Logic Pro Mixing Master Class | Dré Major | Skillshare

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Logic Pro Mixing Master Class

teacher avatar Dré Major

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

15 Lessons (2h 11m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. Session Organisation

    • 3. Session Clean Up • Part 1

    • 4. Session Clean Up • Part 2

    • 5. Session Clean Up • Part 3

    • 6. Vocal Mixing • Part 1

    • 7. Vocal Mixing • Part 2

    • 8. Roughing It • Part 1

    • 9. Roughing It • Part 2

    • 10. Final Mix

    • 11. Final Mix Walk Through • Drums

    • 12. Final Mix Walk Through • Music • Part 1

    • 13. Final Mix Walk Through • Music • Part 2

    • 14. Final Mix Walk Through • Vocals

    • 15. Final Mix Walk Through • Automation & FX

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About This Class

This class seeks to share tips and workflow techniques needed to get a great mix, no matter the genre, in Logic Pro X.

The steps we follow in this class are:

1. Session Organisation

2. Session Clean-up

3. Vocal Mixing

4. Rough Mixing To Final Mix

At the end of it all i take you on a walkthrough of my final mix and explain my decisions regarding eq compression and other processing etc.

Meet Your Teacher

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Dré Major


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1. Intro: Hello and welcome. My name is understood and welcome to my logic pro digital audio mixing master class. And this class I'm gonna give you tips and techniques to take your rough mixes to 3D already records is going to be fun. It's going to be engaged in. Let's go. 2. Session Organisation: Session organization. Now Session organization is a cornerstone of any great mix, is where you load your files in your DAW in some logistical format. So one, you'll be able to find anything at a moment's notice until you build the navigate your session with ease, let's head over the logic so you can see what I mean. Obviously, the first thing we're gonna do is drag and drop or audio inside of Logic Pro. After that, we're going to select all the tracks and just so we can hear what's going on in this session, we're going to bring it up to, let's see, minus 20 dB. Great. So now the first thing we have to do wouldn't really an auto tracks is later models and sort of order that makes sense. The best one I can say this to you is drums than music, than chorus vocals than those vocals. So just to show you an example of McKee, 6-mer Smith, y_2 it snap, clap pi hat, going all the way down to the stump bought. So let me select all of these and I'm going to put it out of bus ten. I want to go out to the end near my bus three discrete did for me. Drums. Right click on it. Create truck. And I'm gonna make sure it falls right after my drums. And I did the same thing for the music, as well as the awesome effects inside of the music that I put sub subgroup that Ben Folds down to the music's Maine Music subgroup. So I have my drum subgroup. Then I have my music subgroup. Must not forget that affects subgroup. And then we have both the music as well as the drum subgroups fall into the instrumental subgroup. I make sure I did that routing. There we go. So now my drums and my music would fall into the instrumental subgroup. Following on for the vocals. I have my separate them into my course leads into heat of laughter that I have. My chorus harmonies. After that, I have my course. We'll fix that in tuning. I sort of, I have a small set. Core support vocals. And all of this. Both the subgroups, as well as just a single vocal here, fall into my course. Subgroup into heat. So for my course, for my course leads to a course harmonies to my course ous, as well as the support truck all fall into this main course. After that, my voice vocals, whose leads and all the corollary supports go into this first vocals subgroup. So climbers flashing Second Style was frequent. Trips, commercial grid. So my verbs glucose as well as my corals will cause boat fall into my main vocal output. Suggested by mass. Like you be mined, tile will be fine. So just to Bergen, which starts from the kick, snare, hi-hat, regular drum layout. Go through all your drums and assigning a drum set drum bus. After that, we have biscuits or sub b's going all the way down. Keys gets us. What have you. And they all arrive at the Music Bus. Now, depending you may want, if you have a group of strings, if you have a group of ghettos, you may want to have a sub subgroups like could we get thoughts together and then bring that all out to the Music bus? So that's what I did here with the FX, where goodbye effects together. And then I still brought it down to my music bus. And both the music bus as well as the drum bus goes to my instrumental bus. After that, I have my chorus, leads the good to their boss by themselves. My, of course harmonies, another buzzword themselves. My course booze, a bus, discourse support. This kind of Ottoman Middle will ultimately wild. But he also goes to the core of the Marine Corps bus, as well as all these previous course groups. So this main courses for everything. After that I have, you have averse among all of us, Foucault supports goo to office Foucault subgroup and both diverse vocals as well as a chorus vocals. Window sub-groups can find themselves at the main vocal subcu. So that if I have to do AB passes where after solar a thing or actually get brought up very quickly, I can do that. So if I need to bring up my drums really quickly. For C, my music drums. Or seen as an error in routing. I put the drums out of the rhombus. So I'm gonna make sure and put it to the right bus now on the instrumental bus. So that way, why so long my music is just my music Go into that bus. Easiest returns. No. What is going to what bus when you solo it, only the things that are going to that bus should be highlighted. So the only thing that should be solo here is in music, and you can check who we think there should be some sold. What highlighted here should be distorted with recourse. Do you think should be highlighted here instead of it's going to reverse. This should select all the vocals. And we can check back and make sure that our autonomous problem. Once we do this, we can move on to the next step. That is to a mixer and select all our tracks again. And this is where we are putting in setting up, setting up or f x returns. So under sense, we will put some one thing six. Great hadn't them and make sure that is on all of evenly said returns are going to make sure I would have said 106 activated. For me the activated. So these two buses reverb one on to the second one. And I'm going to do the same thing for this one D one. I was one of the main delay fit through for, for me. And once we've achieved this session is basically. 