Linux Terminal Commands for Beginners | Frank A | Skillshare

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Linux Terminal Commands for Beginners

teacher avatar Frank A

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

44 Lessons (1h 14m)
    • 1. Linux - Course Overview

    • 2. What Is Linux

    • 3. Access a Terminal (Online)

    • 4. Install Ubuntu Linux (Optional)

    • 5. Start Linux Terminal in Ubuntu (Optional)

    • 6. Pwd

    • 7. Ls command

    • 8. Change directory

    • 9. Mkdir

    • 10. Cat

    • 11. Delete files

    • 12. Copy Files

    • 13. Rename Files

    • 14. Find Files

    • 15. Disk Use

    • 16. Show running processes

    • 17. Terminate Programs

    • 18. Htop

    • 19. Nano

    • 20. Emacs

    • 21. Redirect operator

    • 22. Pipe Operator

    • 23. Environment Variables

    • 24. Head and tail

    • 25. Sort

    • 26. Network Devices and Connectivity

    • 27. WiFi

    • 28. Super User

    • 29. Create a tar file

    • 30. Extract Tar Archives

    • 31. Create a tar.gz file

    • 32. Zip files

    • 33. Apt-get

    • 34. Add User

    • 35. Change Password

    • 36. Stopwatch

    • 37. Alias, save time in command line

    • 38. Bash keyboard shortcuts

    • 39. Browse and search commands

    • 40. Midnight commander

    • 41. File explorer nnn

    • 42. What is Tmux?

    • 43. Tmux panes

    • 44. Tmux windows and panes

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About This Class

Linux is the fastest growing operating system in the world, it is at heart of the Internet and computing. Learn the basic Linux commands you need to succeed 

If you are in IT, you are really missing out if you don't learn the Linux terminal. Billions of servers, embedded systems and super computers use Linux. So, don't be left behind!

At the end of this course, you will be able to use Linux Terminal Commands.

Meet Your Teacher

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Frank A


Sharing my experience in Technology here. I have a background in Computer Science and worked with nearly every programming language on the planet. I graduated with highest distinction during my masters program. I've worked on projects ranging from Robotics, Web Apps, Mobile Apps to Embedded Systems. These courses will help you achieve your goals.

To your success!

