Light Theory: Ultimate Course on How to Paint Light | Stephanie Böhm | Skillshare

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Light Theory: Ultimate Course on How to Paint Light

teacher avatar Stephanie Böhm, i'm a Illustrator in the Games industry

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (1h 33m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. How It Works

    • 3. Chapter 1: Basecolor

    • 4. Chapter 2: Ambient Shadow

    • 5. Chapter 3: Main Light

    • 6. Chapter 4: Cast Shadow

    • 7. Occlusion Shadow

    • 8. Form Shadow

    • 9. Chapter 5: Reflection Light

    • 10. Reflection Light 2

    • 11. Ambient Light

    • 12. Chapter 6: Material

    • 13. Overpaint

    • 14. Rim Light

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About This Class

Hello my friend and welcome back to another episode, this time: HOW TO LIGHT!!!!

I love Light! It's like music in a movie. You change the Light/Song and you create a totally different mood. But before we can become playful with light and how to use it for our storytelling, it's necessary to understand the fundamentals of how light is working. So, therefore, I created this course.

This Video dives even deeper than the first one. More knowledge, more resources, more.....more anything! AND you will be able to do everything along with me!!!! Right, we will have a super sweet drawing date together :)

Let's grab some snacks and coffee and let's go :)

Meet Your Teacher

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Stephanie Böhm

i'm a Illustrator in the Games industry


Hi there, nice to have you here.

My Name is Stephanie, I am a professional Artist. An Illustrator and Character Designer and i like to work for games: Video games, Card games, Roleplaying games, Boardgames....and Comics (I'm working on my first one right now...... uhhhhhh exciting)

I am born and raised in Germany, thats why I have an accent and make many mistakes (sorry guys). Right now I live in France with my three-legged dog (actually he has 4 legs, but he use only 3) and my beloved one (who is also making games but as a publisher and writer....and he is a musician....and a feminist...and he makes delicious Quenelle....he is great, really ). I'm learning right now french with his 99 years old grandma (just to say it again...99(!!!!) years......she is amazing).... See full profile

