Light & Exposure in Photography | Dejan Gasovic | Skillshare

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Light & Exposure in Photography

teacher avatar Dejan Gasovic, Photography Educator

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

17 Lessons (4h 6m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Light & Photography

    • 3. Dynamic Range (DR)

    • 4. DR: Example Photographs

    • 5. DR: Project

    • 6. The Quality of Light

    • 7. The Quality of Light: Example Photographs

    • 8. The Quality of Light: Project

    • 9. Exposure

    • 10. Exposure: Project

    • 11. In Search of Good Light

    • 12. Practical Applications: Landscapes

    • 13. Practical Applications: Architecture

    • 14. Practical Applications: Portrait

    • 15. Practical Applications: Animals

    • 16. Practical Applications: Plants & Flowers

    • 17. Practical Applications: Food

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About This Class

Radically improve the quality of your photography through better understanding of light.

“Master the light and you will master the photograph”, some of the finest photographers we know declare regularly. I couldn't agree more. The importance of light in photography can not be exaggerated. Let me put it this way: if you do not understand the light, then the rest really doesn't matter, you will not be going anywhere with your photography. Understanding and utilizing light is an absolute unmissable part of photography training. And this course is just about the most extensive program on that subject. You will be shooting significantly better photographs the very same day after you finish the course. The course not only offers explanations but goes one step further. In the last section, more than 300 photographs will be shown and discussed. These ideas and tips which are formulated as specific as possible, present an invaluable input for shooting better photographs for almost any subject.

During the first two parts of the course (Dynamic Range and The Quality of Light) you will discover how determinative light is for the final quality of your photograph. This will remain one of the fundamental discoveries throughout your development as a photographer. You will learn how to read and evaluate the light conditions of the scene and how to spot favorable light. These are some of the most important skills of any photographer.

The focus in the third part is exposure. We will discuss various topics, for example: what is exposure and its importance, how to evaluate it, the tremendous potential of subjective exposure, etc.

In the last part of the course (Practical Applications) a huge effort has been made to enable you to apply the newly acquired knowledge in your photographic practice as quickly as possible. No less than 304 photographs of landscapes, architecture, people, animals, plants and flowers and food are used to display a variety of practical applications and common challenges. This is an enormous input to make you aware of possibilities and to inspire you to shoot significantly better photographs of almost anything.

What are you going to learn during this course:

  • Understand the fundamental importance of light in photography and open the door to a whole new level of quality.
  • Discover the endless possibilities to radically improve your photography in a short period of time through better understanding and handling of light.
  • Understand the importance of correct exposure.
  • Learn to shoot winning photographs by using subjective exposure, etc.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Dejan Gasovic

Photography Educator


Hello, I'm Dejan.

I am a full-time photographer and photography instructor since 2010, based in The Hague, The Netherlands. In the past 10 years I have given lessons in 8 different countries in 3 different languages to thousands of students. 

