover. Um, catching this. So I leave here a millimetre, and I'm going to just leave a little bit here, and I'm not bothering about the the two front edges yet. This is just a daughter to exercise. So we don't have to fret awfully much here. And I just eyeball everything. No, I'm just eyeballing two holes here. Well, to then select a threat and put it on your needle. And we make a tech it. I start on the inside to the outside. To this Fine. You could do it the other way around that structurally, really the same. And it depends. It's just a matter off. How you want your the spine and the inside of your book letter Look like we're doing the same thing we did before on the flat paper here just just happens to be in the fold now we why? Into through that year? - Because the wax threat is sticky and wants to stick to itself. These bindings do have meaning. They do make the threads stick better to itself. But how many times you, in the end you already curl around is an aesthetic decision as much as a matter off patients. So for this one, I have quite a few less. And for these which I think I'm our equity Pretty nice. I had a lot more once you're satisfied you go back in with your thread and just not the ends. And if you want to, you can in corporate the spanning cried here toe hold the not down like this simply clip the thread and I like to pray my ends. And then to finish off this little booklet, I would now put it under away to rest and then cut the front edge to make it all a bit neater. And this is how to use a direct ticketing method to do a simple Joshua. 6. Lesson 3 Part III: Second Class Project. Use an Indirect Tacket to Make a Thicker Notebook: and this is how to use a direct ticketing method to do a simple job room. Now let's do something slightly more complicated. You could use it either to make daughters that have two signatures. I have two signatures here which are sewn together, and I'm going to use an indirect stitch to connect this notebook to its cover. It's also exactly the same stitch we're going to use on our on our final class project and instead off putting on the whole cover where you can I see well, what's happening. I had put on here. Ah, tiny bit of project. And imagine this would be a cover that refs all around. I want to give you a chance to see better. What's happening? The first thing to do is to mark the sewing station and pre punched thes holes. This is where our tech it will go through, just like before. I put some threat in a needle I'm using Works Threat always works threat, and now we're making the tech it instead of going through two holes like before we're going here between the signatures and the thread will hold on to the finding threat between this signatures So between. And here this is of course, just just look under as if we were going from inside. We're going from between the signatures to the outside, through the cover and between the signatures coming out here. Be careful and to neither heard the paper nor the threat that is there. And then you go back through this whole I for my convenience. I can slip it up here. You wouldn't be able to do this later. And once this threat is pulled tied, this parchment bit is in position. I won't move anymore. No, no, he is in position. And now I start my winding. And then comes the wine nation. Every now and then you can see me pull the end that's hanging on the left. That's to keep the 10 Gen and the tech it close to the spine of the book. Then when you're satisfied with your wind ings, you go back inside just like before. We're making not hear nothing. Nothing. You really so in this now holds the cover and the book bluff in place. You could do this, of course, with a whole cover. I hope you will, and show us in the project section what designs he came up with 7. Lesson 4: Prepare for Primary Sewing: these? Ah, my prepared and folded signatures and they already arrested under a weight. I'm also going to use a scrap piece of paper which should be a bit taller than the spine off your signatures. A pencil on, all for pre punching. So the first thing is to fold your scrap piece of paper on and, um, insurgent in the first signature mark the height of your signature and give it a rethink off where you want to place the sewing stations. I'm going to put the first about a finger with from top and bottom. So I'm not going to measure, but just toe eyeball and I for the binding I want for the final binding we're going to do. I want my sewing stations in pairs. So I just add to sewing stations here, maybe one here and one here and now what I'm going to do is to pre punish this into all signatures. Now is the time to check that all the holes line up and that you have a need stack before you start sewing. So if one of the signatures are flip, turn it around, it's just super annoying. If you saw on the signature wrong way around and have to undo it and start over. Now we're ready to start our primary sewing. I'm going to use ah, standard bookbinding threat a number 25 bookbinding thread for the binding. This is an unwed X threat. Could also use a pre waxed thread. Just make sure before sowing that you conned ripped the threat, whatever threat you're using. If it's not waxed, we're waxing it now, and I'm going to show you how a double arm length. So just grab one the end with one hand and pull it as far as it will go while holding the school in the other hand. And then Clippard here. This is fewer threat and I will probably need, But then I'm going to touch some. It's not good to take you too much threat. This is an unwed X threat, so I'm going toe works it Now. The idea is that the bees wax I have here should not rub into the Fred but melt into it. So you apply very little pressure with with your thumb here and then pull at high speed so that the fraction he generated by the friction mouths the wax into the threat, and then you go the other way around. Just turn it every now and then you can feel the wrecks in the thread. Maybe you can even see that it calls a little less already, and when you're satisfied with how sticky it is, you just stop it. There's not a definite amount off off times. You have to do this. You can see that the threat is a bit stiffer and it will stick better and glide better through the holes. So I'm threading my needle now. We'll copy, so let's get started. 