Linux Mastery | Mostafa Mahmoud | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

120 Lessons (4h 52m)
    • 1. 00 Overview

    • 2. 00 Section One Overview

    • 3. 01 What is Linux?

    • 4. 02 Operating System

    • 5. 03 Linux History

    • 6. 04 Linux vs Windows

    • 7. 05 Linux Pros and Cons

    • 8. 06 Linux Distributions

    • 9. 07 The Most Popular Linux Distributions

    • 10. 08 How to choose the one that fits you

    • 11. 09 The Open Source

    • 12. 10 GNU

    • 13. 00 Section Two Overview

    • 14. 01 Ubuntu Try

    • 15. 02 Virtualbox Intro

    • 16. 03 Virtualbox Installation

    • 17. 04 Creating A New Virtual Machine

    • 18. 05 Ubuntu Installation

    • 19. 06 Installing software on Ubuntu Intro

    • 20. 07 Installing software on Ubuntu Via Terminal

    • 21. 08 Uninstalling Ubuntu software via terminal

    • 22. 09 Installing Software on Ubuntu Graphically

    • 23. 10 Uninstalling Ubuntu software using Ubuntu Software Center

    • 24. 11 Installing and uninstalling software on Ubuntu using Debian pkg

    • 25. 00 Section Three Overview

    • 26. 01 Logging in, activating ui and logging out

    • 27. 02 Absolute Basics

    • 28. 03 Using Special Key for the Shell

    • 29. 04 Getting Help

    • 30. 05 The man pages

    • 31. 06 The Info Pages

    • 32. 07 The whatis command

    • 33. 08 The help option

    • 34. 09_Graphical Help

    • 35. 00 Section Four Overview

    • 36. 01 General 0verview of the Ubuntu file system

    • 37. 02 Orientation in the file system

    • 38. 03 manipulating files

    • 39. The touch command

    • 40. 04 Creating Files and Directories

    • 41. 05 Moving Files and Directories

    • 42. 06 Copying Files and Directories

    • 43. 07 Removing Files and Directories

    • 44. 08 Finding Files and Paths

    • 45. 09 Linking Files

    • 46. 10 Creating Symbolic Links

    • 47. 00 Section Five Overview

    • 48. 01 Processes

    • 49. 01 Multi user and multi tasking

    • 50. 02 Interactive processes

    • 51. 03 Automatic processes

    • 52. 04 Daemons

    • 53. 05 Linux Pipes

    • 54. 06 The grep command

    • 55. 07 The sort command

    • 56. 08 Filter

    • 57. 09 Process attributes

    • 58. 10 Displaying process information

    • 59. 11 Process Creation

    • 60. 12 Ending Processes

    • 61. 13 Signals

    • 62. 14 Boot process

    • 63. 15 Boot process Init

    • 64. 17 Runlevels

    • 65. 16 Boot process Special Case

    • 66. 16 Boot process Systemd

    • 67. 17 Identifying Automatically Started System Processes - CentOS 8

    • 68. 18 Controlling Services and Daemons - CentOS 8

    • 69. 18 Shutdown

    • 70. 19 Managing Processes

    • 71. 20 Managing Process Priority and Niceness

    • 72. 21 Managing Process CPU Resources

    • 73. 22 Managing Process Memory Resources

    • 74. 23 Tuning System Performance

    • 75. 24 Network Problems

    • 76. 25 Disk IO Problems

    • 77. 26 Users

    • 78. 27 Graphical Tools

    • 79. 28 Interrupting Processes

    • 80. 29 Scheduling Processes

    • 81. 30 The Sleep Command

    • 82. 31 The at command

    • 83. 32 Cron and Crontab

    • 84. 00 Section Six Overview

    • 85. 01 Linux Regular Expressions

    • 86. 02 Simple Redirections

    • 87. 03 Advanced Redirection filters

    • 88. 00 Section Seven Overview

    • 89. 01 The ping command

    • 90. 02 The ftp command

    • 91. 03 The telnet command

    • 92. 03 The telnet Command Troubleshooting

    • 93. 04 The ssh command

    • 94. 04 The ssh Command Troubleshooting

    • 95. 00 Section Eight Overview

    • 96. 01 Pr command

    • 97. 02 Sending E mails

    • 98. 00 Section Nine Overview

    • 99. 01 Text Editors

    • 100. 02 Using the Vim editor

    • 101. 03 The easy way to vim

    • 102. 00 Section Ten Overview

    • 103. 01 Linux Virtual Terminals

    • 104. 02 Starting V Terminals & Nav

    • 105. 03 Virtual Terminal Shortcuts

    • 106. 00 Section Eleven Overview

    • 107. 01 Creating a User

    • 108. 02 Deleting and Disabling Account

    • 109. 03 Adding and Removing users from the usergroups

    • 110. 04 The Finger Command

    • 111. 05 File Security

    • 112. 06 Ownership in Linux files

    • 113. 07 Permissions

    • 114. 08 The chmod Command

    • 115. 09 Absolute(Numeric) Mode

    • 116. 10 Symbolic Mode

    • 117. 11 Changing Ownership and Group

    • 118. 12 The File Mask

    • 119. 13 Special Modes

    • 120. Installating QT Creator on Ubuntu

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About This Class

Welcome to the Linux Mastery Course!

Hi, I'm Mustafa MahmoudA Senior Linux Administrator and Online Instructor. I have been working as Linux System Administrator for more than ten years, currently devoted to teaching. I like to share my knowledge with others and help them advance in their careers.

I prepared this course for newbie Linux users. By the end of the course, you should have obtained enough information to easily install, run, and manage the Linux operating system in most of its distributions.

Who this course is for:

  • Anyone who wants to learn the basics of Linux system administration.
  • Anyone who needs to learn Linux for a personal or business project.
  • A newbie Linux user who wants to be professional in using Linux.
  • An existing Linux user who wants to increase his knowledge.
  • Windows or macOS users who want to switch to Linux.
  • Anyone with a desire to learn Linux.

Student testimonials - See what others say!

  • Ahmed: Amazing teacher, great enthusiasm, very clear explanations – My favorite course this year! Mr. Mostafa is a very stimulating teacher who knows his subject very well. I appreciated his enthusiasm for the subject. The teacher was of excellent quality.
  • Raisul Sohan: This is a super course. Now I will install Linux on my pc.
  • Stanley Ezendiokwere: The materials have been insightful so far.
  • Mostafa: Full information with a clear explanation.
  • A Hassan: Awesome. This Course made it easy for me to learn Linux, Thanks.
  • Licchi Technology: Truly an amazing course for beginners to learn Linux. Totally recommend this course for beginners.

What you should know before starting

  • Basic knowledge of using a PC.

Requirements - A PC with the minimum requirement of installing Ubuntu 18.04 LTS:

  • 2 GHz dual-core processor
  • 4 GiB RAM (system memory)
  • 25 GB of hard-drive space
  • VGA capable of 1024x768 screen resolution Either a DVD drive or a USB port for the installer media
  • Either a CD/DVD drive or a USB port for the installer media
  • Internet access is helpful

What you'll learn

  • By the end of the course, you should have obtained enough information to easily install, run, and manage the Linux OS in most of its distributions.
  • Accessing and Managing the Linux operating system graphically and from the command line.
  • The Linux OS Fundamentals/Essential Skills.
  • Learn the Linux system managing and administrating basics.
  • The Linux Shell basics.
  • The Linux Quickstart commands.
  • A large number of the Most Important Linux Commands.
  • Accessing Linux Virtual Consoles.
  • The Linux Relative and Absolute paths.
  • The Linux Shell Special Keys.
  • The Linux File System Hierarchy.
  • The Most Important Files/Directories on a Linux System.
  • The Linux I/O redirection.
  • The Linux Regular Expressions.
  • Getting help in Linux graphically and using the command-line.

Course Content:

  1. Background & Introduction.
  2. Beginning with the introduction of the Linux Operating System and mentioning its history.
  3. What is an operating system?
  4. The pieces that make up the operating system.
  5. Definitions of the bootloader, the kernel definition, daemons, the shell, graphical server, desktop environment, and applications.
  6. The main differences between Linux and Windows Operating Systems.
  7. Linux Pros & Cons.
  8. What is Linux distribution?
  9. The most popular Linux distributions for desktops & servers.
  10. How to choose the right distribution for you?
  11. The meaning of the open-source.
  12. What is GNU?
  13. Linux Installation.
  14. Linux live distribution.
  15. Creating a bootable Ubuntu USB stick from Microsoft Windows.
  16. Trying Ubuntu without installing it.
  17. Introducing the VirtualBox program and showing the step by step procedure of downloading and installing it.
  18. Creating a new Virtual machine for the Ubuntu OS.
  19. Steps for downloading and installing the Ubuntu 18.04 OS.
  20. Installing the VirtualBox Guest Additions.
  21. Having a full-resolution Ubuntu VM on your computer.
  22. Starting the Ubuntu OS.
  23. Logging in and Logging out.
  24. Introducing the Ubuntu OS.
  25. Introducing the Shell or Terminal "the command line interface".
  26. Installing software on Ubuntu intro.
  27. Steps for adding and removing applications from the Ubuntu OS Graphically and using the Command line.
  28. The sudo command.
  29. The apt-get command.
  30. The apt-cache command.
  31. Opening a list of your currently installed programs in terminal using the dpkg command.
  32. The aptitude command.
  33. The Ubuntu Software Center.
  34. Installing and uninstalling software in Ubuntu using the Debian package 'dpkg'.
  35. Manual download of a .deb (Debian package) method.
  36. QuickStart.
  37. The Linux system's basic modes.
  38. Ways of launching a terminal on Ubuntu.
  39. Describing the command prompt in the terminal.
  40. How to get into the text mode 'virtual consoles' and how to switch back to the graphical mode.
  41. The Important Basic Commands of the Linux OS.
  42. The pwd command.
  43. The cd command.
  44. The absolute path.
  45. The relative path.
  46. The ls command.
  47. The passwd command.
  48. The file command.
  49. The cat command.
  50. The exit command.
  51. The Linux shell special keys.
  52. Getting help in Linux.
  53. The man command.
  54. The info command.
  55. The whatis command.
  56. The which command.
  57. The --help option.
  58. The graphical help.
  59. The gnome-help command.
  60. The yelp command.
  61. About Files and the File System.
  62. The shell built-in commands.
  63. Overview of the Linux File System.
  64. The file types.
  65. The file type signs.
  66. What is the partition?
  67. The kinds of major partitions on a Linux system.
  68. The data partition.
  69. The swap partition.
  70. The important files and directories on the Linux operating system.
  71. The standard root partition.
  72. The swap space.
  73. The /boot partition.
  74. The /usr partition.
  75. The /home partition.
  76. The /var partition.
  77. The /opt partition.
  78. The mount points.
  79. The df command.
  80. Orientation in the file system.
  81. The PATH environment variable.
  82. The echo command.
  83. Displaying and setting paths.
  84. Adding a new directory to the PATH variable.
  85. The export command.
  86. The ( ~/.profile & ~/.bashrc ) files.
  87. The source command.
  88. The kernel.
  89. The shell.
  90. The shell types.
  91. The sh or Bourne Shell.
  92. The Bash or Bourne Again Shell.
  93. The csh or C Shell.
  94. The tcsh or Turbo C Shell.
  95. The ksh or the Korn shell.
  96. The file /etc/shells.
  97. The SHELL variable.
  98. The HOME variable.
  99. Navigating through the Linux File System.
  100. The /etc directory.
  101. The /dev directory.
  102. The /var directory.
  103. The ls command popular options.
  104. Creating, copying, moving, and removing files and directories.
  105. Finding files and paths.
  106. The which command.
  107. The find command.
  108. The locate command.
  109. Linking Files.
  110. The hard link.
  111. The soft link or symbolic link.
  112. Creating a symbolic link.
  113. The ln command.
  114. Processes.
  115. What is the process?
  116. Multi-user and Multi-tasking Process Types.
  117. Interactive and Automatic Processes.
  118. Foreground process.
  119. Background process.
  120. The less command.
  121. Job control.
  122. The kill command.
  123. Daemons.
  124. Linux Pipe.
  125. The pg command.
  126. The more command.
  127. The grep command.
  128. The sort command.
  129. Linux Filter.
  130. Process Attributes.
  131. The ps command.
  132. Displaying Process.
  133. The real group owner of a process (RGID).
  134. The effective group owner of a process (EGID).
  135. The SGID (Set Group ID upon execution).
  136. The pstree command.
  137. The top command.
  138. How to Create a Process.
  139. How to End a Process.
  140. Linux Signals.
  141. Showing signals list.
  142. The common signals in Linux.
  143. SIGTERM.
  144. SIGINT.
  145. SIGKILL.
  146. SIGHUP.
  147. SIGSTOP.
  148. The boot process.
  149. What is BIOS?
  150. The Master Boot Record (MBR).
  151. The boot process init.
  152. Init and Systemd.
  153. Init Run Levels.
  154. The who command.
  155. The chkconfig utility.
  156. Reboot, halt, and shutdown commands.
  157. Managing Processes.
  158. The time command.
  159. About system performance.
  160. About system Load.
  161. Managing process priority and niceness.
  162. The nice command.
  163. The renice command.
  164. Managing Process CPU and Memory Resources.
  165. The uptime command.
  166. The memusage command.
  167. The memusagestat command.
  168. Tuning System Performance.
  169. The vmstat command.
  170. The netstat command.
  171. The iostat command.
  172. Network I/O problems.
  173. Network integrity problems.
  174. Disk I/O problems.
  175. Users classes.
  176. The graphical tools.
  177. The Gnome System Monitor.
  178. The xload application.
  179. Interrupting processes.
  180. The pidof command.
  181. The xkill program.
  182. Scheduling processes.
  183. The sleep command.
  184. The at command.
  185. The atq command.
  186. The atrm command.
  187. The cron and crontab facilities. 
  188. The Input and Output Redirection.
  189. Linux Regular Expressions.
  190. Basic regular expressions.
  191. Interval Regular expressions.
  192. Extended regular expressions.
  193. Brace expansion.
  194. Simple Redirections.
  195. The redirection operators.
  196. Input redirection.
  197. Combining redirections.
  198. The spell command.
  199. The append operator.
  200. The date command.
  201. Advanced Redirections.
  202. Use of file descriptors.
  203. Separating standard output from standard error.
  204. The tty command.
  205. The tee command.
  206. The uptime command.
  207. Communicating Utilities used in Linux.
  208. The ping command.
  209. The ftp command.
  210. The telnet command.
  211. The ssh command.
  212. Print & Email.
  213. The pr command.
  214. Printing a file.
  215. The lp and lpr commands.
  216. Sending E-mails from the Terminal.
  217. The ssmtp command.
  218. Text Editors.
  219. Importance of Text Editors.
  220. The Vim Editor.
  221. The Vim editor operation modes.
  222. The Vim editor basic commands.
  223. The vimtutor command.
  224. Linux Virtual Terminals.
  225. What are virtual terminals?
  226. Starting virtual terminals and navigating through them.
  227. Virtual terminal shortcuts.
  228. The Linux System Administration Basics.
  229. Creating a user using the terminal.
  230. Creating a user using the GUI.
  231. Deleting and disabling an account using the terminal.
  232. Deleting and disabling an account using the GUI.
  233. Adding a user to a usergroup.
  234. Removing a user from a usergroup.
  235. The gnome-system-tools.
  236. The users-admin command.
  237. The finger command.
  238. The File Security in Terms of Ownership and Permissions.
  239. Levels of authorization in Linux.
  240. Ownership in Linux files.
  241. Permissions.
  242. The chmod command.
  243. The chmod command absolute and symbolic modes.
  244. Changing Ownership and Group.
  245. The chown command.
  246. The chgrp command.
  247. The File Mask.
  248. The umask command.
  249. The touch command.
  250. Special Access Rights 'Special modes'.
  251. for Files and Directories like '
  252. The Sticky bit mode.
  253. The SUID (set user ID).
  254. The SGID (set group ID).
  255. The Bonus of the Course, Steps of installing 'Qt Creator' on Ubuntu OS.