3. Session Clean Up • Part 1: This is where we combed, refocused and richer. They're free of any issues that may have occurred during the recording process, such as mouse clicks, headphone bleed, pops and clicks, or any sorts of bird semi-urban cutoff overlap process. Alright, so let's start with the leave Foucault. Depending on the client and also depending on your preferences, you may want to take the bread celt, you may want to lower them. It really depends on getting the sound that you want. Sometimes you want a more natural sounds. You want to leave the bloodstream and it's going to trim them down a little bit. Sometimes you want a very clean sounds. You want to take all the breadth. In this case, you want a very clean sounds. We're going to just take all the birds as we go along. Also look for any other issues that may pop up like any kind of mouse clicks. And it kind of headphone bleed anything at all. Because you're not gonna do the double-click on lead vocal region, this region here. This should pop up in a file or truck editor here that we're gonna be dealing with the file editor if it doesn't just go to Logic Pro, preferences audio. And under Advanced, under the advanced tab, make sure show advanced tool selected audio midi control services called Advanced Editor. You'll meet us around ME, load those enabled. Whenever you double-click a region, it should pop up. In one of these three here. Typically you want to make sure we well, we're, we're, we're going to be working as in file. So as well. So there's going to solo this lead vocal here. Haven't necessarily meet a solid OTAs on sampling it in my sample as they will play just soloed. So then we display it from here to you came two plays, pong, place note. So far. So the only thing I'm noticing is this on this can't you came to him. It's a little shop with the sound. So it has got a team that down, just elected to the function, changed game. Ever get down, let's see, by five or six db. And then listen back to be able to make sure that it's properly. You came to moving on to place note, right down to business. We go rock, murderous, something kind of weird. Looking to me here, like it all of a sudden got cut off. That's probably because of the overdub. So you may have, pardon them. Ipat often does have a slight error here. So let's just fix that. Let's just add a quick feel. Hear. Silence here. And just click fade area. Where the key is for this is to do a quick Fade out. Control O, for figured out. Once you have a selection. And in order to feel in control, I will do a fade in. Or if you want to do a silence. We region control, elite. He is ready to do all the processes without having to go into bin menu every time. But if you have to go into the menu it's under functions. Change game, fade in, fade out, silence. So let's just check badness, edit. We go rock. We goes down, must give up this breath. We go rock. We go down. We go do whatever. We go dance, we go do whatever. Crips coming to the same thing right here. Since this fixed up, missions feed it out nicely. That'll be a quick field is not to be very specific length. We should have no quicksort pops and recall it. Creeps in groups. Crips, Crips Commodus runaway worthwhile. Versus well then we should be developed. And this is rewritten. So we have groups coming in. Nice, suggested. This breath. Feed him to foreign clicks and pops. Three votes for the same reason. I'm over on mass. Two, like you be mine. Tile will be fine. In the heater. For Knight, who reflects the same problem here. In the heat of unknown. In the heater for Knight who see where he punched them because this has got cut off right here. So let's get rid of this breath and fill it out. Same thing for here. Feed out. But always listen back to ME, editor to mere made freedom here. Doesn't make sure that you haven't introduced adequate so pops into the recording in the heater for night for him. And so far we're good. So you don't have to go through the whole recording and just take out any breads and it clicks and pops and the kind of thing that seems weird, apply your feeds like say here this prestigious cutoff that we should be able to screen this. So to be the maximum or to look for is any sort of headphone bleed headphone billion to confront a lot of that. In the ad libs recording, you'll find it and delete recordings as well, but merely the analytic ordinance demeaned corporate. I find the Wi-Fi a lot a headphone beaten. So here's one, I suspect. Again here, the spectrum here. So let's see what this is. Is background noise. So let's get rid of that. Check back. We have it. Where there's parts of maturity get rid of as well. Fade out. And eventually as you keep going along with this clear but, but becomes faster and faster, does know what keys to hit. The sea was way down here. Keeps color, right? So this graphic ignorant of it. And that will click. And we should have feed em even if it just a little bit distribution that we don't have any sort of Greeks. Same thing for here anywhere where you can see we're being some sort of unwell. To define start in terms of this x, I'm sort of just jump up, that'll be a click. So there's also like a screen sounded like in not the headphone or something for Nabi Mike, sorry. This if you get up out a message right in a record and memory does deal with EQ for that. Right about here. Suppose there are sounds pretty simply here. Was this girl that as one of the tail-end behind it, essentially does want to make sure that your vocal recordings as clean and as clear as possible so that you don't have any sort of extremism noise inside of it. The cleaner, the better. All this little stuff we can clean them out. Just a mixture of vocal recordings, some grid or as good as possible. And you might say, well, it's so low, why even bother the gradient other media when you hear that? But would compression I would volume automation of a these are the things that don't matter. That was all these little things in between. And once we've done this, pretty much the first part of our well, once you've done this for all the trucks, we pretty much started or genuine to intercession clean up. The next thing you'll probably want to do is strip out where you have all the silence here. Distributor from your orange window, which all marquee tool. If you have written the option predictors or long option, select where you want to get stripped the silence and there's press Delete and the district and bug me silence to where you have audio. Why we do this is because how geologic processes or does this processing is that if there is audio only track, what is silent or not, processing occurs. So if we take out everywhere there's dead silence, we essentially say, well, CPU power for the pathway really means processing. So that's gonna go through and strip or where the silence. So I just want you to as you go along this strip, all the silences out, out of all the trucks intercession. Now such Islam does not just only only apply to vocals, it could also apply to the instrumental world. You may have to clean out clicks and pops in there as well. Generally less than more. But to believe even more, discover that when we're balancing and processing the instrument that we now get, something comes up what to believe. The main problem is the vocals. 4. Session Clean Up • Part 2: So this is where we use clip gave these actual level of vocal performances before we hit the compressor. And also we have fixed ME time errors only be inherently recording, especially apparent during vocal stacks. So once you've cleaned out the audio in your well-funded cleaner, the silence in all of your trucks, the trucks with pretty much look like this, where there's been reduced to where the audio is on each truck. So for clip gain, to make sure that all vocal levels are pretty much even, let's look at the lead vocal search. When you double-click it, it comes up in your sample editorial file editor. So you just go through the recording, make sure that it is pretty much even throat. So that by giving certain parts up, pulling certain parts down, you'd have achieved this. So this BAD, let's say what gave it up by maybe two dB function change, gain, up, change relative by two dB. Moving on. Say this products might be a bit too low. And I bring this up by maybe two dB as well. After it might be a bit too loud. And it's generally figuring wants to go in small increments like through the 3dB. You can just do maybe just transient or the whole phrase or the whole section. Function chiefs game was broken down by two dB grip. So if you see out here, we started become old, more consistent. So let's check after that as bringing this up by maybe two or three dB. Now as we move along with a see what needs to come up. Hominids condone, but we also need to go back and check our edits to make sure I salons transparent. It doesn't sound like there was a sudden dramatic increase at volume. For sudden dramatic decrease, we keep trying to business. We go rock, we go dance