See full profile

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1. Linux - Course Overview: welcome to the Lenox Terminal Course Clinics is used by over a 1,000,000,000 devices. If you work in technology or I t. You don't want to be left behind. The Linux operating system is used by the world's biggest companies Google, Facebook, Twitter, almost all of the world's Web servers, 90% of the world's supercomputers and nearly all electronic devices. On Day one, you'll learn how to gain access to Elin X Terminal. If you want to install Lennox on the room, don't worry. You'll learn how to do that, too. You start out Day two by learning how to navigate Olynyk spell system. You get an introduction to the most essential and commonly used commands. You also learn how to search for a foul and explored excuse. On Day three, you'll learn how to manage Processes will also cover terminating unresponsive processes as well as process interfaces. On the four you learned data manipulation. You learn how to handle large Fells how to use the most commonly used text editors, and you'll even learn how to use operators. Since his red erect and pipe on the five will explore so far packages, you get an introduction to get and your psycho archives, since your star and Sergey sends on day six year, learn how to add users James passwords, and you'll even learn how to get superpowers on Olynyk system. Finally, you'll learn a few bonus tricks. 2. What Is Linux: What is Linux? By default? The computer doesn't do anything. It has all kind of hardware, like a screen keyboard, but But he felt it doesn't do anything it needs a piece of software called an operating system on operating system is the products that can actually hardware software and you the user. It takes care of all the communication off the hardware components that the computer consist off and makes you be able to grant programs. So all these essential basic functionality for a computer to work well, No. One operating systems on Microsoft Windows for Apple make that you're perhaps using now. In the last 25 years, UNIX based operating system start to develop. Lennox is only the core, often operating system. It is the core and the core only. It's not a complete system. So Lennox is always parts off a complete system, which contains all kind of programs, like a word processor or a paint program, a Web browser, computer games and so on. There are hundreds off operating system, witty leaning software insight, including up going to clinics, clinics, Mitt Debian, Lennix, liquid clinics and more famously known Google Android's. So all of these systems. They are similar to one extent or another, but all of them have the component insides, which communicate with the hardware and software called Lennox. For this course, you will only need a terminal. It does not matter which the next based operating system you use. 3. Access a Terminal (Online): If you've never used linens before, you can either choose to install the Knicks or to use emulator online. So, for example, if you go to Bayardo dorks less Js Lennox, the CIA, Lennix computer starting writes in your Web browser. So that's this Euro Bilardo talks last year's Lennox, and you can typical months from here note that this is an emulator so you won't be able to do everything you could normally do on the linen machine. Now, if you have an android device such as a tablet truffle, you can also go to the Google Play Store and search for Terminal Emulator goes inside here every under and if ice really nexus running, so you can lend hugely next command line inside. Any android device registers for terminal emulator and you'll see there's quite a few steps to to use Lynn Excrement line inside your android phone or tablets 4. Install Ubuntu Linux (Optional): it is the website off. You're going to clinics, So w w commune that you want to come. We have the option downloads. You can select desktop and press download once again. Now, look, I'm with some interview questions, which you can skip that says President not now. And select. Download? No, he'll see it automatically starts to download for a 64 bit processor. Now, if you don't have a 64 bit processor who can go to the euro on top here and changed it to I 386 which is a 30 bit process from So if you cause the death page and press downloads, you'll see it starts downloads the 32 bit version. So we do that just by changing the link in the last part in tow. I three at six, which is short for a 30 bit process. So once for a safe. Okay, so if you have a searching 64 bit machine, you don't need to change the Ural, obviously. But in case you do have now, it will start downloading. Go to the website virtual box. No torque. So this website and this program you can use to run any operating system inside and up so that you can use. You can try the next system without actually changing your actual operating system so you will connection, not break your system. Of course, the alternative is just to buy a Lennix Life city, so by a disk from you go to that are called in this car more any Lennox distribution site and just buy the CD and put it in the computer and start clinics away from virtual box is an alternative. So if you go to the virtual box Dark website and suppress downloads, you can downloads the virtual books app for free so you can select windows. If you have an apple computer, can check this one and here selected one. You see, you can just press safe and run the insulation program, and then we'll continue to make a virtual image. So which is actually a virtual computer image and we can run the linen system inside. The virtual box can run you want on a virtual machine. We've started virtual books we need to create a versatile machine, so goto new left corner here, type you consume, you see it automatically selects the configuration In this case, it's a 32 bit machine, so I'm going to selectively to get your motor. Great virtual hard disk press creates just breast create again. You see, it's created to the image. Now we need to insert the CD when the U. S. B Drive Super settings, it selects storage. Noticed it are. CD drive is empty pressed a little. Plus here, choose disk and select Cuban. So 16 and your processor version number. It's okay, you press start. It will start the computer Virtual computer, which the U Bahn tow system inserted. So you see it starting the computer right now. Received, Well, starts D. He wants system directly off the CD medium, which is a virtual city, and you enter directly. Need the installation screen? Just wait a little bit longer for it to appear inside the installation screen. You can either choose to install it or to try the Lennox operating system directly from the CD or USB drive notices starting there in the graphical environments. It might take a second to toe really world up. To really start no, have the option to install ableto or to try it press install and this will start the installation process for your bottom. Now I recommend that you have ah computer targeted just to install you bone so it might take a moment to two loves. Now we can select our language. Let's continue. You may want to download updates, interparty graphics when