Linear Perspective Techniques - Learn To Create Depth On A Two-Dimensional Surface | Robert Joyner | Skillshare

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Linear Perspective Techniques - Learn To Create Depth On A Two-Dimensional Surface

teacher avatar Robert Joyner, Make Art Fun

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

7 Lessons (1h 25m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. Part One - The Basics

    • 3. Part Two - One, Two & Three Point Perspective Intro

    • 4. Part Three - Linear Perspective In Action Using Landscape

    • 5. Part Four - Practice Reel Assignment

    • 6. Robert's Take Part One

    • 7. Robert's Take Part Two

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About This Class

In this class you will discover how to draw and interpret linear perspective. Once you are finished with these lessons you will have a good idea on how to apply it to your artwork. Linear perspective can be used on landscapes, still life, figures and many other subjects.

Class Overview

Lesson One: In this lesson I will share some ideas for linear perspective basics, an introduction to what you need to know so as we move forward with this series we are on the same page :) In short linear perspective is the illusion of depth on a flat surface. Artists need to understand this because our subjects are often still life, landscapes and interiors that require us to trick the viewer into see depth on the canvas.

Lesson Two: In this lesson we will cover one, two and three point linear perspective basics and when to use them. To help you understand these ideas I've included several quick demonstrations and a few examples of how the Master's used these techniques in their artwork.

Lesson Three: In part three of linear perspective we will cover how to use two point perspective with a landscape subject. It's important to start understanding how to utilize these techniques with real subjects. In part two of linear perspective I shared one, two and three point perspective using a simple box shape. That was an important lesson because the basic box shape can be used in many man-made objects which is what this lesson dives in to! I hope these tips start to help you develop a keen understanding for linear perspective and ultimately improve your artwork.

Lesson Four: This is a practice reel assignment. You will put your knowledge and skills to the test by creating a series of landscape drawings that capture various linear perspective ideas.

Lesson Five & Six: Here you will see how I completed the practice reel. This will give you something to compare your work to for the assignment.