with cool, might want to bring up this week on dance a little bit. 3db should be fine. If we go rock, we go down, we go to whatever crops come out. And again, it's a listening exercise, making sure that when you're listening back, everything sounds fine. So as to bring this up by one dB. We go dance, we go to whatever Crips coming in. Nice, such este wrapped by mass. Regard Sacre, I'd like you to be mined. Tile will be fine. We want to bring up this section just over, but so does bring into by two dB. And over time as you go along, you beauty give everything even. So. When you're done, it starts looking like this. So does this look like has been thorough compressor but it hasn't. All this has been good, went through the process of could give reasonable Wittenberg bits and polynomial 7-bit Sebelius, even throat before you ever hit the compressor. So let's apply this fall. But you came to plays bass note. Right down to business. Sunshine. Great. Sonata maximum you have to do is essentially time aligned vocals, especially what you see with these vocals stocks going on. So for some, no single bone, madman missing are able to get the exact same thing done two or three times in the exact same time and I did it before. This always going to be inconsistency. So shifting of the vocals it all had owed behind what we have to solve that problem. Or we can fix that simply by using either doing it manually where we go in and look at each of the vocals and shift things around to make sure that everything kind of lines up. What we also have a plugin called vocal. I'm Where does this for us? Like say on this section here? Let me solo. It sounds kind of all over the place. So let's try to essentially fixed this. So I'm gonna bring up my plug-in vocal line. I am looking at say, this lead vocal here for this mean we'll come up with the align the rest of them to this vocal. So when I probably plug-in and we didn't navigate to make sure that it is looking at his own nature. And one because that's where we are pulling or temple from. The audio was looking for it. He's a euro chant will already be grid. So now I'm going to track it in here. Great. So that's proline. Somebody's going to try to align the double to the guide. I have a couple options. I usually like high flexibility to make sure is very much aligned. You have normal flexibility, which kinda brings it in. But I like my stuff to be exactly on point. A line at it. And I see, but was it plays back for us in the heat of a night. In the heat of the night. Before it was like this, rabbit sloppy know would tune it well with the alignment in the heat of the Psalms rock-solid. Let me box this. So I'm bouncing this would defect in place. Just gonna drop this over what we had there to meet this new truck it created first and move on. So I'm just going to move my vocal. I'm down to disrupt Now. Again, we're still looking to align everything to this film. So let's see what this sounds like. In the heat of a night. In the heat of the night, we get here the neutral carbon, a little bit of sloppy mess back. So let's make sure that it too is aligned. In the heat of night. In the heat of the night, in the heat of light into heat of light grid. So a line. High flexibility. If you ever get this to shift this down just a little bit. So where its covers the waveform, exactly where it needs to start. Great. Edit. And let's see what it sounds like. In the heat of perfect into heat of night. Same process. Bonds in place. I locked him to position. Your soul will not be able to move it without having to worry about moving anywhere in time to meet the nutrient balance greater fibula bones in place. And this last one. Now, I can move my plug-in over. Delete this new vocal M. Capture audio into heat of night. In the heat of the night, in the heat of light. In the heat of the night. Great. So now you have to align this one, high flexibility, align, sorry, lined up at it. And I say back into heat of night. Sounds like one solid vocal. Even though you can tell multiple vocals going on. In the heat of the light wave increases diction, it increases intelligibility. In, let's see here what is, what do you actually saying rather than have him any word slew over each other? I'm FOR ME vocals diagram we have, this is the procedure. Timing is right. And when we're done, we could just get rid of her vocal. Vocals are aligned as we need them to be in the heat of light. And it's clear and intelligible and we can understand what they say. So move on to the last part of session, cleanup. 5. Session Clean Up • Part 3: Such a three by three. This is where we tuned only glucose using Melodyne or AUTO-TUNE unreachable BY some node has the intended knew that falls within the key. Let's go. Sorry about trust. We melt all trucks are aligned or headphone bleed them or less of the stuff is gone. Everything is levelled out. Now, you have to make sure that everything is tuned and MKS zone, if I remember correctly, the Kyrgyz Sony is a minor. So we have a couple options when it comes to clean up well to the muscle or tuning vocals. We can either use what we have natively, if we have any sort of pitch Chiraq, whichever particular plugin and logic, or we can use our flex pitch, which is also in logic. We also have the choice of if you want to have peer plugins, Melodyne, and AUTO-TUNE. So my favorite is smaller than all the tunes. So that's all BY showing that hey, you are free to use pitch character or flex patch to pretty much do the exact same thing. So in this case, would Melodyne. We're gonna track in our vocals. In this case, I have another ARRA, so it tracks it didn't automatically for me once I press play. So learn up or key is a minor, I just have to set the key to a minor. So now I just go along and make sure that every note is only C0 is the new key of E minor. So I can select this, choose my corruption, and make sure they put all the pit centers on AMI now, so what I playback, It's like him even fix schools where he KML is off mood a little bit. Around here, you kinda slides onto the notes and slides all shop like I kinda flatMap essentially made you deliver a little bit better. So skip this in Qi. So we just need to do this continuous process all the way through the whole truck for every track so that I will tune vocals exactly the key, the key of E minor, and everything will be fine. The other option we have is AUTO-TUNE. Where you can set up AUTO-TUNE to essentially automatically tuning vocals for us as a split. It's going to snap the vocals to whatever key it over noted needs to be that falls within the key. So in this case, it's already set up a minor, a minor scale. If we want that Tp in AUTO-TUNE effect, when user retune speed or 0. If we're looking for something a bit more controlled, that we can have to back off of 0. Like let's see, anywhere from 50 all the way down to about 11 should give us a noticeable effect, but not towards the Civil War. It's like TP. So for example, let's throw the TPN effect. Here. We go rock, we go down, we go do whatever. Cribs suggested by mass. Be mined, tile will be fine. But it's not too, too obvious. Now if you want to get out of it, even more transparent, fortitude has the function of flux. Do you know where we can adjust where instead of snapping the note to a particular node in a key, it, it will essentially smooth it to that thing. It will glide it to the desired note. So if I use a retune speed at 0 with my Flex unit 50 is going to sound like this. Right? Down to business. We go rock, we go dance, we go do whatever. You can hear Wilkin, but it's not as rough was Robotic as before. So if I was to take off the reflux to note here the difference immediately suggested by mass regard taker, I'd like you to be mined. Tile will be fine. So you just have to figure out how to set it up or how to set up your AUTO-TUNE in a way that it captures the bad nodes and fixes them. And either a, you may