installing, so if you select those, those will be installed. Chris. Continue now. You have several options because you can install you want to next to another operating system, says his Windows. In case you do that, you could lose your Windows installation. It could go wrong, and you could lose all your data. So recommends having a dedicated computer to install you consume or to do it in virtual books show. In case you haven't empty disk or use torture books, you can just select arrestees can install. You want to impressing stole? Let's continue. Select your location on the world. It's just for the time zone, so that suggests the system shows the correct time. No, select your keyboard layouts. In my case, I always need this one, but depending on your keyboard layout, you I need a different one and finally will need toe select the use of name and passport. I think it's going to name it. You go until wait passports. You want to You have an option to encrypt your home folder. So if you don't know what it is, just leave it open for now. And Chris, continue. No, it will just start automatically installing the frontal system. And once the installation is complete, you can restart the system. 5. Start Linux Terminal in Ubuntu (Optional): we will get into the show. So what is your show? Show is basically a program. It's gets keyboard input and sends them to the operating system so we can start. May have seen Terminal or FONSO appear to every type criminal. You see there are several shells available. Just pick the most colorful one first one here so we can tie commands and these commands will be sent to the operating system. For example, weekend type dates will tell us the current date Insight. Who am I, which will tell the current user that's locked in. You can also type who, which will show the amount off uses locked into the system. And right now I'm the only yusor. I'm the only person that shown in the list, but in case many people are locked in, you will see a list off users. 6. Pwd: If we type the comes P W d, it will show us the current directory she'll present. It will tell us we are slash home slash She wants him inside this directory. 7. Ls command: In the previous lectures, we learned how to browse the foul system, but so far we haven't been able to list of 1000 signed him. Right now we're in slash home slash you going to and from the Foul Explorer. You'll see there's quite a few directories and files and sides. If you type the commands LS, which is short for list, you'll see the same fouls as in the File Explorer. There's a 1 to 1 Mitch, because we're in the same directory. If you are using your Boonchu, you'll see that we don't see the directory. It only just home on top. It's only if you use you're going to. So if you press on the white area and press the control key and Elke, it will show the Philpotts again. This is only for you gone So Lennox. So the other Linux distributions don't have this, so you'll see we're in the same directory in the comments all as well as in the do I. We can also show the data as a list. So time Ellis Space minus a L. And you'll see all the details should just when the founders created who created a foul the group that the user belongs to so all kind of information. And we also see several other Fells, which have a dozen fronts, which means they're hidden fells. If you go here and press view show hidden files, he'll see there's quite a few Hit and Fells, So there's more fouls than you initially. So any Explorer all off the fells with the dot in front of them or hidden files so they're not shown by defaults we can navigate. So any directory. So let's go to slash home slash young director got a computer home from here. We'll type CD space flesh Home Slash. So now we're in this home directory inside the list commands. Now you'll see that the directories of users. So there's only one he was here called You're going to my Palace minus hell and you'll see the same in a list for months 8. Change directory: we can also navigate to and through directories. Right now we're in the directory slash home slash humans to go inside another directory. Let's say documents. We typed the Command CD, which is an acronym for Change Directory and the World type of documents. If we type to come on Speed WD, which shows the current directory, it'll tell us we are in slash home Slash able to slash documents to return to the previous directory type CD. Don't not now. We are back in directory. We were in the beginning. She lets homes, unless you want to go inside to music directory type CD music and B W d to check. We're inside the music directory to return CD Doctor can type PWD again to see wherein slash inflation. 9. Mkdir: we can also make new directories. So if we type the list command and you see all these directories, we can show the same thing in the file Explorer Greater Directory. And you'll see you inside that folder in Created so we can do the same thing from the terminal. So open up a terminal or shell. We will type the command M k dear Space Directory name. So this will create the actual directory press enter to created. You'll see the directory has been created ones we type this command. 10. Cat: Let's create a text file. You can use any text editor from the G Y or you can use Nano from like a month line. So I'm just using graphical editor here. So type some text in your text fell. Did you? I had a tear pressed file safe s example TXT or otherwise press consul holds is safe it in the command line. Text it, save it as example No txt Save it inside the home directory. So if you would list of fouls if you will type the LS Commons, you will see the foul appear. It will show you the example Txt is inside to director If you want to show the constants off the text fell, you consigned the quantity. It's space your family press enter and you will see the actual fell contents right in the terminal. 11. Delete files: to remove a director or remove a foul. We used the RM commands, so if you type R M space minus are you can type any directory name, it will remove that. So we're just going to remove the You Timmy Directory, which is shown in the Explorer here. Press enter and it's been the latest. I do not recommend deleting any off the default folder, such as pictures or documents. Using the RM commands, you can believe files and folders. 12. Copy Files: We can also use the Terminal two copies house so you'll see. We have example dot txt. Let's copy this file. Using the terminal we typed the Command CP short for copy. Have to specify the foul Toby copied and the file to be copied to destination. Let's say the sources example. TXT and a destination example Toe 60. You see another foul pop up that we just copied can copy if our into anywhere on the system . So, for example, the Documents Directory. Let's go PFL toe directory. So types like homes like you pronto Slate documents. Few presenter. You'll see the fellas copied inside Documents directory. 