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Robert Joyner

Make Art Fun


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1. Intro: What's up, you guys? Robert Joyner here and welcome to linear perspective, basics and this lesson. I'm going to teach you some of the ideas and techniques for creating linear perspective in your artwork. Now, if you're not sure what linear perspective is is basically a system that you will use to create the illusion of depth on a two dimensional surface. So you're two dimensional surface could be the paper, the canvas or whatever it is you're creating on. And the illusion is you're trying to create distance, the idea of being having space on that flat surface. Now there's another type of perspective that you could possibly use to create this, and that will be non linear perspective. So that's the manipulation of colors and values, the overlapping of shapes, edge quality, things like that that you could basically infuse into your artwork to create this idea of depth, this illusion of distance on a two dimensional surface. That's not what I'm going to talk about in the Siri's. I'm quite to focus more on linear perspective now. This is a topic you could research and learn for months and months, but in March I'm just going to show you some of the basics, and hopefully, by the end of this Siri's, you'll have a better idea of how to use this in a variety of situations. 2. Part One - The Basics: so that we are on the same page. This go ahead and define a few elements about linear perspective that you would need to know. The first thing is I level. This level is very important because vanishing points of your objects will always converge on your eye level. We're going to discuss this a lot more as we move forward, but the next thing you need to know is the center line. This line is important because the vanishing points for your objects will always converge in a direction relevant to the center line. Again, we're going to discuss this a lot more as we move forward. The next thing will look at is the cone of vision. This is basically the area in which your eyes can focus. In this diagram, you can see the Kona vision is very small. So this subject will be standing maybe a foot or so away from a wall as the subject steps back. Maybe a foot or so. The Kona vision will get bigger and bigger as they move away from the wall. The next thing you will need to know is the station point. This is basically your point of view where you are standing in the moment, so if you put all this together here, you will see your eye level centerline, your Kona vision and your station point collectively. Now, from a profile view, I just want to be clear that your Kona vision is about 60 degrees. That's going to be three degrees down and up from a center line. Anything outside this cone of vision is distorted, so let's see how that will work with an indoor setting like this. This go ahead and established the eye level. So I'm thinking the photographer was standing up, and this is a rough idea of where the eye level would be. Now let's go ahead and add the center line. As you will see, this center line will become very important because objects to the left will move in an inward angle towards the center line, and objects on the right will move inward towards the center line as well. Here you can see, I add a few lines that will indicate the top and bottoms of the wall. We have the wall on the left and the wall on the right, where the eye level center line and all of these lines converge is called the Vanishing Point. And in this case we just have one vanishing point. And as I ADM or Lines, they all originate from the vanishing point. So these were some of the basics you will need to know for understanding linear perspective . Now that was a pretty easy image. This have a look at this one a little more difficult? We're dealing with nature, and nature is a very good teacher of linear perspective. So for this example, this just focus on the pier. If I add the I level line, it's should be roughly here. Now. If we look at the first section of the pier, we're going to see that the vanishing point is located about here. I have also added the center line. But now let's have a look at how the pier changes direction. Then you will notice that that section of the pier has a different vanishing point. This is a very common thing you'll find in nature that you're going to have multiple vanishing points along the eye level line. Also know that the I level line is often referred to as the horizon line when dealing with landscape subjects. Let's look at another scene here, and instead of appear, we have a path. They tend to be more irregular, and with this one, we have a little bit of an elevation changes. Well, I'm going to explain that mawr in just a moment I'm going to determine that the eye level is roughly here. And if I take the first section of path and draw the converging linear perspective lines, it will have a vanishing point that is roughly here. Then the path, as with appear in the previous image, changes direction and that will give us a second vanishing point that would be here. So now let's look at the ground levels is very common and landscapes to have various degrees of hills and valleys. So basically the ground is often changing. You can probably see the subtle change on this path, So in the lower part of this image we have a certain ground level, which is roughly about here. But now, as we look further up into the image, we will see that it starts to go upwards. What that's going to do is give you a second I level so if we go back and look at the eye level for the lower part of the path, then we can start to compare to how that changes in the next section. So here you're going to see that the eye level is higher than that of the first section or the lower section. So again, these were some of the things you're going to be dealing with when you're painting outdoors or from your own landscape images. So whenever you're dealing with a image like this or a scene that has various elevation changes, you have to always look at the objects and determine which of those ground levels that they're on, because that's going to determine the vanishing point in the perspective lines that you will need to draw for your subject. So if we take this White House on the right, I'm going to determine that the house is sitting on the first or the lower ground level, meaning my vanishing points would be on that line. And then all of the linear perspective lines for that house would stem from that. Also note in this diagram have kind of simplified this white house into a box, so we can see the left hand side of the box, and all of the perspective lines lead to the vanishing point on the left. But when we look at the right hand side of the house, note how there's not enough room on the page to show where the Let me your perspective lines on the right converge. This is often the case with images and photographs, and we will talk about this idea lot mawr as we move forward. 