The Commands included in the course:

    • vim
    • vimtutor
    • man
    • info
    • whatis
    • apropos
    • cat
    • --help option
    • apt-get
    • sudo
    • dbkg
    • pr
    • lp
    • lpr
    • pwd
    • cd
    • ls
    • passwd
    • file
    • exit
    • touch
    • mkdir
    • rm
    • rmdir
    • mv
    • cp
    • grep
    • sort
    • find
    • ln
    • echo
    • jobs
    • bg
    • fg
    • kill
    • xkill
    • tty
    • tee
    • date
    • uptime
    • ps
    • pstree
    • top
    • nice
    • renice
    • vmstat
    • netstat
    • iostat
    • sleep
    • at
    • atq
    • atrm
    • nano
    • systemct
    • crontab
    • ping
    • ftp
    • telnet
    • ssh
    • ssmtp
    • shutdown
    • chmod
    • adduser
    • su
    • userdel
    • groupmod
    • usermod
    • deluser
    • chown
    • chgrp
    • groups
    • umask

Join me:

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mostafa Mahmoud

Data Scientist/ML Engineer/Linux Expert


Hello, I'm Mostafa. A data scientist, ml engineer, and Linux expert. I worked for ten years as a Linux systems administrator at Express, then I had the opportunity to turn to data science. Because of my passion for this field and my keen attention to detail, I got my Udacity certifications to work as a data scientist and machine learning engineer. The most recent projects I worked on were Finding Donors for CharityML, a full exploratory and explanatory analytics work project for Ford Go Bike company trips data, and creating a logistic regression to predict absenteeism. I'm working on improving my skills and looking for job opportunities that will help me in this direction.

Skills: Python, SQL, Linux
Applications: Jupyter Notebook, Weka, Excel, Pycharm,... See full profile