13. Rename Files: we've got a bunch of text files here. Now let's say we want to rename one. We can simply use to command M V or move type M V and your family as well as the new name off the foul. You can check your in the right. Rex really would be WT M V can be used to rename FL Time to fell. You want to rename, then type the destination so it's M V space source space destination. So first a file name and then the new family, if you want. You can also explicitly define the parts slash homes less you want to slash homes less. You won't flesh documents. In this case, the document doesn't exist anymore. So let's see example to so specifying the full path works as well. But it you don't always need to type that if you just use the same directory. However, if the foul is not seeing the same directory, you need to specify the four. But so you see, we're in slash home flesh you want to. There is a foul on slave homesick. You want to flesh documents, press the control and Elke to a listers. There's a foul here and we can rename it from the home you Balto directory. It's I example to if we presented it will be renames, but we're in slash home slash rental and not flexible displays documents so you can also rename files not in the same directory. No, The alternative two days is changing your directory using the CD commits so you can choose whether you want to change the rectory in three name or rename directly from the location, your insight. 14. Find Files: Sometimes you want to search fouls on the system. You can do so with the fines commands to use it. You have to specify the directly to searching, so I'm going to type slash homes left you pronto, type the name you want to search for. So let's say we're searching for one of the text files we created earlier that instantly finds a text foul in the documents directory. That's one here. Let's say we searched for an image, which has the J pic extension. Let's say we will search for an image challenge. A pick so specified a star on Jay Peak, which is any image foul in the G epic data. Four months. Let's search this in another the x three. Let's say it's less uselessly share. You know, find lots of J picks. He finishes in the user, share the rectory, and they just keep searching for more. It tells us the explicit, but so there's all kind of emissions in this directory. What kind of image? In the former J pic. So these are actually images used by the desktop like wallpapers and stuff, so let's search for its expel. Instead, he'll see there's quite a few text files on the system as well. Let's say you want to search for something more specific. Let's say we want to search for a foul, that his cloak in the name. So this will return all the fells related to the world clock. You find quite a few 1000 there. We can specify that it should be off the type text. So text fell and diesel return. There's no documents. So this is how you search for specific Fells liked expels or images. Sensor one. This one will search for the exact fell, but you've been used to star, Cymbalta specified. It should be something like that Fell name. You can specify you once text files, starting with the tea or even use different kind of searches. 15. Disk Use: we can see the amount of disgrace using the command TF. So if we type DF enter, hell finds whole kind of drives, and it shows the disc space as well. Slash is, the main drive in this case is 67% and you also see the amount of free space. So slash is your main drive, and the others could be other drives like USB or external drives. So the Mount point is always slash. He information shown may not always be clear enough. Sometimes you want more details information like where the disk space is used. Come on, do you? I mean minus hs your directory and it will show you more detailed information. So how much is used in each directory, which sometimes is very useful If you want to know where to this place is used, of course, you can go very specific, specify certain directories. So it's a more detailed overview, which is Come on 16. Show running processes: from the shell. We concede a number off running processes or programs as well as which are running. To do so. Type to come on PS space minus capital A. So that's PS minus A and press enter. Now you'll see all the processes running on your next computer and on the left you see the program idea a process idea. Every program has a unique identifier or I D. For example, we've got Firefox running, which has the unique idea. 7015. The ideas are always different when you start a program, so it never stays the same number. If you would start Firefox, you would see a different idea, but the principle would remain the same. So the same commands. If you start another program, let's say we started program reading books, which is a multimedia applications so Music Player programs takes a second to loads. Once it started, we can list the programs again. You think PS minus A so you'll see Britain boxes there, Firefox and several the programs that are running in the background. So in this case, you afraid and box with ideas 7125 and Firefox, with the idea 7015. You see, a lot of the programs are running, so you've got a foul manager running an indicator. We showed those on the top and another father programs in the backgrounds. 17. Terminate Programs: we can see the process is using the command PS space minus age. You'll see Firefox's running here and just started. It has a unique process. Ideas. 7258 If the program is frozen or responsive, Greste. You can close it at once, using the command skill space minus nine Inside the process. Idea off Firefox in this example. 7258 But the number will differ on your system. One. She presenter. It will immediately stop the program that has crushed. You'll see. It's close now. You can always do this trick. A program has crashed. 18. Htop: another. Medics who see the running programs is using the program H top. This one gives you an interface, and you can also see the amount off computing use like memory and processor. You see the number of tasks in the amount of time that is the amount of time the computer has been running. If you double click on the way, no window guards full screen, you'll see all off the program's running as a list. You can go through the list in search for the program. You see, for example, there's Firefox is running on the system. That's the one here. There should be rhythm books in this list is well, which is This program is running right now. You'll see rhythm box some time off the list. You see the process idea on the left, as well as to use her that started it. He'll see their several command son bottom. So you can. I depressed the keys so the F keys You can just present it with the mouse. So if you press you have six key, you'll see you'll be able to sort so you can sort by a process. Use on memory, use and you get all the list or its According to that, you can use your cursor keys to move through its press center and you'll see it sorted by memory. So in this case, Firefox uses much more memory than the other programs to exit. Just breast F tenke. If you want to close a specific program, just selected and prestige of nine key press enter and you'll see Firefox has been close to , so you can close the program just by going to the process and pressing the F nine key press . Enter again and you'll see rhythm boxes close. So now we can close and sort programs. We can also