want it to be transparent, or you may want it to be obvious. It really depends on you and what kind of direction you look into Google for. Humanized just kinda gives us a more human feelings, more selectivity notes that it chooses to tune. So you can decide how, again, how transparency wants to be or how heavy handed you want to be. The next option you have is pitched correct, which is native to logic. Well, you can achieve the pretty much the same thing. So if you have a fast response, you get maybe feeling snafu, more transparent to your heated for no less than the less. I like personally, I like to use a combination of AUTO-TUNE and Melodyne. So first I running focus rather than make sure they sound great. And there are just a little attitude, just capture anything that may have been left off from another learning process. And also the kind of give that sheen, that oxygen atoms that tensor sometimes gets vocals. Second, Sal was passe infrequent. And once we have our vocals naturally sounding good, the inner pocket would mainly in terms of key and tuning, all, all tracks are leveled, any headphone bleed and cops and clicks. All that stuff is taken out of the vocal recordings written. Now move on to the next plot, which essentially building up our rough mix and take him out rough mix to final. 6. Vocal Mixing • Part 1: Vocal mixing. So essentially it's clean, prepped, and ready to go. So now we have to decide how are we going to approach a mix. Now me personally, I like to approach him. It's only vocals for some people liked that project, only instrumental For No One approach is wrong or right. It really depends on the mixed. I kind of adopted a hybrid approach where sometimes I bring any vocals and I'm bringing stuff from the instrumental just to make sure that the yelling well, will evoke. So let's move on. Let's look at our lead vocal. Just for simplicity sake, I put the leaves to lead vocal tracks we had into one bus just for atomic process in a bit easier. And of course that bus goose offers fucose bus, which then in turn goes to augment local bus. Great. So the first thing we do is setup a vocal chain of vocal tune. It's how we process focus to make sure that we get the best quality out of them? Well, hopefully no matter how they recorded. So to start with, I'm just going to use AUTO-TUNE the kind of tuning vocals and make sure that they're good. I mean, we already tuned vocals with Melodyne, but this is just a kinda get that oxygen zone. So I use these settings and we'll split it back so you can get an idea what does doing business? We go rock, we go down, we go do whatever. Crips, comers, such as thoroughbred by mass. Regards Suma overly present. It's a more transparent than anything, but it just gives you that sound that I like for multitude. After that, we have our DSA. This is just a tick off somebody who siblings that goes on in the vocal. That is a bit like that sound. So as we play back, we go rock, don't dance, we go do whatever. Crops. Such as theorized by mass regard. What I like about this DSA is that it kind of shows you exactly where it's taking out inside of the vocal with this little visualizer right here. And that kinda helps out with, okay, no and yes, it's hitting the exact essence that I meet the hit. Time will be fine in the heat of a night. Same given me. After that, we have or enqueue. If I filter again, electrical filter stuff, I mean, you are free to use whatever you reduce the logic, native stuff. You're free to use whatever you may have in your arsenal. But I kinda generally ever like 45 filter EQs and compressors, even some of the imaginary verbs. But in this case, for this makes suddenly say what Merton I tried and true waves are compressor. Love that compressor for mostly everything. So our EQ and inside the school board a little bit at the lower mids and just brighten it a little bit. We've seen feeling snafu. And one thing I like about this EQ as well is that it's dynamic. In other dynamic element that has so as if we'll call progresses is just taking out when it starts to build up too much, taking out some of those frequencies. And in the heat of finite height, actual timers clash. Second Style was passed. And after we do that, we have our compressor. Notice a word on compressors. I know some people of very if he would hold to Southern attack and release times for compressors. So let me just give you my technique. I take 60 thousand and divide my temple by it so much. 60 thousand divided by, in this case, 104, that gives me my quarter note value in terms of milliseconds that I can use that number and essentially divide it by two until I get a small enough number that he uses my order that may want to use as my attack if I want to have a quick attack time. Or for example, if I want to have a long time at least again, divided by two or multiply it by two to get a multiple of my temple. That would work rhythmically. So why like I like my tux and my release system would rhythmically with it myself. So I know that everything is kinda working together. And it's always a multiple of the temple so that it always comes together. Rhythmic B alleles. So in terms of this compressor, I wanted a quick attack time. How I like to converse vocals as I could do it in two stages. One quick, quick, quick compressor that knocks down the transient and knocks down the high peaks. And then after that, a slow compressor that kind of shifts the vocal to C. So with this one for faster tack time, 2.25 milliseconds, fast release 144 milliseconds. And my threshold is kinda different down into my signal and 4.44 ratio. So we're no good milk and meat or beginner intermediate. So replay about, This is what we sound like. We go rock, we go down, we go do whatever. You can see that compresses just doesn't stay alone, doesn't keep anything competitors. Nothing, no transients. Clips coming in nice, suggested by mass regard. So after that, we have aslo compressor. This is not to shape the vocal. As it goes along. It is much lower. So tuck times 80 milliseconds or release times 1000150 formulas, as I may want to change this attack tend to be even slower. It really depends on how I feel after, but it just ready to give a she'd be glucose as you can see. And we go like you be mine. Tile will be fine. In the heat of a night. Rocking baby is much slower to start to compress and has much lower current out of the compression. So it's really just trying to shape the vocal and kinda sounds nice and even and forward Analytics API, same given me, same feelings nav and in the heat of the night. And after we have essentially of culture that we are going to be used in further song. So I just took visual culture and copied it out to all the rest of my vocals. What I would have to just know what I didn't have to adjust is the threshold for the compressors. In some cases it may have been too high and some kids had been set too low. So you have to make sure and go, I'm adjust. This is always the mixin as always in a game of adjustments, you do something, you have just to do something else. You'd just to get a desk as the process keeps on going and you always have to adjust to suit whatever you're doing at that point in time. So then we have to do all these things on. And while I had Vi's vocals going, I've just tried to make a decision in terms of how do I want these vehicles to sound in terms of a space, like what reverb I wanted, what did we cannot delay. I wanted to sharp to try out. So I came up with this reverb or this reverb sound from again, another fab filter plug-in, FF, FF browser. And then I have this delay from echo-y. So just to clear back what it sounds like. Crips commercial suggested by mass regard Sacre, like you remind, tile will be none in this case, I do not want to be too wet at all or whether it be almost rather close to the drive anything so I can back off some of this review and backhoe, some of this delay will be fine