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1. 00 Overview: Hello and welcome to the next mystery course. My name is Mustafa, and I'm happy and grateful to be your instructor. Let's take a look at our agenda for our course starting Section one. With the background and introduction, you will learn what Lennox is. We're in the hell. Did Lenexa store mean differences between Lenox and Windows Lennox Advantages and this advantages available distributions off Lenox and have to choose the one that fits you the meaning off open source and I would talk about, grew and ignore movements. In Section two. You will learn Tony stole Lennox using virtual books, and we will take open to as a good, easy and user friendly example off Lenox distributions. Also, Euler Tony stole software on open toe toys in Section three. You will learn about connecting and disconnecting from the system. Take a look at text and graphics move. They didn't have to change your password. How to navigate through the file system, determining file type, viewing text files using special keys and have to get help and fiction for I will show you the layout off Lenox file System displaying and sitting. Both is describing the most important files including Colonel and Chill. Finding lost and hidden files. Creating moving and leading files and directories, displaying contents, files, understanding and using different thing types in Section Fife After files. Processes are the most important thing on Olynyk system in this section. You will take a closer look at those processes, and you will learn about multi user, persisting and multi tasking process types, interactive and automatic processes, demons and what they are. You learn what bites are, how to use them, the grip comment and have to use it for searching a particular information, the sort of comment and how useful it is in sorting the contents off files and directories in different ways. You learn about output filters, process attributes. It's playing process. Information. The life cycle of a process. Controlling processes with different signals, the boot process and run levels. The shutdown comment managing processes. Also, you learn about using beauty and niceness, CPU and memory resources, tuning system performance network problems and disk em both out of problems. The categories off users and their effect on the system system. Graphical tools interrupting processors settling for sisters, the sleep comment and that comment. The corn and quarantine facilities in fiction. Six. You learn more about the about fall. Next. McInnis off, redirecting input, output and errors. This will include standard input, output and errors. The direction operators using the Albert off one common as in both. For another. How to put the Albert off a comment in a file for later reference. How to upend the Albert off my table. Comments toe a fire in both redirection. How to hunter standard error messages. How to combine the direction off input, output and error streams. In Section seven, You will learn the basic utilities that we can use on Ellen X operating system to communicate with other devices like being F T B telling it. And it's a sitch. In Section eight, you will learn be our common, which can be used to bring fights in a former to one. We will use some comments for getting hard copy off files. You learn how to install software packages needed for the mentioned functions. Also, you learn how to send emails. In Section nine. I will discuss the importance off must earning an editor and focused mainly on the improved V i editor in Section 10. I will talk about the next virtual terminals. What virtual 10 minutes are the use of virtual terminals, how to access and utilise them. Virtual terminal shortcuts in section live in you will learn some important basic drops off Lenox System Administrator. How to create a user. How to delete and disable an account, adding and removing users from the user groups they use off the finger Common Finding out file properties and the changing file permissions for security bonus At the end off our course, you learn how to install Cute on open to as the bonus off our course. I hope this would be informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 2. 00 Section One Overview: background and introduction. In this section, you learn what Lennox is were unhealthily. Next start being differences between Lenox and vendors, Lennox. Advantages and disadvantages. Available distributions off Lenox and how to choose the one that fits you The meaning off open source and I'll talk about, grew and grew movements. 3. 01 What is Linux?: What is Linux? Just like Windows XP, Windows seven, Windows eight and Make OS X. Lennox is an operating system, but the main advantage off Lennox that it is free and reliable. After long periods of testing, most Lennox users come to the conclusion that the next is not only as good, but in many cases better and faster than the traditional solutions. Athletics were not trustworthy. It would have been long gone, never knowing the popular T it has now with millions of users. Now, users can influence their systems and share their remarks with the community, so the system gets better and better every day. It is a project that is never finished in an ever changing environment. Lennox is a project that continues to strive for perfection. I hope this has bean informative for you on. I'd like to thank you for viewing 4. 02 Operating System: operating system. The operating system is the software that manages the communication between software and hardware. Without the operating system, the software wouldn't function. The breathing system is comprised off a number of pieces. The boot loader, which is the software that manages the boot process off your computer. The kernel, which is the core off the system and manages the seaview memory and the referral devices. The colonel is the lowest level off the operating system. Demons are background services, for example, printing and sound that easier. Start up during boot, where, after you look into the disk top, the shell is a common process that allows you to control the computer via commands typed into a text interface. Graphical server is the subsystem that plays the graphics on your monitor. Desktop environment is the beast off the buzzer that the users actually interact with. There are many desktops environments to choose from. For example, Unity General and Kitty. Each desktop environment includes built in applications such as file managers. Configuration tools were browsers and games, and at last, the applications. Lennox offers thousands upon thousands off high quality software titles that can be easily found and installed. I hope this has bean infirmity for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 5. 03 Linux History: the Knicks history list revolts, you can call him as the founder off Lennox. He was a graduate student at the University of Helsinki in Finland when he initially developed Lennox Colonel. The story took place in early 19 nineties. In that time, the available operating systems were those Mac OS and UNIX. Let's meet another guy named Professor Tenenbaum, who was a university professor. He used the code off UNIX to teach his students about operating systems. That time, UNIX scoot was available on universities for study purposes. However, this practice had been stopped. This left Mr Tenenbaum without an effective tool to teach his students about the inner working off rail operating system. But he developed a small cologne off UNIX for himself, called Minnix for teaching his students the most. Revolts was inspired by 10 in Bomb and Minnix. Then Llinas made a clone a few nicks and called it Linux. The first version off Lennox was extremely minimal in nature. It was named as Lennox version, or point or two, and released on October 5th, 1991 contest off Lenox Colonel and three Utilities Bish, that is a command line interface object, which is a utility to flushing file streams and GCC as a city become violent. Then he made a historical decision. He published his scoot When the Internet available free for everyone. That was wonderful deviation by which the cooperate software development model has been completely broken. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 6. 04 Linux vs Windows: next vs Windows. Mac OS uses UNIX school. Your switch from my quest to Lennox will be relatively smooth, so we will talk about them in differences between the Knicks and Windows operating systems . First, I will start with the file system in Microsoft. Windows files are stored in folders under different data drives like C, D and E. But in Lenox, files are ordered in a three structure starting with the root directory. This root directory can be considered. Is the start off the file system and its further branches? I would various other subdirectories. The route is diluted with a forward slash clinics. Everything is a fight. Directories are files, files are files, and vices like printer mouse keyboard are also files. But in M s windows, devices like printers, sit room and hard drives are represented as dr letters like G or H. There are no drives in Lenox. Unlike Windows, all the above file types, including devices, have permissions, which allow user to read it or execute. This is a powerful Lennox picture. Excess restrictions can be applied for different kinds off users. By changing permissions. There are three types off users in Lenox. Regular user administrative or root user and service user. A regular user account is created for you when you install Lennox in your system, all your files and folders are stored in your home directory. As a regular user, you don't have access to directories off other users other than your regular account. Another user account, called Route, is created at the time off installation. The root account is a sober user who can access restricted files, install software and administrative privileges. Whenever you want to install software making changes to system files or perform any administrative tasks politics you need look in as a root user. Otherwise, for general tasks like playing with your files and browsing the Internet, you can use your regular account. Lennox is widely used as a server breathing system. Services such as Apache squid and Mill have their own individual service accounts. Having service accounts increases the security off your computer. Lennox can allow or deny access to various resources, depending on the service. I know that you will not see service accounts in open to disc version, and the regular accounts are called standard accounts. In went to disco in wonders, you can't have two files with the same name in the same folder. Why in Lennox you can have two files with the same name in the same directory provided the use different cases for every user in Lenox, directory is created as forward slash home for this less user name. The concept is similar to see colon backslash documents and sittings in Windows in Windows System and program files are usually saved in C drive, but it limits. You would find the system and program files in different directories. For example, the boot files are stored in the boot directory, and the program and software files can be found under bin directory and advice files in the directory. These are the most striking differences between Lenox and Windows operating systems. I hope this has Bean informant for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 7. 05 Linux Pros and Cons: Lennox. Pros and cons. Lennox Pros. Lennox is free If you want to spend absolutely nothing, you don't even have to obey the price off a CD. Lennox can be downloaded in its entirety from the Internet completely for free. No registration fees, no costs per user free updates and freely available source code In case you want to change the behavior of your system, Lennox is portable toe. Any hardware blood for Olynyk system expects to run without rebooting all the time. The security model used in Lennox is based on the UNIX idea of security, which is known Toby robust and off. Proving quality. You can use Lennox to do big things using the building blocks provided with the system. The Lenox operating system and most Lennix applications have very shorted back times. Clinics, schools. The amount off Lenox distributions can be frightening or ridiculous, depending on your point of view. But it also means that everyone will find what he or she needs. You don't need to be an expert to find a suitable release. Another thing is that some off Lenox distributions are not very user friendly and confusing for beginners. Most Lennox users come to the conclusion that Lennox is not only as good but in many cases bitter and faster than the traditional solutions. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 8. 06 Linux Distributions: Lennix distributions. Lennox has a number off different versions to suit nearly any type off user. From new users to hard core users, you'll find a flavor Flynn ex to match your needs. These versions are called distributions, but in the short form mistress, nearly every distribution off Lennox can be downloaded for free. Burning onto this or you speak thump drive and installed on as many machines as you like. Clinics may appear different, depending on the distribution, your hardware and personal taste, but the fundamentals on which all graphical and other interfaces are built remained the same. The Rennick system is based on glue tools, which provide a set of standard ways to handle and use the system. All gonna tools are open source so they can be installed on any system. Most distributions off our Bree combined back itches off most common tools, such as rpm packages on redhead and the Libyan packages on Debian. So you needn't be a programmer to install a package on your system. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 9. 07 The Most Popular Linux Distributions: the most popular Lennix distributions, the most popular Lennox distributions for the desktop are upon to Lennox Lennox meant our clinics Debian, Fedora, Debian and over ensues. Each distribution has a different take on the desktop. Some opt for very modern user interfaces such as burnt Is Unity above and depends Devyn desktop, whereas others a stick with a more traditional desktop environments such as open sues, uses Kitty. And don't think the server has been left behind. For this area, you can turn to read Head Enterprise Lennox open to server centers, Sues integrates Lennox. Some of the above server distributions are free, such as open to server and centers, and some have an associative Bryce such as Red Hat Enterprise Lennox and Choose Enterprise Lennox. Those with an associative price also includes support. I hope this has Bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 10. 08 How to choose the one that fits you: how to choose the one that fits you, Which distribution you used will depend upon the answer to three simple questions. How skilled off a computer user are you? Do you prefer a modern or a standard desktop interface server or disk top? If your computer skills are fairly busy, you will want to stick with a new by friendly distribution such as Lennox Men, Open toe or dbn. If your skill set extending into the above every change, you could go with distribution like Debian or fedora. If, however, you have pretty much mastered the craft of computer and system administration used distribution like Gento. If you are looking for a server, only distribution will also want to decide if you need a desktop interface or if you want to do this very common line. Only the Windows Server doesn't install a graphical user interface. This means two things. You serve around people downloading graphics, and you will need tohave a solid understanding off the excrement line. However, you can install agree baggage on top off the open to server with a single common system. Administrators will also want to view a distribution with regards to futures you want a server specific distribution that will offer you out off the books, everything you need for your server. If so, Santos might be the best choice. Or do you want to take a desktop distribution and add the pieces as you need them? If so, Debian or Ventolin X might serve you well. We will be using open toe for our lending purpose, as it's easy for a beginner toe. Understand? I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 11. 09 The Open Source: the open source in general. Open source affairs toe Any program who sore school is made available for use or modification, as users or other developers see for open source software is usually developed as a public collaboration and made freely available. Open source is a certification mark owned by the open Source Initiative developers off software that is intended to be freely shared and boastfully improved and distributed by others who can use the open source ST Mark if their distribution terms conform to the eyes of insource definition. To summarize the definition model of distribution term is required that the software being distributed must be re distributed to anyone else without any restriction. The source code must be available so that the receiving party would be able to improve or modify it. The license can require improved versions off the software to carry a different name or version from the original software. The idea is very similar to that behind free software and the Free Software Foundation. Open source is a development methodology. Free software is a social movement. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 12. 10 GNU: balloon movements short for blues, not UNIX Glue is a free software project to provide a distributable replacement for UNIX. Blue's first announce it by Richard Stallman on September 27 1983 and later published in the March 1985 issue off Dr Dobbs Dorner. The Aim off guru, is to give all computer users the freedom of car being, developing, distributing, modifying and studying software with the understanding that it's redistribution cannot be limited. The goal of the project was achieved in 1992 when Lennox was released under the Snow General Public license. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 13. 00 Section Two Overview: the Knicks installation in this section, you will learn, is stalling Lennox using virtual books, and we'll take open toe as a good, easy and user friendly example off limits distributions. Also, you alert to install software on open toe operating system. 14. 01 Ubuntu Try: I want to try. For most, the idea off installing and operating system might seem like a very daunting task, but Lennox offers one off the easiest installations off all operating systems. In fact, most versions off Lenox offer what is called a life distribution, which means you run the operating system from either a CD DVD or USB flash drive without making any changes to your hard drive. You get the full functionality without having to commit to the installation. Once you have tried it out on decided you wanted to use it, you simply double click the install icon and walk through the simple Installation Wizard requirements. You will need A to G B or larger USB stick. Flash Drive, Microsoft Windows XP or later. Rufus, a free and open source USB stick writing tool. Goto Google Search Search for Rufus. Choose your language, then download and install. After finishing Chris Close, we will also need an open toe isa file. Go to a boon to website. Choose no news section. Choose one to desktop them breasts. They don't load button. You don't load really start automatically after finishing the installation, performed the following to configure your real Speed Vice Rufus Lunch. Rufus. Then insert your USB stick. Rufus will update to said that vice within the device feel if the device is incorrect, select the correct one from the device fields. Drop down menu from Boots Election Selected Iscor Isa Image To select the went toe Aiso file, press the select button. This will open a fairly quester from which you can never get too and select the ISO file from the petition scheme. Select the Master Boot record, NPR Target System Bias or you eat if I leave all other parameters with their default values and slickster to initiate the writing process. If you are asking that there are files needed to be downloaded, agree for the download. You would then be alerted that Rufus has detected that the open toe eyes room is an AYSO high pride image. This means the same image file can be used as the source for both activity and a USB stick without requiring conversion. Keep right in ISO image mood selected on the collect on OK to continue. Rufus will warn that all data on your selected USB advice is about to be destroyed. This is a good moment to double check. You have selected the correct advice before clicking. OK, when you are confident you have, the eyes will now be right into your USP stick, and the progress poor in ruffles would give you some indication off how long this will take with a reasonably modern machine, this should take around three minutes. Ruffles will complete the writing process and silently drop it to it's default window. Congratulations, you know, have open toe on a USB stick, portable and ready to go. Once you set up your USB drive to be portable with a bento, you can then reboot your system. Catch the boot menu and put from your speed. If your computer doesn't automatically boot from USB, try holding F 12 when your computer first start is with most machines. This will allow you to select their USP device from a system specific boot menu. It will let you run a live CD version off onto which is fully usable, but it's the right arrow to inter graphical installation. A few moments later, you will see the language selection, followed by the open toed boot options. Select the top entry, try burn to without installing your life desktop will appear. Have a look around. Check out the new features and they enjoy the simplicity off wanted intuitive interface. You can still choose to install Oneto after bossing the world Cambage by clicking on the install Oneto icon on the desktop background. Or just shut down, Remove your speed right and start your computer like normal. I hope this has been informed for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 15. 02 Virtualbox Intro: virtual book's introduction. Now I will give you a short description about virtual books, and then I will show you how to download and install virtual books. New Machine Oracle IBM Virtual Books is a free and open source hyper visor for X 86 computers currently being developed by Oracle Corporation. Virtual books may be installed on a number off host operating systems, including Lennox, Mac OS, Windows, Solaris and Open Solaris. It's aborted the creation and management off guest version machines, running versions and revisions off Windows, Lennox, BSD, Solaris and others. And the limited visualization off Mac OS guest. It's on Apple hardware for some guest operating systems against the addition package. Off device drivers and system applications is available, which typically improves performance, especially off graphics. I hope this has Bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 16. 03 Virtualbox Installation: virtual books, installation and configuration procedures. Go to the visual books website. Go to the download section. There are versions available for Windows, Mac and Linux. Download the Windows version at the top by clicking Windows hosts. If your host operating system is Mac OS X, then you will click on Mac OS X hosts to download the DMG fight. And after finishing their loading off in the file and follow the steps you would see back to Windows users. After finishing, start the installation Press next. To continue the set of wizard, choose not to install. Use P, support it working or vital support. Do this by clicking the gray icon near each option and select the X or entire future would be unavailable. That technique is to continue if this is your first time dealing with virtual machines. This would eliminate the need to any stole custom drivers, which makes installing and uninstalling virtual books easier. If you have working with version machines before you can choose to keep these options selected and check the default settings. If you don't wish Marshall books, icons toe a beer on the desktop or the quick lunch bar, However, keep the Register File Association books that check this will intrude that files associated with virtual books open only with virtual books. They're breast next, click and stole to install virtual books. Click finish toe open virtual books. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 17. 04 Creating A New Virtual Machine: creating a new virtual machine. After starting virtual books, click the new button to start the virtual machine wizard. Give you a virtual machine name. If you give it a boon to the version, will automatically default toe open toe, then collect. Next. Select the amount off memory your VM will use when we choose our operating system. In the previous system, virtual books automatically recommend this. The brother amount off memory to use. The recommended values are one GB if the machine room is four g B and to G B. If the machine room is KGB used, a frame lower than four GB is not recommended, but you can still use 512 for machine graham off two GB click. Nick is to create a new virtual hard to this, then click create. This opens a second wizard to create a new virtual hard disk. True's video like noticed and select dynamically allocate memory selection off memory size greater than 10 GB is recommended. Select either fix it size storage dynamically Expanding storage, depending upon your needs, affects its size. The storage is going to be the size off the virtual hard disk on the host operating system . For example, a virtual disk 10 GB will be 10 GB on the host operating systems. Hard disk. A dynamically expanding storage will be only the size off bento on your hard disk, but will grow in size as files are added to it until it reaches its limit. Click next, then select the size off the virtual hard disk. Toby, 10 GB click. Kill you now you are done. You will see your new virtual machine interest. I hope this has mean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 18. 05 Ubuntu Installation: of until installation. Now we will install open toe operating system using virtual books. We will do this to keep your old operating system as it is, so you can switch back to your old operating system any time you want, without any difficulties. And if you want to install open to directly to your machine, there is no problem. You can follow the same steps, but my advice is to start first with virtual books until you feel free that you are familiar with a bento setting the ISO files to start. Select your new virtual machine. Once you have done this, click the sittings. Put on click storage step click on controller I d. It's optical drive, then breast. Choose disk A button to choose open toe is off. I the impress open I want all eyes will be mounted under controller device. Click on the system tab on the left truth boot order and keep optical on the top as first priority. Chris. Okay. To return to the main window, you're open to machine is ready to boot now. Now, to any stall open toe, select your virtual machine. Think like the start button about introversion machine would start in a savory twin dough. The machine will boot from selected Aiso, and you will see language option. Choose your preferred language and the rest in a stall. Open toe click. Continue to keep the default keyboard layout or choose your desire to one or next screen. About two will give you a check list, and you will be asking if you need to update during install. And if you need to install third party software, truth both and click continue. Next option will ask you if you want to delete all data and install, but you can also choose to create your own partitions from option. Something else we re choose. It is disk and install momento The Empress install. Now an alert will appear for writing the changes to disks. Chris the continue button. Select your time zone from the map, then click. Continue. Type your user name in the first textbooks. This will automatically fill in the Logan name and computer name. Type your best word and confirm your best work and the click continue. A bundle will begin the installation now. Once the installation is complete, click restart Noto. Finish the installation. The machine was restored and installed up until we load from her disk, provide a bus or to use her name and look into the main window off bento in stolen guest additions. The virtual books gets the additions consists off device drivers and system applications that optimize the operating system for better performance and usability. Once you have looked into a bento click on the devices, step in virtual books, select insert against additions. Seedy, image pressed wrong button, we want to ask is to install a program and it needs a password. Type your user breast word and click within ticket. Let the terminal program run, and when it has finished presenter, you put your version machine, and once it has polluted, click on the View menu and I click. But to recites, Guest, it's play, and you will now have a full resolution open toe, a virtual machine on your computer. I hope this has Bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 19. 06 Installing software on Ubuntu Intro: installing software in Toronto, And when does the installation off A program is done by running the set up the X. If high, the installation bundle contains the program as well various dependent components required to run the program correctly. In Lenox, installation files are distributed as baggage is, but the wreckage contains only the program itself. Any dependent components will have to be installed separately, which are usually available as back dress themselves. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 20. 07 Installing software on Ubuntu Via Terminal: installing software on organ toe. We have two methods to install software on or goingto the first method installing software via terminal open terminal by pressing control all t or by going to your death sport and searching for terminal After opening the terminal first, update all the installed packages in your system using the common. So do this get update, then press enter. You will be asked for root password, right. The best word and press enter at the end off Any comment? We must press the enter key to execute it to search for software using Abbott. Use this common a bit. This case search, then application name such as GM short for goo image manipulation program entered the following comment when he stole the software. You won't. Here I will use gimp. So do how did this get in a stall? Gim, you can swept out game with the name off Whatever software you are installing with until the installation is finished Now we are done. I hope this has bean informative for you. And I'd like to thank you for viewing 21. 08 Uninstalling Ubuntu software via terminal: and installing programs on open to using terminal Open Terminal The open list off your currently installed programs type DB Kyoji This dish list into Terminal the Empress Enter find the program that you want toe uninstall. You will need to know the official name off the program file rather than the name of the program itself. For example, effigy rather than the effigy anti virus Here is an example. I'll choose game, you know, image manipulation program. Enter the evidence. Get common types who do this get he moved gimp into terminal, making sure to use the programs, actual name and press enter type in your super user best word and then press enter. To confirm the deletion type in y and press. Enter your program will begin toe uninstall itself. Once it finishes, you can close the terminal. This process may take a while to complete, depending on the size off the program. Now we are done. I hope this has been informative for you. And I'd like to thank you for viewing 22. 09 Installing Software on Ubuntu Graphically: installing software on a mantra. Graphically click on de sport in the sidebar search for a bunch of software center and open it from the bottom off the beach. You can select the category of software you want to install. For example, you would select graphics and photography. An alternate way is to use the search function and search for the required software from graphics and photography. We really choose my being as an example from the list and click Install. You will be prompted for the password it to continue installing the software by pressing within ticket. After finishing the installation, pressed the ranch Putin to try this software you have installed. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 23. 10 Uninstalling Ubuntu software using Ubuntu Software Center: uninstalling programs using bone to software center steps. I've been a bundle software. Click the installed tip. Find the program that you want toe on install. Scroll through the list off installed programs until you arrive at the one that you want to uninstall or search by name for it here. The program we are looking for is my being. Click on it. Click on the remove button. Confirmed the decision if permitted. If I ask it to confirm, click, remove again. Enter your password and risk within two key the bomb it that you seem a very slightly depending on your version off open toe after removing is finished. Now you can close open to software. I hope this has Bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 24. 11 Installing and uninstalling software on Ubuntu using Debian pkg: installing software in about two using Debian package wreckages are manually installed via the dbk G common Libyan baggage management system. Difficulty is the back end to command. It's like a bit this Get which in turn or the back end for going installed abs Like the software center manual. Don't load off at a depth Debian package method. You can use the downloads up Comment off Abbott, for example, If my bent is the package, you won't. We will use the following common a bit this get don't load. Were you being once? Don't load it. You can double click on the package toe Have it open in the software center from where you can install it or just open the terminal. Never get to the download location and run this common So do dbk G this I my being towed the Now you have my paint installed on your computer to remove my paint package right this common So do the bkg this nor are you being now We are done. I hope this has been informative for you and I like to thank you for viewing 25. 00 Section Three Overview: quickly start in this section, you will learn about connecting and disconnecting from the system. Take a look at thickest and graphic smooth. Learn how to change your password, how to navigate through the five system it reminding file type viewing, text files using special keys and how to get help. 26. 01 Logging in, activating ui and logging out: lugging in activating the user interface and lugging out. In order to work in a clinic system directly, you will need to provide a user name and best work. UNIX systems have two basic moves for a system to run in either quick and silver in text. Consul Mood, which looks like those with mouse multitasking and month user features but in graphical mood, which looks better. But it's more system resources. This is the default nowadays, almost desktop computers. You know you will connect with the system using graphical mood. When you are, ask it for user name and password slogan. Make sure the mouse pointer is in the Logan window. Provide your user name and password to the system and click OK or press enter. It's generally considered a bad idea to connect graphically using the root user name, which is the system administrator's account, since the use off graphics includes running a lot of extra programs in roots case with a lot of extra permissions. So to keep or risk, it's as low as possible. Use a normal user account to connect a graphically, but there are enough risk is to keep this in mind is a general advice for all. Use off the root account, only looking as root when extra privileges are required after entering your user name. Password combination. It can take a little while before the graphical environment is distorted, depending on the Cebu speed off your computer, the software you use and your personal settings to continue, you will need to open a terminal window. There are two ways to launch the terminal on open toe. Go to the death sport and type terminal, then click on it or you can press control multi to launch the terminal. Also, clicking the right mouse button on the desktop background will use really present you with a menu containing a terminal window application. The terminal window is your control Bannon for the system. Almost everything that follows is done using the simple but powerful takes tool. A terminal window should always show a common Bram it when you open it. Once you lunch the terminal, you would find something. Is Mustafa at Mustafa Days. VB colon Violet Dollar Sign written on it. The first part off this line Mustafa is the name off the user. The second board Mustafa dish Phoebe is the computer name or the host name the host name. Help us identify a computer over the network in a server environment. Hosting him becomes important. The colon is a simple separator. The toilet sign showed that the user is working in the home directory. If you change the directory, this sign will vanish. For example, if we moved from the Home Directory Toe Ben directory using the city comin, the tile it signed will disappear. It will appear again when moving back to the home directory. The dollar sign suggested that you are working as a regular or standard user on over in tow . While working as root user Hesh is displayed to disconnect from the system in graphical mood, you need to close all terminal renders and other applications. After that, hit the lookout icon or find look out on the menu. Closing everything is not really necessary, and the system can do this for you. But station management might put all currently open applications back on your screen when you connect again when you see the log in screen again asking toe, enter user name and password. Look out to successful to get into text mood while you are logged in graphical mood. There is control out if to tell if sex you know you are in text mood with the whole screen is black showing corrupters. I think a smooth, logon screen typically shows some information about the machine you are walking on, the name off the machine and a prom bit waiting for you to look in. The Logan is different from a graphical lugging in that you have to hit the enter key after providing your user name, because there are no buttons on the screen that you can click with the mouse, then you should type your password, followed by another enter. You won't see any indication that you are entering something, not even an asterisk, and you won't see the cursor move. But this is normal or Lennox and is done for security reasons. When the system has accepted you as a valid user, you will be given a shell indicated with the same Promet that you would get in graphical mood. Also in text mood, look in as root only to do set up and configuration. That absolutely requires adminstrator privileges, such as adding users, installing software packages and performing network and other system configuration. Once you are finished immediately leave the special account and resume your work as an unprivileged user. Systems like open toe force you to use to do so that you don't need direct access to the administrative account. Lugging out is done by entering the leg out common, followed by enter. You are successfully disconnected from the system When you see the lugging scream again, Returning back to the graphical mood is easily done by bracing control out if one I hope this has bean informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 27. 02 Absolute Basics: absolute basics After launching the terminal. Now we will have a look at quick start commands. B W d Print Working Directory Common Used for displaying the current working directory CD Change Directory Comment Used for changing directories. If you want to navigate to the home directory, then type CD them breast enter. You can also use the CD. Tell the common The route off the file system in Lennox is denoted by Ford Slash similar to see colon backslash in windows. Note that in renders you use backwards slash oil in Lenox system, the forward slash is used. Type C D. Ford Slash to move to the root directory. Don't forget space between city and ford slash. Otherwise you will get an error. You can navigate through multiple directories at the same time by specifying its complete. But, for example, if you want to move to the Cebu directory under the directory, we don't need to break this operation into two parts. Instead, we can type CD forward slash their forward slash cebu to reach the directory directly for never getting up. One directory level. We can use CD double that here by using the city double dot com and we have moved up one directory from deaf Cebu to death. Directory them by again using the same comment we have jumped from deaf to root directory A . Both in computing is the address off a file or folder, for example. Forward slash home forward slash user forward slash downloads This is the bus for the downloads directory. There are two kinds off parties. First, absolute both. Let's say you have to browse the images stored in the pictures directory off the home folder. Mustafa The Absolute File Birth Off Pictures directory forward slash home for the slash. Mustafa Ford's less pictures You never get to this directory. You can use the common CD forward slash home for older slash most of our forward slash pictures. This is called absolute both as you are specifying the full bus to reach the file. Second relative, both the relative Poth comes in handy when you have to browse another subdirectory within a given directory. It saves you from the effort to type complete Baathist all the time. Suppose you are currently in your home directory you want to navigate to the downloads directory. You don't need to type the absolute both City Ford slash home forward slash most of our forward slash downloads In a state, you can simply type CD downloads, and you would navigate to the downloads directory as you are already present within the home. Forward slash Most off our directory This way, you don't have to specify the complete both to reach a specific location within the same directory in the file system. Make us Ellis the List directory Common. This common displays a list off files in the current working directory. Like the dire common in those the bus WD common is used for changing the password for the current user. The file Common. It's police file type of fire. The cat common throughs. The content off any text file on the screen exit common is used to leave this session. The argument toe a comment are specifications for the objects in which you want the common to take effect. An example is S a T. C. Were the directory. CTC is the argument toe the ls common. This indicates that you want to see the content off that directory instead of the default, which would be the content off the current directory obtained by just typing Ellis, followed by enter some comments required arguments. Sometimes arguments are optional. You can find out whether or common takes options and arguments and which ones are valid by checking the online help for that comment, which we will discuss later. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing. 28. 03 Using Special Key for the Shell: using special key using best features. Several special key combinations allow you to do things easier and faster with the crucial fish, which is the default on almost any clinic system. You are strongly suggested to make a habit out off, using them so as to get the most out off your Lennox experience from the very beginning. Now let's try some examples. Breast control A. To move coarser to the beginning, off the command line. Breast controls. He toe end a running program and returned the bomb. It wrest control de to look out off the current shell station. It's equal to typing exit or look out press control. Eat to move closer to the end off the comment line. Control each to generate backspace character press control. L took leave. The terminal you can press control are to search in common history for a particular common our left or our right to move the cursor, one place to the left or right on the comment line so that you can insert characters at other places than just at the beginning and the end. Chris are up or arrow down to browse history. Go to the line that you want to repeat it did deals if necessary, and the center to save time base shift beach up or shift beach down to browse Terminal Buffer to see tickets that has scrolled off the screen. You can press step key at any time for find name completion. When multiple choices are possible, the system will either signal with an audio or visual bill or do nothing, and also bracing Techie twice will choose you file or commander completion possibilities. I hope this has Bean informed to for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 29. 04 Getting Help: getting help grew. Lennox is all about becoming more self really in. And as usual with this system, there are several ways to achieve the goal. A common way off getting help is finding someone who knows. And however Bishan and BCE loving the Lenox using community will be almost everybody will expect you toe have tried one or more off the message coming next before asking them. 30. 05 The man pages: the ma'am beaches. A little beginning. Users fear the men or manual beaches because they are an overwhelming source off the commendation. They are, however, very structured, as you will see from the coming example reading. Ma'am. Bages is usually done in a terminal window. Win in graphical moon or just in text mood. If you prefer it, tape the common man main. The documentation for men will be displayed on your screen. After pressing, enter, browse to the next beach using this piece poor. Or you can use the down arrow or the mouse's scroll. You can go back to the previous beach using the peaky when you reach the end. Man would usually quit and you get the bomb it back. Type que. If you want to leave their members before reaching the end, or if the viewer doesn't quit automatically at the end off the beach. Each man bid usually contains a couple of standard sections, as we can see from the Men Men. Example. The first line contains the name off the comment you are reading about and the I D off the section in which this man beach is located. The man beaches are ordered in chapters, the name of the common and a short description are given, which is used for building and index off the men. BAGES. You can look for any given search a string in this index using the approvals common, for example, a purpose. Make dire agrabah searches for make their in the main beach and displays the common description. The synopsis off the common provides a technical notation, all the options and or arguments this comment can take. You can think off an option as a way of executing the common. The argument is what you execute it on. Some comments have no options or no arguments. Optional options and arguments are both in between square brackets to indicate that they can be left out. A longer description off the common is given options with their descriptions are listed options can usually be combined, If not, so this section will tell you about it. Environment describes the shell variables that influence the behavior off this common. You must know that not all comments have this. Sometimes sections specific toe This comment are provided a reference to other men bitches is given in the see also section in between billionth asses is the number off the main beach section in which to find this comment. There might also be author and copyright information. Some commanders have multiple men bitches, for instance, the best WD common has a main beach in Section one and another in section five. By default, the main beach with the lower number is shown. If you want to see another section than the default, specify it after the men common. For example, men. Five Best WD If you want to see all men Bages about a common one after the other, use the dish option toe Men common, for example, man the E best WD. In this way, when you reach the end off the first main beach and the braces peace again, the main beach from the next section will be displayed. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing 31. 06 The Info Pages: the info Bage is in addition to the men Bages, you can read the Info Bages about a common using the info Common. This usually contain more recent information and are somewhat easier to use the member ages . For some comments, refer to the Info Bages. We will start by typing info in a terminal window. Use the arrow keys to browse through the thickest and move the cursor on a line, starting with an estes containing the key word about which you want info. Then hit. Enter use the B and in keys to go to the previous or next subject, the space poor will move you one beach further, no matter whether thesis started a new subject or an info bid for another common. Also, you can use cute to quit. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 32. 07 The whatis command: the what is common. A short index off explanations for comments is available using the artist common, as in this example, What is unless this displays short information about the common and the first section in the collection off men Bages that contains an appropriate beach. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 33. 08 The help option: the days dish help option was to group common support the dish dish Help option, which gives a short explanation about how to use the common and a list off available options. Let's try this option with the cat common Kid. This dish help. As you can see, it gives a short explanation about how to use the cat common and a list off its available options. I hope this has Bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 34. 09_Graphical Help: the graphical help. Don't despair if you prefer a graphical user interface. The general helping processor is very user friendly, and it provides painless access to the men and Info Bages, where the system documentation at Men Bages are easily possible with a blame interface. You can start it, but entering the comment genome this hope in full colon in food or by typing Yeah, in full colon in full, and you will get a Prospal Info Beach about the info comment. Similarly, Yeah, I mean, colon it lists will present you with the Man Beach for the Ellis comment. I know that some quints don't have several documentation because they are Bart's off another comment, such as CD Exit and look out the Are birth Off Your Shell program and are called Shell built in comments. I hope this has being informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 35. 00 Section Four Overview: about files and the file system. In this section, we will take a general overview off the links. Five system. It's playing and sitting. Both is describing the most important files, including Colonel and Chill Viewing File. Prosperity's Finding Lost and Hidden files. Creating, moving and leading files and directories understanding and using different link types. 36. 01 General 0verview of the Ubuntu file system: a general overview off the Lennox file system Assemble description off the Lennox system is that on Olynyk system, everything is a file. If something is notified, it is a process, and inexistent makes no difference between a file and directory, since a directory is just a file containing names off other files, programs, services, texts, images and so forth are all files inboard and outboard devices. And generally all devices are considered to be files, according to the system. In order to manage all those files in an orderly fashion, we will think off them in an order three like structure on the hard disk. While it is reasonably safe to suppose that everything you encounter on Olynyk system is a file, there are some exceptions. Directories are files that are listed off other files. Special files are the mechanism used for input and output. Most special files are in DIV Directory links is a system to make a file or directory visible in multiple parties off the systems. 53 Later, we will talk about links in detail. Circuits is a special file type similar to TCB I be sockets providing enter process networking protected by the file systems access control named by pipes. Act more or less like circuits and form a way for processes to communicate with each other without using networks. Okay. Semantics. To display the file type, we will use special option with the L S common. The file type will be deter mined, using the first character off each in both line dish for regular file de for directory file l for link file. See for special file Yes for circuit file, be four named by Fight and we for block device fight in order not to always have to preform along listing for seeing the file type a lot of systems by default don't issue just ls. But it ls dish our case. If which suffixes five names with characters like slash equal estrous and it to indicate the file type. Now, before we look at the important files and directories, we need to know more about partitions. Most people have of acknowledge off what partitions are, since every rating system had the ability to create or remove them. It may seem strange that Lennox uses more than one partition on the same disk, even when using the standard installation procedure. So some explanation is called for one off the goals off. Having different partitions is to achieve higher data security in case off disaster by dividing the hard disk into partitions that I can be grouped and separated when an accident occurs, Only the data in the partition that got the hit will be damaged, while the data on the other partitions will most likely survive. There are two kinds off major partitions on Olynyk system data partition, which has normally NIC system data, including the root partition containing all the better to start up and run the system, and sweat partition, which is an expansion of the computers. Physical memory as an extra memory on hard disk. The standard root partition indicated with a single forward Slash, is about 100 to 500 megabytes and contains the system configuration files. Most basic comments and server programs, system libraries, some temporary space and the Home directory off the administrative user. A standard installation requires about 250 megabytes for the root partition swept species indicated with swept or virtual memory is only accessible to the system itself and is hidden from view during normal operation. Sweb is the system that insures that you can keep on working. Whatever happens on Lennox, you will virtually never see irritating messages like out off memory. Please close some applications first and try again because off this extra memory, using memory on the hard disk is naturally slower than using the rail memory chips off a computer. But having this little extra is agreed. Comfort Lennox generally counts on having twice the amount of physical memory in the form off swept space on the hard disk. The colonel is one a separate partition as well in many distributions. Because it is the most important file off your system, you will find that you have a boot partition, holding your colonels and accompanying data files. The rest off the hard disks is generally divided into data partitions. When you perform a standard workstation installation, it is usually happens following a sit better a partition for user programs named User, a partition containing the users, personal data named home a partition to store temporary data like print and mail. Cui's named Var, a partition for the third Bharti and extra software named up. Once the petitions are made, you can only add more changing sizes or Berber tees off existing partitions is possible, but not advisable. Mountain points All partitions are attached to the system. Very amount boy. The Mount Point defines the place off a particular deficit in the file system, usually, or partitions are connected through the root partition. On this partition, which is indicated with the forward slash directories are created, these empty directories will be the starting point off the petitions that are attached to them during system start up. All the petitions are thus mounted on a running system. Information about the petitions and their mount points can be displayed using the DF common , which stands for disc full or disc free. In Lenox, the F is the new version, and support is the dish, which or human readable option, which greatly improves readability. The DF comment on leads place information about active nine swear partitions. These can include partitions from other networking systems to find out which partition a directory is on use. The DF comment with adults as an option shows the partition the current directory belongs to and informs about the amount off space used on this partition. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 37. 02 Orientation in the file system: orientation in the file system. When you want the system to execute a common, you almost never have to give the full both toe that common. For example, we know that the L S common is in the BIN directory. You can check with which this is Ellis, yet we don't have to enter the command slash bin slash ls for the computer to list the content off the current directory. The birth environment variable takes care off. This this variable estes those directories in the system where excusable files can be found and thus saves that the user a lot of typing and memorizing locations off commands. So the bus naturally contains a lot of directories containing been somewhere in their names . As I will demonstrate, we can use the echo common to display the content off the variable Beth Echo Dollar Sign Beth. In this example, the shown directories are subsequently searching for the required program. As soon as a match is found, the search is a stop, even if not every directory in the Beth has been searching. If you use programs in other directories more frequently, you can't change your Beth to look in your own directories. For example, toe End your home directory. We can use the export birth common and after the last colon ed, your new Beth. Note that when using the export common in a shell, the changes are temporary and only valid for decision until you look out. Opening musicians even while the current one is still running will not result in a new Beth in the new session. To make it permanent, you need toe ed Export Beth Equal Dollar Sign Beth Colon, then Beth Too dire to your profile or best R C five. Note that this will not automatically update your Beth for the remainder of decision To do this. You should run source. Till that slash did prove fight or the best RC. Now we will talk about the most important files and directories first. The Colonel. The Caroline is the heart off the system. It manages the communication between the underlying hardware and the brief roads. The colonel also make sure that processes and demons, which are server processes, are started and stopped at the exact right times. The colonel has a lot off other important tasks. For now, it suffices to know that the Colonel is the most important file on the system. Second, the ship a shell manages the interaction between the system and its users. It is a way off talking to the computer like a language. It is very difficult for a programmer to include all options and possible uses off a common in the GUI form it. Thus, ghosts are almost always less capable than the common or command is that for the back in the shell allows the user to handle a system in a very flexible way. An additional asset is that the shell allows for tusk automation, just like people know different languages and dialects. The computer knows different chill types. S H or born show is the original shell still used on UNIX systems and in UNIX related environments. This is the basic shell, a small program with few features best or born again. Chill is the standard crucial, intuitive and flexible, probably most advisable for beginning users while being at the same time a powerful tool for the advances and professional user. On Lenox, Besh is the standard shell for common users. This shell is a so called super set off the Bourne Shell, a set off red ones and blue gins. This means that the born again Shil is compatible with the born shell, which means the comments that were in ssh also working Boesch. However, the reveres is not always the case. All examples in this course use Boesch, the sea Show the scientifics off this shell assembles that off the C programming language sometimes ask it for by programmers. The turbo seashell is a super set off the common seashell, enhancing user friendliness and speed the corn show. It's sometimes appreciated by people with a gun. Expect ground. It is a super set off the born shell with standard configuration and nightmare for beginning users. The fine slash it is he slash shells give an overview off known chills on Olynyk system. To view this, you can use this common kid slash it easy slash shells No, that slash bin slash s, which is usually a link. Abeche, which will execute in Bantul convertible mood when called in this way, your default chill is sit in there slash btc slash best WD file switch from one child to another. Just enter the name of the new shell in the active terminal. The system finds the directory where the name a course using the Beth sittings. And since a shell is an excusable file, the current Shal activates it, and it gets executed A new Bram. It is usually shown because each shell has its typical appearance. If you don't know which ill you are using, either check the Ryan for your account in slash etc. Slash best WD or type that common equal dollar sign chill about the home directory. Your home directory is your default destination when connecting to the system. In most cases, it is a subdirectory off slash home. Whatever the birth to your home directory, you don't have to worry too much about it. The correct birth to your home directory is stored in the home environment, valuable in case some program needs it. With the echo common, you can display the content of these variable equal daughter saying home your home directory is indicated by Tell that shorthand for slash both toe home slash user name. This same Beth is stored in the home variable so you don't have to do anything to activate it. Assemble vacation. Switch to your home directory using one elegant common type C D. Tilda slash images and press Enter. You can check using B W D common the most important configuration files and most configuration files are stored in the BTC. Directory content can be viewed using the Ted Common, which send the stickiest fights to the standard output. Usually your monitor the Scientifics is a straightforward kid. Then find him example for files stored in the OTC directories Best R C five, which is the system white configuration fight for the Born again shell. Another example is the hostess fight, which is a list off machines that can be contacted using the network but without the need for a domain name service. The best W D file, which list it's Local users use the shadow utilities user, a user mood and users will toe edit this file. I know that editing manually. This file is done when you really know what you are doing. Any type file information for booting mood, number of text councils and others about devices. Devices are generally every peripheral attachment off ABC. That is not. The Cebu itself is presented to the system as an entry in the deaf directory. For example, see the room for City drive control for a special entry for the currently used control. About four directory in the vault date of tree. We find a set off directories for storing specific none. Coniston data. All files that have changed frequently, such as look, files, mailboxes, schoolers are kept in a subdirectory off our I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing. 38. 03 manipulating files: many pleating files. Ellis can give a lot of other information. Such is the file type, as we already discussed. It can also show permissions on a file file size. I knew number, condition, date and time owners and amount off links to the fight. But adding the dish option toe l s con. It can list all the files directories in their mood. Number of links. Owner off the fire file size. But if I date and time and find him with the dish option toe unless files that are normally hidden from view can be displayed as well, you can type S they still t to list files ordered by deed. By typing in this dish, it's Abertis. You will have a list off files ordered by fine size. You can use this our option to reverse it. The result. For example, in this this ability or and a list this and it's uppercase are you can get more options for excrement using the manual off the LS by typing man ls. These features allows seeing the file type without using any options to ls. To achieve this, every file time has its own color. The color dish Ellis Default color scheme. Blue color for directories. Red color for compressed archives White color for text files being color for images. Cyan Color for links Your local ER for devices. Green color for X Q. Trebles and fleshing great color for broken wings The same information was in earlier days displayed using suffixes toe every nine standard find name. The defaults of fixes came for journalists. Nothing for a regular fire forward slash for directories as to risk for excusable files at symbol for Link equal character for circuit and by four named by to find out more about the kind of data we are dealing with. We used the fire comin, but of lying certain testes that the chick properties off a file in the file system, magic numbers and language. Distance five tries to make an educated guess about the former for five. For example, if we type filed documents, we would see the type is directory. The final comment has a series of options, among others. The dish easy option broke into compressed files. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing 39. The touch command: The touch command is a standard program for Linux operating systems and that is used to create, change and modify timestamps of a file. Let's take some examples of using the attach command to create an empty file test. You can use the command and to check to change or update the list xs and notification time of the file data, you can use the best option. For example, to check. Here, I used the option to show last time instead of lust modification type. Using the risky option sets the currentTime and determine a file. Here. If the data file doesn't exist, it will create a new empty PI data. To avoid creating a new file, you can use the dashed c option, for example. To check. This command will not create the file if it doesn't exist. If you'd like to change only the modification time of the file test, then you can use the desk and option, for example, to check node. It will only update the last modification time of the test file and the access time will remain as it is. The touch command can also create any number of files simultaneously. For example, to create three new empty files named file one, 52, 53, you can use the command to check. Thanks for viewing. 40. 04 Creating Files and Directories: creating directories. A way of keeping things in place is to give certain files. The specific default locations were creating directories and subdirectories or folders and sub folders. If you wish. This is done with the MiG dire common. Now let's troy make dire archive. After creating archive, let's check using a less this L. D archive here we used the Option two a list directors on Lee. The first part is the file type and exit permissions. I noticed the number off hot links, then the owner off the fight. The user group size in bytes, Dayton Time and directory name to create more than one directory in one line inside the archive directory. First change directory to archive, then type make their 2019 2020 2021. Let's check using list common creating directories and subdirectories. Interested is done using the dish. Be option. If we tried. Without the DSB option, we will get an error. Make tired. 2019 slash reports slash new Bridget. After pressing enter, we will get an error. Cannot create directory. This is a result off not using the dish be option by adding this beat with the previous common make dir this be 2019 slash reports slash new Bridget It's a trick. Ellis 2019 slash reports presenter Keep in mind that Lennox is a case sensitive operating system. I hope this has bean informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 41. 05 Moving Files and Directories: moving files Now that we have properly structured or home directory, it's time took in up on tress for it. Files using the move Common to move the move files from the archive directory to the new Project Directory. We will use this comment M v archive slash move text archive slash 2019 Stash reports. It's less new project. It's chick type s. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 42. 06 Copying Files and Directories: copying files. The CPI common cubby files from one location to another. If the destination is an existing file, then the file is over written. And if the destination is an existing directory, the file is Corbett into the directory. The directory is not overrating. Scientists for CB comment is C B source destination, for example, C b just the thickest 2020 to check unless 2020 then a useful option is a recursive cubby to cover all underlying files and subdirectories using the dish of our case. Our Option two Seabee comin, for example. CP Dish uppercase are 2020 2019 to check it lists 2019 slash 2020. Done. I hope this has bean informative for you and I like to thank you for viewing. 43. 07 Removing Files and Directories: removing files and directories. RM Lennox Common is used to remove and read the file from the directory. The same text used is or in the options then the file or directory options for the incumbent are this. If to remove all files in a directory without prompting the user this I short for interactive with this option RM bumped for confirmation before removing any files there are about or lower case to recursive Lee. Remove directories and subdirectories in the argument list. The directory will be emitted off files and removed. The user is normally Bram pitted for removal off any right protected files which the directory contains. For example, to remove and delete a file, use our AM, followed by the fight, name and press. Enter here RM Comet removed and greeted the final test to delete a directory three. For example, TMB directory or him. This are TMB. This are in common recursive. Lee removes the contents off all subdirectories off the TMB directory, prompting you regarding the removal off each file and then removes the TMB directory itself to remove more files at once RM space. Find one name space file to name and this enter here are implement removed 51 and filed two At the same time, our entire common RM dire common is used to delete and remove empty directories. You can use LSD she to check whether a directory is empty or not. The same ticks is RM. Their options directory. You can use the SB option with RM dire comment to remove the directory their name and it's bear on directories which become empty for example RM dire TMB here RM dire command. We remove and lead the directory TMB if the directory is empty. I hope this has bean informative for you and I like to thank you for viewing. 