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1. Introduction: Hi, my name is Dan Garcia, which I am a photographer, photography educator based in the Hague, Internet ons. I'm also the founder of octopus Academy, one of the biggest Photography schools in the Netherlands. We had about 25000 students in one of our 50 locations somewhere in the Netherlands. In the past 10, 11 years, I have given lessons to nearly 40 thousand students in eight different countries. So I do have a lot of teaching experience and I'm pretty sure that you will find my courses educational. I certainly hope that. 2. Light & Photography: Allow me please. Now, at the beginning to say a few words about this course. What is this about and what can you expect? I would like first to clearly explain the importance of light in photography. Mass of the light, and you will master photography. I think you probably heard some of the best photographers around making this statement. I champion this opinion very much. Light is the central topic of many of my lessons. So how important light is photography? Let me put it this way. If you do not understand, the light, dressed really doesn't matter. You are not going anywhere. Did your photography believing that is in short, how important light is? If you cannot read the light. You're going to be pretty much photographing like this. Blindfolded. You have absolutely no idea what they're doing. Maybe your photographs will be good. Maybe your photograph will be not so good. You never know why, Because you cannot understand the light conditions that you have. So I think you can guess it by now. As far as I'm concerned, lightest do most important part of photography. More important than subject, more important than composition, more important than anything. If the light is not favorable, we are done with photography right now. Maybe you can go fishing in that light. Maybe you can go play tennis. But I can assure you right now, You're not going to be making your best photographs. It is just not possible. Let's say that I am today going to the Grand Canyon in the US. It is absolutely a fantastic subject. And I know that I am able to produce some fine compositions. But if I find that a debt light on allocation is not a proper light, not favorable light. I will not take a single shot. Why would I? I don't want it to make snapshots. I leave that to tourists. I don't want even an average photograph. I have enough of them. I want only the very best photographs. And I know if I want our very best photograph, I must have the very best light. If not, I will not even take my camera out of the back. I hope that you by now understand what am I talking about here. Without knowledge of lights, you really do not have any chance to make any serious advanced video photography. But there is also a good news. And the good news is this. If you take time and make the effort to learn this, you will make the biggest jump in the quality of your photography that you are ever going to make, you will acquire the most powerful tool in photography. The sole goal of this course is to help you with that, to enable you to acquire that toe. So how are we going to do this? This course could actually have only two major parts, the quality of light and exposure. But dynamic range is such a big parts of that story about the quality of light that I presented it as a separate subject. So the course has three major parts. Dynamic range, the quality of light and exposure. In each of these parts. I will first tell you some theory about the subject, why it's important, what is it, etc. I will give you some examples to understand it better. I will show you some photographs. So you can't see also how it works in the real world. And you will get also some projects or exercises so you can practice and improve your skills. In my attempt to make for you this course as useful and clear as possible. I added at the end of the course a complete section with quite a few specific ideas, advises, examples, and situations in various light conditions. We'd hope that this extra input will put you even in a better situation to make better decisions with your photography even today. I suspect that you're now becoming a bit restless and inpatient to finally here, how you can improve your photography. So I will give you a little preview of what is this course about. And then we will start with the course. Please have a look at these two photographs. So here we have two photographs of the very same subject. The photographs are taken with the same camera. The camera settings are also the same in both photographs. And edges see the composition almost the same two. Still. These two photographs have very different quality. The photograph on the left side is very boring. It is very two-dimensional. There is nothing much to see there, to be honest. On the, on the right side, you have photograph which so much life into it. It's pleasure to look at, look this beautiful highlights and the shadows. So much dimension, so much to discover here. It is pleasure to look at. So what is the big difference between these two photographs? Because they are taken with the same camera, with the same camera settings and pretty much the same composition, only one difference, the light. So please realize right now at the beginning of this course how determinative light is for your photograph. If you stand here right now, there is absolute no way to take this photograph because you do not have a proper light. You are depending on the light conditions out there for a 100 percent. Yes. That is what is this about? We will of course, look at many other subjects during this course. But I hope that you already realize how big is the potential of this knowledge, in which extent you can improve your photography with this knowledge. Many beginners and advanced photographer Stephen, think all I need for one good photograph is one good camera. The knowledge of camera settings and the knowledge of composition. And there I go. I am going to produce some great photographs. Well, you don't need also a favorable light. Otherwise, it is not going to happen. But let's turn our back and go step-by-step tolerably. So you can acquire a solid understanding of light in photography. 