8. Lesson 5: The Primary Sewing (Unsupported Chain Stitch): Now we're ready to start our primary sewing. I like to make sure that my stack always is oriented the same way I flip it over like this . And I'm going to add music interest by turning it over. It's just a measure off working a certain rhythm off working that helps you to keep your signature straight. Okay, you start at one end on the outside and pierce to the inside. You can see that the signature is flush with the edge of the table. And he appears to the inside like this. Well, the through. And leave a tale that you cannot later and then simply forget about all the other holds for now and go out on that for idea. Sorry. The camera makes it a bit awkward here. All right. Make sure the threat is that I need Lee there in the fold. All right, next signature and I go in. So the threat is coming out off, asshole. And I'm going in and the one directly above pull through. Now, don't pull it as tightly as you can, because then you're going to stick them together like this because this is the shortest way you want them to lie on top of each other neatly and then get the threat to lie without any loops here. Okay. I was on the next hole, always pulling the direction the threat is going inside. So it's going from here to here. So I'm pulling from here in this direction. Otherwise the holes my tear. And now we'll have to open the first. This is just a bit awkward on the first two signatures, we go in here in the first signature again through, and then I hope you can see this threat lying here. We're going on the other side of the threat so that the threat that's in there is holding this loop in place. We go outside, make sure you don't pierce any threat there. Otherwise you can't pull it tight later. Can't see this. This is the in the first signature. Now this tiny not here. And we're going back in the second signature and we come out here. Were we first it an exit? Always make sure you pull in the right direction and don't hurt the threat that's already running through the whole you're currently piercing. Then out through the next hole and we're doing just the same. Same thing again. We enter the first signature through the whole directly beneath, pull the threat through, and then wind around the spending thread and out through the same hole and the thread that's lying in the full there holds the loop fast and then just simply up again into the second signature out through the hole and pull the threat, then out to the last hole. And then you have these. And then we have these two ends here, which we simply not a double. Not first not and then the second Not now. The third to 10th section will all work the same, so that's put on the third signature. We go in through the first hole on the right and out through the next, for the threat through and out of the next. Now observed that the threat is going from right to left here inside. So we're pulling to the left on the outside. Always make sure you pull the thread through in the right direction, not to rip the holes. And now we piers between the first and second signature because we're going from right to left. We're going left off the spanning threat that's called a forward drop. We're going beyond this spanning, Fred. So piers between the two signatures pull the threat through wind around the spanning threat . Come out there between the signatures again, pull the thread and then enter the third signature again at the same hole you just came out off. Be careful not to pierce the thread that's already there. Sometimes that can be tricky. It's worthwhile to undo it. If you accidentally heard the threat out Lou next hole again, pull in the right direction. Then again, the threat is going from right to left. So we're going beyond the betting thread between the signature wind, the threat around the spending threat there and enteric and in the hold are directly above . Sometimes it can be a bit tricky to go back because there's the spending thread that you don't want to piers, and then we exit at the last sewing station, and now we're going to make a cattle stitch. That's an important step. Instead, off going beyond the spending threat there like before, we're no going on the other side here. We were not piercing. There were not pressing here behind and push the needle through to come out of the edge. Why the binding crowd around the needle and then pull straight up and the threat is now forming a simple not there at the out most sewing station. This is how it looks like on the next signature really is the same. On comes the fourth signature. The only thing is that we're now doing everything Murray symmetric in through the first hole. Out through the next, you can see that I'm pulling here in one motion that's quicker and usually fine as long as you remember to pull in the right direction. Then we want to do a forward drop again. The threat is going from left to right, and we were entering their beyond the spending thread between now the second and third signature in and out between the signatures wind the threat around pool and then back up into the signature and out to the next hole, drop forward, wind the thread up again into the signature, come out at the last hole to then form the cattle stage again. We fall now backward before, before the spending thread come out with a needle at the edge, wind the sewing thread around the needle and then pull straight up. And now just repeat for all remaining signatures. At