Lofi Beats For Beginners: Music Production Fundamentals For Chill Lofi Beats | Kia Orion | Skillshare

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Lofi Beats For Beginners: Music Production Fundamentals For Chill Lofi Beats

teacher avatar Kia Orion, Artist & Music Producer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (35m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. The Keys To Lofi...Keys

    • 3. Lofi Drums

    • 4. Pads + Textures

    • 5. Creating Your Lofi Melody

    • 6. Bass

    • 7. Mixing Lofi

    • 8. Mastering Lofi

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About This Class

After being asked countless times for another course on Lofi I'm back with another to help you level ALL THE WAY UP. 

(Have you taken the first class yet? If not, you can do that here)


Do you listen to chill hip-hop beats and wonder how they do it? 

Are you curious how these producers achieve that gritty vintage sound?

Do you wish you could make your own beats to study, chill, or relax to?

Now you can.

If you’ve listened to study beats on Youtube or Spotify then you know what I'm talking about.

Those beats that are so chill you put them on when you're working or just kicking it. 

You think they've gotta be a piece of cake to make.

Lofi beats seem simple on the surface there’s more to them than you'd expect.

In this course I'll walk you through each step of making a Lofi beat and also how to Mix and Master it so it sounds professional and could end up on any Study/Chillhop playlist.


Want free resources and producer coaching to help you level up even quicker? I got you. You can access all my free plug-ins and trainings by clicking anywhere on this link. 

Have fun! 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Kia Orion

Artist & Music Producer


Ay! I'm Kia. 

I'm an artist and educator who believes life wouldn't be the same without music.

Or tacos.

I realized that I was equally as passionate about teaching music as I was making it.

In 2016 I founded Beat School, an online platform and series of educational programs to help aspiring artists and producers learn how to make beats, accelerate their growth, and stay inspired. 

I'm originally from New York but these days you'll find me traveling around the world writing songs or playing beats on a rooftop somewhere.

I appreciate you stopping by, and if you'd like to get in touch you can DM me or shoot me an email at [email protected] 