44. 08 Finding Files and Paths: finding of files in a directory containing many files. You can check if there are any files beginning with the letter A. Just by typing L S E and pressing the tape key twice rather than pressing. Enter if there is only one file starting with me, this fight will be shown as the argument toe LS for initial comment, for that matter immediately. A very simple way of showing the full both off. Giving excusable common is using the rich comment The rich com It looks in the directories listed in the user search, both for the required fire, which common doesn't work for ordinary files. The scientifics is which options program name the rich. Common is useful when troubleshooting going, not found problems. For example, which is this rece? Enter Ellis is slash been slash Ellis, using the, which common also checks to see if a comment is an alias for another common, for example, which they see it. This here we used a sheet to print all matching excuse balls in Beth. If this doesn't work on your system, use the ideas, comment and check the results. Ilias Ellis LS is Alias. Two lists this this color equal to find and look it. These are the real tools used when searching other Baathists beside those listed in the search. Both the fine tool is very powerful, which may be the cause off somewhat more difficult. Scientifics. The file command not only allows you to search find names, it can also accept fire size. Date off, lost the change and other file properties as criteria for a search. The most common uses for finding find names The Scientifics is find Beth options for finding find names. The Centex will be fine. Beth. This name Such a string. This can be interpreted as look in all files and subdirectories contained in a given both and bring the names off the files containing the search is turning in their name, not in their content. For example, find this name just between courts. He did. The system would search for unifying, named in the current directory and any subdirectory. Another example. Fine slash this name This between Courts and Ray Center here. The system would search for any fun name on the route and all subdirectories from the root . And if we used this option, find this name asterisk between courts their size plus 1000 kilobytes. Here, the system would search for any fight in the list that is larger than 1000 kilobytes. Another application off fine is for searching fights off a 17 size, as in the next example with user wants to find all filed in the current directory or one off. It's subdirectories that are bigger than five megabytes fine dot for the current directory dish size plus five South End Gil bites find A can also perform operations on the found files. A common example is removing files. It is best to first test without the dish exit option that the correct files are selected to search for files ending in the TMB. Fine took this name asterisk dot TMB between courts and this enter after that, the common can be returned to the did that selected files. Find the best name asterisk dot TMB between courts this exit RM, open and close. Kurdi, Brecht's Backslash and Ray Center here used RM to delete all the files. Ending was due. TMB let her own in 1999. After 20 years off, find locate was developed. This program is easier to use, but more restricted than fine since it's Albert is based on a file index database that is updated only once every day. On the other hand, a search in the low key data bees uses for your resources, then fine and therefore throws the results nearly instantly. Example. Locate Alias and Breast Center. Most Lennox distributions used s located these days. Abbreviation off security enhancing. Lookie the modern version off locate that prevents users from getting out, but they have no right to read. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 45. 09 Linking Files: linking files. The link is nothing more than a way off, matching two or more file names to the same set off filed better. There are two ways to achieve this. The behave similarly, but are not the same. First, hardly hardly associate two or more find names with the same high noon. Each regular file is in principle, hardening. Also, hard links share the same that have looks on the hard disk. While they continue to behave as independent files, there is an immediate disadvantage, which is her links can't spend across partitions, since they referred Toe I nudes and I knew numbers are unique within a given partition. Second soft link or symbolic ling softly is a small file that is a pointer to another file . A symbolic ling contains the birth to the target file instead off a physical location off the hard disk. Since I knew they are not used in this system, soft drinks can spend across partitions. No, that removing that are get filed for a symbolic ling makes the link useless. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing 46. 10 Creating Symbolic Links: commuting symbolic links. The symbolic thing is particularly interesting for beginning users. They are fairly obvious to see, and you don't need to worry about partitions. The comment to make links is Ellen. In order to create simple clings, you need to use the dish. This option the same ticks for the ill in common is is in. This is don't get fire length Name example in dishes slash up slash m three slash move This piece blue here slash up slash m three slash move is the target file and move is the link name to check we can type. It is less l in this example user kids running in a subdirectory off his home directory toe a directory on another bird off the system. Dude, that symbol drinks are always very small files, while hard links have the same size as the original file. I hope this has bean informative for you. And I'd like to thank you for viewing 47. 00 Section Five Overview: processes after files. Resistors are the most important thing on Olynyk system In this section. You will take a closer look at those processes, and you will learn about multi user, persisting and multi tasking process types, interactive and automatic processes, demons and what they are. You learn what pipes are, how to use them, the grip, comment and how to use it for searching a particular information, the sort of comment and how useful it is in sorting the contents off files and directories in different ways. You learn about output filters, process attributes. It's playing process information. The life cycle of a process. Controlling processes with different signals, the book process and run levels. The shutdown comment. Managing processors. Also, you learn about using beauty and niceness, CPU and memory resources tuning system performance network problems. And this came both out of problems. The categories off users and their effect on the system system. Graphical tools, interrupting processors settling for sisters, the sleep comment and that comment, and at last, the corn and quarantine facilities 48. 01 Processes: Processes. After completing this lecture, you should be able to define what is a process and phi, what is a thread? An instance of a running program is called a process. Processes are also frequently referred to as tasks. Every time you run, I shall command a program is run and a process is created for it. While a computer program is a massive collection of instructions, a process is the actual execution of those instructions. Several processes may be associated with the same program. In Linux. And abstraction of process is however, incomplete without discussing threads, sometimes called lightweight processes. By definition, a thread is an execution context or flow of execution in a process. Thus, every process consists of at least one thread. A process containing several execution threads is said to be a multithreaded process. Each thread has its own ID, program counter, process tick, and a set of registers. Each process consists of system resources that are allocated to it and addresses piece of allocated memory, operating system descriptors of resources that are allocated to the process. Security attributes and the process state. The environment of a process includes local and global variables, a current scheduling context, and allocated system resources, such as file descriptors and network ports. Thanks for viewing. 49. 01 Multi user and multi tasking: multi user and multi tasking. An instance off a program is called a Brutus. In simple terms, any command that you give to your Lennox machine started a new process. Not every common started a single brushes. Some comments initiate a series of processes such as Mazzella. Others, like excrement, are executed as a single common. Furthermore, a common policy in Lenox Toe have multiple users learning multiple commands at the same time and on the same system. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 50. 02 Interactive processes: Bruce is types first, the interactive processes interactive processes are initialized and controlled through a terminal session. In other words, there has to be someone connected to the system to start these Bruce sisters. They are not started automatically as board off the system functions. These processes can run in the foreground, occupying the terminal that started the program, and you can't start other applications as long as this process is running in the foreground . Alternatively, they can run in the background so that the terminal in which you started the program can accept new comments while the program is running. Until now, we mainly focused on programs running in the foreground, which the rain's off time taken to run them was too short to notice a comment occupying the terminal session. In this case, the activated program is waiting for you to do something. The program is still connected to the terminal from where it was started, and the terminal is only useful for entering commanders. This program can understand other commands will just result in errors or on responsiveness off the system. While a process runs in the background. However, the user is not prevented from doing other things in the terminal in which he started the program. Why it is running the shell offers a feature called Job Control, which allows easy handling off multiple processes. This mechanism switches processes between the foreground and the background. Using this system. Programs can also be started in the background immediately. Running a process in the background is only useful for programs that don't need user input via the shell. Putting a drop in the background is typically done when execution off a job is expected to take a long time in order to free the issuing terminal. After entering the common, A trailing M percent is headed. The full job control features are explained in detail in the best info Bages, so only the frequently used job control applications are listed here. Using regular common means run this comment in the foreground using common space. 1% means run this common in the background and release the terminal using jobs. Common means show comments running in the background. Pressing control Z means has been, which means stop, but not quick. Obras is running in the foreground, pressing controls. He means interrupt. That means 10 minute and the quit a Bruce is running in the foreground. Every process running in the background gets a number assigned to it by using the percent and expression a job can be referred to using its number. For instance, F g person to where to is the job number. We use the BG Common to reactivate a suspended program in the background and we use the MG common towboats the drug back in the foreground. Also, we use the kill comment to end a process. Do you skill common to kill a process after kill? We bought the bruises I D. Or we can use the kill all common and after kill all the bruises Name. I hope this has bean informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 51. 03 Automatic processes: second. The automatic processes automatic or batch processes are not connected to a terminal brother. These are tasks that can be cute into a spolar area where they wait to be executed on their first in first out basis. Such tasks can be executed using one off to cure it. Area first at a certain date and time, then using the ed common, which we will discuss later. Second, at times when the total system load is low enough to accept extra jobs. This is done using the veg common by default. Tasks are both in a queue where the weight to be executed until the system load is lower than 0.8. In large environments, the system administrator may be referred batch processing when large amounts off that I have to be processed, all went. Task is demanding a lot off system resources have to be executed on an already loaded system. Better persisting is also used for optimizing system performance. I hope this has bean informative for you and I like to thank you for viewing 52. 04 Daemons: demons. Demons are server processes that run continuously most of the time. They are initialized at System startup and then with in the background until their services required. A typical example is then it working Demon Ex sign it d short for extended Internet service demon, which is started in almost every book. Proceed er, after the system is booted, the network demon just sits and waits until a client program such as an FTP client needs to connect. I hope this has Bean informative for you under like to thank you for viewing. 53. 05 Linux Pipes: then X pipes. Anyone new to Lennox might wonder. What role do pipes play in running the operating system? The vertical poor symbol denotes a pipe. If you want to use two or more comments at the same time and run them consecutively, you can use pipes. Pipes enables Lennox users to create powerful commands, which can perform complex tasks in a jiffy. Let's understand this was an example. When you use get comment to view a fire which dispense multiple bages the bomb, it quickly jumps to the last page off the file, and you don't see the content in middle. To avoid this, you can bite the output off the kid common to less, which will show you only one scrolling off content at the time. Kid this by this. Also, you can use BG and more comments in a state off less. For example, get this by more. More is a popular cross platform terminal. Bigger, more can move forward and backward in text files, but cannot move backwards in pipes. Here, you can view the file in there, just pull pits and scroll down by simply hitting the in turkey. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 54. 06 The grep command: the grip Common. Suppose you want to search a particular information such as the buster could from a text file. You mean manuals came the content yourself to treat the information. A better option is to use the grape comment. It will scan the document for the desired information and present the results in a four month. You want the same ticks for the great comment is good options. Better fire. Let's see it in action. Get this to show the content off the test fight. Get this by grip at the here. We used great common to search for a bill in the test fight here. Great comment. Has searching the final test for the string. Abbell Following options can be used with this comment. This be option shows all the lines that do not match the search. String this option this place on Lee. The count off matching lines This is an option shows the matching line and it's number this option match both upper and lower kiss, and this option chose just the name off the fight with the string. Let's try the dish I option on the fistfight. Get pissed by grip dish boy e using the option grip has filtered the string e from all of the lines, and you must know that it is case insensitive the head until comments these two commands displays the in first and last lines off a fire, respectively. To see the last 10 comments entered, I feel DISTIN the best underscore history. These common chose the last 10 comments entered in the terminal, and it get them from the best history fight. Also hit works similarly head distant dot dash Underscore History hit here will show the 1st 10 comments in the best history file. The tail comment has a handy feature toe continuously show the last in lines off a fine that changes all the time. This this option is often used by system administrators to check on long files. I hope this has been informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing 55. 07 The sort command: the sort Calmund this common help in sorting out the contents off a file. Alphabetically. The scientists for this comment is soared. Options five name. Consider the contents off a file test. Get this using the sort of comment it will be. Sort this options for the short moment. Are this hour option for reverses sorting this an option for sorts. Numerically this if option for case insensitive sorting. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 56. 08 Filter: filter filter is the output from first common, which becomes the in. But for the 2nd 1 when you buy two comments, the filtered out but off The first comment is given to the next. Let's understand this. With help off an example, we have the falling file file. Okay, fine. We want to highlight only the lines that don't contain the character. A But the result should be in reverse order for this. The following Centex can be used kit file Are you gonna this week be by sort? This are he'll get filed to show the text file and grip this V P to highlight only the lines that do not contain the character A and swordfish or to show them in reverse order. Now, as you can see, filtered results are given to the next common. I hope this has been informative for you. And I like to thank you for viewing 57. 09 Process attributes: process attributes a process has a series off characteristics which can be viewed with the B s common. The B s comments stands for processes status. It is similar to the task manager that both ups in a Windows machine When we use control all daily the bruises attributes viewed by the B s comment or the process i d or B I D. Which is a unique identification number used to refer to the process the Barents process I d or B B i D. Which is the process I d off the process that started this process Terminal or TT Y is the terminal to which the bruises is connected to see the process of status B s. This if the B s common is one off the tools for visualizing processes, we will continue talking about it later. Here we used the dish option to less the information about all processes most if frequently requested. And we used the Flesch F option to generate a for listing when user started a program. The process itself and all processes started by the initial process will be owned by user and not by the system administrator. Normally, Lennox, when a program runs. It inherits access permissions from the look in user. I hope this has been informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing. 58. 10 Displaying process information: displaying process information. The B s common is one off the tools for visualizing processes. B s comment is used to reward the bruises status. It is the short name for process status. This comment has several options which can be combined to display different process. Attributes to be is Comintern. Text is B s options with no options is specified. BS on Lee gives information about the current chill and eventual processes options used with the B s common. We used the dish option to list information about all processes. Most frequently requested all those accepted process group leaders and the process is not associated with a terminal this upper case or lower case e options to list information for old processes. We can use the dish the option to list information about all processes except session leaders. This option to list information about every process that is running now the best option to generate a full listing. The refugee option to bran session I. D and Bruce s Group I D. And we use the dish option to generate a long listing. We will usually select particular processes out off the list off all processes using the grip comment in a bite. As in this line, which will select and display all processors owned by a particular user. B s this f by get it stuffer? No, that BS on Lee gives a momentary state off the active processes. It is a one time recording. The relations between processes can be visualized using the Bs tree common the top common. The top programs place a more precise view by updating the results given by BS with a bunch off options once every five seconds. Generating a new list off the process is causing the heaviest load periodically. Meanwhile, integrating more information about this Web space in News and the State of the Cebu from the Brook file, it displays the total number off running processes, number off sleeping processes and stop the processes number of zombie processes in the system. The same text for the top comment is don't options options used with the top common this. Be option to run in bench moon and don't accept command line input bestie option to show comet line in the display instead of just common name. That's an option toe update displaying sometimes the exit this option to suppress display off either and zombie processes this B b i. D. Option to monitor only processes with the satisfied process I d. And we use the s option for sick your mood to disable some dangerous interactive comments you can rescue on the keyboard at any time to move out of the process. Display the first line off top contains the same information displayed by the uptime common . The 10 minority follows B i d. The process I d off each tusk user the user name off this corner, we are pretty unity can be 20 and that is the highest or negative 20 and that is the lowest . And I the nice value off a task vert virtual memory used in kilobytes, RTs physical memory used in kilobytes also, and it's HR shared memory used and kilobyte. Yes, for status there are five types. Our case D and interruptible sleep our case or running Our case is sleeping about Christie traced or stop and other key Z for zombie person to be you is person off Cebu Time person memory for physical memory used and time plus total Cebu time and common for common name. I hope this has bean informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing 59. 11 Process Creation: life off a Bruces process creation. A new process is created because an existing brushes makes an exact copy off itself. This child process has the same environment as its parent. Only the process I D number is different. This procedure is called forking after the forking process. The other space off the child process is over it in with the new process data. This is done through an exit poll to the system. The Fork and Exit McInnes, the Fort function Gloans, the current process creating an identical child. The exact function loads a new program into the current process. Replacing the existing one thus switches an old comment with a new while. The environment in which the new program is executed remains the same, including configuration off in boats and outboard devices, environment, variables and beauty. This mechanism is used to create all the Knicks operating system for sisters. Even the fairest process in it with process i d. One is forking during the boot procedure in the so called bootstrapping procedure. The bruises. I did changes after the four procedure. There are a couple of cases in which it becomes the parent off a process, while the process was not started by in it, as we already saw in the B s. Three example. Many programs, for instance, demonized the child processes so they can keep on running. Gwynne, the parent stops or is being stopped. A window manager is a typical example. It starts an external process that generates, actually that accepts comments. The window manager then denies any further responsibility and posit the child process toe in it. Using this mechanism, it is possible to change window managers without interrupting running applications. Every now and then, things go wrong. In an exceptional case, a process might finish. While the Baron doesn't wait for the completion off this process such an and buried process is called a zombie versus I hope this has been informative for you. And I'd like to thank you for viewing 60. 