this point here, it became clear. I have thread left for one signature, essentially, and I've got more than three to go, so I'm going to attach new threats. Soon I first do another stitch at the next sewing station, just like usual. Drop forward wind the thread on back in, and this is then where I want to attach the new threat. The first thing to do, obviously, is to clip a new piece of thread and Brexit. And then, with the new threat, I form a simple loop, and in this loop, the end of the old threat is inserted and then pulled tight. Position the loop where you want them not to be and pull firmly until it flips. You can feel this like a snapping your fingers, and then it's holding on. First, thread the needle to the new and a threat. Clip the ends and you're ready to go and just continue sewing as before. So I'm going out for the next hole. Pull through or waste in the right direction. Drop forward beyond the sewing station. Why the thread climb again and repeat until we arrive at the last signature I'm doing. And then eventually you will do your last cattle stitch. The last signature is sewn on, just like before. And now you need to just fix the end. And I do this year by simply adding another nod. And then you clip the end's frayed Frei. All the threat ends to make sure they don't go anywhere and to reduce bulk. And that's it. You're done with a primary sewing. This is how it looks like the whole shouldn't be too blown out. If they are, you're using a too thick needle or too thick bread. They're done a good job. 9. Lesson 6: Designing and Preparing the Cover: Now that our book block is ready and our primary soaring sewing is done, it's time to finally decide. Decide on which materials to use leather in many ways would be the generic choice for a binding like this. If you do make it a soft 11 that feels well to the hand that holds it. And that suits the action of the text block. There are many different choices. Find something that fits your book. Decided to go with this paper instead. I think I've just enough. I have just enough to make this into a cover. So what I like to do Teoh design My cover is to do a mock up in parchment paper first. So I cut this piece of parchment paper to size so that it just fits my book. Okay, so this my spine again, I'm just using the brakes toe. Hold this. The advantage over mark up with a parchment paper is that you can see the primary sewing on the spine, and then you draw all your design on the spine, which you can then transform onto your riel material you want to use. Unfortunately, in this video, it turned out quite hard to see for you. And so I made this. These graphics imagine what do you see here? ISS the text block with its primary sewing like you can see it through the parchment paper . The first thing you do is mark with, ah, ruler and pencil the position of the sewing stations so that you still know when you take the parchment off the spine. Next we mark the position off the holes for the tech heads in the cover. The tech. It's it above the gap between the signatures. And I start here on the very right, just about above the first gap between the first and second signature. And, you know, also on the left, we want tickets on the out, most position. And now we distribute some more evenly. In between, I decided to place tech. It's between every other gap. So now there's one thing with paper. Paper is too prone to tearing. We need something to protect the paper from tearing. So I'm going to use you. You would use either leather pieces here, too. Pierce through through the leather or you could probably do fabric. I'm going to do parchment, so I'm going to put down project. Maybe I make it half a centimetre whiter for sending me to a wider. I want this fairly slim looking because the paper has so much pattern that I don't want and I want to show this off. So I want your parchment pieces and I'm going thio, Thio, sewing holes year and then every other. Yeah, there, here. This is my pattern paper. I'm I don't want to add anything to it already had a lot of pattern there on it. As you can see, I already cut it to shape now and you can also see I left it a bit longer here that if I had cut this paper to exactly this size because the papers thicker, it might actually be too short. You can always shorten the front here, the front edges. That's not a problem. And I also the other thing, I prepared the watchman pieces. So this is parchment. And this is this height I measured. This just measured the height and the width Ohio spine. And I'm going to glue these pieces into position now, so I have a bit of reversible PB A here to use as a glue. And now I want to put down the parchment pieces on this fine For this. I measure on my I'm a cop, first at the top and then at the bottom. I use that now to position this on my spine. It's important to get this done properly because with just half a centimetre overlap, we don't have much room for error. You noticed that parchment has two sides. One. It's a bit darker, and one is a bit lighter. I want to glue the darker side and usedto lighter. I'm using straight P B A. Not to put too much moisture in there, because parchment is prone to buckling and just get an even thin code up to the very edge and rock down and repeated the bottom. The good thing about P B. A. Is that it holds well, but the bad thing is that you can't well repositioned. Sometimes you can't at all. And it's as I said, it's important to get this right, and when they're in position, this dries underway for a short while. So here we are now ready to pre punch our holes to then start sewing. This is the, um parchment on which I drew my design. So I'm trying to get this nice and straight, because how this will sit in here now is how the book will lighter sit inside the cover. And then I just punched right down through the looked spots. As you can see, I chose to, um, not use the mouse pet