3. Dynamic Range (DR): Let us start with dynamic range. Dynamic range of the scene that you wanted to photograph describes the ratio between the maximum and the minimum measurable light intensities or shall I put it more simple in the words, dynamic ranges, the contrast between the lightest and the darkest areas in the scene that you want to photograph. For example, if you want to shoot my hand, to take a photograph of my hand, dynamic range of this scene here would be the contrast between skin and the shirt, the lightest and the darkest area. Dynamic ranges. An important fact for a photographer, if I, for example, should an event dynamic range is one of the first things that I will determine to avoid later, unnecessary and unpleasant surprises. But I will tell about that more in a moment. Dynamic range is actually also a nice occasion to say something about differences in the perceiving of the world, how we do it with our, with our eyes, and how camera does it. There are, they're quite big differences and you need to know these differences and use them to your advantage. I will give you one example. How many times did you spot a nice subject and you took a photo of it, but home on your computer, that subject looked completely different. I suspect you have this situation quite a few times. It indicates the lack of knowledge of light in photography is something that we are going to change today. Let's have a look together at this example, which goes about differences in the scene of the worlds of perceiving of the world between our eyes and the camera. Let's say that I want to make a shot of a lamp on the ceiling and the table. On the floor. Lamp. The table. And the lamp casts a stroke shadow, strong big shadow under the table. So how am I going to see this scene with my eyes? Partially because I cannot see at once In one time both the lamp and the table. I will see them one by one. Let's say I will have a look first at the lamp. It is very bright, but my eyes will adjust to these light conditions immediately. And I will see almost every detail in that lamp, despite the fact that it's so bright. Next moment I will have a look at that big dark shadow, but my eyes will adjust again to these new light conditions. And I will see the most of the details in that shadow too. So our eyes are quite powerful. Optical instrument really be see almost everything. But if I take my camera and take the shot for the camera is going to be either lamp or the table. The camera needs to see them both in one time, something that is not passed. But because the contrast between very bright lamp and very dark shadow is just too big. Or Chavez say, dynamic range of this scene is too wide for the camera. If the camera measures the light in the lamp, the lamp will be correctly exposed. But the shadow is going to be big, black area without any detail in other way around. If the camera measures the light in the shadow, the shadow will be better exposed. But the lamp is going to be just one big white rectangular if you ask, okay, but this is the problem. I would say it is a problem because you want to see something in your photograph, not just big white and black areas. So this is something that you really need to keep in your mind. These differences in the sin of the world we see with our eyes always more than the camera. Dynamic range of our eyes is twice as wide as an average Camera. Plus we see the world partially and in that way we see even more. So what is the you maybe just almost invisible shadow. Maybe it's for the camera, completely black area. This is something that you need to keep in your mind to anticipate to try it on. And Thisbe these kind of situations. To avoid. Unpleasant surprises that can ruin your photograph. Let us now see one more example. Because I want to point out a few more things about dynamic range. Shall we say that you want to take one landscape photo? I drew it here for you again. And I think that you by now understand why am I a photographer and not a painter? Anyway, let's see this example. So this is the photograph you want to take. Shall we say it is a beautiful sunny day, two o'clock in the afternoon. A lot of sunshine out there. You're standing here and you think this is really going to be a great photograph. You have a look first at the bright blue sky pier, looks good. Then you look down into the landscape and you see their houses stress whatever. At two o'clock in the afternoon with all light that you have sunlight. There will be a lot of shadows in the landscape too. But for your eyes, it is not too big. Challenge. Eyes will adjust to these light conditions and you will see enough detail in landscape to think this is going to be one great photograph. But if you take a camera and the camera measures the light coincidently here in the bright sky. Do you know what is going to go badly wrong with this photograph here? What's going to happen is that these areas in the landscape, these shadows, they are going to be completely black or very, very dark. And that is definitely not beautiful landscape photograph because at least half of the photograph is just black, dark areas. Why is that? So because dynamic range of this scene here is just too wide for the camera, and the camera has some serious problems here. The camera measures the light into bright sky. And a camera things that every pixel in this frame here is equally bright as this area here, which is not true. These shadows are much darker. And get because of this wrong light measurements. Way too little light to be correctly exposed, they get underexposed, completely black or very, very dark. So we have here a serious problem. A half or more. There are half of this photograph is unacceptably dark. The big question here is how to fix this problem? How to take this photograph? And