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1. Intro: Oh, obama. Any room? And I welcome you and I'm an illustrator. And over the next days, I want to teach you fundamentals off. So far, I worked on a lot of projects from cool and tap cipher characters to Qt and stylize creatures for children. And even though they are rarely indifferent, something is 19 them practical approach of using act. The more you will understand how lighting colors rocking, the more you will be able to turn something that maybe looks a little bit flat and bring it to something that feels real and 3-dimensional and its partners. What tests? Very cool. So what you want to do over the next days is taking as opposed sketch and bring it to life with color and light and thought, a digital painting technique that I want to show. And remember what you're interested in. Maybe you want to make a traumatic caffeine, orcs and elves, or you want to make a children's book. This is irrelevant because what I want to teach you are principles that you can apply to any reason idea in project that you have. 2. How It Works: In the next lecture, I will explain you what you will do in this course. We will prepare our workspace, our tools. We will have a look how our project file is organized so we can be sure that everything is ready and good to go for our painting progress. When we first learn how to paint light and shadow, we mostly find examples of spheres like this, 11 light elements, the upper half and let the lower half in shadow plus of course a shadow that get thrown on the ground. There's is a word we could call as simple light setup or setting. It looks very easy, but actually it consists of many different elements, losing about light and shadow, we often think only about two different tone levels, and that's totally fine. But if you understand how light and shadow really work, you will soon be able to also paint something like this. Each lesson will ask you for around 20 minutes of your time. The idea is that you don't just watch the course, but actually do each lesson with me if possible, one lesson per day. Now I would like to show you all the tools and functions that I'm using so you can follow me along as smoothly as possible. I will work in Photoshop, but you can do the same and procreate clip, studio pain, whatever. We are really talking here about basic step click. Our programs should have, I guess, I think I'm pretty sure. First we want to speak about crushes and before you think, yeah, pressures the secrets have not, sorry, I have no funky fancies. Therefore, you only deep crown the basics because fancy part is a core, no doubt. But actually they can be a bit overwhelming if you don't know how to use them probably. And we want to keep things as simple as possible. So I will stick with only one brush and only change my adjustments. The good about simple round brush that can be soft, heart, pressure sensitive, preference pair with our Everything is possible. If like an audio Can you preview? And we can be sure that no matter which program you're using, you will have to swap. It does not really matter what you are using as long as you feel comfortable. So do what you want. I like to paint my shape with heart push. So not as often as not transparent or nothing, just bam Color. And then I like to add my painting on top of it. Therefore, the clipping mask function is as sexual. You add a new layer, your press Alt, at least in Photoshop. You will have a few miles between these two layers to the Laozi as queer and they're pointing down arrow. And then you click with left ear bullae. Now the upper layer is related to the lower layer and everything you paint your will stay with in their shape boundary. Now I want to pay iniquity radiation on top of my shape if you want. Rarely smooth transition, but you're still wanted to paint them with a brush. Therefore, I like to set my brush on softness and in Greece, it's ice. The bigger you grow, the smooth euro transition. Arise, arise. I will keep it as simple as my brushes. So yeah, it's the same thing with harder. It's off their pen pressure. Bam, go to, go about this. Much to ally, like the US is much too well, actually, I was for many years against it, but not so good. And I, there's much peck from John Silver. It's marvelous and you can get it for free. I mostly use the medium brush and set it on soft. But yeah, so you can make amazing effects, but this much 12, but you should be careful to not overdo it. The painting technique that I will show you later is including the use of layer Modi. You'll find them year. Foreshadows I normally use multiply for lied, something unlike overlays looking grade. But normally I just try around to see what's the best and worst case. But we will speak about this in detail, right? It's the time for it. So it's just that you already know Layer Modi, tier, it's amassed. Sometimes can be also cool to use a mask. And that's this symbol here. And if you add another layer to layer, the mosque, and everything that is here on white is visible, and everything that is here in black is in reservoir. So that's cool when you want to erase something out, but you're not yet sure if this is really your final decision and you want to go a bit back and forth to try out different things. So then it's very nice to use a mask. And one laugh being about the color picker. Because normally your color picker is set on all layers. It means you pick the color that you see. But because we are using layer moldy, the color that you paint in will be shown differently. So to pick exactly the same color, you would need to change your layer Modi back to normal PQ color, set it back on your monos, and continue. That's very annoying. Instead, you can change your picker mode on current layer. This ray, you pick the color that you actually painted on the layer instead of the color how it is home to you because of the layer moldy. Okay. The only downside, you have to be on the same layer, like your color can be sometimes emit light, but good to know. Right? Now, you are familiar with your tools. Let's have a look at our route via please open your exercise file named lemon that you can now load under Resources. And this beautiful creature here will be our demonstration object. And rich, I will show you all elements of light and shadow. Okay, Egypt, as indicated to one of those moments, first I will explain what it is and when we add unrolled bring what we learned into practice. So as an example, one chapter will be ambient shadow. So I will explain what exactly there's this and then I will paint MB and shadow into our check. And this is the moment when you do this with me to get I mean, you can do this directly with me in just a moment or you watch me first and then you do it after. On the right side, you will find a folder with overviews about each topic we will talk about. You will find the most important key points. Carlos watches. And that's this point here. Just, if you feel unsure which colour to choose, you can just take the same that I use. And when we are done with a chapter, you can open the next one. And now where we have prepared everything, workspace, our tools, our project file. As soon as you are ready, we can start to then manage of taking a sketch and bringing it to life. 3. Chapter 1: Basecolor: After we prepared our workspace, it is finally time to dive into our prep checked coloring and lightning as simple sketch of a lemon. So in this chapter, we will lose based color and lay the foundation of our background. I already prepared a drawing for you so you can fully concentrate on painting light and shadow. I'll first topic will be base coloring. So please open your overview folder and go to the bottom and click on your first layer. I also free to paint the base color of this object already in. But what do I mean of base color? Let's