give priority to a program using the F seven key shows. Nice, so this will give priority to the program so they have seven and of eight keys. A high priority would give more priority, my dear praying system, so it run better. There's also a search option here, so if you press you have tricky, you can type your program name, but it will find it. Let's search for saying calculus and you'll see it will appear 19. Nano: we can edit any text fell directly from the command line. There are several text editors for a command line, and I know it's one of them to start a nano text editor type nano space your founding. So the fell you want to edit and press enter. Call it example dot txt. So once you started, you'll see it's a very basic editor. It looks quite old, if you will, but it has all the functionality of a text editor if you can search open and safe. Answer one. So it's I PR texts and press the control key and the okey to save it. So that's the control key and the okey it will save. Two fell. You see, the foul has been created on the fell system. So the textile we just made and press the control key and the X key to quit. So the control key and the X Key will quits the program to reopen just Magnano space. Full name again. So that's how you can open and safe Els as well as how you can create he wants. So let's create another one. Well, great to fell you to meet dot txt Well, press the control key and okay to safe in the control key and the X key to quit. Now you'll see you to meet. Our txt has been created. No, no is just one of the editors was first grades in 1999. So it's quite an old editor, and you'll see it's a very text based. 20. Emacs: Another text editor is called Pemex. MX has more features compared to the Nano Tex editor. It has a steeper learning curve, but more features to start it, just type Pemex and in your file name, press enter. I'll just call it example to about 60. So type the text to once you have inside the filming press the control key and the S key to save the foul impressed the control key and the X key to quit so you'll see it created the foul and we can open it. So let's open it with a graphical editor and you'll see the same contents control X control Z took, which so that's contracts Control Z to quit and control X control s to save to open the foul press Imex space fell name and presenter. So consider X control. Z will close the program again 21. Redirect operator: we can echo output using the echo commands. So let's say Echo Hello World, and it will display that text notice. We have our home directory here. We can directly safe anything toe a foul. So let's do an example. Rights and a mentor next operator. She's a greater than symbol and writes out boots, Doc. Txt. You'll see a phallus instantly being created, and if you open the foul, you will actually see the same contents. So the hello world text. So what happens is that we used to resurrect its operator with safety outputs into the foul so we can save any commander who's, Let's say, Ellis so found txt faster. Txt has been created, and the foul contains the outputs off the command less so we can save the outputs or any text directly in your file. You sing the red erect operator are created an operator. We can save the outputs off any commands, so there's no limit to that and the output you want to save. Just by using the Ready Records operator to connect. Also safe to come under whatever he wants 22. Pipe Operator: it's going to the Bip operator. We type any commands, Let's say, ls minus a l Will she see all files in the current directory, which is quite a lot and notice we have to scroll. So with the pipe operator, we can ready Rexy output and give it as input toe another program. This will just capture the output and another program could be the program less, which takes only shows less information on the screen. So free press enter. You see, we can see the top part of the output and if you press place, it goes down in the list. So that's Ellis minus ale and then the pipe and less. Now you can forward it to any program. For example, good for water to the program grip. That saying we're looking for videos? Well, just your videos. So what it does, is it four months the output and we can use then a program to manipulate the data 23. Environment Variables: in this lecture, you learn about environment variables. If you type the command echo space. The last sign user, you'll see your user name up here. If you type eco space dollar sign home, you'll see your home directory appear. And so there are more comments like this. So where is this data coming from? These are so called environments there. If you type the E and V commands, you can see all of them. There are a lot off environment variables that you can use directly in your comments so you can use this information or data in any command using the dollar sign and then the name. They can be used in any directory. Currently, we are in home directory. But let's say we go to Donald's. You see, we are in the downloads directory. We can go back into the home directory using eco space Dollar sign home. We can move directly, and it's, um, I was wearing home. You want $2? Can type CD dollar sign home and we're back in shreds. Homes less you bones so we can do this from any directory. Simply used the environment variables to navigate in the file system environments, Terrible's can be used anywhere. So in this directory, for example, to go back to the home Directory, we can just type CD space the last time home. These are environment variables, so if you want to see a list of them, type PNV and press enter. 24. Head and tail: If you have a large fowl, for example, the system look fell. You see, we have a very large value, so to output, everything would take a lot of space on the screen. Now, if you just want to use to show the top off, the foul can use the head tickle months, Let's say hat space minus end. Space tree is Well, I'll put the 1st 3 lines of the foul. Pick any number. He wants to see the first X amount of lines. Example. I specified Sten. So these are the 1st 10 lines of the foul Viral boxes. Look Tu Instead, show the bottom lines. So from bottom up, we can use the tail commands type tail space minus end space founding that will output lines from bottom up. So till dots bottom up and had does stop down. But both show a part of the foul. So that's the difference between head until the top half would be disciples. Welcome to the bottom three lines. He will type this. It's about head until do the same, but tales bottom up and had to stop down 25. Sort: open a terminal and creates its expel. So I made this one containing a list of animals. If we type commands, get space animals don't 60 so you'll see the foul contents listed. So this all just output the foul contents, but not in alphabetic order to show it in alphabetic order. We can just type sort type two. Come on, sort space animals start txt, it allowed. Put all of the animals in a sorted order. There's one space in there which is a new line just removed the empty line. If you have debts, the sort commands sorts all of the data enough peddicord so you can take any fell and sort it enough. Bedzyk. Order to show