let me make this clear. When I say photograph, I always think of one specific kind of photograph the best possible. Any other photograph is not interesting for me. And I advise for you to have the same attitude. Have high standards in photography, then you will come far too. If you set your standard here and you reach it, I say You did. Okay? If you set your standard here and you come so far, I say You did great. Who knows? Maybe tomorrow you go all the way. But if you set your standard here, you're never going to be here. So keep your standards high. In this case to my question is, how are you going to make very best photograph of this scene here? If I ask this question in a classroom, I will get many answers. To. Most of the students will say immediately, we need more lights. Let's, for example, enlarge the aperture for more light or extend shutter speed for more light. So these shadows get more light for better exposure. Let's do that. Let's say we enlarge the aperture and get more light for better exposure and take a rather sharp. And really in that new shot, these shadows be much better exposed because the camera gets much more light on the camera sensor, but also the area of the sky will get more light. And now that area is going to be overexposed, the photograph is, again not good. So what now? You could think here of few other options to solve this problem. For example, to use a special filter for these kind of situations, or maybe to do how they are photography or something like that. But really if you want to have here the very best photograph, I say there is only one real solution here and that is to come here some other time when the light conditions are more favorable, shall I say, when the light conditions are optimal, that is the only way to make here the best photograph. And I am not joking here, because this is here, not an issue of camera settings or composition. Know this is here actually an issue with the light. The light conditions in the landscape are just not favorable. And please keep in mind that I with my camera settings. But there I do with this camera settings, I cannot influence the light conditions in the landscape. So that concludes that story. The only serious or optimal solution here is to come. Again some other time we'd hope that you will find here better light conditions. Let me now please make a point. I'd make a few points about dynamic range. To point out a few important things about I would like to point out three things about dynamic range. First of all, please understand and accept that you cannot make just any photograph at any given time, at any given location. If the light is favorable, please do it. Go on and made these photographs. But if the light is not favorable, you are not going to be able to do it, you need to accept that. So for example, here, if you don't know this, you can stand here two or three hours trying something that can't be done really. So that is that big relevance of this knowledge about the dynamic range exactly this point is actually the biggest reason that I'm telling this story about dynamic range. To understand it is not really always up to you. It is also up to the light conditions. So if you stand here two hours trying to make photographs that you really cannot take, you can go home thinking, Jesus, I really do not have any talents for for photography, I am going to give up. And actually, it is not your fault at all. Because the shots that you wanted to make, is it possible to make in these conditions? The next point is, the points that you need to understand. That dynamic range is not something that you cannot set with your camera settings. To say this dynamic range here is not favorable. Let me change the settings on my camera. No, if you want to change dynamic range, you will need to change the light conditions. Obviously, that is often not possible. If you're shooting landscapes, you cannot change the light conditions. The only possibilities come some other time back when the light conditions are more favorable. But if you photograph subjects with the limited size of limited size, like me, I'm a portrait photographer. I really can't change the light conditions or dynamic range with my flashes. I have quite a few of the powerful flashes and I really can't change dynamic range wherever I go. And for me, are my flashes really as important as my camera or as my lens? Very, very important part of my photographic assertion, part of my photographic equipment, because flesh allows me to change dynamic range or quality of light. You will hear about that later. The last point I want to make is I would like to address one question that I will always get in the classroom when I'm talking about the dynamic range, there is always at least one person who will jump and say, But wait a moment. What if I am on vacation on the other part of the Earth? And I'm never going to come here back. It is. This question comes after, I say, tell the story about dynamic range, that if the light is not favorable, the only option is to come back some other time. So there's always at least one person who says, But if I'm on vacation on the other part of the Earth and I cannot come back. Well, my answer is always the same. And that is I'm very sorry. But during your occasion, we do not have divergent rules. No. Unfortunately, the very same rules apply, meaning that if the light on that location wasn't optimal, you are not going away with the best photograph. It's that simple. There is also actually another issue about discretion and that is how hard you really want that photograph. Because for me, when I was younger, younger photographer, there was no such thing. I'm here once and never, but if I wanted that photograph, I draw easily $200 back to try again, It's really up to you how hard you want to have that photograph, how hard you want to work for your photograph. That That's the question actually, because you're not going to get your best photographs as a present, you need really to work hard for these