take this spaceship, for example. The colors that you see appear different with each light situation and still you are able to recognize its actual colors. White, red, and gray. That's what we call base color. It's the color of an object without any influence of light and shadow. And in the case of dilemma and it's yellow. You can also call a flat or logo color. From here we will start and of each chapter we will bring more light and shadow into discrete turtle. It looks like a real dilemma. Okay, the next point will be macro opt, open network. You're second layer that is named background one, right? We will speak about this later. When we want to create a believable light setting, it is necessary that we give our lemon environment, so it has something to relate to. And don't worry, we have some work in front of us. But today I want to start slow and smooth off so we can get comfortable with each other, okay? So I don't want you to panic. Grazie thinks right now, just to pick a color at a new layer laid under your Lemma and fill it with a color. I will go with a medium grain. It's simple, it's neutral. Don't take too much attention, but still give some nice contrast. You will find the color that I use here bad. You can also choose another one. Environments don't need to be fancy. Even white can do the job. The only thing important to make it look believable is to light it in the same way, like your object and make both interact with each other. As the last point, I want to speak a few about light or better, color and light. So open your next layer named Light is color. A common coloring technique that especially beginners use is to use a darker version of the base color and use it as shadow and a lighter version for light. The result could look like this. Not totally wrong, but not really, right. Actually, it's a bit alright, yeah. And most of it, it limits your possibilities. So better and also more correct is to think that light not only right and up your colors, that also changed them because light itself is made up of colors. And I am sure you still remember that light consists of spectral colors. There are ones that you also see in the rainbow. And depending on time and whether we see light in different rates, in different colors. And it's the same with artificial light to hello again, like consist more of red and orange, while cold LED light appears more bluish like screen on which you watch this video right now. And because light consists of color, so does shadow T2. And the best thing you image will gain so much more dynamic and vividness when you start to think about light as colour. For me, it was a total game changer. So I guess it will work for you too. So don't do this. I will directly deleted and how to do it. Instead, you will see in the following lessons, what are you good cleft. And this was already today's lesson. And here a summary of what we learned. Base color is the color of your object itself without any influence of light. And to create a believable light setting, it is necessary that we give our object or background or about an environment with which it can interact and the last point, light. So only brighter now, it is also made up of color. That's it for today and tomorrow. We will, at our first shadow, that will not only darken our colors, but in fact Unite a, rethink each arrow orders. Super handy. So have a great day and see you tomorrow. 4. Chapter 2: Ambient Shadow: Today we want to add our first Shadow. You know, I example is very simple. We have only one color to take care about. But if you want to paint something more complex with a lot of colors, for example, a character. This can become very tricky. So to help us unite all those colors and create a sense of everything is fitting in the same environment. We can add a layer of ambient, shallow. Yeah, that's what we wrote it today. Like the name already says, NBN shadow is the shadow of our environment. And it is great because it will help us to unite the colors of our object with the colors of the things around it. Okay, so we make this a bit more clear. Let's say rethought our lemon in a jungle. The ambient here is very greenish because of all the leaves around it. So the NBN shadow on our lemon would be greenish two. Okay. Do you another example, this time it's surrounded by a fireplace. In this case, the ambient shadow would be ret OK. You see it's not significant. Okay, but what is now with our picture because in our example, our background is gray. We can try to take our base color. Mega darker. D is iterated a bit? That's our lemon fits now to the background. Yes. But it doesn't really look good rates. So it's not really wrong, but I want to propose something different. Instead. We can take our color, make it darker, but now change the you of the color in a slightly warmer or colder direction. That gives us more radiation a bit more, right brands. But it's unbelievable. I guess I prepare that what my direction. Okay. Now let's make it a bit more technical because normally we would need to repeat the same thing for the ice to rate. And this is a little bit painful in anointing and takes too long. So therefore, I want to show you another progress. So instead of going this classical way, I prefer not to think about the color of my object. Mirth about the color of my light. And applied is thanks to layer Modi took all colors at the same time. This has many advantages. First, you save a lot of time. On the other hand, we make sure that every color of our object is influenced in the same way. Because of the conventional method, I would not only need a lot more time, 0.1, but also increase heavily the risk of making mistakes. And after everything looks a little bit off. But how do you find the color of your light? The main principle to answer this is temperature or better, APOE sided temperatures. Because your lights and shadows are very often oppose cited in their temperatures. So wildlife creates culture tendrils and cold lights creates. One should lead us to understand better what I mean here, a few screenshots from movies. Okay, the first example is from toaster is three. You have your very nice contrast from this bluish cold parade allied and those warm, reddish shadows. Here is an example from Spiderman into those biodiverse. We affair evening, lightning, golden hour. So we have where we warm light spots here and bluish shadows in and not illuminated areas. Same concept, warm sunlight, cold shadows. And even in this room here, I mean, we have no other lights or than just this artificial lamp here. And this is also rarely neutral color wise. But if we sample area of light here, no, we go and shadow. It's really a mini movement from orange to red. But so we have a change in u between light and shadow. So the question is not rich color, but more rich temperature. Do you want for your light? And this we are still in Chapter bought ME and shadow. The question is, which temperature I want for my shadow? The easiest way to find this out is just try it. Yeah. Okay. I add a new layer, create clipping mask, and then I wanted to create a shadow. I was at my layer morning on multiplier. Now a bigger colors or starting point. You can choose whatever you want you to just not go too dark, since we still wanted to add more shadow later. And you're also on a multiplayer, so it makes everything doc on anyway. So try something more lighter for this. Don't worry too much that you don't have to perfect coloring now, because now we can go to adjustments and use iteration and push our controls around till we find the colored. It looks good and believable. A vault that you create a solid ambient shadow layer. Ok, we will do this quickly. Both are from the movie Big Hero six. The first scene shows a room for noted with warm light in. If I now take the color picker, I will find that everything in