in the heat of a night for him. And I'm happy with that. So it might vocal chin on all of these vocals. Again, I haven't pam anything out is just balancing with Level. I can listen back to my glucose then decide, okay, maybe this is a glob, maybe this encircled come down once I have my vocal chains on all of them. Sorry, let me Solar my vocals from Manson, feelings Neff and Emily IDA, finite, action cameras flashing. Second, Sal was passing, freaking knew these are not law in the heat of the night. In the heat of the night. But nevertheless, you know, these ones here, we were. I was actually going to pull them down, but I realized that I didn't advise local CINAHL and so that's probably why there was something so out and forward them into heat overnight. But I guess it could come down just a little bit in the heat of night. Same feelings, Neff and even he has action cameras. So once I have all my focus on it, cyclic process them as a whole, I finder stubborn, polite enough of the S as a holy kinda coming up too much. So on my main vocal bus, I put DSA again. So all of my vocals are not going to be ds together. So when it comes to be too much, it's just going to pull it out a little bit. I must flash. Second Style was pass SSR with smooth amino acid eyesight to address a little bit a tip to the sound. With this oxide tip, there's not a big change. Something very subtle. Factory vocals distributed them sound a little bit bigger, is in need of a night for basilar impression because it's been a vocal group. I wanted to just add a little bit of compression and that's a kind of gel autofocus together. So I did that again. My our compressor very slow. In the heat of a night. In the heat of the night. Just a crime it Jodi vocals together as I go along. 7. Vocal Mixing • Part 2: So I'm trying to see the relationship between the kick and the vocals. Typically, these are the two things that came out and present in our mixes and should generally be the loudest things. But it really depends on the mix. Cerebellar, kick too much into it. We don't dance. They don't like to use this meta just to give me an idea of with the kick beacon, whereas the focus became and tried to get the level between them. So I tried to make sure that my kick is generally as loud as my Voc us, if not all but loader just for balancing. So you can see this is awful thoughts such as regards to peak at around minus 35. So I want to make sure I might kick pique Sarah, Missy and low bootloader. Y'all taker. Be mined. Tile will be fine. In the heat of a night where my base, because, because of popcorn or record the base, the kick and the vocals are king. You have to make sure that all of them kinda weave together. So bringing any base. In the heat of the night, my family beers to be carrying of muddy not the articulation maybes is not as what I would like it to be. So I would go in and take a, you use an EQ. And this really is the high end or is that the higher end of the base so that the Godard articulation inside of there. So you go from something like this, sorry, like this. So we get, we get that articulation lots of the base, and it still has a nice low end. We got that top-end we wanted, especially for this kind of sound. So that's again, just a rough balance, especially with the music right now just to make sure that we're in gear will overcome stress. So we seem to have those lockstep right now. So now it's to bring in the rest of o instrumental jazz. Bring it and just try Miguel level wise in terms of how it would react to the vocal, the bees, and the kick. So making sure that everything is around goes level. And unless either run a little bit relative to those levels. So bringing all smear, Italy, well smith, I28 or percussions or the piano part and all of that. Just to make sure that we kinda have a balance going on. Before we even add any processes. 8. Roughing It • Part 1: This is where we create a rough balance over instrumental against our initial vocal mixed seal. Everything fits together before we apply any process. Let's get these drums and with a cat posed to me, you came to derive plays into waste, not free, go, right down to business, go rack regarding debts, to go do. A cat posture. You came to derive plays with not precognitive right down to business. Go rack regarding debts, will go do whatever. Cribs, gammas in suggests the rat biomass regard taker, like USB mind tile will be fine. In the heater for night. Read from feeling snappy. For Night Lights, Camera slashing and second cell was same freaking note, these are known as La indicator for night after night after night. Indicator for night. Business may go rack regarding dates for your business can go rack regarding dance to go do wood, business journey, we go rack regarding dense, they go do. Business journal, go rack regarding dance, they don't do would ever suggest very rapid mass. Regard Sacre like USB mind. Imagining of emergency tonight. Integrative learned treatise remains indicator for Mallet, uses him, right? He doesn't lead. Indicator for night. They didn't know really fun idea for noisiness nights. Integrative related citizen maintainable. We go rack regarding banks, didn't do whatever. Knife suggests. Hey Rap, bam, mass, regard taker. Like you'll be learning style will prefer. In the heat of the morays where can benefit from this. And tonight in the heat of the night, in the heat of the NYSE. Any business can earn, they go rather than going banks and go do whatever measure suggests. Hey, Rap fat mass. They go and say, good night, you'll remind style, we'll be fine. Indicators the night there can be treated and saying and saying Siemens Napster. And it's indicating that the knights in shining up the night. It may be that the knights tells the, As interests me. Yet doing GAD stress didn't indicated the night. There can be agreed saying India's a night. There can be agreed saying and he has a night where can benefit from it and saying Snapple, irritated at night and get close as interests material. The stress did not come with me. Embrace it decreased. There is God and we go rack signal due to me. He plays the waste. No time in the record. Business can go rack and going down and don't do would suggest they go they remind file will resign and he'd have a night. So that's going to check the drums against themselves. Sounds good to me. And with my vocal, trust me. Doing GAD stress did not embrace it. Let it got covered, dominate Amy mixer me, he said, But I'm thinking, I mean one defocus available at loader surveyed, raise them up or mu_keep them where they are in the pocket of the what? The drums. All right. Now, I'm not sure when we get to that bridge real crossing. 9. Roughing It • Part 2: So after we have our drums and say we also started with music signal as such as a safe then. And now. So this is what usually happens when you have music. Well, when you deal with the vocals for this and then you come to the music, you always realize a kinda tough to push the music revoke goes up a little bit, just to exist over the music because having it, existing drums is fine. But then when the music comes into play, kind of fills up a whole that the focus of this timer stamp on top of. So I'm guessing already that I'm going to have to raise my vocals, but let's just bring any music and see where we're at. So now, if we don't suggest initiated with the same name and last name, in every case. She has a nice place. Let's see. Thanks. Thanks. This is can I thank you. Yeah. And there we have it of very rough mix of the song, adjusting levels as it needed to be. And then after that, we'll go through processing each of every channel if it needs processing to fit within a mix of a whole. We already have oval Coase came nowhere we wanted them. Then after that, once we get that marriage between instrumental on vocals, then we started to, what can we do to get special. So that's where we have all our different effects. And Diana reverse reverb and he sought of reverb swelled and lease wells. And he kinda weird synth effects, whatever might have U that comes at that stage. So for now, we have a pretty descent or rough mix going on. And we know what the elements are, um, what going on in terms of the song. 10. Final Mix: Final mix. Mix here, I'm going to walk you through my session so you can see how it came about with the sound. I'm only processing decisions. I made notes because the pipe is big O of things. They don't do it. And thanks to Jack, indeed have a nice, nice, nice signal. Don't want to stores at that time. Please. Please. Put chips to seek to Nigel. The exam has finished. 