12 Ending Processes: ending processes when a process in this, normally it is not killed or otherwise on expectedly interrupted the program. Return is its exit status to the Baron. This exit status is a number. Return it by the program, providing the results of the programs execution. The return it goods can then be interpreted by the Baron or in scripts. The values off the return codes are program specific. This information can usually be found in the main Bages off the specified program. For example, the great common return is minus one. If no matches are found upon which a message on the lines off no files found can be printed . Another example is the best built in comment through which does nothing except return and exit status of zero meaning success. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing 61. 13 Signals: signals processes in because the received signal there are multiple signals that you can send toe a process. We use the kill common to send a signal toe a process. The common killed Michelle shows a list off signals. Most signals are for internal use by the system or for programmers when the right could. As I user, you will need the following signals. The common signals in Lenox are six to, and it takes number 15 used to terminate the process in an orderly wait sick and antics. Number two usedto interrupt the process, but the Bruces can ignore the signal. Say kill antics. Number nine used to interrupt the process, but a process can't ignore the signal. Seek help and takes number one used for demons to read the configuration fight. You can read more about default actions that are taken when sending a signal toe a process in men seven signals. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 62. 14 Boot process: the boot process. When an exit is X computer is booted, the processor looks at the end off the system memory for the bias for four basic inboard outboard system and runs it. The vice program is written in tow. Permanent read only memory and is always available for use. The vice provides the lowest level interface Tobe referral devices and controls the first step off the boot process, the voice distance the system looks for and the chicks peripherals and then looks for a drive to use to boot. The system usually checks the flow, be drive or syndrome dr. On many newer systems for portable media, if present, and then it looks to the hard drive the order off. The drives used for booting is usually controlled by a particular pirate sitting on the system. Once Lennox is installed on the hard drive off a system, the vice looks for a master boot record. Starting at the first sector on the first hard drive loads its contents into memory. Them buses controlled Tow it. This MPR contains instructions on how to load the group or leader boot loader. Using a pre selected operating system. The NPR then loads the boot loader, which takes over the process if the boot loader is installed in the NPR in the defaulted hit Lennox configuration Grab uses the sittings in the NPR to display boot options in a menu. Months of grub has received the correct instructions for the rating system to start either from its common line or configuration fight. It finds the necessary boot file and hence off control off the machine to that operating system. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 63. 15 Boot process Init: in it. Once the colonel is loaded, it finds in it in Espen and executes it. When anything starts, it becomes the Barents or Grand Baron all the processes that start up automatically on your clinic system. The first thing and it does is reading. It's initialization file any tip, which is located in slash etc. Slash In a tip. This instructs in it to read an initial configuration script for the environment, which sits. The bus starts webbing, checks out the fight systems and so on. Basically, this is step takes care off everything that your system needs to have done at system initialization sitting the club initializing serial ports and so forth. Then and it continues to read the TTC in a tape file, which describes Held the system should be set up in each run level and sets the default run level. Are on level, is a configuration off processes and then exist. Um can be run in different process configurations, such as the single user mood, which is referred to as run level one or run live illness. In this moon, only the system administrator can connect to the system. It is used to be for maintenance discus without risk of damaging the system or user data. Naturally, in this configuration, we don't need to offer user services, so they will all be disabled. Another round level is the reboot Ron level or run level six, which shuts down all running services according to the appropriate procedures. And then we started the system. Use the who common to check what your current run level is. Who this your after having determined the default run level for your system. And it started all off the background processes necessary for the system to run by looking in the appropriate RC directory for that run level any trans. Each of the conscripts with a stop parameter then runs all of the start scripts, which is their file names starts with an S in the appropriate level directory so that all services and applications are started correctly. In fact, you can execute these same scripts manually after the system is finished, putting with a common like slash it is he slash, and it does the slash ich TBD stop or service each CTBT still looked in as root in this case, stopping the Web server to start the H T T B D service again, you can use service HTT BD start. And to show its status, you can use service. Http. D status. I hope this has bean informative for you. And I like to thank you for viewing. 64. 17 Runlevels: brown levels. The idea behind operating different services a different run levels essentially revolves around the fact that different systems can be used in different ways. Some services cannot be used until the system is in a particular state or mood, such as being ready for more than one user. We're having networking available. There are times in which you may want to operate the system in a lower moon. For example, fixing this corruption problems in run level one so no other users can possibly be on the system or leaving a server in run level three without an excision running. In these cases, running surfaces that depend upon higher system moved to function doesn't make sense because they will not work correctly anyway by already having each service assigned to start when its particular and level is reaching. You ensure an orderly startup process, and you can quickly change the mood off the machine without worrying about which services to manually start or stop Available. Run levels are generally described in as you can see. Use the who common to check what your current run level is, who this hour the non living are zero heart. Don't sit default tothis run level one is single user mood to is multi user without NFS, and it's the same as your own liver. Terry. If you don't have networking run Level three full multi user mood living for is unused for a living. Five for graphical display living six. Reboot and also don't sit default to this. Feel free to configure and use drone devils commonly run level four As you see fit. Many users configure those from devils in a way that makes the most sense for them, who are leaving the standard run levels as the are by default. This allows them to quickly move in and out off their custom configuration without disturbing the normal set off features at the standard run levels. I hope this has been informed to for you, and I like to thank you for viewing. 65. 16 Boot process Special Case: The boot process, special cases mood that on modern versions of Linux, system d is used instead of an IT system. And it uses target term for R1 levels. System d is assistant management demon. Similar to an IT system d is the parent of all other processes directly or indirectly, and is the fairest process that starts at boot. Hence typically assigned a BID equal one. System d is a bag ground processes, which is designed to start to processes in parallel, thus reducing the boot time and computational overhead. Not all run levels are the same on all operating systems. Onto cabbie run levels 34 from two. All of the scripts that actually start and stop their services and their own levels are located in slash lib sledge system D sledge system directory. All of their own levels in slash lib slash system. The sludge system directory are symbolic links that point to the actual scripts located in the same directory. By default, most systems of our six virtual consoles, but this is configurable from the slash, ETC slash system d slash login, d dot conf file. How to handle a user pressing control alt delete at the console is done using their slash lib sledge system d slash System slash control, Daesh out Bechdel dot target file. On most RPM based systems, the graphical login screen is started in Ron Level five using the command edit five. The slash lib sledge system d slash system directory contains entries for a range of functions and services that are already at boot time. The location of their directory containing system defaults might be somewhat different depending on your Linux distribution. At lost, if all goes well, you should be looking at a login brown bit or login screen when the boot process has finished. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 66. 16 Boot process Systemd: System d. After completing this lecture, you should be able to explain what system d is and the role of system d process in a Linux system. System d is a system and service management demon. It provides a method for activating system resources, server demons, and other processes both at boot time and on a running system. Its main aim is to unify Service Configuration and behavior across Linux distributions. The name system D adheres to the unix convention of naming demons by appending the letter D. It also please on the term system d, which refers to a person's ability to adapt quickly and improvise to solve problems. Since 2015, the majority of Linux distributions have adopted system D, having replaced other systems such as the Unix system B. And B is the nth systems. Read head is the inventor and bribery booster of system d. So the best distress for bleeding with it already had Enterprise Linux clones like Santos and scientific Linux. Similar to init system d is the parent of all other processes directly or indirectly, and is the first process that starts at boot, hence, typically assigned a process ID one, system D Media fair to all the packages, utilities, and libraries around the moon. It was designed to overcome the shortcomings of init. System d itself is a back ground process, which is designed to start processes in parallel, thus reducing the boot time and computational overhead. The main reason that there was a need to replace in it is that init process started serially, meaning that one task starts only after the last task Startup was successful and it was loaded into memory. This often resulted into delayed and lung booting time. However, system D was not designed for speed, but for getting the things done neatly, which in turns, avoid all the unnecessary delays. Demons are processes that we'd or run in the background performing various tasks. Generally, demons start automatically at boot time and continue to run until shut down or until they are manually stopped. To listen for connections. A daimon uses a socket, which is the primary communication channel with local or remote clients. Sockets maybe created by demons or may be separated from the demon and be created by another process such as system d. The socket is best to the Daemon when a connection is established by the client. Service often refers to one or more demons. But starting or stopping a service, we instead make a one time change to the state of the system, which doesn't involve leaving a daemon process running afterward. A few of the new features provided by system d include keene state forward and efficient design. Similar put process, concurrent and parallel processing output. Symbol unit syntax, ability to remove optional components. Low memory footprints, improved technique to express dependencies. Initialization instruction written in config file and not in shell script. Make use of unix domain sockets. Job scheduling using system D, calendar timers, event logging with journal D, choice of logging system events with system D, as well as this log. Logs are stored in binary file system, the state can be preserved to be called knitr in future. Users login managed by system d dash lugging D, better integration with glue for interoperability. And everything is at one please. At the end of the boot process, the Linux can then load system d and bases control over to it. And the startup process begins. During this step, the candle initializes the first user space process, system d with process ID one, and then goes idle and less cold. Again. System D prepares the userspace and brings the Linux host into an operational state by starting all other processes on the system. Simplified overview of the entire Linux boot and startup process. First, the system parse up, then buys does minimal how initialization and hands over control to the bootloader. The bootloader calls the kernel. Then the current loads and initial RAM disk that loads at the system drives and then looks for the root file system. Once the candle is set up, it begins the system de-initialization system. Then system detects over and continues to mount the hostess file systems and services. Thanks for viewing. 67. 17 Identifying Automatically Started System Processes - CentOS 8: Identifying automatically started system processes. After completing this lecture, you should be able to list system demons and network services started by the system, the service and socket units. System d units. I own it is assisting the object that performance or controls a particular task or action. System d uses units to start, stop, managed, service, organize boot process, maintain tasks and the processes create sockets, mount file system, and initialize hardware system. The unit consists of an EM pipe and configuration file. The name provides a unique identity to the unit. The type helps they only to group with other similar types of units. And the configuration file defines a responsibility or test of the ionic. System D tools, system dynamics, common system administration tasks, easier to manage with its system CTL and journal CTL commands. The system CTL command can be used to gather detailed information about the overall state of your server and any individual unit type. It can stop and start the server and modify the system state or the system. These journal city tool provides a centralized process and system blogging tool. This command allows you to query the system did Journal, which creates and maintains in Brexit journals from logging information that is pulled from different areas within the system. Areas like standard output and standard error of service units, like messages, BSE, slug, and can then log messages. In this way. System administrators can use a single tool to monitor and debug server system CTL and system d units. The system CTL command is used to manage different types of system, the objects called units. To list all available unit types, you can use the system CTL desk, the help command, surface states. The status of a service can be viewed with system CTL status, mmm dot type command. If they only type is not provided. System city L will show the steps of service unit if one exists. System the unit status. Several keywords indicating the state of the service can be found in the status output. For example, the loaded status means that valence configuration pile has been successfully read and processed and the active states means successfully executed. Let's take some examples. Checking system diversion. To show the version number of system D and your Linux system, you can use the command view units. System B uses units which can be Services, mount points, devices also kits. You can use the system CTL command to manage all these types of units. By default. When you run the system CTL command without any arguments, it will display a list of all loaded system d units, including services, showing their status with our active running extent or failed and the description. Using the list they're shown its sub command will show the same result that the system CTL command will automatically get the output with less available unit files on your system. And you can use the command. Here, as you can see in the output iron, it can be in three states, enable, disable, and static. If I own it is in the enabled state, the system distorts it at boot time. If it is in the disabled state, the system D doesn't start it at startup. And if I unit is in the static state, neither the system restarts it at startup, nor allows us to change its state. In other words, if a unit is in the disabled or enabled state, you can change its state using the system CTL enable or disable command. But if Ionic is in the static state, you can't change its state. Technically, if ion it is in the static state. This means that the only doesn't have the installed section in its configuration file, which is required to start a unit at boot time. The difference between the system city L or system city Des units commands and the system CTL list this unit, this file's command is that the first two commands give runtime snapshot of units. While the third command displays the status of units at startup. To list all the units you can use the command. And filter the output to view only filled services. You can use the command to list all available units in a particular type you can use, followed by unit type. For example, the following command list is available units in the type service that the dash, dash all option instructs the system CTL command to include inactive units in the output. Also, you can use the dash dash type option to filter the output by type. For example, in the output, the first column lists the name of the second column displays with or the unit configuration was loaded Burberry or not. The third, fourth columns, the state of the unit. And the last column provides a description of a on it. You can filter the output to new, more specific list of units. For example, to view the list of only active units in the type service, you can use the command to filter the output of available unit piles based on type and then use the following command to list all loaded but active services, both running and those that had extended. You can end the Nationalist state option with a value of active, for example. And to get a quick glance of unloaded and actively running services, you can run the command. Thanks for viewing. 68. 18 Controlling Services and Daemons - CentOS 8: Controlling system services. After completing this lecture, you should be able to control system demons and network services and view their status using system CTL services status. You can use the status option with the system CTL command or the system CTL list based unit best fights command to show the state of a unit. For example, to show the network manager service status, you can use the command. Another example to view the status of only the types. We can use the command. Alternate commands can also easily show the active and enabled states. For example, to determine if the cab service is active without displaying all of the status information, you can use the command. And to determine if the cab service is enabled to start at the system boot, you can use the command starting, stopping, restarting and reloading system daemons running system. The system CTL command allows you to start, stop, or start a service. Also, you can tell a service to reload it's configuration. Before starting node that changes to configuration, pile or other updates to a service may require that the service be restarted. Service that is no longer used may be stopped before removing the software. Service that is not frequently used, maybe manually started by an administrator only when it is needed. If the user is the route, you need the root privileges to manage the unit. Let's take some examples on managing services on a running system using the SSH key service. First, let's view the status of the SSH nice service. To verify that the process is running using the command to stop the service status. To start the service and view the status. Note that the process ID has to stop and then start the service in a single command. And to issue instructions for a service to lead and reload its configuration file without a complete stop and start. Note that here the process ID will not change. Unit dependencies. Services maybe started as dependencies of other services. If the unit is enabled and the service unit with the same name is not, the service will automatically be started when a request is made on the network. Socket. Services may also be triggered by Beth units when our file system condition is met. For example, a file placed into the brain's root directory will cause the caps print service to be started. If it is not trying to completely stop printing services on a system, you need to stop all three units service. Socket. Disabling the service will disable the dependencies. You can use the system CTL list this dependencies unit command to print out a tree of what other units must be started if the specified unit is started. Depending on the exact dependency, the other unit may need to be running before or after the specified when it starts. Adding the desk. This reverse auction to this command will show what units need to have a satisfied unit started in order to run. For example, masking services. At times assistant, we have conflicting surfaces installed. For example, there are multiple methods to manage networks and firewalls to prevent an administrator from accidentally starting a service. That service may be mascot. Masking will create a link in that configuration directories so that if the service is started, nothing will happen. In other words, you can mask a service or other unit to prevent it from starting at all. You would need to unmask it before it can start in the future. For example, to mask the network manager service, you can use the command to check and to unmask the network manager service. Use the command to check that a mascot service cannot be started manually or automatically. Enabling and disabling system demons to start or stop at PUT. Starting a service on a running system doesn't guarantee that the service will be started when the system reboots. Similarly, stabbing a service when arraying system will not keep it from starting again, when the system reboots. Services are started at boot time when links are created in the appropriate system D configuration directories. These links are created and removed with system CTL commands. In other words, you can use the system city enabled command to have system the automatically stored a service or other type of unit at boot up. You can use the system CDL disable command to disable a service and stops it from starting automatically with your computer. Let's take some examples to view the status of a service. For example, the SSH de service use document to disable the service and provider status. Note that disabling a service doesn't stop the service. And to enable the service again and verify the status. Mood that disabled Service will not be started automatically at boot or by other anionic pipes, but can be started many-body. Creating an alias for system CTL commands. If you frequently use any of the previous commands, you can create an alias command in your home RC file to easily invoke it. For example, to add an alias for the command used for showing the running services. You can do the following. First, open the dot push RC file. You can choose your preferred text editor, like them or Nano. Here I will use them. The following line under the list of aliases. Save the changes in the file and close. Restart the terminal. Let's try using the new areas. From now onwards, you can use the running underscore services command to view a list of all loaded activity running services on your system. Thanks for viewing. 