3. Part Two - One, Two & Three Point Perspective Intro: What's up, you guys? Robert Joyner here and welcome to part two of linear perspective in today's less. I'm going to do a quick demonstration of 12 and three point perspective. We'll talk a little bit more about your eye level line and how that changes a little bit. Whenever you start doing three point perspective, I'm also going to show you a couple of images of the Masters and illustrate how they use these ideas in their paintings. If you didn't see part one, I highly recommend you check that out. The link to that video is in the description below, or you can click this right here. But unless someone I did kind of go over your eye level line center line, the cone of vision, vanishing points and some of the basic idea is you need to understand about perspective now also showed you some photos of how you can start to spot in your perspective in your subjects. So let's go ahead and crack into today's lesson for your eye level lining your center line , your cone of vision. You're always taking that with you. Okay, so no matter where you look left right up down. It is constantly there. You simply can't detach yourself from these. But of course, his artist, We can crop or frame images, however we wish. But before we do that, we need to start to understand mawr about 12 and three point perspective. So when you're dealing with one point perspective, you have to know that the object that you're drawing needs to be straight in front of you. So in other words, if I take this block and I'm going to do a drawing by while I talk you through this. But let's say I have a block and the front of this block is facing straight to you. Now you may be able to see the top of the block here, or you may even be able to see the bottom of the block. But in any case, if it's flushed to you this side, then you're dealing with one point perspective. It doesn't matter if I slide this to the left on the eye level line or a slot it to the right is still one point perspective. So you will find your vanishing point on your eye level line, and then all of your perspective, linear perspective lines will go to the one vanishing point. As I illustrated in the quick drawing. Now, with two point perspective, what you're dealing with is an object that is turned to you. So now you're dealing with a corner of the object that is closest to you. So now this side and this side are going in different directions, so that would be two point perspective. So as I do the illustration here, I want you to know that that will create two vanishing points, a long the eye level line. But again, it doesn't matter where on the eye level line or how much the object is turned, so long as it's on the eye level line and you're looking straight at it. In other words, you're not looking up at it or down at it. You're dealing with two point perspective and the vanishing points always beyond your eye level line. And again, I showed you that nd quick drawing. So now we'll look at three point perspective. Never we do three point perspective. You're either dealing with a bird's eye view, so you're looking down on your subject or you're looking up, which is a worm's eye view. In any of those two cases, you're going to be dealing with three point perspective, so you will have 1/3 finishing point has basically located above or below the horizon line . So let's talk about that for a second. So we have your eye level and I level if you're out side. Looking at a landscape can often be referred to as you were horizon line, but they are going to be different, or they will detach if you start to look up or down. So, for example, if I'm looking at the camera and I will imagine a landscape out there that can, I can easily say that my eye level in a horizon line are equal or the same as I start to look down. The horizon line stays where it's at, and my eye level starts to look down here. So is projecting with me. So as I mentioned before, your center line in your eye level line and the Kona vision are three things that you will always take with. You simply cannot detach from those things. So again, if I look down on my object, that means the horizon line is above my object. If I look up at my object, then the horizon line is below my object. So when we talk about the vanishing points for the left and right hand side of our objects , they will be placed on the horizon line. And then the third perspective line will be placed either below or above the horizon line. So if you're looking down on your object than the third linear perspective point will be, be low the horizon line. If I'm looking up, then it will be the opposite. So basically, the third dashing point would be up in space if in fact, I'm looking up in my object. However, in my three point perspective, example I'm drawing now you will see that the third vanishing point is below the horizon line, so that would indicate a bird's eye view. So let's have a look at some of the Masters drawings. Here. We'll use two examples, and this one, which is a landscape painting by David Cox. You can see the perspective happening, and most of this, if not all of it is one point perspective. This go ahead and lay out the horizon line, which is also the eye level line for this particular example. Now we can go ahead at the center line, and that's going to give us our finishing point, which is the red dot in the middle. From there, we can start to draw linear perspective lines that perhaps would line up with the top of the