photographs. So this was the theory about dynamic range and two examples. To understand it better. I would like now to show you a few photographs. And in these photographs, you will also be able to see quite a few things that I was talking about until so far. Let's have a look. 4. DR: Example Photographs: Let's have a look together at a few photographs to see how this dynamic range story works in the real life. Here you see one photograph with very wide dynamic range. One part of the photograph is properly exposed, but the other part of the photograph is completely underexpose. It is just one big black rectangular without any DC or actually, and if you say I really do not want to have it there, it doesn't bring any value to this photograph. I can only agree with you. So how are we going to fix this? You could think, I'm going to expose this photograph differently. I'm going to extend shutter speed for more light. In that way, this shadow will disappear. So let's do that. So let's extend shutter speed. Let's take the shot again. For example, this shot. And yes, you did really well. The shadow is gone. And this part of photography, this photograph is now pretty nice. But if you look closely, more closely, we see that we have here our new problem. This part of the photograph is now overexposed. And you can go like this all day long. More light, less light, more light, less light. And in each of these photographs, one part of the photograph will be wrongly exposed because dynamic range of this scene is just way too wide for the camera. Can you fix this problem? Yes, you can. If you expose this photograph like this, and then use your flash to eliminate this shadow here. But you need to be quite skillful bit or flash because you need to flush only the shadow and to prevent the light coming onto this statute because this part here is already properly exposed. So it is not something that you just do. You need obscures your flash to also outside. Pretty much the same story here. Want to see outside in cloudy weather, the clouds will soften the light, meaning that dynamic range is narrower. And the camera sees pretty much every pixel in this frame. If the sum is the sum comes, you will see that a half of the photograph disappears immediately. These are the things that you need to see as a photographer to be aware of. So can you fix this problem? I would say not really. The best you can do is go on and child find a better subject. At the end. I would like you to see this photograph. I think it is really interesting. Very, very decent, quite good photograph. If you ask me. It has very interesting light. Some special field to it. It looks almost like a studio shot. In fact, this photograph is shot. A beautiful sunny day with a lot of sunshine in a nature park. And dynamic range was very wide and the photographer make, makes US art. The photographer sets the settings, the set that the exposure for the birds sets the camera to properly expose the birds. And the camera, when set in that way, really sees the rest of the world just as one big black area. Because dynamic range between these light areas, in these dark areas are just too big for the camera. The camera is able to see only the birds. In the background. There are trees, the shadow quite dark, and the water here is just dark and exposed in this way. It makes just one big black area. And that huge contrast between light births and black surroundings produces a very dramatic photograph. So I repeat. Light conditions. The light conditions met with a wide dynamic range will offer you exceptional chances for the very best photographs that you are going to shut. So keep eyes open for these kinds of of light conditions. 5. DR: Project: I think that this story about the dynamic ranges fairly clear. It is fairly transferable knowledge in the sense that I can tell you about it, that you're able to understand it immediately and immediately use it in your practice. You don't really need months and years of exercise to do something with it. You will not be able immediately to judge dynamic range of a scene with your bare eyes. It's normal, nobody can. But you can always make a shot and have a look. On the camera screen. The photograph and see, are there parts which are heavily overexposed or underexposed? And then you will know you have there an issue with dynamic range. Still. I would like to suggest one project for you to improve these skills. The goal of the project is not to produce nice photographs, but to improve your abilities of scene, the light, namely abilities to judge dynamic range. I suggest you to make a project, let's say six weeks. And to say, I'm going to photograph half an hour or 45 minutes, twice a week. And the goal is to anticipate dynamic range in your photo. So what you do is this, you find your scene. You imagine, how is this scene going to look in a photograph. Then you make a photograph and compare with your idea how that photograph is going to be, where you are, right? What is overexposed or underexposed? You will see that if you repeat this exercise, really within two or three weeks, you are going to be able to judge the light conditions, dynamic range, Peter, bare ice. And it is a pretty good scale. It will make you more confidence. It'll make you feel like a photographer. Also, you will be able to photograph more efficiently because now you don't need to take every photograph there and check him a digit do and then make an adjustment. And again to make photographs, no. Now you will see immediately some since there you do not have any chance to make that photograph because you can see it with your bare eyes. You know, it is just dynamic range is not, not very favorable. I'm going to skip it. I'm going further. So instead of making 60 photographs all the way, on the way to that one perfect photograph, you just take five. So it is nine skill and certainly it is very useful and necessary skill. If you photograph in very dynamic environment like a events in these conditions, you do not have time to make 6060 photographs. The way to the best photograph, you really need to see it right now to make decisions right now, entertain shot in two or three tries towards the photographs. So I think it is really a words of these efforts, half an hour or 45 minutes a week is not too much. And I think in 34 weeks, you will be able to judge dynamic range correctly with your bare eyes into most of the occasions. 