this room is indices. You range and influenced by this one. And the same thing we see in a second seat, just minutes this time influenced by a bluish, grayish ambient. So this was our lesson about ambient shadow. I have to say before I learn and used ambient shadow, I had huge difficulties, especially with painting characters in environments. Mostly it look of, it looked fled, look like I just copy paste it in. So when I learned about ambient alloy, it became a totally game-changing it since then. I don't have this problem anymore. And it's so helpful, it's so every breed you knock, but now it's really great. And yeah, no, I make everything better, loan every. So the main key points that we learned today, MAN said, will help you to unite your colors of the MUN, of your environment. And try to think about your light and shadow as opposite at temperatures. That mean one light creates called shadow and cold light creates one shadow. And tomorrow a rework bring again some light into it. And then he will speak about main light and the difference between direct light and indirect light. So till then, have a great day air as he at, Wow. 5. Chapter 3: Main Light: Hey guys, I hope you had a great day and you are ready for today's show. Oh, yeah. So today we want to speak about light reward to speak about main light and the differences between direct light and indirect light. And we want to empathize our lights sitting in the background. Okay, then let's start there if they're basics. So when we speak about light, then we have two categories of light. Direct light. And in direct liked. A good symbol for direct light would be the sum Y or the moon is not a light source by itself, but a reflection of light from the sun. Direct glide is coming from a light source that directly hit the object. Why eating direct to light is when direct light don't hit the object, but another surface that reflects them back on the object. I go to example for this would be you're sitting in your room. So in a house with a roof over the top, that x1 is not reaching you directly. That reflection of sunlight is coming through you run though and illuminating your room. In today's lesson, we will speak about main light. Please open therefore your next overview layer that is named after it. Okay, mainline, or also called key light, is the strongest light source that you have in your picture. It can be direct or indirect light. And when I send this point a bit better, if you movie examples. In this queen trip from the movie up, we have direct light from the sun that is illuminating all those areas here. In comparison, here's a scene from that pool with indirect light here to domain load comes from above, just not directly from the sun, but from sunlight is scattered and reflected by clouds. You again that reclaimed from the sum. And now it gets a little bit more difficult. At first. It might look like it could be direct light, but it's not pride enough on it. What we see here is a reflection of the day light from outside. I wanted my main light to come from a direct light source, but more from a table lambda1 sunlight and zooms. I opted for warm shadows in the last chapter, my light should now be caught. Ok, redesigned on a light source and temperature. And now it's down to, hey, hey Googly d2. Okay, so there are two different ways to paint light. We add light or we remove shadows. Aristotle, to second objects. I take a large soft brush and raise my Emmy in shadow. And the underlying base Carlo now appears. On my other option, we add a new layer, clipped mask, get it early. So because we want to paint, the light, overlay is looking quite fine footers, but does not mean that overlay must do for light. You can also just try a little bit around that. I think for the moment, this will be fined for me, for my scene. I want to have a brighter light. I could go Lulu. I could go with something like a very light blue or bitten greenish would be also okay. I could even go close to white. And we infected me homeless because it's an overlay difference as so. Yeah, just go with whatever you want as long as it is. Great. So now I take a big soft round brush and start to paint into my right. Look at this. Isn't this amazing? Yeah. Okay. So after we're done with this, we want to amplify our light setting also in the background. So it is in the same way influenced by light like our object. So therefore open now your next overview background to, Okay, first I will bring in more shadow create therefore a new layer under your lemon and on top of your background. I will let it on normal. Pick your background color and then make it a bit darker, more saturated here, and one more. So I bring it moonless wireless direction. Okay? So, and then they will start to bring this one shadow in my background. Okay. And if live off them against the lawyer, is it not? Okay. And and we want to amplify as our cold light from the top. So pick AIG in background color, and this time we bring it up to a more brighter color. And I won't bring it in this direction. So it creates a nice contrast. And LA, and eliminate from here every symbol to a strong. And as the last drawn, my illumination from my light source on their ground, sorry, it will be lazy and just take the same color that I already choose for my main light. And a bit too much, and then eliminate the ground around. Okay. Well, we don't stress out too much. If you'd think right now it is not perfect. And this is the nice thing about keeping things separated. You can adjust as it any later pint of the brokers. So I'm British wire will adjust this later. But for the moment this is five. So that's it for our session for today. And he again, our main key points of what we learned. The difference between direct and indirect light. That a main light as a strong source of light in your picture. And that we have two ways of painting it in and implied our light setting in the background to create an environment. So I laughter, we had light delayed tomorrow. We will again continue with shed or actually this read different kinds of shadow. So like I always have a great day. See you tomorrow. 6. Chapter 4: Cast Shadow: Welcome back to our next session. Like I already mentioned yesterday, after we had light. Now we bring back a, again, chateaux actually is very kind of different channels and we will see how they interact differently, how they react differently with indirect and direct client. So it will. Before we start with our next chapter, shadow, I want to give you an overview about this three kinds of shadow that are accessing. Cast shadow, occlusion, shadow and form shadow. Cast shadow to shadow that an object caused on another surface. Occlusion shadow is the darkest shadow that we have and that we see when one surface is touching another one. And then we have a form shadow and a form shadows happening with in the object. And it's describing the forum. But for sure we will speak about all this kind of Shadows in more detail. We will start with a cast shadow open, therefore, your overview layer of the same name. So again, it's the shadow that get cast from the object on the ground or another object. To construct a shadow, you have to imagine your light source. So n, because light is always going linear, we can continue those lines along the object and the space in between will be our shadow. Easy, right? I mean, if this object it's easy, but it can be subtracted. So because I am such a lady is, and I am not good in drawing circles. I will just use the elliptical tool here. And then make a new layer under my lemon. I will let it on normal, even dissociate. Ok, I can even, it's not very good. And the centers, so I will. So I can just pick the color of my background that I already pro into shadow. Maybe even a bit darker. Does the dog? Yeah. And then fill it actually looks very flat to see how