trees, the bottom of the trees along the main path. We can also use some imaginary learning your perspective lines that run along the roads, smaller trees or shrubs on the right, and so one. So this is a really good example of one point perspective on. Now we would turn our attention to a van Gogh. So in this bedroom painting, we can go ahead and establish the eye level line and then these center lying and go ahead and add the finishing point and must be established that we can start to add some imaginary type linear perspective lines for some of the objects and the scene so you can see we have a linear perspective line that runs along the bottom of the paintings on the right, some of the bedposts, the bottom of the bed. We also had the chair on the left hand side and so on. So again, this would be one point perspective. But because these objects are not flush to us, in other words, the closest thing to us on any of these objects would be the corner. So the corner, the left hand corner of the bed, the right leg on the chair, and so one so those could easily turn into two point perspective. So let's look at the table here on the left hand side, and I will turn that into two point perspective. So you will see we have a vanishing point on the left hand side of the eye level line. But the one on the right does go off the page and again because that corner of the table is closest to you that will tell you right away that there is going to be two point perspective. And of course, we can apply that to point perspective to the other objects as well. So there's air, some facts and some ideas you can use to draw linear perspective. If you are new to this and I recommend you try a very basic block, as I did in the drawings and as you advance, you could certainly start to do more sophisticated objects like barns, houses, cars so long. So here's a quick look at the demo. Hope that I was able to help you a little bit with 12 and three point perspective. Now see you in the next one. 4. Part Three - Linear Perspective In Action Using Landscape: What's up, you guys? Robert Joyner here and welcome to part three of linear perspective. In Part two, I showed you how to use a simple box and I level line to determine quickly if you're dealing with two or three point perspective. So in this video I will basically go a little bit deeper into that and also show you how this relates to an actual landscape image. So hopefully by the time you watch Part three, it will start to really bring things together, show you how they all kind of click and work in harmony. So here's our image for right now, and let's go ahead and make some determinations about where the horizon line could be a lot of time seeking taken image like this and look at some of these man made objects. So again, man, being objects are great to work with and learn from, especially in landscapes like this, because you're dealing with kind of very square objects. Even though the barn here or this shack is rectangular, this one is more vertical rectangles, vertical. They're still kind of a box like form, so you're dealing with a box like form. It's easier to understand the corners. So in the previous lesson, I talked about corners and relative to the I level line. Uh, I told you that if a corner was closest to you, So in this case, we have a corner right here. I'm sorry for the move. Let me get me, Get us back and focus. Here we have a corner that's closest to you, like this corner. Then you're going to be dealing with two point perspective. Okay? The same can be said for this one, and the same can be said for many of these homes in the distance here. This also look at how perspective eyes going to change the size of things. So if you take this wall for example, of the Stonewall and I draw a line, let's say from here to here, all right. And that's that This is at a point on the wall that's closest to us, and we slide that back over a little bit. So if I take again, I've got it lined up with the bottom, which is basically the water level up to roughly the top of the wall to the best of my ability. So if I take that and slotted over to this point on the wall, which is farthest from us. This look at the size difference now granted, that is a stone wall that's going to kind of change. It's not a perfect level surface that we're dealing with, but I think this is a good indication and a good example of how things change insides as a move away from us. So that's something you would want to pick up on and include. And in this sort of landscape scenario, um, the other things we can look at, you know, like if you say, Let's look at the relative relative size of things. So let's save his barn has, ah, height. That's roughly here. That again, this is the corner that's closest to us. But you know, that barn in size could be a little bit smaller, that, say, than this house back here. Um, but because the house is so far away from us, this corner is going to be bigger so that the size from here to here versus a house is probably bigger than the barn itself. Let's just say this is a lobster shack there, but because this house is farther away from us is going to be smaller again. That's the effect of ah, perspective and distance kind of seeing into a scene like this so that these air things again, that you just need to start to pay attention to a little bit. And now let's look at the, say, an eye level line. I'm going to say the eye level line is roughly probably in here somewhere. And I say that because if I take this line, which is parallel, so perfectly horizontal as scooted up to the edge of this roof, I mean, you can see they are parallel to each other. So there's a good chance that the photographer's eye level line is even with the bottom of this roof right here. In actuality or reality, the photographers height could be is probably shorter so that the tiger for it could be if you were standing next to this building, His head height would probably be maybe around this window somewhere. But the photographer could also be standing on a rock on a hill or something like that. Anyway, I can kind of gauge and determine or where this eye level line is just about kind of understanding world where these straight parallel lines are in the image and I apologize for the move so that if this