Life is too short not to do what you lov... See full profile

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1. Intro: What is good? Oh, it's a boy key Orion, the main who is obsessed with making music in teaching you how to make your own in today's tutorial, one of my most popular courses has been on lo-fi beats. And so people are always asking me how to make lo-fi beats in a dive back into that again. And so here we are. I'm listening. I promise. This is a lo-fi track that this is what we're going to make. I'm just going to show you a little snippet. This is the hook with everything included. I'm pretty much going to walk you through it one step at a time on every creative decision that I made from start to finish. I just won't be getting super technical in terms of lo-fi, the idea as a genre, because my, my big lo-fi course, I'll have that linked up in the description below. Really tackles that more in depth. So all of this is going to be more of creative decisions that I've made along the way in how to help you kind of think about your own lo-fi beats. So if that sounds good, Buchla, check out the description below, but all types of goodies down there. And yes, I just had maybe 30, 40 minutes and my teacher had to make some low-fi I see on the inside. 2. The Keys To Lofi...Keys: All right, So we jump in into this, the first piece of any good lo-fi beats. That's a joke because it can be a ton of different things, but one that you'll hear a ton, our roads keys. So like really cool old school keys with different kind of jazzy chords and melodies. So the way that this is that I'm kind of walk you through each decision here. I know I got the keys to sound this way. So these are the keys that I started with. And so what I'm using is this plug-in called addictive keys. It's this preset called Velvet 34. And then this is what I'm doing to it. So first of all, I found these cool chords. I'm terrible at playing keys, but you can find chords and I'll types different things and the first time doing to make it feel a little bit more human, you want it to feel like you're at the jazz club, right? Like somebody's actually playing keys for you don't want it to be super online or excuse me, more in-line. So if you can tell, I've dragged all of these notes off and some of them are maybe different, like different velocities. So that way it just makes it feel a little bit more, just like slightly bit more really kinda want to mess it up a little bit so you can tell that it's not an exact science. They're all kind of off different amounts. Just sort of feels more human. And that's the, the initial vibe that started that these chords is chord progression. And then don't worry about this compressor will come to that later. A big piece of lo-fi is a lot of the high end is going to be rolled off depending on the instrument. But like, as you can tell, we're to the drums, you'll see a lot of times you want to lo-fi anything. You just pretty much go shoot and just cut off that, a lot of that kind of high-end. And with this, with these keys, I wanted to distill. Sometimes you'll see me take a huge cut out. But this is one I wanted to feel a still going to be my main instrument. So I wanted to still have some presence in the high-end that said, this is another plug-in that I use a lot called RC 20 retro color. If you're in a low fi, this is almost like a must-have it. Just Lo-Fi is everything pretty much and this is with it. And without it. So check it. It just kind of fits in that lake gritty lo-fi space. It feels like it's being played off of some sort of an old record and this do this and without retro 20, actually metric color. It just with this, it gives it a little bit of wobble, so it just goes a little bit back and forth. I'm a little bit of distortion, little bit of kind of vinyl noise just so it feels a little bit older. And so that's kinda the main piece of the keys. This compressor we'll come back to later. Kind of another piece to low-fi. But those are the main keys for this track. And that's really the bread and butter of this tract are those keys. And so the two things that are kinda going to carry your lo-fi beats are going to be your drums and then whatever your main chords or melody are. And then everything else is just kinda fun spice that you throw in, which we're going to jump into soon. But next the two heavy lifters are your main chords are main melody and your drums, which we're going to tackle next. 3. Lofi Drums: All right, so jumping into the drums next. And one way that you can look at this, one way to lo-fi of your drums. Easy way. It's no fancy plug-in. If you look at this as it's been awhile since I've looked at this beat. But I guarantee almost every single one of these drum pieces has the same sort of an ICU ikea as this is sort of an EQ with like a lot of the high rolled off. So this is the snare one. Snare too. Okay, so our tour let it come through the stick. Hi-hat one has it I had to has it open. Hi-hats. Yeah. So pretty much all that. This is what the drum sound like without the base. So as you can tell, it's got a bit of a bot to wait and nothing crazy here with the kick. One thing you might wanna do is these double kicks gives us a lot of Lo-Fi, kind of has that like swag to it almost. That's just like it has a bounce that it's not like super, everything's kinda dragged off a little bit. So these double kicks, rather than putting like this kick, I had to zoom in and I could put it especially close. So that's one tip there and another one, the snare. Some people drag their snares off or forward or backward. I don't mess around with that too much for me. I get a lot of my rhythm and Bob from my percussion of my hi-hats. That's why I want to focus on this one because it's pretty straightforward, but also there's some small things that make it interesting. So if you just listen to these high hats, as you can tell, there's a lot of dynamics going on, even if you look at these, right? So these four, I guess, are pretty straightforward. But if you look at these four, there's a lot of dynamics just in the waveform itself. You can tell I've messed around with those velocities. And then this is a hi-hat loop that as you can tell us a lot, these small kind of things, as you