it in reverse order. Side minus are that shows the content in reverse order. We can also for what it's using the red erect operator that you've seen before. We can save the contents to have found, so we will create a foul called animal sorted No txt and combine it with sort of months. So we take this sort output and for water directly into are found using the ready wrecked operator Press center. You'll see the foul has been created with all of the animals in alphabetic order 26. Network Devices and Connectivity: When Annie Lennox machine, We can get network information except the commands. F convicts Space minus A. You'll see all the devices only or machines. All metering devices would be wireless. Could be cables, A device that's always there is a Lubeck device. We've got one that's a record, but it might be different on your citizen. You'll see the address of the network cards and some other information regarding the network device to test. If we have Internet connectivity, we type the pink amount. So being space, a website name outside of you to meet does come, and the article shows us if we have never connectivity or not, if you're connected, you'll see 64 bytes received from the Internet address of you know me and you can check your connection with any websites. Let's say Google does come. So you see again the data received. So this is how we can check if we're connected to the Internet and which network devices are inside the computer to check the devices. If conflict minus A, and to check on activity, the pinko months 27. WiFi: we can connect the wireless networks using the command line. To do so, we need to install program that's not installed by default. The program is called W I. C. T. Curses Time the commands and brush. Yes, he's placed all the wireless connectivity program, so it'll just take a moment to install because it's not a very big problem. Once it's installed, you can run it and simply select the wireless network you want to connect to. You can do that directly from the command line. You see it's loading. It takes a second or so to really finished the insulation. Then we can time W I c d curses to start the program. 28. Super User: There are several commands which we can only execute a super user. Right now, we are the Ubundu user for not super User, which is just a regular user. So we don't have superpowers. We can't install new drivers or change certain things in the system. The administrator super user on the linen system is always called route. The super Yusra has his own home directory called slash route. To get there, we entered a file system and go inside the folder route. If we try to open or to enter the directory route, he gets ever MIP mission the night because we're not authorized to execute this command. So we need to have administrative rights. So time to command pseudo in front. And then the comments type pseudo space Boesch, which is determine all. So we started the terminal with administrator rights and we can go inside the root directory into anything he administrates We can do, you'll see also are use. The name has changed two route at instead off the user name you Bhutto, it just type exits To quit the program, you can always enter super use remote by pseudo space pesh so you can do any commands on the system. 29. Create a tar file: we can easily create an archive like a physical archive. An archive can contain many other fouls. One off the archiving programs is called Tars Typed Our Space CVS and your founding whole name the archive example. Doctor, and it can contain many other fouls. Comparison. Tara Fowler is similar to a zip fell. So on archive fell like a tar felt can contain many other files so you could can collect all of them inside one foul. You'll see the fell example. Daughter has been created, can contain many fells, and we can extract that are foul impressed for archive and all the fouls will be extracted so we'll be as good as new. First name is the foul name, and it contains all the other fouls. 30. Extract Tar Archives: as if I was not the only type of archive We've got to archives here, and these archives contain text files. So let's just delete us text files for now. We'll have just to archives. We can extract them using the graphical interface or the terminal Do you wear to, like, press extracting a graphical interface that will be extracted. We can extract pass from the terminal so types are space ex BF. Example. Tar that will extract it. Our phone. We'll have all the text files, political sense. That's where inside the archive, any type of falcon be inside an archive and it can be as many fouls. And she wants. Okay, she wants to extract the compressed fell. You have to slightly art alter nickel months. So instead, side x VF set. Example. The Lord Jesus. So it's all G said is a compressed file. This will extract a compressed file, but charges that foul always six U disk space because of the compression. So even a small foul safety from 10 kilobytes to just a few hundreds and bites. So if you're many big thousands going to save you a lot of space 31. Create a tar.gz file: We can also create a compressed archive. We do it by typing the commodes tar space. See VFC, CVS Z and write your foul name. So after CV upset, right, you're found name and then the card. Oh, jeez, It's where Jesus means compressed. Finally, right to fell. She want to add to the archive so well as example dot txt example to the TXT and anymore. Stop txt. So this will just create a compressed tar archive. So instead of the default archive to safe some disk space, if you open either of these archives, you'll see their consent exactly the same house. So why would you create a breast? Fell? It's just to save disk space. So if we look at the foul size, you'll see this one is only 260 invites, and that's one is 10 kilobytes. If you compress a file, it becomes a lot smaller, which means it will take less off your disk space. So recommends going with disc amounts supposed to the other one simply because it saves you a lot of disk space in the ends, especially with large fouls 32. Zip files: as if l can contain many fouls and safe disk space. We can create safe house on any Lenox terminal. Time to command zip space. Your foul name. I'm going to name its question ship and then writes all the fellas she wants it heads to the city. You can put any type of foul inside as it fell. That creates the fouls. Question, Sipowicz. All of 1000 sides. If you double click it. You see, we created to zip foul if you want to extract the city felt just unzip and the founding. So that will extract all the files. Side is it fell. In this case, the Fells already exists. If we were to the leaders fells, all of those fouls would be extracted. Once we unzip it, let's demonstrate death. We will type unzip space squashed that sip percenter. All the files have been extracted from the Zip archive 33. Apt-get: new software can be insult. Using the A p. T. Mozz, we need to have administrator right so type pseudo a pretty get base, install space software name. There's sudo commands and gives a super user authority. So let's began a new so far to the system. Then we specify the package manager, which