is our eye level line, we can start to play with some of these other shapes a little bit. So let's say, for example, I'm going to do this free handed. I'm going to do it in green. So let's say this is our are I want to understand the perspective of this live your perspective of this lobster shack. So the best way to do that is to take the the shapes and again break them down into geometric shapes. So you want to always simplify things. So, for example, made by start to draw this out, I'm going to say the shock here, it kind is moving up towards that. I level line Very, very subtle. But nevertheless, it iss right here is about level. All right, Now, if you want to understand or determine where the center of this triangle this So we've got a triangle that forms the top of this shape weaken drawn X. I'm gonna freehand this because this is probably, you know what many of us would dio and you're where the center of that excess is going to be, where these intersect is going to be the center off this triangle so we can draw a line straight up. And then, from there we can just simply connect the corners for this particular shape. This line here is coming down a little bit, just like this wall is taller here and then shorter Here. It's a very, very subtle lie that's going to go to that would eventually come down off this particular image and probably converge or intersect with our eye level line way off the page somewhere . So again, breaking things down into basic geometric shapes when you can is ideal. So if I were to look at this one, you can see this line is moving off and down here, and this line is moving this way so we could start to understand that perspective. This one is moving because again we're dealing with two point perspective. The left hand side of this peace will be moving back and in an angle this way, that's probably drastic, but it would eventually come down off the page and converge or intersect with our eye level line this again. I gotta keep this thing from moving here. Um, that would be, like so so again, moving back towards that line. Okay, so there's our triangle. If you look at this chimney, this chimney is nothing more than another call rectangular box with If I'm gonna do this a little bit bigger, and I will grab the same black for a second. So if I were to come off here, um, the chimney this side of the chimney is moving back in that direction. This side is moving that direction. And then, you know, we have the top of our roof kind of coming in there, the windows of the same thing. So you have moving down towards it. This would be moving up because it is the eye level line is above the window. These were kind of slightly moving and that direction All right, so hopefully you can start to see how that works again. If we look at our wall, that is basically a long rectangle that is getting more as getting shorter, I should say and wider towards us and appears shorter as it goes away from us. And that's really a kind of Ah, box, too, because we can see a little bit of the top of that. And then it kind of moves Probably back off here somewhere in the distance. And what? We got a bunch of stuff on the dock there that's covering it. Um, in the distant buildings of the same thing, you know, you can take these, Break him down because this is below the eye level line. It's gonna be moving up towards it because this is above it. It's gonna be moving down again. We can draw X, get a rough idea where that peak is. This will be moving back towards it. Now, notice I'm doing this and not really know coming back to this perfect point and trying to figure out exactly where these lines are. Um, where these vanishing points are on the perspective on. I'm just kind of getting using my eye line as my gage, and I kind of know that if it's above the I lab level line is moving down towards it this way on this side, it's moving down towards it that way and did, and this is moving up towards it and this is moving up towards it in the opposite way. So again, we're dealing with a box like form where the corner here is closest to us. This corner here is closest to us. So that's going to put again this moving up and back that moving down and back down and back up and back. Um, so that's that's the kind of the approach you want to take when you're dealing with images like this and kind of breaking it down to where you can start to actually you some of these techniques in your artwork because this is kind of the the main building block for for drawing. So I'm basically taking the basic shape idea of a box, and then I'm you relating that to objects in my artwork? I'm trying to figure out where the main perspective lines are. So here's something else kind of interesting. And this will be the kind of the last part of this is if we look at this boat, for example, use this one. This is floating on a flat surface. OK, this is level, so water, you know is gonna be a very level surface plane, so horizontally is level. If we determine that This is the closest corner to us, but this is all below the eye level line. So there's perspective here. So if we put this in a box, okay, it would look something like that. This is a box and we can see above. It s so it's you can see on top of it. But that's the perspective idea. So if he looked at these boats, you can easily turn them into basic geometric shapes by just simply using the same techniques we've talked about before. 