69. 18 Shutdown: shut down. Lennox was not made to be shut down. But if you really must used the shutdown common by adding the dish, each option to the shutdown common will hurt the system while adding the dish Our option, we reboot it. The report and whole comments are now able to invoke shut down the front when the system is in run level 1 to 5 and thus ensure brother shut down off the system. But it is a bad habit to get into, as not all in X versions have this feature. If your computer doesn't power itself down, you should not turn off the computer until you see a message indicating that the system is halted or finish shutting down. This is done to give the system that I'm toe amount all partitions and take care that being ambition me coast, the talus. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 70. 19 Managing Processes: managing processes. It doesn't hurt a common user to know something about it, especially where his or here on processes and their optimal execution are concerned. Now we really study the daily problems a common user is confronted with, and actions such a user can take toe optimally use the resources available. This is mainly a matter off thinking Before acting about time taking to execute a comment. Best offers a built in time common the displaced. How long a common takes to execute The timing is highly accurate, and it can be used on any comment. In our example, as you can see that I'm taking toe, make this comment about system performance toe a user performance means quick execution off comments to assistant manager. On the other hand, it means much more. The system admin has to optimize system performance for the whole system, including users or programs and demons. System performance can depend on 1000 teeny things, which are not accounted for with the time common. Such is the program. Executing is badly written or doesn't use the computer appropriately. X two discs, controllers display and all kinds off interfaces, irritability off remote systems, which means metal performance amount off users on the system and amount off users actually working simultaneously Time off day and others about system load. In short, the road depends on what is normal for your system. There's only one way to find out. Check the load regularly if you want to know what's normal. If you don't, you will only be able to meet her system. Load from the response time off the comment line, which is a very rough measurement, since this is meat is influence it by 100 other factors. Keep in mind that different systems will behave differently with the same load average. For example, a system with a graphics card supporting hardware acceleration would have no problem rendering three D images. While the same system with achieve Vigee a card will slow down tremendously while rendering . Now, what can you do as a user? A big environment can slow you down if you have lots off environment. Variable set long search birth is that are not optimized and more off those settings that are usually made on the fly. The system will need more time to search and read better in X window mangers and desktop invents can be really Cebu eaters really fancy. The stop comes with a price, even when you can download it for free. Since most desktops provide Antone's ad infinitum, modesty is a virtue If you don't buy a new computer every year. I hope this has Bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing. 71. 20 Managing Process Priority and Niceness: purity and niceness. The beauty or importance off a job is defined by its nice number. A program with the holy nice number is friendly to other programs, other users and the system, and it is not an important job. The lower the nice number, the more important a job is and the more resources it will take without sharing them. Making a drop nicer by increasing its nice number is only useful for resisters that use a lot of Cebu time, such as compilers. Meth applications in the light processes that always use a lot off in both Albert time are automatically rewarded by the system and given a higher priority, which means a lower, nice number. For example, keyboard in both always gets the highest priority on a system. The default value off all the processes is zero to start a process with a nice number value other than the default value used. The following say index nice. This in nice value. Persist name. If a process already running on the system, then you can re nice its value using the syntax green eyes. This in nice value. That's be B I d to change the niceness. You can use the top common to that remind the B i. D. And it's nice value later used very nice common to change the value about from using the nice or re nice comments that up common is an easy way of stopping the trouble. Some processors and reducing purity identify the process in the nice column. Breasts are and enter the process. I d off the process that you want to re nice, Then enter the nice value. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 72. 21 Managing Process CPU Resources: Cebu Resource is on every Lennix system. Many programs want to use the city use at the same time, even if you are the only user on the system. Every program needs a certain amount of cycles on the Cebu to run. There may be times when there are not enough cycles because the CPU is too busy. The up time comment is widely inaccurate. It only displays averages, and you have to know what is normal. But far from being useless, there are some actions you can undertake if you think your Cebu is to blame for the unresponsiveness off your system, try running heavy programs with the LOADS law. Prevent the system from doing unnecessary war, such as stopping demons and programs that you don't use also using. Locate in ST off a heavy fine. Try running big drops with a low priority. If none off these solutions is an option in your particular situation, you may want toe agreed. Your Cebu. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing 73. 22 Managing Process Memory Resources: memory resources. When the currently running processes expect more memory than the system has physically available, Alex System will not crash. It will start Beijing or sweating, meaning the process uses the memory in discordance Web space. Moving content is off the physical memory, which are pieces off running programs or entire programs to desk in case off sweeping, thus reclaiming the physical memory toe handle more processes. This is slows the stem down enormously, since access to disk is much slower than access to memory, the top comment can be used to display memory and sweb use. If you find that a lot off memory and swept space are being used, you can Troy first killing, stopping, organizing those programs that use a big chunk off memory. Second, adding more memory and in some cases, more swept space to the system. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing 74. 23 Tuning System Performance: twinning system performance while in Port Talbot. Limitations are a major cause of stress for system Edmunds. The next system offers rather bored utilities to major in both double performance. The BEATUS, VM state and top tools give some indication off how many programs are waiting for em both out. But in its state, this place network interfaces statistics. But there are virtually new tools available to measure the input output response to system load. And the Ohio State Common gives a brief overview of general input output usage. Each device has its own problems, but the bandwidth available to network interfaces and the bend wits available to discuss are the two primary causes off bottlenecks in in but overall performance. I hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 75. 24 Network Problems: network in both outward problems. Little cover load occurs when the amount of data transported over the network is larger than the network's capacity, resulting in slow execution off every network related task for all users. This can be solved by cleaning up genital, which mainly involves disabling protocols and services that you don't need or by reconfiguring the network. For example, use off submits. Replacing helps with switches, upgrading interfaces and equipments. Network integrity problems accords when data is transferred incorrectly. Solving this kind off problem can only be done by isolating the faulty element and a blessing it. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 76. 25 Disk IO Problems: this input output problems. First, if being processed trance very too low, this means read or write speed for a single process is not sufficient. Second, if the aggregate transfer really is too low, then the maximum total bend. With that, the system can provide toe all programs, and that run is not enough. This kind off problem is more difficult to detect and usually takes extra hardware in orderto redivide that extremes over buses controllers and discuss if the overloaded hardware is the cause of the problem. One solution to solve this is carried a configuration optimized for inboard and outboard actions. This way you get to keep the same hardware and agreed to faster buses controllers and discuss is usually the other option. If overload is not the cause, maybe your hardware is gradually feeling or not well connected to the system chick contacts , connectors and blocks to start with. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 77. 26 Users: users. Users can be divided into several classes, depending on their behavior with the resource usage First. Users who run a large number off small jobs are the beginning, then X user, for instance, second users who run relatively few but large is UPS, for example, users running simulations, calculations, emulators or other programs that eat a lot off memory. And usually these users have a company in large data files. Food users who run few jobs but use a lot of Cebu time, such as developers and the like. You can see that system requirement may very for each class off users and that it can be hard to satisfy everyone if you are on a multi user system. It is useful and fun to find out habits off other users in the system in order to get the most out off it for your specific purposes. I hope this has Bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 78. 27 Graphical Tools: graphical tools for the graphical environment. There are a whole bunch off monitoring tools available, such as the Genome System Monitor, which has features for displaying and searching process information and monitoring system resources. Explode is another small X application for monitoring system load. You can search and find your favorite. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 79. 28 Interrupting Processes: interrupting processes. As an unprivileged user, you can only influence your own processes. We already so how you can display processes and filter our processes that belonged toe a particular user. And what possible restrictions can no cure when you see that one off your processes is eating too much off the system's resources, there are two things that you can do first. Make the process. Use fewer resources without interrupting it, or stop the process altogether in the case that you want the process to continue to run. But also you want to give the other processes on the system a chance you can re nice the bruises, examples off processes that you want to keep on running our emulators, virtual machines, converters and so on. If you want to stop a process because it hangs or is going totally berserk in the way off the input, output, consumption, file creation or use off other system resources, use the kill common if you have the opportunity first, try to kill the bruises softly, sending it the SEC term signal. Some processes are a little bit harder to get rid off. If you have the time, you might want to send them the second signal to interrupt them. If that doesn't do the trick, either use the strongest signal sick guilt. In such cases, you might want to check that the process is really did, using the grip filter again on the B I D. If this only the earnest the grip process, you can be sure that you succeeded in stopping the process or you Can you check that the process is disappear using the top common another way off. Killing a process is using the top program. You can kill a needed or hang it processes by bracing key, Then type the process I D. And then choose between sector musing number 15 or sickle using number nine and breast enter. As you can see, the bruises killed is removed. Among the processes that are her to kill is your shell, and that is a good thing. If they would be easy to kill, you would lose your shell every time you use controls, he on the common line accidentally. Since this is equivalent to sending a second in a graphical environment, the ex scale program is very easy to use. Just type the name off the comment followed by an enter and select the window off The application that you want to stop it is rather dangerous because it send this killed by default. So only use it went and application hangs. I hope this has bean informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 80. 29 Scheduling Processes: she dealing processes Olympic system can have a lot of to suffer from, but it usually suffers only during office hours, whether in an office environment, a server room or at home. Most Lennox systems are just idling away during the morning, the evening, the nights and weekends. Using this idle time can be a lot cheaper than buying those machines you would absolutely need if you want everything done at the same time, there are three types off delayed execution first waiting a little while and then resuming job execution using the sleep common in this case, execution time depends on the system. Time at the moment off submission. Second, running a comment at a satisfy time, using the ed common in this case, execution off the jobs demand this on system time, not the time off submission. And third, regrettably, running a comment on a monthly, weekly, daily or hourly basis using the current facilities. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I like to thank you for viewing 81. 30 The Sleep Command: the sleep. Calmund. The info Bage on sleep is probably one off. The shortest there is only sleep does is wait by default. The time to it is expressed in seconds. Some practical examples. If you have an appointment after, have an hour, but you are about drowned in work as it is and bound to forget your lunch. You can enter this comment. Sleep. 1800 semi colon Echo Lunchtime 10%. This will show you a lunchtime alert after 1800 seconds, meaning 30 minutes when you can't use the add comment. For some reason, you want to go home. But there is still work to do, and right now somebody is eating system resources. You can type steep 10,000 semi colon echo the new off your program full of Boy M Percent and Breast Center. This will make your program start automatically after 10,000 seconds. Make sure there is an ode to look out on your system and that you look out or look your desktop when submitting this kind of job or on it in a screen session when you run a Siri's off print outs off large fights. But you want other users to be able to bring it in between? You can use sleep between them. For example, it would be the name of the file You want to print Simic alone Sleep 1000 Simic alone. It would be the name of the other file. Simic alone Sleep 1000 semen Colon. It'll be another file name here. We used to sleep common in between printing our large files to make other users able to bring in between, programmers often use the sleep, common toe, help script or program execution for a certain time. I hope this has bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing. 82. 31 The at command: the head. Calmund, the Ed Common executes comments at a given time using your default chill unless you tell the common. Otherwise, the options. Tow it or other user friendly, which is demonstrated in this example. It tomorrow plus two days press enter at from it will be opened to enter the comments you want to execute. I can't this grip abou the news control DE to quit using control the quits, the at utility engineer. It's the EOE team message and off transmission. Another example. It 14 20 cd slash home Enter control the here we used at common to execute months at a certain time. The dish option send this made to the user when the job is done for, explains when a job can't be done. We can use the I Q. Common to list jobs performed this common before submitting jobs in order to prevent them from starting at the same time as others. Also with the IT or implement. You can remove shit'll jobs if you change your mind. I hope this has Bean informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing 83. 32 Cron and Crontab: Koran and current tip. The current system is managed by the Koran demon. It gets information about which programs and when they should run from the systems and users. Current tab entries only the root user has access to the system. Corrine taps. While each user should only have access to his own current taps on some systems, some users may not have access to the current facility. That system. Start up the current demon searches slash war slash full slash Koran for current top entries, which are named after accounts in slash btc slash best WD. It's ish is slash btc slash Koran do the directory, and it searches slash d c slash Corrine Tep then uses this information every minute to check if there is something to be done. It executes comments. Is the user who owns the current file and mills in the Albert of commanders to the owner? You could use the current tape the shell common to this bill. Acorn tapes. Some variables are sit, and after that there is the actual she dealing one line bill job, starting with five time and date feels. The first field contains the minutes from zero 2 59 The second defines it the hour off execution from 0 to 23. The third is day off the month from 1 to 31 then the number of the month from 1 to 12. The rest is day of the week from 0 to 7. Both zero and seven are Sunday. An asterisk in these fields represents the total acceptable range for the field. Listers are allowed to excuse a job from Monday to Friday Inter one dish five in the last field and to execute a drop on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Enter one comma, three comma. Five users are supposed to eat their current taps in a safe way, using the current tape. The E common. This will prevent a user from extent Lee opening more than one copy off his or hair current fight. The default editor is them, but you can use any text editor as Nano. Also, you can use give em or G edit. If you feel more comfortable with agree editor. When you quit, the system will tell you that a new currently is installed. After eating a new shuttle dusk, the system will tell you that a new current type is installed. You don't need to restart the current demon for the changes to take effect. I hope this has bean informative for you and elect Thank you for viewing. 84. 00 Section Six Overview: input and output three direction. On this section, you learn about Lennox regular expressions what they are, how to use them. You learn more about the board for Lennix mechanism off, redirecting MBA outward and the errors. This would include standard input output and errors with direction operators using the Albert off. One common is in both. For another. How to put the output off a comment in a file for later reference. Have a bent the Albert off multiple comments to a file in poetry direction. Have 200 standard error messages Have to combine your direction off input, output and error streams. 85. 01 Linux Regular Expressions: the next regular expressions. Regular expressions are special characters, which help search data matching complex patterns. Regular expressions are shortened. Is Rigsby or regs? It is important to learn regular expressions for writing scripts for East off Understanding . Let's learn the different types of frigates one by one basic regular expressions. Some off the commonly used commands with regular expressions are TR, said Vo and grip some of the basic critics. Same bulldoze replaces any character Sable Curry, Matri's start off the string Sable Dollar Sign matches and off the string. Same ball estrus matches AB zero or more times. The receding character. Sable, Becks, Lish represent special characters, sambal, open and close burnt pieces. Groups regard expressions. Sable question more, which is up exactly one character. Let's see an example. Execute. Get fire. One to see contents off that fight for such content containing literally after Kate filed one and by grip a carrot matches the start off a string. Its search for content that start is with E. Get fired. One pipe grip Carrot E to select only those lines that end with tea. We would use donor science able, as in this example. Okay, fire one by T dollar sign Interval Regular expressions. These exhibitions tell us about the number off occurrences off a character in a string. The are open priests in close place measured the preceding character appearing end times exactly. Open Praise n Kama Am Close Priests matches the receding character appearing end times, but not more than him. Open priests in comma close priests matches the receding character only when it appears in times or more. For example, filter out all lines that contain character. Be kit. Fight one Bip Group B. If we want to check that the character P appears exactly two times in a string one after the other. For this, the Centex would be kid 51 Bip Get up hyphen uppercase e be Bix Lish. Hoping praise to close priests. Move that you need to ed hyphen uppercase e. With these regular expressions extended regular expressions. These regular expressions contain combinations off more than one expression. Some of them are backslash plus matches one or more occurrence off the previous character. Next slash question Mark match zero or one occurance off the previous character, for example, searching for all characters. T kid file one. Fight grip t Suppose we want to filter out lines Were character e receipts character T We can use a common light kid fight one by did it e bec slash plus t Between courts brace expansion The San Ticks for brace expansion is either a sequence or a comma. Separated list off items inside curly braces. The starting and ending items in a sequence are separated by two billiards. Let's take some examples in the coming examples The echo common creates the strings using the brace expansion Echo open press E Come up B B comma cc Come up the d close breeze another We Geico open priests e to bury its Z close Breece echo over in place zero to bury you. Then close breeze The last example echo E open place zero to barrier 10 close brace be. I hope this has bean informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing 86. 02 Simple Redirections: Sam Billary directions. Mostly, Nick's comments re