we can improve this. Let's have a look how casts shadows are looking. In reality, the more our lights or this directly over our object, our shadows are shorter and more the light sources on the site. And the longer get the shit. But it's more about constructing. Okay, the real part here is with more distant shadow becomes lighter and software. And the reason is more like income in-between and eliminate the shadow. And another point is that direct light creates hard edged shadows and the foos light creates soft etched shadows. Okay, we will continue exactly with this to solve the NEP, the edges of our shadow. I mean, not too much, just enough to show that even though I have had direct light. So it is more calming from lamb than direct sunlight. Because the stronger your light source is, the harder are the edges of your cast shadow. And also it looks a bit too mechanical, so I wouldn't like to soften up because of this. I will be again a bit lazy and just polluter may lines with a filter. And the other point was since shadows become darker, the closer they are to the object, and the lighter the more they are far away, I will erase my shallow towards their center because he, more space comes between object and ground. So more light can illuminate it here. Say we'll take soft brush and erase my shadow out. I also want to empathize a bit that light is coming from behind. So I wanna also erase it here, though I am none of my castrato, but still does not look for the realistic. It's more like my lemon is how ring Arctic route. That. Why is this? Because or collusion shadows missing and this will be our next topic. 7. Occlusion Shadow: Since the biggest part of my spaceship is already hovering over the ground, there are for sure parts where it's touching, but it's not so good to see. So I will exchange my object. Again, something more practical for this exercise. Ok, so here you can see that there is a shadow line that is darker than rest. So and if I lift him up than this dark line disappears. So this decline is our occlusion shadow. Ok. This is because occlusion shadows only existing where two surfaces, the surfaces are touching each other and therefore close to no light can come in between. So that is why that dark has chatter that we see. So in this part we will speak about oh, collusion shadow and how to paint it in therefore, open now your next overview layer. Dust off again. So collusion layer. So again in summary, oh, collusion shadow is a dark is cheddar where one surface touch or overlap another one. Because no light could come. I mean, it's the wrong color. So in this case, it would be like this. We will, we will do this a little bit better. But you know, we are still light from all directions, but just year imagery and so on, this will be the darker spot. Alright, so again, create a new layer. And I, mostly, I like to keep my layers separated makers in case I want to erase a lot around, it would not infect my cast shadow that I already painted. So I don't need to paint your anything again. I will go not live 100% plaque. Okay? And this is an important point. If you look around you and you see dark shadows and your brain think for a moment, I will just this very dark. This is black right? Now. It's not because a 100% leg is not really existing in reality. So it will be very dark and not a 100% Plank. Okay, so stay away from this. You can be like this, reinforcement shadows. So let's push this a little bit more and more. Doc, that's okay. Then I will paint it in. So what I need. So if you look, there's already okay. Yeah. Even seeing two arrays. Yep. Okay. Kluge and cheddar, bad, bad, bad concatenation. And for sure, we have not only occlusion shadow in the shadow of the ground, but also on our object. So therefore, real make now a new layer on top of our lemon. This time we will set its own multiplied and rework, use just the same color that we used for our MBA and show. Just jump back to immune to the overview. It is totally okay to be lazy as long as it is efficient. And this shadow will become even darker. Then next step when we paint in our shadow. 8. Form Shadow: We can see that good on our potato here again, it is illuminated from above light, which as far as this border and from then on turns into shadow. This transition is very soft, not an approved transition as it were to be the case of an edge sodiums, and this is not a square-shaped but around one. So thanks, mom said, Oh, thanks to you. I can understand the shape of my object better. And in fact, we already have a kind of forms at all because we started with a base of EMI and shadow and then you paint it in our main light. What created this soft edge transition between light and shadow? But I want to have this shadow even darker. So I add a new layer. I will put a here in between my MBA and shadow and my own gluten showers that are multiply and use again the same color. Yeah. And then I bring even more shadow and getting them men apart to match. Okay. Well, I would say that's it. Okay. Now we are done with our three kinds of shadow. Well, that was it for today. With shadow, you made it. I know it was quite a lot, but he again, in summary, all, most important key points that we learned, these lessons we learn, but rather it was a big chapter, okay, first, cast shadow, that's the shadow that get thrown on the ground. And it gets softer and lighter. The more distance is between object and ground. Occlusion shadow is the darkest shadow between two touching surfaces. And form shadow help us to describe the form of an object. And in general, the full slide creates a soft shadow, while direct light creates a heart etched shadow. And tomorrow, like you can already guess that reward will illuminate laid some of those shadow parts, again with reflected light. So like always, have a great day and see you tomorrow. 9. Chapter 5: Reflection Light : Well, I hope you're feeling well. You're our Western and in a good mood and you are ready for today's lesson. Yesterday we spoke about differences of cast shadow, form shadow and a gluten shadow. And today we want to speak again about the light. Actually we want to speak about reef electron light. Maybe you can remember the lesson about main light or and we also spoke about the differences of direct light and indirect light. So we have electrolyte in indirect light is to say, so a reflection from a direct light source. So to make this topic a little bit more visual for you, I prepared a leather, something, so lean back, half a snake and coffee. And now, what would be your zone for current micelles up? Yeah, maybe. Okay. So we have the sun, so our direct and light source, we don't need a tree right now. To give you a better idea, light is made out of light particles, so-called fruit on citizen. Not very important, but you can imagine them like liberal bounced bolts. You know, every time when they hit a surface, they bounce back until they hit the next off, and then they bounce back again and again and again, again. Okay, so here we have now light does coming from our direct light source, hitting the ground and now bouncing back in another direction. Every time when this was happening, light is losing energy. Our direct light. So that is directly coming from the sun, has 100% of energy in, under this, why it is super bright. But in a moment where it gets reflected, it lose a lot of its energy. Actually it lose like 80%. So, but I don't want the water you rough numbers. The important thing is that you remember that reflection light is way less strong than direct light. And because it is a less strong, it will be only visible in shadow. Okay? Because every area that is already illuminated by direct light, it so strongly illuminated at reflections that are much weaker would not be visible in this area. So for today's lesson, police our pan, you and next overview named