11. Final Mix Walk Through • Drums: So I'm going to go through from top to bottom. So that's sort of really kick. So 40, kick this weights on a like before. Not as much punch. So a little bit of Punjabi, Madonna, the low end of the next slide. A little bit of EQ does bumped up, blows all but, and there's a little bit of the brightness. I use vitamin just kind of bolster the low end harmonics and more punch to the low end. And then four more, even more punch transient designer. So with the effects on you ever sort of like this now, then we have our smear. Well, firstname or that required was a little bit at EQ. Timmy high end, a bit up here, and a little bit of tips on just to kind of give it a bit more feeling. After that, we have all maximum which only has under the first sphere, which kind of song that the club of those other reverb on it. So again, they'll just another EQ. Generally for smears, I like to boost a little bit around 200. It gives a nice kind of a Woody kind of toolmaker panel more thicker than a 200 is near the top are independent. Snap, a meal may not boost, just did. It really depends on how much the actual sample of the actual solid has to iterating. And then of course, Alberta tape to that as well. But we have another snap which goes on the middle smears as well. And we saw that for you. That just a little bit at EQ. So after that, we have all clap hi-hats. That just a little bit, take an awfully low end, the need as well as boost it up a little bit. At the higher highs yesterday was a bit more snap and tipping. It doesn't necessarily. So this is what it sounds like. And altogether and then I have all new smeared running through to a smear bus. So orderly process ago, maybe just a little bit of more compression. Does it gonna get more body ultimate, Not a bit more. Snap. This in the wrong place and we'd have shifted up for no. There we go. Great. So after that, we have our smear shot transition. One that we just have a little bit of EQ to ignores only lose. I will bump to you with a bit more body and some brightness. So that sounds more like you saw it in the mix. And we have a tambourine. Sobre, didn't even mixed again just a little bit. Wq does the cleaning it up and bring it into the mix. Grouped mode, we have electric hi-hats. Would sound like this. But the EQ grid. So now we have our crash. Again, doesn't leak you need and it's allowing the debrief for the rest. And we'll do a couple of different types of pressures on disrupt. Some are reversed simply forward. An enzyme to be mics. So then for what I consider them to be more like the driving force behind me drums and Mr. emits pre-chorus section. I wanted to widen the highest stop a little bit. So this is just EQ doesn't make it seem a little bit bigger. As well as an imager. Just spread out be stereo image or maturities wide Amy speakers. So that sounds like this. And before it's sort of like this. Kinda dough. And then once you produce effects are that the brighter, a bit wider, Just give us that fills up with stereo image a bit more. But maybe that we have the storm potty, which goes with that sound. All that. We added. Eq again, compression, a little bit of brightness, just a little bit of quite a lot of brightness, just to bring it up. Armageddon. The imager, just a wide and it took him a compliment disarmed stomp artist_id as well. So by itself, without these effects, it sounds like this. And then we'll defects sounds like this. I'm inside of the mix. They both sound Magnus. So far. So good. We have this zap. Sounds like this. That also noticed the levels that are chosen for these things. So this is not very loud in the mix at all. And this is just a simple EQ. Not reinventing the wheel. We're not doing anything crazy. Just make everything fits in the probability that it's supposed to. So it just fills the pockets. Lovely. After that we have this drum fill transition nor set some effect. Let's see what it is. And all that is taken out. Some of the laws I liberate the brightness. And inside of the mix. Very much. Then we have this, our Google. Again, just a kind of a philosophical observer, the mix. Just to kind of fill up the spaces in between. While the main drums, where we have this Bambi texty. From this we apply a bit, the EQ, some compression. This one we're gonna squash. You can have an right inside of the pocket. And all of our drums or smear bus, as well as the rest of our drums are all going to our drum bus. I'm honored rhombus. Again, we have just a little bit of transient design. I like to push arbitrary designation that those drums or punching out at you, as well as some EQ or phono was, began to get a bit too bright side as tip down the brightness of the overall drums. So from that we get, and that's how we arrived at our drums up. 12. Final Mix Walk Through • Music • Part 1: Alright, so let's start with the music. The first thing I want to check out is the base, the base answer BCE. So we have our bass guitar. We mean things that are going on here. Is vitamin for the push, the harmonic pushing me, punch. For the articulation, especially the top end of the base. We have this EQ out in a lot of the 20 dB. That gives me, so I'm, I wanted you shouldn't be afraid to push if you need to push. And then some compression, dose-dependent even things out. For the sub base is pretty much the same. Vitamin free harmonic push and for the punch, as well as EQ, just taking out somebody low end. Well, does it low, low, and then a limiter to even out all the sub bass notes because there's a lot of variation in terms of loudness between each note. So I wanted to make sure that we have a consistent sound together. They sound like this. Sounds great. If it was a tick off the process NC could hear what they sound like just by themselves. A bit weaker, but that's been a bit cloudy. Articulation. See if a mother's much poem after them effects on silicon via the difference. And both of these B's bomb trucks are being led into this be a subgroup. On top of that we have this compressor, which kind of brings them both together to sound nice and even. And after that, we have a dukkha which essentially mix or a spacer, which essentially makes room in obese for both elements, he's actually live. So the kick, when you kick hits, it pulls all 60 VR to the sub and the base. And when the kick isn't hidden, the sub was baptized Antibes goes back to normal. So there's a kind of push and pull relationship that happens. So just the playback so you can see what's going on. So the kick a side chain into this pro, multiband compressor just using one band which are spread across the whole frequency spectrum by just pulling out that BS whenever the kick hits. So if I was a playback liquidity kick. So you can see every time you kick hits, both are six db. And this is supposed to be a transparent process, is not supposed to be somebody where the architecture is going on. Is this a way to make sure that both elements are able to work in their own space with all conflicting with each other. After that, we have or pad on our part, we just have a basic EQ ticking off some of that low end. Now trying to do too much. You think what Mohsen sounds that comes on in pretty decent charity. So more often than not, you