is a pity gets on your bottom We wanted to install. Now H Top is just a software program. You can specify any program name. This is the output when she'll randy commands. But you can specify any kind of program to install using the A Pretty gets command so it to get space install now empty get works on you born So Debian and most Lennox distributions. We can also remove software from the system, So instead of installed your stipe remove that is suitable space empty. Get space removed. Space your program. If you pressed of why key, it will be removed. So 80 get works on newborn to systems Debbie and Lennox meant and several others, but not all of them to something to keep in mind. So not all lending systems hefty a pretty gets package manager insult, that is, some linens distributions. Use another package manager 34. Add User: we can add a new user using the command at user To do so, we need to have administrative rights. So type Su Do, which gives us administrator eyes and then type user name says. Let's say pseudo at User Kevin. The program will ask a bus words. It will then ask more information like full name rule number. You can skip that if you wants fresh yes, to save it. No, you can log in with user Kevin. If you open the home directory in the Explorer, he will seek the user directory. Kevin has been edits. 35. Change Password: to change your passwords, typed the command past W D space, your user name Press center. In this case, my use of name issue Bhutto, but you might have another use name, so that's passed W D press enter. It will ask you for your current passport, so enter your current passwords. Then it will ask you to enter a new passport. I have the new password twice and press enter. If the computer things, you pick the bad passwords, you'll see. Let's complain about it, as happens in many websites today. So it will. One ships will pick a good password like capitals and special characters and so on. So if you pick a good pass sort, your passwords will have changed just to come on past WD space, your user name and presenter. 36. Stopwatch: Lennox comes with a stopwatch preinstalled. So on every Linux system to start its type, the command time gets and press the enter key, you won't see any output. So press the control key and the Seiki to stop it. Then you'll see output. You see the amount of time that has passed. You can use it as a stopwatch type time cat. Enter press Contra C to quit. This trick will work on any Lennox system. So open. So there be in red hat in any clinic system you can think off. 37. Alias, save time in command line: you can define Jerome shortcuts or commands model and shortcuts using command Alias. So just type alias Space Bar. Then the name off your commands going to call it help. And then you define what his command should do as a command for, Let's Say, Ellis minus oh, which lists all the fell in the directory. So then we'll be able to type l hand. It will execute disco months so present we now define the shortcuts press L, and you'll see that it listed 2000 directory. No, you can define any command. So let's say you want toe go into a directory and run some program can do. Let's see. Going to call it cc Oh, whatever you want to call it. Really? Yes. It enters yours have been had a semi colon so we can add the next commands and then just run the clock rt and so that it continues in the command line press. Enter another type C c, and you'll see it started cities Very useful program. Okay, so you also see it move into the directory so you can combine Milton book of months in an alias commands. So it depends on whether he wants to have a single command or or another co months. So, for example, let's go back to home hands type Alias E. And, for example, you want to start Pemex without window go defined this command. So then typing e will run this command, and then I'm not sure if he mixes installed, but okay, so it starts Cemex when you type. He and of course, commands can be longer. So if you want to have some difference commands, let's say compile could define I'm gonna be gonna make making stole. So then it will Rondo's Trico months when you type compile. So this is how you can build shortcuts with e Aliuska months and, for example, very simple. One be Can you see we define the command. Hello. So really you can find a single command which execute one line off one commands or you can make it execute multiple commands by combining it with the semi colon he wants execute some program than make sure to rt this symbol at the ends. Otherwise, it will hang in your commode line until you finish the program. So this is how you can create shortcuts on make mont line 38. Bash keyboard shortcuts: incited best terminal. There are some shortcuts. Keyboard shortcuts would say You type something long romance. And let's say there was some type of So one thing you could do is use the arrow keys just to move left and right insight. Equal months. Um, and if you press control a goes to the beginning off the commands control, he will move to the ends. Okay, so now there's a bunch of stuff on the screen to clear the screen. You can press control well, so didn't you ever Screen is cleared and let's say we are typing some commands, whatever and press control a You in the beginning off the line Control e the end off the line. You can quickly switch between those you can move between. Worse also. So if you press, um, also be it's Jim's between Worse and press control. F to move characters. Hold up to my words, so I'll be those bad wars that forwards control. Be characters backwards, control conductor for what's so sometimes you'll want to use control a control e to move between the first and the last word. But if you use old B, hence off, if it will move forwards and backwards in the speed of warts. So depending on where you want to be in the months you can quickly jump. You can also holds the control key and the Iraqis. So that's the left arrow Key Order writes Iraqi and holds the control key, so that will also jump between worsen your commands so gone through keyholes and left a rookie or the right arrow key. This one also move, and between the worst in this command and finally there. Step completion. So let's say I type some commands and pressed up, and it will recommend whichever is available. So then you don't have to type that. Just type ph here and you'll see if I pressed up a complete stick a month so you can use the tab key to also complete. Um, I would say We're the home directory and, you know, in his file system, Rex, we've got a lot of the rectories type CD user and pressed up. You see it's completes, so let's say hello top. You see it completes top completes you can use to top key to for long. Directories are foul names or whatever and expressed its up key, and it will completely command by itself 39. Browse and search commands: you can browse through previous commands. So you're seeing the alibi room can go to the last few months. Just keep repeatedly pressing the up Iraqi on the of course, he pressed it down. Cursor, don't go, too. The later co months somebody using the up and down arrow key. You can move between commands you used before. You can also see those