reflection light. One. Yes, you say, you want to cover today to make a summary of what we just learned before. Reflection light means in red light, and this light that gets reflected from one surface to another, and it is only visible in shadows because it has less strong than direct light. Ok, that means in our example, we have our light source from the top that is also illuminating our ground. Radon is in a chapter about main light and background. Ok, so we will have now this slide, our main light. This is illuminating the ground. And then this light is reflecting back and illuminating the shadow part of our lemon. And for sure it will not only illuminate this part because all this ground here is illuminated. So we will have reflection everywhere here. Okay, so what we will do now is painting in this reflexion and therefore we have to raise, can either array, arrays out our form shadow, or recreate a new layout. So I will show you both versions, two arrays out. My phone shadow layer. What you could do is just using an eraser or using a mask. Okay, be careful to not go to B because I already spoke about occlusion shadow. The closer our object is to the ground and less light can come in between. So don't go to the for sure, don't forget those peninsula here. And also our lied is more coming from the right site. And Mr. Postman. Good on postman. So we have more light here. So this area of pillar, also, our shadow here is shorter. So we have so we have more light here and a bit less light here because here the shadows longer. Doc spring. Okay, so this would be one object using their clipping mask or you can also use an overlay layer and then take their color for your ground. We have here all the way this mixture of ground color and light, and this mix is now illuminating, such as an array I redundant before top. This would have the same effect. And you also have to keep in mind that the intensity of you reflection depends on the strong oneness of your light source. So the stronger your light source, the stronger will be your reflection, because the more light gets reflected. If you have already acquired a week, a light source, then also less light gets reflected. And it also depends on the material, the material of your underground, and the material of your object. But this is something we will speak about tomorrow. We can even combine these two things. If you would like to have a very strong, What would not make sense at any rate in this setting, but just in general. So this was our first step. But so this was our first step, but I'm not done yet. So like we just learned before, what light particular are like little bounced bolts. So they jump back and forward from one surface to another one. So it is not that we have only lied that reflect one time against an object. No, dispelled seeing continuous. And how this works, removed C. 10. Reflection Light 2: When light hits a surface, this surface gets not only illuminated, but also cutoff lightened surface get mixed with each other. In this example, sunlight hits the floor and eliminates it. So white footed, light brown for a growl and the result would be a lighter. Ok. Now the reflection ping-pong continuous and reflect on the trick. This LIDAR consists not only of sudden line that the mixture of sunlight underground and this mixture now get mixed with the green of beliefs. Yeah, it gets a bit confusing. It's okay. And just for comparison, we also eliminated tree. We have sunlight just to make it clear again, that reflected light as much weaker and is therefore only Hezbollah in shaped. So what we just learned is not only light gets reflected, but also color. And as a quick example, let's say we put a blue paper under our lemon, then this blue would get reflected. So I will pick this color because this is already the mix of the Paypal and the light and then routes and we're bringing oil room painted like this. Mullerian. Yeah. Okay. So you get idea. This doesn't need to be perfect attack. Ok? So make me realize that we all just want to take a second to name our layers. I mean, it had been so much better to do this quickly, but I know I always forget to do this. And then they regretted because then I have like 100 files and I have to click through all of them. That's huts. It's so painful, so it just Let's be all better. People named as far as seconds. Okay, much better. Okay, nice. So where did we stop? So we learn that not only light gets reflected, but also yes, got it. And the other point that we learned was we append in few via my lab. And we also learned that not only you environment is reflecting on your update, your object is also reflecting back in the environment. And because we learned earlier that reflection are only visible in shadow, really will not see this here because this area is alienated from our main light and much stronger noodles scene is in the cast shadow. And we learned that not only light but us or color gets reflected. So we will see a reflection of our lemons color and their setup. Okay, therefore, making you layer on top of our cast shadow layer and rename it directly. I'm sorry, this is much more for me and for you because I'm really abandoned us. And recall the lecture. And we clip mascot Ebola. And now we have two options we can iterate, Just let it on normal, and then pick the color of our lemon and paint it into our brush. Like this. Hit mortgage. I mean, this is already to merge, but thanks to the stair arrays as existing and where things could tunnel words. Okay. And you can take shorter lives because of occlusion shadow. So yeah, more, something like this. So we can do or we add another layer, can clip mascot and put it on soft light. And then we just do the same thing. Both versions are working. Yeah, I would just go with this one. Okay. So this is step two, but we have also, sir, at one time this is coming now. 11. Ambient Light: We already know light gets not only reflected in one time, but again and again and again and again. And every time the colors of the environment get mixed with each other. Okay, ever made even more space, and we have a closer look at this. Those are the colors that we can sign in our environment. With every reflection, those colors get mixed with each other. And the more often light gets reflected, there were weaker and more the food becomes, and all those different colors merge into one state. And this is what we call ME. So they'll be. So ambient light like also immune shadow in the beginning is to reflection from the environment on the object. And those are light particle that already reflected many, many, many, many time. So they are very low in intensity and they are rarely foos and soft. You can't tell anymore from which direction this light is coming from because it gets scattered around. So of them that are just create this very diffuse general atmosphere. Our example is here again, very simple because we have only a background color and not many things we have to take care about. So only a kind of gooey sorts of paint in our Emmy and lied, recreate a new layer, call it directly. And we pick the color of our background and just rarely slightly paint in some hands off this gray. And you have to be very careful because this light, it's very low in intensity in delivery soft individuals, so it will be only visible in shadows, not visible here in our reflection light because this reflection is stronger than reflection from the AMI. And also you have to be careful to not be darker than your shadow because it's still liked. So let's have a look. This is our form shadow. Yeah, it's even a hint darker. So you analyze this and take a graded as more illuminated. Okay, let's have a look again. And yeah. Okay. Yeah. That's light enough. We just want to empathize a few hints of this gray here and there. So we make a better connection between our object and