don't have to do a whole lot to them to make them sound even better. But today you don't have to do anything at all. So, but you just have to make sure when you're listening back to the song, you have to always axes have Kennedy better, is it good? Is it right? And once you don't think you can make it better, once you think it can't get better than this, or you try different reason. Nothing's working. Don't fret. Just leave it as is. Trust me, it probably sounds DO parity. So after that we have the Omby Vox lead chorus. Just a bit of EQ taken mommy top end, as well as taking off some of that law. And under that doesn't need to be there. After that. We have the piano pad, just some EQ, you know, the lower-end gradually and a bit of the eye and just using the body of the cell and the main body of the cell. So really, it's just a matter of really leveling things out and using EQ as gently as possible to kinda gradually mood, sound away mu to be. So moving on. After that, we have the pup HIV. To fulfill a sound really basic EQ because Henri top-end tickets on the low end using male in the body of the sound. That we have, the low core sinth, which mainly supports the base of that low, low end between isolate breed, but keep it low in the mics because we don't want the conflicting with all domain basins. After that we have all ET saw this low end that doesn't need to be there. I don't know what all this is doing and yet really doesn't mean that that's what the mean part of the sun. And now we have the last, So the last sounds coming onto the end, chorus and altro, we're kind of builds up. So we have the Juno pad. And all this is just to make the end seem a bit bigger. Musically methods, basically cuticle depressants and some of the low end and high strings part. But I just wanted to use very little of the song. But it sounds cool, at least to me, especially when you pair it with C sounds pretty nice together. So moving on, I'm inside of the truck. So next we have the ambient hmm. Let's see what that is. But kinda pumping effect. Just a bit. The VQ. I wanted that non-autistic up particularly. And again, pull them off. I be low ML was Dad, I didn't need to be there. And inside of the mix, you can hear the bell. And that just take cosine with a low and allowed us to breathe as opposed to the whole. And that's got follows along with the base. I'm kinda keeps the melody. After that. We have Omby pod on that. Just a bandpass kinda EQ. As a part of the whole sound was already kind of handouts, you can see going from left to right, back and forth. So again, a species based off Amana lactose, nice and wide and kinda let something happen and besides the mix as well. Because that's an important thing to cope by touching or that you don't want everything just coming down the center. You have to make use of the sides of your mix as well. There's left and right is back and forth. So you have to kinda make sure some limits had to be upfront, summer limits have to be the back. And it's all about how you use your reverberant EQ. I mean, when you're planning to kinda achieve these, well, this effect, sorry. 13. Final Mix Walk Through • Music • Part 2: We have a reverse lead here. In context. Maybe somebody of his own now, adding our own, texted me. So there we are, the textural ping, which is a kind of combination of different sounds. There's this sound that there's some ways kind of chopped. And then there's just the four songs like a piano, coda bell. So I will show you some automation direct parent map fifth, somebody left or right to get a sound like this. We should be sounds pretty cool, especially when doesn't bother me some way to be jumps automatically ohmic zone here. But we'll go over automation while the automation moves that I did coming down close to the end of the walkthrough. So textural ping the only EQ a bit over the top or the bottom bandpass EQ. And we were particularly after that, we have a total pig or I want to go to carrier. So that's just kinda restricted just to where the Terrapin happens. Taking off for this higher and lower. Again, a very narrow band bass EQ. In the context of the mix up. The EQ. So take us on a lower and upper the brightness and a bit of body without very muddy variability. Because at a better life. And in the context of the mix. Again, when the mixes are dense and they're kinda thick, you don't need to hear every single element all at the same time. Things will be massed. Things will be layered on top of each other so that you may just here just a little bit to or just in-between your pockets. But everything serves a purpose and a rule and you just have to find the proper level and the proper EQ to mixture. It serves that room. So after that we have or riser just a transition that get us from one section to another, from a pre-chorus, chorus. Very simple in context. And those transitions are kind of important because they take you from one section, result or next section. So they kind of need to be audible. Cut it gives the listener Q, R. So what's happening in the cell? Then the vocal haze, which has the minimum prices just so, just so while I could kind of transient, they'll kind of things that are kind of poke out at you. And so it's pretty cool. So in the context of the music, while in context of the mix. So that we have a full suite of basic. If you take off somebody loads that we have we hit stuck in a start up our record. This right here. Again. Not much. I'm EQ side at all. Well, the first thing he has to in context of the mix effects build, which is that another transition saw-tooth effect. So a big hit at, in context of the whole mix, Looking at the EQ, genders, taking out some of those loads because I wanted those loops to, especially in this hit, to be there so that we hear it when it comes in. And it kinda gives them a from Lemmy speakers. And being but also my kick them may be present at that point in time. It just allows the nice room for the laws in this two candidates pop out at you. So you get that nice. After that we have affects downshift. So again, I'm just so transient elements that I might give you an idea of what's going on in own buildups. Transition from one fault slip on the mix bottle with some basic EQ, tickle, somebody laws, everything else, breathe and you take out what's necessary. So that we are effects B, which kinda goes under or big hit affects built. But as the wave sounds like. So again, just to pair up with the effects build to go some of those laws, sorry, wrong EQ, biopsy and big tick off some of those laws. And this hits with this fx bill like this. Sounds cool. And then in the context of the mix. So what you should notice is that the bill don't shift the ID hit, kind of play off each other. So this rules in to the effects hits. So a effective transition from postcards to bridge. After that, we have, let me just bring this in real quick. This affects Total Hit, could also plays a part in this whole section here. So it will not hit sounds like this. Just kinda atmospheric system helped the sound. So the effects build on all of them coming together. It sounds like this. And then all of them in context. Lastly, we have all efforts build be added. Feed him here. Because I wanted to kind of build into what was going on in terms of the whole mix. So this is where it sounds like the EQ for it is pretty simple. But I really didn't do anything. But let me look at it. No. You just empty for some of these lower end up doesn't need to be there. As it sounds fine. It is fine. So in context of the whole song, here, we're building an app coming up. Or one thing I didn't go over. This EQ for our effects do not hit again, gets taken out some of the low end. This game plug-in, our users simply just to switch the left and right channels because instead of being on the left side, I wanted to be on the right side is hidden element. So that just swap it out and there was no gain applied as nothing else changed. Just really, just like a switch left and right. So onto the vocals. 