5. Part Four - Practice Reel Assignment: and this practice riel. We're going to focus on linear perspective. Each image is four minutes long, so if you need a little extra time, that's fine. And there's some of you like to add a few more details. Others, maybe a little bit looser. But four minutes is Ah, the time for each image. The images will start out rather simple. And then as we work through them, they will get a little more challenging. Now, when you have about 15 seconds left, you'll hear a notification that sounds like this s O that will tell you to start wrapping things up and get ready for the next one. Now I'm going to do my practice, riel on a some newsprint. Okay, so I have ah, really large newsprint sketchbook. Now, allow me to put all of them on one page whether you do this on print, paper, drawing paper, whatever you have certainly up to you so I can use a marker. Pencil. It just really doesn't matter Now. I recommend you get the big picture first. So always kind of Start with new your frame. So you have your top bottom and your sides and these are all landscape layout, and then what you want to do is try to envision where the eye line is. In some cases, it will be the same as the horizon line. So go ahead and determine the eye level line first and then start to lay in the next biggest shape and then work yourself to or down onto the smaller shapes. Don't really worry about details unless you have extra time. All right, so without any further ado, let's get started with the practice real now. 6. Robert's Take Part One: All right. First up got Ah, I leveled line almost pretty much in the middle that we have our path that goes. And again, we have perspective here, Vanishing point that curves so well. There's your two bashing points. We have our Barnes two point perspective. So this corner closest to us, the vanishing point is way off the page on the side. That's gonna happen a lot on this morning, is not It's basically going right there. Probably put it more like that. I could draw my ex a vertical line. I give you my top. That may bring out a room, so I'll do as much as I can. There's another little barn back there again. It is. I'm not really worried about the bushes and shrubs and all the windows right now, so this box is very long and not very tall. If we chop off this and draw my ex about right here, that gives me center line from my peak, but it's very flat. Okay, so we don't have a two point perspective. You'll see underneath the eaves of these ruse, these little dots to kind of go back, probably to this point back in here? Um, no. I can look at some other perspective lines. We got this kind of angle moving in, and that's about it. So Mobile Barn back there that's gonna follow this idea. All right, I level line a little bit higher. So again, we're dealing with two point perspective. So I got this corner of the bar. My look at the image. It's almost dead center, maybe favors a little bit to the left. Um, so this is probably moving all to a vanishing point off the page and here somewhere, maybe even farther back in here, Um so this rectangle at the bottom of the barn very long and thin. So I noticed some kind chopping off that top a little bit. So even though we know there's a lot of depth on this side when we compare it to the front , it's only about that long, just kind of interesting. So this vanishing point is about there. But in reality, because of the angle here, it's gonna look very, very short. So throw my ex and get my vertical line. And the height of the peak of this is about to of these. So then I can get That's gonna arch going on like so gives me that and not much else here, but one point out. So we have these grasses that are moving off like this. Notice how the height I'm going just can't envision a shade of that. So when we look at the shadow here, notice how as it gets back and here it gets really short. Okay, so that's perspective. This is perspective. So as we can see this kind of, hey looking stuff and here it's the same idea. Yes. It was a vanishing point. Curving moving off into their kind of coming here and trees or whatever. This was a little bit different layout. So these air kind of long and lean This was like, I may be a three before. All right, So a rise in line gonna be below center. So roughly in here, Now we have this angle coming. All that's coming way out here. Drop that little bit lower. So this is interesting. So this is kind of an art. Lose out. So again, liner taller here and then get shorter as it goes away. Let's get to the structure. So this is our corner of the tall building. So moving out this way, so probably going out and here somewhere where this one this side it may be moving off into that vanishing point. Very. The character of this is very tall and slightly wider. Here, film That's our box. You know the drill. Bringing that back to that access or that finishing point. Now we have a very long comes about half way rectangle. So this is a box and you know, this home in the back, this building going to follow those perspective lines, too. But if I were to finish this, that's all going back to a vanishing point there. And that's all going to a vanishing point there. So that could be the box for my boat. For who right here? Onda Very much in the center here. You got this path going in Vanishing Point about right in there, clearly changing directions and then changing directions again. And probably missile three bashing points for that path. Now get to my building. So, God, three point perspective again. This corner is closest to us, and that vanishing point is way off the page and you won't have to estimate those things on the side of the building is here. Probably my guess is in there somewhere. Sliver of that roof. And now we've got another one coming here. Corner almost lines up with the edge of this, This finishing point, I mean, pretty much about in here like that. Maybe a little. A little short. I got caught up in looking at my drawing and not paying attention to what I was doing. Um, silos. Interesting, because there's perspective. If we look at the rings on the bottom there, almost even and then as they go up, they started to curve. So anyway, you can look at the it's row of corn. He kind of had this scene thing happening. Taking you in with perspective. I want to cheat a little bit here. We've got this barn on the side again, all kind of getting wrapped up or hidden. Nomo's. There's a little hill. I want to point out here how it's wider here, told her on then get shorter as it goes into the distance. That's perspective. Taller. Shorter. Okay, if I want to add this third barn at thes Windows would follow that perspective. So are all right. Very low I level line. It is also your horizon line. Almost dead center. We've got our first big sheep. We can see that corner is right here so that it's probably moving off into Vanishing Point way off the page. And we're back in here finding of center, um, again, moving way off the page. Probably here. So when I look at that, the front of the building is a little bit shorter than the side. Get something like this pitch again. We've got the silos. We