our background. It's really just hints of gray, not more, there's already too strong. So you really want to be careful to not overdo this. But again, this depends totally on the quality of your environment and material. If you have a very strong reflective material, then you would see this Reflections stronger and author of the intensity of light source and our caves of as not very strong. Yeah, I would say this is already enough. And what I also see that I would like to define things more out. For example, have a bit more light here. And to make my shadows stronger than this is something that I will do at the end when I have all my elements together. Don't worry about this right now. We will do this at the end, and yet then we are done with reflection lights. This is again screenshot from Big Hero six. The Sun is illuminating this house front here and is then reflecting Mac to this health front here and creates this really nice reddish illumination. Same movie. We have a window here. The sun is hitting him here directly. But this is not what you want to speak about. Who you want to speak about. This reflection here that comes from this wall behind him because direct light is hitting this wall and it's reflecting back on his arm and creates this greenish reflection here. This screenshot is from marijuana. The sun is slightly behind her and hitting her only. What creates a nice room lie, but we will speak about it later. So everything else is reflection light, for example, from him. Ok, this sounds maybe irritating. His body is facing the sun directly. So the sun is illuminating his upper body and is then reflecting back on her. Would explains this especially stronger relish with Lecture on her hand, but also her phrase. So and then we have also this bluish Reflections, For example, in phase. And those are either ray from the Walter from the sky. So like always, hear our summary of the most important key points that we learned today. Reflection like us light that gets reflected from one surface to another. It is visible only in shadows. And not only light gets reflected, but also color. Your object also reflects back in the environment and ambient light, a severity force light from the environment. So tomorrow we will go on and speak about material. So like always, have a great idea, take care and see you next time. 12. Chapter 6: Material: Wow, we are already at our last theory session saying, Well today we want to speak about material. We want to improve what we've already done. And finally, at a Bono slide, we want to start with material. And this is very important, especially if you want to paint something more realistic. Because everything that's around us is made out of different material and every material is reacting differently towards the light. Yeah. Well, what do you notice when you look at this two Christmas tree ball? So one is Medea is more mirror-like. Orbiter, wasn't me. It's more, it is mirror-like. By the way. Welcome to my working space. This one has less contrast, while the other one is very high in contrast and MOOC provided the hard edges, why our light ball includes more soft edges. Okay, now focus on that point of light. Here. This is the highlight, the direct mirror reflection from our light source. So in the MOU like one, we can actually really tell this is a window. While with the right, wrong could not really tell from where it's coming. And also it is not as bright and also very foos. So he again, as a summary, you'd have differences in the quality of the surface a and how visible or their reflections, how low or high is to contrast. How is here? Well, you range. So we've, well you weren't I mean, there's so here you can see up, up, up, up, up, up a much smaller range on, well, use with any object compared to hear it. So much more colors, much more values, okay? So soft touches, hard edges and different qualities in Highlight. Okay, but why is that? Light that is falling in reflects in the same angle back. So when you have a smooth surface, all light gets reflected in the same direction back. So all light is bundled at 1 and the reflection that we see will be bright and sharp. The same thing like when you look in the mirror compared Ran, You have a rough surface. So the underground is 2p. So when then the light is falling in, it gets scattered. In all different directions, okay? As a result, those kind of light will not be focused on 1. And the reflection will be shown soft and less intense and is not showing their surrounding. Okay, rewind to speak about hightlight. So we go now to our next over you layer called material highlight. We just learned that a highlight is the direct mirror reflection from a light source on the object. Without a light source, we would not see a highlight. That when we have a highlight, it is also very helpful to explain material and texture. If we look at the surface of a lemon 3C, it is smooth but has many pores. Now we could start to paint all those thoughts. What would take forever? And it's also not necessary. Things to less high contrast between light and dark. We can see that her skin is wet and areas where we have less strong contrast like here, reroute, not see those texture details. Same here we have the small light sources here from the sea lanes that are reflecting here. And in this area weekend see you where we will his skin pores. And our brain is able to understand if the texture is looking like this here, then it means it is everywhere like this, but it's not necessary to explain this. This information is already enough. And this is the same with our lemma. It will not be necessary that we explained as poor texture everywhere, but in the area of highlight. And then this will be enough. Somewhere milking color. We add it on normal. And I want to do this in at least two, maybe three steps. So I take this term here and make it brighter. I1 that my brush for this has a bit more hot mass than one that I use for. And then I lay a base. So I would just make a simple stroke to have already an area there's a stronger eliminated and then I make a second layer and make it lighter. And now I want to paint my doubts, my purse, but I don't want to do is like this. Okay. I want to create a center where they're more poised to port. It's on starting to really move points. Psm matching, kind of I don't want to have too much here actually. I want to keep this as simple as possible. Say, I can even duplicate this layer and raise the outer areas out. So really keep a pride center. Maybe it makes sense to make the area of our underground beer, but not as try it. I hope I don't hear too much. Actually, painting a highlight is the very tricky. I would highly recommend to you to use photo references here to get it right. Yeah, maybe maybe like this. That's just again, I don't want to make already improvements in our paintings. I want to keep this for later. But what I would really like to see and the opacity from my main light. Okay, and now we spoke about material of our object. But what is also important is the material of our surrounding. Therefore, you can now open material two. And as an example for a strong reflective material, I prepared at plate, if the higher reflective material like this as an underground reroute also see stronger reflections on our object. They would then look more like this. So when we speak about material, it is not only important of which material your object concepts, but also you surrounding your underground close objects. Think like this. Keep all this in mind for the right interaction with each other. So if you want that your image look more realistic, it is very important to render materials as well as possible. Otherwise, you will promote misinterpretations. Let's say for n sample, you draw a character, and this character is wholly assort, depending on how good you paint your material, it will either re look like a toy small, or a 3S Ward. And depending on the context of your character, this can be really irritating. So a good way to learn how to paint material is to make studies. Maybe you have already seen one of those collections of 50 or even a 100 material studies. And yes, this is painful. Yes, this takes for error. But it is so good and so helpful. And you will really improve your rendering skills and your ability to paint materials. I can highly, highly, highly recommend is make a view. It will be really good. And with this, we are already done with material. And I want to use now a moment to make some over paintings and improvements. 