as to protect my table here and said, I'm using a piece of cardboard. I'm doing that because it's a bit firmer. And I didn't want the the material to fold while I'm punching and because I feared that the parchment pieces might come off again while I'm doing that. Okay. And now we're ready to add the sewing. This is now the point where you would add color threat, and I decided that this wreck would probably look nice. 10. Lesson 7: Secondary Sewing (Tackets): we've got the book look ready. Now we've got the cover ready. And now we're ready to attach the book block to the cover, using tech it. As you can see, I already did a couple of packets here, and I'm going to show you how she touched the next one. So the first thing to do is to find where between which signatures going out. So we did. Yes. No. Yes. No. Yes. No. Yes. So here we want to come piers through and come out through the pre punched hole there. And if you can see their light tiny dot That's where the whole ISS and this is how you can find it. Go out there. You leave a tale in here which can easily be not earn. Then we go through this whole here, of course, between the same signatures. And again try to be really careful not to hurt neither the threat nor the paper. That's there. Always. I still remember pulling in the right direction. So we pull to here and now it goes out through the same hole from the top again. I'm using the light trick to see where I have to go. when going from the inside. And now I have the two ends here. Both want to pull in this direction. We want to pull this really tight. And I'm going to hold on to this thread with this finger here and I'm going Teoh, pull it tighter every now and then while we're going. So now we're going. Teoh, do the tech it here. Who here? Go in there. Check again. It looks right on the outside. Yes. So now we're going to Not these two ends. You could actually just clip them because this holding quite fast. But I like to tie them and then and I keep the not quite close to the spine. So it's something in behind the behind the spine of the book here. Sorry. And then I clipped the ends. And as I mentioned before, I like to frame I through it ends. So that's not ticket three to go 11. Lesson 8: Final Touches: Now, with the secondary sewing in place with all the tech, it's done. We're almost finished. Their a few final steps. We need to finish off our book. The first thing to do is to trim your cover. Um, you We cut the cover to the right height before sowing, but I left. The front edge is longer and we want to catch the front toe. How you do that? You place your book on your table. You can use the lines on your cutting mad as a guide to ally in the edge with one of the lines. And then you take the steel ruler and you kind of slip under the book block. And then and then you just watch what kind of gap you want you and do this with both both sides. Unfortunately, I already did this without thinking and without filming. Let me show. This is a completely different book, but one which has ah longer flap here. And I thought if I wanted to cut this off as I said, you straighten your book block, place it, use the grid on the cutting med as a guide, and then place the ruler the the upper edge gets taken away. And then you straighten up your book block best you can and place the steel ruler. You look here out for how much gap you want, and then with a sharp knife, you can cut it like this. And then you would do the same on the other side. So you would just turn it around and do the same here. Obviously, this is already short. So this is the one thing I did hear. The the cover is now trimmed all around. The next thing we want to do is to tidy up these parchment bits a little. These parchment God's us differ than the paper. So they might peel off with some action which isn't a problem, because they will still do their job protecting the paper from tearing. And they will stay in place because the tickets are holding them there. However, to reduce the chance of this happening and also just because it's annoying when things grab . Hold there. What? I did waas with some scissors. Just cut off what you can cut off here. Well, here. Maybe I could do a little more. Yeah, so that we have this really flush, and I also what I already did here. This I slightly rounded off these, um corners because those are prone to tearing to so here and because I just cut off a piece . I'll have to do that again. And another thing we want to do is to attach the label to the book so that we immediately depend out a off course. It allows us to give it a title, but it also marks the front of the cover of the front cover, which is important that you know which side is up on where you want to start writing in your book. Cut a piece off apartment or paper to the size you want for your label and then use a glue to put it into place again. Remember to get the glute up to the very corner. I used us steel ruler to help me place it in the right position, in this case just centered Parchman iss stiffer than the paper I'm using for a cover. And as I explained for the koschman on the back, I'm worried, might come off with some action, and so I'm adding some stitches to attach it firmly to the cover here. I thought this would match the design quite well. And I'm using the same threat I also used for making the tickets. I pre punched holes and now just do Ah, ordinary cross stitch in the end place. Not afraid the ends. And you're done right. And now I'm done Finished. 12. Goodbye: And with this, we reached the end of this class. I hope you made a couple off daughters. And, of course, your final class project a medieval paperback if you didn't get stuck somewhere or something was unclear to get into contact. And if you've managed to make your book, please share your results. I'm so curious to see what you're going to make. I hope we'll see you for my next class until then.