look at those rings again, and then they can even out who started to curb up. You see him loosely rendering that we have another barn back in here much shorter because farther away from us, like some sort of lean to or something happening here again. Three point perspective. So moving off this way, moving back that way. And we have another barn back in here again, dealing with, uh, who that rise up just a little bit hair again, kind of moving off on, you know, getting covered up by trees. So on. I do like, cheat a little bit again. Here. I do like the path kind of road runs off and it kind of curves. And then you have all of these rose here of corner. So we being or whatever it is that's giving a perspective, all going to your vanishing point really good perspective in that one. 7. Robert's Take Part Two: so you don't have to horizon lines. Bond is gonna be slightly shorter. No one's gonna be higher. That's because we have Ah, a rude that's curving up. So this 1st 1 his road is probably into this corner somewhere, and then it's coming off the page like this. And then once we get to right in here, it starts to occur up. So that's going to change our horizon line to here. And then we're sorry for the bomb. And then, of course, it levels off Now, on this road or this side, we have a path. I'm not gonna be able to do all of these buildings and stuff. But it's a sidewalk, slightly tingling like that on this side. We have the same thing slightly wider and then more narrow something. You have these grass path that's kind of following that perspective, which is really nice of that line here, A sidewalk. Now this building coming up almost square. But we can see this perspective of the front that's going down to this vanishing point about here. So the corner still can't see much of the front of that building a little bit. Now the buildings on this side are running down to this vanishing point about here. We got this building here. We've got a shorter building here. We've got a taller building on here. I want to cheat a little bit. So this is running back way off the page, and there's tons of detail in this, so I won't be able to get to all of it. Come on. The kind of pause for a second. Um, but, you know, you have all of these in the windows. Different things on awning here, all these windows here. So all of this stuff clearly would follow this perspective line? Yeah. Tons of windows. The wars, I guess, Um, windows that are built out a little bit here all again, following. So all these windows following that perspective as we get up here, all of these buildings are going to vanish into the top horizon line. So again, I want to do all of these, but you get the point. Call it proud. So again, um, good perspective in this, also, if we look the telephone poles or the street lights Rather excellent perspective, and I really good indication of how that works. So that's going to the lower vanishing line. Right? And as we get up here to these, they're going uphill to the next fashion line. Well, Bush, there so again, a very complex subject here. And this was interesting because you have your so your vanishing line and a little bit lower probably in here, make this a little bit wider. We have this road with a vanishing line vanishing point, probably in here, and then we can see that it starts to change directions. So it's turning this corner, and then it turns again toe another vanishing point, Probably in here. So we've got a ton of stuff happening here with the cars trucks, and you know that. So we're the building here case a very tall, probably hitting a vanishing point. And here, So I'll put this roughly in here. So the top roughly here again, running it to the vanishing point, drawing X finding my center and this is running way off the page. But there was definitely some perspective there. We have another building that's probably running with this one. So on the same perspective line, probably coming down and here make this a little bit darker, So not very much heat again, a pause that's not gonna have some time. So again, running to that vanishing point, we got something probably like that for that building. And now, as be bend around the corner, it's going to change, because now this is going to a much different vanishing point way over here. So these air going toe advancing, pointless, say, and here, Okay, but because this one But these were all going on this line. So now as we bend, okay, we have to consider how that's affecting this building. So that's going to get Is the vanishing point probably out off the page somewhere and Seymour of the front of that building to because of it? Because this kind of these arm or to the side angle to us, this was starting to see the front. Um, again, the perspective is running back that way. Very subtle, probably gonna center line. And here somewhere, you can catch the roof. And no way to do this in four minutes. I get that, um, on the right hand side again, we have a curb, so that's probably going to this finishing point on here stops in there. We have a corner building. So all of that's probably going to that vanishing point like that. So then we've got a very front, very narrow front of the building. We get so detail, I'm not going to get into all of this, um, details. But follow this perspective, line down for this building, and we've got another one. All of these are pretty much on the same. So we're not really feeling the bend of that road on that. Your car's air. Nothing more than rectangles. Two boxes. Um, I'll do this on the side. So if I were to take a truck, the red truck in the foreground, it's a rectangle. So the corner of that truck is closest to us here. So that's going to follow to the finishing point on this side that's gonna follow that aside. Always measure. So the front we're seeing mawr of the front of the truck. Then we are of the side, and most people get that wrong. That's why their perspective is off. And we got another little box on top of it. Had the windshield, the cab and all that. Um, so anyway, that's the idea, Jeep. Same thing. Try to determine what corner is closest to you. Put it in boxes, right? So, uh huh. Like so. All right. So there are my drawings, As you can see it in focus on details. I only focused on the New Year perspective.