13. Overpaint: From my personal workflow, I like to create a lightening just like we did, and then use it as a base to continue painting on top of it, like in this example here of a character that I done for again, okay, I have my sketch, I have my base color, I have my basic light setting, and then I continue to paint on top of it and render things. I'll tell I'm happy with it. How far you want to push it depends on your taste, your style, and your skills to propose. Now it become handy again that we kept every layer separated. So that way it was, for example, possible that I could reduce the opacity of my main light. So now I can go from layer to layer, just at new layers to see how I can improve what I already done. So I, for example, would like to add a bit more shadow. So I will just add here another shadow layer. I can already. And I wanted to have the same color. So one way to do this, I go on my pet tool and select here current layer, Naomi, shadow layer, bam. And there it is. I can go with a soft brush. Now let's see. Maybe more. In the center. When you are unsure, it is good to make cubed as camera symbol, as screenshot. So I will put this one out again now omega a screenshot. So this is now saved. So and then I can give myself like ten minutes, 20 minutes, then I make another snapshot and then I can see easily, Would I like before or what I like right now? Or you can find a nice combination between those two. It is always handy to do this. Okay? This has happened very often to me that I thought it took before so much better. Or it is so nice to have this make such good things today can also happen. Anyway, it's nice. Let's see how it would like to add a bit more reflection pool here and say this is only true in this evidence. Also very handy if you use references, I highly recommend that. It's always good to use references. To instrument. Love, love, love, love, love, love, love, love live. I mean, those whole things could get defined. Much more crazy motivated to do this right now. Neutral, if it could be nice to empathize in picture. Just to give you a little bit. No, Crip, didn't. I hope I use a new guess. I used a new layer. I mean, they also special precious existing create more is laying those kind of lumpy texture. No, I would like to make it even night ambient light here. Strong up. Just a bit. Well. So just as an example, we will make our snapshot, let's see. Tossed before like this. Now it's like this. Every day as I can to much reflection light here because this has now casa same intensity like on their side. And name your layer. Well, I will move on. 14. Rim Light: The last slide I want to speak about as a kind of a bonus like, you know, it's not part of the regular light setting and therefore should also more than just one. And this one is easy to do and can create a very nice effect. I'm speaking about backlight, also known as rim light. Around Light is a direct light that gets placed slightly behind or high above an object. This way, it creates a crate separation between object and background, especially when the value of your background and your object are very close to each other and it becomes really important to have such a kind of separator. So it will help you to make your object pop more out in front of the background and become also matter readable. And besides it also provide a sense of depth and it has great for traumatic effects. So this will be our last overview. Ok, for a rim light reuse, another direct light source that will be behind our object. So because it is a new one, you are totally free in choosing your color and your intensity. I will make this very simple and just go with white. Okay, I make a new layer, call it rim light. And I will break this down into parts. And first, I want to draw a hard line along the edge. And my second part and is adding some atmosphere. I will take a heart round brush, said, it's fair. It's hardness because it's small. And no, yeah, I wanted to take white. And no. You can totally be a little bit sloppy right now because overall correctness later. So like this, before I really find this just as a, I see this as our main focal point because the failures and as human beings, we tend to look at foods, at faces. So this is my focal point. So I think it can be nice to put my room light on the others side to have a nice contrast. You know, if I would paint no rim light on this slide. It's subnets. Yeah. So this side fuse and where we fall, where there's folds move back and yeah, absolutely. I think this has been a okay. So and we also have to themed that light is creating a mains, bought a main area of brightness. And from there, the intensiveness of brightness is fading out. So you line should not be alway long in the same intensity, but one part should be brighter. And from there it gets lower. Sum. And we'd like, it's, I mean, I could also set my, my point higher. So I can also do this. So this is totally up to you. A little bit cleaner. It is nice if you liked this knowledge to perfect because we also add this kind of glow. Okay, and then I add another layer and this time the soft brush. Yes. Slay as to be under law. So because we have our light source here, they will also be a bit of illumination of the atmosphere around something like this. It's meant again in our snapshot without rim light. Right? I could even reduce a bit. Let's say. Yeah. Look again throughout and then we add up the first screenshot is from the movie can call, thanks to the rim light around his arms and legs weekend see the silhouette against the background that otherwise would just melt together with it. Maybe you are not an impressionist painting. Rim lines means to paint a board line around your subject. But that's not really the case for sure. Sometimes it can look like this, but like any other lights, you have to think about direction and intensity and rich places are actually illuminated at this angle of incidence. You should make it bleed into the farm and tried to bring out the three-dimensionality of your subject. And here, our last summary really spoke about materials and how they reflect in different rates. One of those reflections is highlight. What is the greatest wrong and a mirror reflection of the light source it self. And it has rarely useful to indicate texture. And we learned about room light, which is a light that illuminates the object from slightly behind. It helps to push the readability to separate the object from the background. And it's all over. A very cool effect. And that was it. Conquered relation. I hope you enjoyed it. I hope you learn a few more things. And if you want to apply what you just learned directly, maybe you want to continue with one of these fields here. Yeah. Anyway, I would be amazed if you share your work in progress and final image of us. So please upload them. And diprotic gallery or posting on social media for example, and Instagram. And just leave me in the comments there. You can also send me messages if you have any questions or suggestions. And we have hashed. Yet, it matched it. Scotia. Yep, it's great. So thank you very much again. I wish you all the best. Take care of you and see you next time.