6. The Quality of Light: If you would say, Damn, I am giving you 15 minutes to tell me about something that is really important in photography. I would choose for this subject, the quality of light. As far as I'm concerned. This is the central topic in photography. In photography books. By this term, the quality of light is meant something else. This term is used interchangeably with the term the hardest of light, which will describe is sunlight, hard or soft light, something that I will address a bit later. But the hardest of light, I call just that. The hardest of light. By the quality of light. I mean something completely different. I mean the general conditions, light conditions on, in your location. So my definition of the quality of the light, the definition that we are going to use during this course is this. The quality of light? Is the sum of all properties of the light that your subject is in. Or should I say it in a more simple way? If you're photographing this bottle here, then the quality of light would be your idea. If this light that falls on this subject is favorable for your photo, that is the party of light. If the quality of light is fine, all you need is to produce one good composition and you will have one great photograph. But if the quality of light is not favorable, we are done with photography right now. There is absolutely no way to produce one good photograph. If the quality of the light is not right. The ability to evaluate the quality of lights or to spot an incident light in your location is one of the most important skills of any photographer. If you're not able to do this, you're not going anywhere video photography. On the other hand, if you master this skill, you will be able to dramatically, radically improve the quality of your photography in a very short period of time. Exactly this subject, that light is a subject where the most of photography courses will terribly fail. Most noticeably, basic course of photography. During such a course, you will probably learn something about camera settings and maybe something about composition, but very rarely something about the light in photography. And then after the course you will have a D. Okay, I'm going to do it now. I know quite a few things about my camera. Maybe something about composition. My photography must be better. And then you run outside, makes them photographs. But the chances always fairly big that you will not have that great light out there. And then your photographs will not be any better. And you would think, but the am I doing wrong here? In fact, nothing but you will probably jump into the wrong conclusion that you need to learn more about settings and more about composition, which is always good. But what you really need to do is to learn something about light to then you will move video photography forward very fast. Just think of these two photographs of the architecture that I've shown you at the beginning of the course. One in bad light, one in good light. Well, let's say that you just did followed one of Basic Course, photography, that you learn everything about camera settings, M quite a bit about composition, but you come at that location at the moment of that bad light. You will certainly make pretty bad photograph of that architecture and the newer think, what am I doing wrong here? Nothing really. All you need is the learn more about light. Please let me now tell you a few more important things about the quality of light. You will evaluate the quality of light. Always in combination with your intention, your spot, your subject. You decide, what are you going to do with it? What kind of photograph you want to shoot here? That is your intention. After that, you will evaluate the right conditions are the proper for that photograph to shoot or not. It's right conditions our goods. All you need to do is to choose for one, a good composition. And then you have one great photograph. If the light conditions are not good, then you have to change these foundations if you can. If not, then you have to come back some other time hoping that this light conditions will be better and then you make that photograph. Please remember this. The intention is always step 1. With any photograph that you are going to make just after that, after you know, what are you going to do with the subject? You can go on because your intention will influence the way you evaluate the quality of light. Very, very much. It's logical depending on what you want to do with the subject, your evaluation, right. We'll maybe go this way or that way or whatever way, depending on what do you want. This also means that we cannot talk about the quality of light in absolute terms. To say this slide here is bad. But for fat, for exactly, if we know that, we can say is it good or bad? Do not forget that various photographers have very different opinions of light. What is, for example, for one VOR photographer, great light is for a landscape photographer, nightmare because they want to picture for us completely different things. The quality of light is the light conditions that you find in your occasion. It is not something that you can fix the video camera settings to come here and say, well, these light condition C are actually are not so great. The light is of poor quality. Let me change my camera settings. You can do many things with the camera settings, but you cannot change the light conditions in this space here. Whatever you do with a camera, this slide here is going to have very same color, the same intensity, very same direction, and cetera, you are not going to change anything about it, but