can tell, those aren't exactly on this entire hi-hat loop. I've dragged slightly off. If you can see it, it's like it's a little bit off. And that's what gives it that kind of a little bit more of a BOP. In terms of just your regular closed hi-hats. And another piece is your open hi-hats that you can see. I have two of them. These are going to be they kind of had that slide. They kinda like hope you slide into another piece of the bars if you listen to these here. All very old sounding in terms of your open hi-hats. I love doing this. You'll see it's almost all my beets. I have open hi-hats. Like the way the open hi-hats almost like feel like that carry you into the next measure. And I almost always pay in them like to the left, to the right as you can tell as well. These are all pan, so that's another thing we'll talk about later, but you don't want them all competing directly straight down the middle. Another piece of the drums, as you can tell, I layered the snares. This isn't huge. One is barely really in there. This is the main scenario, most of the work. But this one, it has little reverb I think. Yeah. I wanted it to have I wanted to sort of take up more space, but I didn't like how the reverb centered on this one. So another piece of lo-fi is because the beats are very, a lot of beats are very simple. If you can, if you just listened to, if we bring this back to just maybe this part. That's like there's not a whole lot going on. So you can really kinda mess around with your reverb to kinda take up some more of that space. And the one piece with the drums here that I liked doing this is kind of like a transition effect, is. You'll listen to this. This is just a stick percussive sound as a bunch of reverb and delay on it. So that listen, the drums are pretty simple, right? You got, you got pretty much one snare, this one for the hook to make it. So I want to get fancy, but pretty much one snare, little bit of reverb stick. Two different closed hi-hat, two different open ads. And that's it. The key with your drums if you want to lo-fi eardrums, getting your mics right so that your snare isn't super poking out and then just rolling off a lot of the high end on almost all of your drums to get them to kind of sit net-like lo-fi pocket. Okay. Under the next one. 4. Pads + Textures: All right, moving right along. The next piece of the beat that I'll probably do is I'll add some sort of a pad is you can tell, I'll add some sort of, you can use that bar if you want to. In this regard. It's really I'm normally going to take almost the, as you can tell us, the exact same chords, but I'm just going to switch the instrument a little bit. As you can tell, this is not something that has, It's not like a main piece to the BTE, but it's just adding some presence. So listen to this hook without, this is an organ that I added to tell it concerns the overall beat. It's pretty quiet. You can almost barely hear it, but now that you're aware of it, you'll be able to hear. But if you didn't, wouldn't even suddenly there's much there but listen to the difference between an on and off. Maybe you can hear a difference, maybe you can't. But if you really train your ears and notice there's just a lot, it feels like there's kind of a more, it just feels like a bigger, a bit of a bigger beat. Again, typical lo-fi fashion world if the highs and also rolled off the lowest because it is an organ and with keys they often have a lot of kind of like a low rumble. And I didn't want that to compete with my bass or my kick. And so as you can tell a lot of these plugins, but other than this one, I also through on this like the retro 20 on this joint, they're almost all stock plug-ins, right? This is on the sphere. I love on the sphere, I was going to recommend probably one via CBS News. There's just so many options in it. Again, preset that then I went in, tweaked it very little and then just add them out and kinda swag to it. And so I want to walk you guys through these different pieces of the pads and then we'll get to the melody. So that's the first pad is this organ. The next pad is one that I bring in actually in this measure. And as you can tell, it's labeled breathy pad again, lo-fi it up here, retro 20. This one, it has a lot of reverb on it. This is a, I don't even know what that means. Some sort of a string with a harmonica. Again, really simple, right? It's, I'm pretty much Plan 1, 2, 3 notes. But it adds compared to this, it just, it just takes up some of that space it kind of creates. It makes the beat more interesting. This not doing a whole lot. It's not like a crazy melody, but it's keeping, even if the listener isn't realizing the realise that beat is changing, it's not just the same thing over and over. Another piece to that two are like these little beat drops and things of that nature just kind of add a little bit of spice to it. But again, this is doing the main heavy lifting with the drums. I'm also bringing in and out different pieces. This is just arrangement is simple arrangement tip. Not everything you have to have playing at all times, right? You can kind of piece things in and out depending on what's going on. Let the beat build. Is it a lane set back in like what was that? 2009. Let the B build super simple, breathy pad. I'll tell you if this compressors in a second. You probably already know if you really about that life, but we'll get to it in a minute. So those are my pads pretty much is this organ pad. Oops, helps if you were actually playing the right piece. And then this pad, simple to other, to other kind of auxiliary instruments added to the main one. And then we'll get to the main hopes, and then we'll get to the melody in the bass next. 5. Creating Your Lofi Melody: So this next piece is a key. Really depends how you like to make your beats. I'm very much like a, I love drums, so we'll almost always make chords and then drums or vice versa depending on what kind of would have been. But those are almost always, we're going to start almost never start with like a lead melody. Almost always add the melody afterwards because I'm just like a chord's kinda guy, that's just the way I roll, but it's up to you. That being said, I'm having some sort of a little melody is, you'll hear in