amounts because most of the times their safety in a foul called Boesch history, which is hidden fell. So I'm just going to catch it. So you see it's and dot here, which sent his foul is a hidden fell. Because of the dots, it's in your home directory. If you press answer, you see all the commands you have typed in the terminal. Somebody using the up and down arrow key, your browsing through them. So that's how you can search how you can browse through them. But you can also search through them, so if you type of control are you can search for a co amounts to. Now you'll see a search option here and, for example, we can type letters off the commander was searching for. So let's say, searching for remix so this is not it. One press control air or again. You see, There we go. We found the Mexico Montes. So why you sing? Control are you can search for a month that you've used before. So let's see, we search for an F A typical month and you'll see we've got everything back here by pressing control repeatedly can go toe only ffm back related school months and this works with any commands. Right? So, Chris Quantrill our and search for whatever you want. So maybe your search for the list commands and Chris control are you can go through them so contra or if you know specifically what you're looking for inside the words or something off the commands to search it. Otherwise, you can use the up and down every case to browse through previous commands. 40. Midnight commander: one need fell. Managers called EMC or Midnight commander. You can install it using the heads, Kamande or whichever peckish manner. Do you have his skull to emcee or midnight commander? You'll see two fell system views. So on the left and the right, but you can switch between you, Cindy Hickey. So these are two file system views. Hands using the F keys. You have several options, so F one who could help. And then they have to have 2345 and so on. It's all these F keys F 10 will quits and, for example, she got a foul here. Press Fife, and it will ask you where it's a copy, too. Hands F seven. You can greater new directory have eight. You can delete a foul after you can view a fell and using A before you can even edit the fell using some custom editor 41. File explorer nnn: Another good file manager is trip win, so triple in the start. E file manager will install it first tendon. You can browse your fell system using the arrow piece so you can hope in any directory once , just by browsing you, Cindy and Rocchi's If you're Presti exclamation work. So that shift one on the exclamation mark. You answered it. Directory. Can Presti till the key to go to the home directory and just used to Aero Keystone navigates around your fell system so it's a need. Little fell system rose. If you have text fells, you compressed. He key to edit some in your favorites. It's excited, sir. So that's the editor Variable. So go to any any text file. Could be codes could be random text and Presti iki to edit exclamation mark two exits into the currency directory. So if you want to change the editor, set your favorite editor like this and store it in your best R C or C Shell RC. So whichever editor you like to use 42. What is Tmux?: T. Max is another program that allows you to use Windows Type T marks. You'll see this display with a clock on the bottom, then press control. Be percentage and you've got to windows, so control de to close it. So that's control be and then percentage. In my case, Consul, be shift five. So control be percentage wheel divided into control de close control. Be percentage. Then you can split in. The other sign by using other way by using concert will be quote Contrave quotes and you've got them vertical horizontal splits control de to close its control, the again to close so control. Be quotes and that's which is splits is into You got troop criminals Control B and the arrow keys or the cursor keys to switch between them. So let's make some windows comes really percentage. So now you're control. Be up, comes will be left control. Be right. I don't constantly right, so just the arrow keys with control be when switching between these individual team marks windows, and if you want some window in full screen, you can press control BC So then you have a full screen window, and so Quebec control bees a again 43. Tmux panes: in T. Max. You can reorganize windows, so let's create some windows and create another one. Okay, now we have tree windows and you can reorganize them by pressing control. Be space. So then you'll see it's reorganized comfortably space again. Another organization of the Windows hands by repeating that you switched between types of organizations. Now toe walk with Reno in those windows. Just used control being the arrow keys. So that remains to see. But by pressing control be space, it will reorganize the windows. Okay, now what? If you want to resize windows, then you can press cultural B colon. It's I Parisse ice pain, then, if you want left right up or down. So let's say up and 10 Breast center So now it's grew up by 10. Press control B colon. Precise pain minus dung like 10 and you'll see it went down by 10. Now let's switch to the window up and type control. Be call on precise paying minus l. My 10. So then it grew in the left direction, and perhaps we want to shrink it. Show precise being up by 10. Okay, maybe a bit too much control. Be calling precise pain down by five. So that's how you can resize Windows Control B colon, Reese, ice Pain and then up, down left or rights and then specify the amounts. 44. Tmux windows and panes: T marks has Windows and Pains, So start T marks and you'll see I've got this screen. So if we press control, be percentage. We have to pains. So the left pain and the right pain and you can start something here, and he has control. Be the arrow keys to switch. So these things how you divide the screen is called pains. But T marks can also create windows. Suppress control B C. And this will create a new window. So it's going to some directory. So he's got to Windows Press control be and to switch between the windows. So if I got this window and this window with two pains so it can create another window by person, control B. C. And it could be doing something here Yeah, whatever you want. So it's open some editor. Then lose control bien to switch between the windows or control BP to go in the other direction so you can have several windows open, and these windows can contain pains, right? So you can have splits in two using disk amount, so control be quote when then you have to pains or control be percentage. No, we have treat pains, and we have several Windows control. Be end constantly. Encontro we and these are different windows, so creates any window. You seem control. BC Have another window if you want to win the lists, press Contra B W and you'll see we have several. We news with different amounts of pains, right? So he's got some windows with one pain and one window to pain. One window with three paints so control bien you'll see a window. It took pains. Control bien window with three pains. Control the end window with one pain and so on. So, using T marks, you can use windows and paints.