they're very dubious. Camera. This means that if you want to change the quality of light, you really need to change the light conditions. Obviously, this is not always possible. If you're photographing landscapes, architecture, etc. You cannot change light conditions. If they're not right, you have only one option. Come back some other time. If you are photographing subjects of smaller size, like a people, food products, that then you can really change. Like Nietzsche's quite easy, video flash or flashes. Actually this moment here, I'm using three street lamps to improve the quality of light, 123. And you can see if you better look at that light in my face to highlight here and two highlights here coming from these two lump, lumps y to improve delight to make more beautiful looking in this video. So it gives to my face more dimension and just next altogether look much better. I will just for a moment, put these slides off the show you how much the mean. Actually, for the quality of this video, you will see that using all are only these lamps on the ceiling is really bad idea. Let me show you. Not good is it? Let's go back to the more beautiful light. Here we are. The studio lights are again on. The light is better. I look again this and we can go on. You've seen just a moment ago that my face was completely in shadow. And then you could maybe think, but why didn't I set the camera differently for more light, different exposure? But if you look close more closely, you will see that the background is actually already overexposed. I can't I'm not for even more light. So why did I have the shadow him a face? Because the duration of this light coming from these lumps in the coelom is wrong. It comes from a both a, keeps my face in the shadow. What I need is the light from front, and that is what is this lamp here doing? So that is one of these properties of the quality of the light direction of the light. That has to be also correct if you want to have the best photographs or the best videos. I think this is nice, more education moment for you. Again, just see how much deadlines that light really means for a photographer. Or also, if you're making a video. Let's move on. One of these things that beginners really gets completed wrong is that idea that the presence of light is enough to be able to make some good photodiode service. Think, okay, I know my settings. We have sunlight here. Let's go photograph. But as you've just seen a moment ago, the presence of light is not enough. You know, it is enough that we can see. But if he wants to have good photographs or goods veto that light has to have some properties which are favorable for nice photographs. Another thing about quality of light is that you can only evaluate actually with your bare eyes. Looking at the camera screen doesn't help. If you don't understand it like this, you cannot understand. But you see on your camera screen is just the same with dynamic ranges. Different really that if you can't see it with bare eyes, it will help very much. If you see the photograph on the camera screen. If you see there parts which are heavily overexposed or underexposed, you will know dynamic ranges probably problem here. It doesn't work like that. With quality of life, you really need to be able to judge it with your bare eyes. This subject, the quality of light, is quite an abstract subject in photography, meaning that I cannot, it is not transferable knowledge. I cannot teach you right now how to evaluate the quality of light in any given situation. Why? Because there is an infinite number of subjects and infinite number of your intentions. I really have no idea, but you have your minds and I cannot help you with judgment of that light. I really need to stand beside you to see it myself and then I can tell you. So that means that you learn to judge the quality of light in a period of time. It is not something that I tell you now. Any noise. There are no rules really. The only way to help you further with this is actually if he together analyze the light in a few photographs, and that is what we are going to do in a few moments. For example. It works completely different with dynamic range. At the beginning of this course, I think it is fairly transferable knowledge. I think that you're able already now to make the judgment about the dynamic range in any given situation, all you need is to see on the screen of your camera. Are there any heavily overexposed or underexposed parts in a photograph? And you will know, I have an issue with the dynamic range. It works really different with quality of life. It is much more complicated. But we will have a look at a few photographs together, analyze satellite together. I'm sure that will be NEF that you learn this coming weeks to do it yourself too. But first of all, I want to give you a small or short list of these properties of light that you need to have a look at when you are making these judgments about the quality of light. I think it will help you at the beginning to have some structure in that judgment that you know, what I need to look at here actually. But later, if you have some more experienced in a few weeks, you will really be able to make the judgment like, just like this bad light or good light with this speed really. So some of the most important properties that we need to keep eye on when evaluating the quality of light are the following. Dynamic range. I already have said that dynamic range is actually a part of this story about the quality of light. But because it is such a huge story, I presented it as a separate subject. And then you have four more. And these properties are, properties are as follows. The color of light, the hardest of light. Is it a hard or soft light? The intensity of light and directional light. These are the things that you are trying to see and evaluate when you want to make a judgment, is this light here favorable or not so favorable? For my photograph? So let's now together, have a look at a few photographs. And I'm sure that you'll be very educational for you. This is really the central points, central moment of this course. 