tunnel lo-fi songs, it's often either a flu or guitar or older. We also keys again or some sort of like little clippy, since there's something like that. But I like to bring this in just as a clear delineation for people to know that this is kind of the hook section. This is the melody section. When everything's hand happening, I like to have some sort of a little melody, not super catchy than anything crazy. But this one just felt to me like I could see this playing in a lot of lo-fi beats, right? They have that like animate backdrop. This felt like a very intimate sounding instruments and me. So this flu, again, mostly stack plug-ins here. What these are doing is here, if we turn these off, let's see, let's see, let's see. This is just what it sounds like. Solo. This is like some sort of a wooden flute, I think. Ceramic bowl MBA flute. No idea what that is, but it sounded cool. And then what I'm doing here is again E queuing it so that taken off lows and highs typical. So that's okay. But it doesn't, it, it doesn't feel really interesting, right? You're like, Okay, that's, it just feels like a very simple sound. And so I wanted to add these other pieces that just give it character, right, though, that we're 90% of the way they are. We just want to add character to the sound. And so that's what this retro color is. Same preset probably before pad magic. As you can see this little star, I almost always start with PAD magic or no more boring pads and then I tweak it. Again. I've rolled off some of the highs and lows here, even in retro color. And it goes from this. And now we'll have some reverb with it. Just because I crank this space knob up now isn't how much more interesting it sounds. It just as character as some that vinyl grit to it, starting to become a different instrument. This is an OTT multi-band compressor. This is over, over the top because this thing does go over the top. But I wanted to really bring that character out. And so I'm only have it cranked like 36 percent is with the OTT. Right. Just brings out those. It makes it just present. I wanted to make it even more present and bring out even more. I just wanted to grid it up, add character. I added this saturated with a bit warmer preset. This thing, this thing bangs hard. So like, I almost never have this more than like maybe 20 percent if that it also boost the volume a lot. And then I wanted a little bit more reverbs were added, some more reverb to it. So it's not drastically different from where we started, but it's enough that now it stands out. It actually feels like it's its own, has its own place in the bead. It takes up its own space. There's a real difference there. So when this, when the fluid comes in, people know, okay, this is kinda the hook part. You want to also add these different pieces too and things of that nature. Sometimes you want to add these width the rest of the beat because you can tweak this sound all you want. But then when you add it back into the beat, you might lose some of those things where it might sound if it's just so low, it might sound like it's whoa, that's way too much reverb. Whose me or too little. But when you're playing with the whole beat is a complete piece. That's when you really can dial in your effects, is when it's playing with other things. So we're almost there. We got a little bit of base and then some low-fi mixing tips, and we'll get you out of here. 6. Bass: Basically is basically face. So this is a base, I use a ton for lo-fi. It's with the arteriole. This is like this arteriole after you what it's called. It's the IEP what it's called, but it's it's like a it's a sweet almost have a bunch of old retro plugins which I love. And I use this one called the mini V3. It's this old Moog. A lot for almost, I'd say probably 90 percent of my like lo-fi basis or this one just because you can start with this preset called a basal use and then tweak it a little bit. Just simple, get out of here. Setup is like a simple sign. Not sign but just a simple, you'll see what I'm saying. And what I've done is add distortion to kind of bring out the high end a little bit. And if you want to, if you can hear with this off, since it gets clicking at the beginning, like right there you can hear kinda clicking. Something that you can do is up the attack time and a little bit of the release time and you can kinda find that sweet spot. So it's not clicking like that anymore. Like this is the difference. It's clicky. Clicky anymore. And you can barely even tell that it's starting a little bit delayed, but you just bring it a little bit. You're starting it a little late and also ending it a little bit. I think early. I think either way, just so that way it doesn't note isn't running into the next note when it's playing. What I've done here is this KML crusher free distortion plugin. I have to load it like this because when I load it now, I don't know what happened, but when I load it up, it just doesn't show me. But I know the plug enough plug-in well enough now that I hit this little drop-down arrow. And then I know what all these do and it's kinda mess around with it to get the distortion that I want it. And so that's kind of the whole thing, as you can tell, not a ton of base is not super present, like it would be maybe a normal hip hop track. This the whole track with the base. And next I'll show you the mixing piece, which is kind of a huge key to low-fi. And then we'll get you out here. 7. Mixing Lofi: So when it comes to mixing, as you can tell a lot of my plugins, I'm not doing anything super crazy fancy, the real peace with mixing. I've talked about this in every single time. I talked about mixing with you all. It's carving out spaces for the sounds, right? You want everything. And almost like we have, our keys are main keys in our pad organ, those are definitely going to compete. And so, because a lot of the same frequencies are going to, especially as we're in doing lo-fi. So we're rolling, we're keeping, we're, we're putting a lot of things in this mid-range as is. So I knew these are going to compete. So little tips and tricks. One, obviously your volume, your level that's going to be just gonna work for you better than any plug-in. But also painting, I've painted these a little