14. Final Mix Walk Through • Vocals: So let's record a vocal which really haven't changed much since we did, or rough mix with the vocals. I'm just started the process in difference may be just some stuff that was done at the bus levels. So, but let's record out. So suddenly this, let's look at our course leads in the heat of a night. In the heat of the light. That's pretty basic. Just balance. Soon. Focal chain abuse. Before AUTO-TUNE ideas, we have EQ and two compressors, one kind of fasts and one bit slower, just to kind of shift the vocal as we needed to be. And all that goes to a bus, then that bus finds itself to the main bus, which will be the main course mus. So that we have of course harms. We'll need that. Give that simply about. With ofcourse leads in the heat of the light. That's who we are or whose. Bringing those. Again, it's much the same food culture. Coenzyme a bus. What I do assure you that when we get to the heat of a night, in the heat of the night. In the heat of a night. Course supports and what began to be on lead vocals. You came to place, but please note all lead vocals. What we have is serum processing. This is all lead vocal processing here to the US. And also we have a wild track here, which is just some vocal effects that I did on the bridge, so that her carries its own vocal chin plus two additional effects, which is a reverb, as well as overlaps. Why put the directory arbitrarily? Because a reverse reverb, this overlaps also is doing some effects processes so we can hear what that sounds like. That is mainly for all lead vocal to kinda give or reverse riverbed grew arises into that Foucault. So this is what it sounds like with the vocal in play. So sounds kinda theory or some kind of ghostly. To me, this sounds pretty cool. So there's some Museum, the rest of my fucose. Again, namely following the order of the vocal chin. Some stuff I guess put our lives. I have an autopilot pi man from Song toys were just primates out left and right, just to make the vocals a bit wider. So that the plume is stereo feel a bit more than they do. Then on our main vocal bursts, which everything is going to have a good idea. Circulate follows a bit too sibling and have a bit of tip. Pseudocysts open up. I have a bit of tape. Again, Abbas compressor just to Karima, Jodi, vocals together. Then an EQ taken up some residents peaks, it will happening. So, oh, just so we can get an idea of what's going on. This is what the vocals are. Thankful place note. By skipping ahead. So everything sounds cool. Everything sounds balanced and with the music to the bridge in context. So just credo within it get special to be good my own. Just some wooden nice effects on a bridge that kind of takes it apart from where it was. On our review, we have two reverb buses. One of them i use me and before the vocals, The other one I use men before the instruments. Then I have a bunch of different delays, as well as really just a bunch of different delays all the way going onto my stereo bus or my stereo bus, I have just a bit of a tip with those going through. And that's about it. So nothing that is too crazy on this delay here. We just have a shift, Microsoft or delay, some EQ. And upon man, you just run the mic or reverberant or effects, while our delay effects kind of different, kind of shifted up a little bit. What do you hear me on this arm? And this bridge is the overlooks from waves, which can give you a bunch of different kinds of sounds and the different delays and different transpose instead of up and down giving a leg. Fukuda zones all sorts of different interesting sounds that you can use in your mix to add texture to your vocals and certain parts. Unmake gimmicks different than mixing, mix bigger. 15. Final Mix Walk Through • Automation & FX: Now, in general, automation, I usually for last, when we show you automation going from the instrumental on down. So to me instrumental and mainly automated the RB Vox lead chorus in using the molar volume automation because sudden bots doesn't need to sit up, loaded and others like here, I just brought a volume down. What about for these two and back down? It does this sound. I didn't want to dominate too much. But then in other sections I wanted, I could have added a nice transition make here just for context. And then the next thing that I automated was what I told that it was more favorite sound textural ping. So I kinda have a going from left to right. And then coming back for that central thing. And that goes on for a couple times. Rho disown are so that we have again volume automation and is don't shift to here. So as you can see from the waveform, some of them aloud so soft, so it is going to equal that out. Does this sound here? Or the sons? This is lat one long, one. Little about a little bit of volume with automation to even those things out on a member. That's it pretty much for the instrumental, for the vocals. Just a bunch of delay sends or ideally sweat swells. So say for instance, on this, on these vocals at this point in the IDA for night. So let's wonder that night, night to kinda repeats. After that, we have a magazine for every course. For the core supports. We have a better from reverb swells. So just sit in ways where I wanted to have a little bit more evil than others, to have a nicer, we will swell to add a little differentiation to those vocals. After that, we have. A bit more reverb on these will consider, which is our bridge. And some volume automation on this copy that I've made for this vocal effects. So this is just where I'm hovering. My reverse reverb come from. Typically would reverse reverb. You take whatever sexually retract your 1.The reverse reverb on the visit. You put it through a reverse when you record bugbear impulse and then you put it back into your session and you reverse that bug. And then you have a tailored into your sound. I kind of had a shortcut around that. Just using this plugin from waves, the IRR foal. And once you press this reverse, but it becomes, well, did the signal becomes reversed in the plug-in itself, the reverb. I just make a copy of what I'm trying to add reverse reverb to nudge it just a bit ahead of my truck and I get the reverse reverb sound that I want. So that paired with my reverb boost on these logos right here, gives you that nice Committee theory. Okay? Much bigger kind of sense to devote. What ads are much bigger than insensitive glucose, as well as this reverse reverb, as well as up into each phrase. Then we have some duty pharaohs again on the leavers here. So that kind of a quick ability just to kind of add some texture in-between spaces. And that goes on for the original contract until about the second list. After that, on our our lift truck, we have a delay swell. These will cause right here. Sounds cool. And in all of that, from the glucose to the automation, to how we approach our instrumental is how we get our final mix. No. My theory on mixing is, if it sounds good, leave it alone. There shouldn't be any set of wood or any set of overthinking, especially when it comes to mixing, is something that you kind of do intuitively once you build up a proper workflow. So from this class, what I'm trying to show you, my workflow is often trying to share my whole apprenticeship, my workflow do is first, a couple of steps you need to take before you even get to the creative process. One is to organize this session, to clean up your session. Three, time in tune and all that other jazz. And then kinda rough stuff out until you get to that final mix that you can be product. So let's have a bucket for one last listen. Um, that's pretty much it. If you have any questions, just leave some comments, leave some feedback. I'm interested to hear what you think of this work will flow and see you next class. Cat post to me. You can talk to.