bit left, a little bit right? So where they have their own kind of individual lane for the beat. So you don't want to think about, you wanna think about your beat is almost kind of like a 3D piece. Like how do things sit in terms of like in front or the back of the mix, how do things sit and kinda the stereo field. So in this regard, if you listen to these, they just, they're clashing, but they still have their own little bit of their own lane. And another piece to this is the reason why here that kinda clicking as they're playing. It's this and this is someone want to talk about here in a second. But before we do, I just want to keep talking about panning. So you can tell if you look through in, I have almost everything in my drums that almost everything is panned other than my snare and my kick, which are come in straight down the center. Almost everything is going to be panned. Just to give it its own space. You just a little make it a little bit interesting. You carve it out its own space for itself. I just really like that. A key to kind of lo-fi sounds is this side chain compression, which if you can tell, I'm actually pretty sure is on every single instrument. Rather than snares, maybe. Other than my drums. It's going to be on every instrument and are often actually add it to my, oh, I did. I added my hi-hat, so which I did here. This pretty much the side chain compression pretty much tells you, it's telling the program that when the kick triggers to duck out of the way that kick. And so what I've done here is it does sound that sounds a little bit whack when it's, when it's not playing Foley, but you can't hear those. You can hide a lot of that kind of grit in the track. It's also lo-fi, so you want a grid it up, which is kinda cool the way that I do my compressor you could also use with your glue compressor. In terms of Ableton. You go side chain, click, you go side chain from kick. Here's the thing. A lot of people don't do that I like to do. I'd like to side chain only from certain frequencies. So pretty much what this is telling us is only side chain from the kick frequencies of 1.71 kilohertz up. So check this out. See how long it's taken for it to come back this because it's when it's done like this, it means it's taking the whole kick, the whole sound of the kick, but we actually don't really need the whole sound of the kick. I bring it up here. See how much faster that is? Because we still get that. We still get the duck out that we want, but we don't need it to be quite so intense. And then I have, I pushed you crank the ratio all the way up, bring the threshold all the way down. Dry wet. You can tweak this to if it starts to get a little bit and it starts to sound like too crunchy or you can't quite nail your, the, the balance between like how fast or the attack and release for the kick to come through. Domestically dry bite a little bit, but it's how you kinda get that like everything feels like it's kinda like that. It's another kind of trick to kinda help the whole beat feel like it's almost like a bopper kind of dragging in a way. And then also things like this breathy pad that have a really long reverb tail. You don't you don't need the reverb tail. You want you want your kick because for, for low-fi and for a lot of hip out, that's going to be when you're driving forces to kinda cut through. So that way the, if you listen to this, you don't kind of crowd out the low end. And last but not least, the mastering pieces, MyLab Mastering channel. I'm just run through this really quick because this is a chain that I use for pretty much everything. Actually, I'll make that its own video hold that thought. 8. Mastering Lofi: All right, so let's jump into mastering. So this is what it sounds like without the mastering chain. Pretty different. I'm actually going to start here. At the very end of the chain is something I keep on. This is called the Yulen loudness meter. And this is a free plugin. This is going to tell you kinda your love's. You're going to tell you how loud your beat is kind of in comparison to just like other songs that you might hear on the radio and Spotify or whatever. I'm not going to explain this too much because it says even above my pay grade, original for laughs. If you play like a Spotify song, Spotify, I think the, I think the loudest that they let their songs go is I think like 13. Like I think it's a negative 13.1 or something like that. You can Google it. So pretty much I shoot for around maybe around like negative. If I get to negative 13, that's cool. But I shoot, at least with tracks with vocals probably close like negative 11, negative 10. I like my joints loud, but when his beats, if it's, if it's between like negative 15, negative 12, 11, you're pretty much in a good range, but you don't want to clip it, right? So there's a reason we don't go to our master and then here and just crank this all the way up. Well, I take this one step at a time. The first one is, you're gonna see there's an EQ, but I only, only use this if I need it as a mastering EQ from T-Rex. This is a fad felt approach Q2. And what I'm doing here is I'm actually, I've just bumped the highs the slightest bit, about 20 dB for overall is again, when it's a mastering channel, you want to do really slight things because it's affecting her whole track. So small movements. If you even look at this, this, this mastering EQ, look at how like slight these increments are, right. You can go up by half decibels on this EQ because again, slight movement is procure to what I'm doing here is just a little trick. So let's listen to this. Actual me turn everything back on so it's little bit easier to hear. Listen closely, God bless them with headphones to catch it. Again, slight differences, but what I'm doing here is I'm pretty much telling this, this is an EQ that is set to a low cut, but it's in this, um, it's a stereo. It's this, this is stereo option. So what this is pretty much telling me is this isn't just a regular EQ. Doesn't mean I'm dequeuing out all of the low end because this would take out, listen to this. Right? We've, we've lost so much of our low-end. What I'm actually doing with this is I'm saying this is a little bit advanced. If you don't have this, don't worry about this is not gonna make or break your track by any means. Obviously, as you could tell, could barely even hear the difference. But someone who has an audio file like to nerd out on this stuff. This is what I do. My low end. I don't want my low-end to be stereo because I don't need my kick stereo and spread out and I don't need my base stereo and spread out. And so what this is doing is this is pretty much saying keep everything mono up until 100 hertz. And then we can stereo spread the rest of this bad boy and even boost them in the high end. So this is pretty much taking my track and making only the low end, my kickin, my bass mono. And then the rest of the track is spread out. When I do this, I just feel like it gives a bulk to my low end. Again, not super important. Don't sweat it. It's all good. Go by the baby. This is a fab filter Saturn. Again, since I'm doing mastering, I'm doing a lot of splitting things because I don't want all these things. I don't want to affect the entire track as a whole and trying to just affect certain parts that I want. So with this FAB filter Saturn, this is a distortion plugin. I have a little bit of drive out 20%. This is again some warm tape. There's a bunch of plug-ins, but like warm tape tubes, these are good distortions to have, especially for lo-fi track. What I'm doing is I'm telling this at around 800 hertz. I want to only affect what's above or below 800 hertz. I'm not affecting anything below 800 hertz on this plug-in. Only things above. I'm raising it. One decimal doesn't seem like a lot. But pete this. Listen to the flute and listen to the high hats in particular, and the snare. If you're not listen to headphones, you're not going to hear any difference, but just, I'm adding some distortion to the most of the high-end to give it kind of, it's not even high-end. It's just pretty like medium to high end to give it some shine. And just that alone I feel like brings up my hi-hats. It brightens the high hats, it brightens the snare. The whole nine. The next piece is, this is all from the TR. R5 is often the T-Rex mastering sweet. You don't need it. I just use them because I have them. This is the first piece that I start with when I start to make the track louder, because these other pieces are going to make the track ladder. So when I mix my track, which is coming in pretty quiet around negative 10, but then we start to pump it with plugins. So this is a compressor, is a classic compressor and I'm not trying to get a ton of compression. I'm just trying to glue gun a little bit of glue on my track if you know what that means, don't worry about it. Now, again, this is more higher level stuff that comes when you just want to narrow down. And this is like the 30 three level class that like you only take after you've taken like the 101 in 200 one classes when you're just like, Okay, I wanna kinda challenge myself, not super boring. You could get a pretty simple, you could do the same. I could show you how to do with stock plug-ins to anyways ratio about two to one. Light compression on this bad boy. And as you can tell, I don't like to sit as my whole track. I'm not trying to compress it for more than like one decibel. So takt time. If you speed up your takt time, you can get, it goes faster. But then side chain high-pass filter, right? You just lose too much of it. But and then I'm bringing the input down a little bit because with this compression at it, it's adding some volume, a little bit of volume. This is where before I would just use a limiter is pro L2, but now I've started to use a soft gripper. You could get the same effect through you're able to in saturated. And if you go in here and go to soft clip, it's going to be pretty much the same thing your Drive, you'll see a lot of things that look similar. They're dry, wet your output. You'll see a lot of similar things there. But this is, this is a clipper that I have. It's a soft clipper or it's a classic liver, excuse me. But the reason it's a soft clip, what I'm doing is this slope here is rather when it's hard like this, It's just adds it's it's, uh, It's too much for me to explain. You just got to trust me on it. For me, I like a little bit more of a rounded slope. And again, my output, I don't want it to reach 0 just to be safe. So I have a little bit less than 3.03, excuse me. And then I'm bumping this where I'm getting most of my gain on my track is from my clipper, my soft clipping. I could probably push this a little more. And then I add a limiter after that. Just seems to me to make sure we're catching any kind of peaks. This you can push a little bit. But for me I only want to catch my kicks in my snares to kinda be really clipping here. You don't want this whole thing to be in the red, doesn't. It just sounds terrible, but if you're kicks in, your snares come through, That's our right. And we should be if I did this correctly, coming in maybe below 0 obviously. See because this pathway is set at negative negative 0.3, we actually can't even we aren't. Just a little bit of that safe zone. Here's the thing about the loves to get a true, to get a true loves reading, you have to actually play the, it's, it's pretty much an average sound and it's integrated your average down. You have to play the whole track start to finish. So that negative 12 that you saw, just me playing the hook doesn't actually count, but you just gotta take my word for it. After plane all the way through. It came out to be around negative 12, negative 13, somewhere in there. And so that's kind of a mastering chain. That is how I make a hip hop. Me make a low five beat from start to finish, all the instruments involved, and then I mix it and master it. I hope that was helpful. If you want more tips, tricks, tactics, all that sort of stuff, you can check it out at beat school online.com. Or we also have a YouTube channel, API school online as well. My name is Kiara and thank you so much for tuning in. I appreciate you more than you know, for your class project. Just show me a lo-fi beats that you made. So posted up in the class project description below, poster Soundcloud link to YouTube, whatever it is and I'll check it out and give you some feedback. I appreciate tune-in as always, check in the next one piece.