7. The Quality of Light: Example Photographs: Is an earlier set. The knowledge about the quality of light is not transferable. Unfortunately, I cannot give you any roles to help you to make this judgment correctly in any given situation. The only way, actually pretty much to help you further with this subject is if we together analyze a few photographs, namely the quality of light in these photographs. And I'm sure that will help you, too, enable you to make this judgment on your own. After vehicle two or three of exercise. So you're not interested so much in the composition or the camera settings here. We just want to know, is the quality of light in these photographs good or not so good? We will start with this photograph here. So my question for you is, what do you think? Is the quality of light in this photograph here? Good or not so good? Is it favorable or not so favorable light? If I ask this question in a classroom, I will get all kinds of answers from. It is very bad, bad light it, or it is very good light. And anything in-between. The truth is that this light is actually very fine light you will make or you will shoot many great photographs in this kind of light. Why is this right, so favorable? But I suggest, let's follow that list that I have given you earlier. It is maybe easier to have them to have some structure, the analysis of the light here. So let's start with dynamic range. Is dynamic range here, okay, or is it too wide? Well, we see here in the photograph, really a quite big shadow here. So maybe we think wait, omit the shadow. It's busting dynamic ranges user problem. Actually, dynamic ranges here, not a problem. Yes, I do see this shadow here, but it is an open shadow. You see detail in this shadow. It is not just black area without any detail. So I say this shadow here is not a problem, dynamic ranges not a problem here. Further, I will have a look at the color of this slide, and I see that the color of this slide is very warm, actually warm light Is this a lot of yellow and orange is in this color of light. And I must say, I can appreciate that weren't in this light very much. And I say I like this warm light. If you say okay, then you may like it, but I just hate this warm light in this photograph. Only I can say is you're right. It is your opinion and you can have it and you're right about it. What I want to say is that this analysis at the end is just an opinion. This is not a row. And you can also not make the rule that any, any light, which is a worm, is good light. Not at all. In some, in many other photographs, cool light would be just a proper light. So about color a here I can say quite that I'm quite certain that at least 85 percent of people would agree with me. I know that for fact, we just love these warm colors in the photographs of the nature and wildlife. So let's go on. Let's have a look at the hardens of light. Sorry. So the question is, is a light heart or so or soft? The answer is, this is soft light and that is really good thing here. Soft light is generally welcoming many photographs that you're going to shoot. So most of the time, you would appreciate, you will appreciate to have soft light instead of hard light. But sometimes, you know, you will produce some great photographs with hard light to what does it mean, soft light? What, what, what actually it is describing the hardest of light. It's describing the. Transformation of the light from very light areas, too dark areas. Is that transformation gradual or is that transformation or jump from light to shadow? Well, in this photograph, it is gradually, you can see it on the pigeon in himself itself. It is here very light or lighter. And then step-by-step, it's getting darker until this shadow here. So it is soft light. Why it's so good? Because of two things. Soft light will give dimension in a photograph, and that is usually a good thing. Because do not forget that we with one photograph, transform three-dimensional world into two-dimensional photograph. If we at least can keep illusion of that. Third dimension, is most of the times. Good thing. And that is here the case. You see that thanks to that soft light, you really have idea of round body of a pigeon. Second thing characteristic for soft light is that soft light delivers more detail. Because soft light means that the camera is able to properly exposed the most of the photograph as its case here. Everywhere you see something. It is not the case with hard light. You will get there hard shadows and then you don't see anything. So soft light means more detail, more content. In a photograph, I will just show you what is hard light. It is this. And you see here the transformation of light from a light parts to dark parts. It's just jump light, the border, jump into the shadow. And then you understand, I hope right now, why is this kind of light not so welcome so often? Well, this part here, this big shadow, doesn't have any value in this photograph. So most of the time, you won't have soft light. The next point on our list of these properties of the light was the intensity of light. This here is quite intense light. And that delivers a photograph with so much life in it. You know, look just these colors. You see details, beautiful details like these feathers here that you see in that light. You know, there is so much life going on in this photograph thanks to that intense light, the photograph is also very, very sharp, thanks to that intense light. So that point, this, this photograph is doing also very well. At the end, we will have a look at direction of light, and it is also very favorable. Light is coming from this side. Your subject is here, very well lit. And here you have shadow for the third dimension, that debt in photograph that we very often want to see in our photographs. So on all these points, scores, this photograph very good. And then you can include this slide is very good. And you can make here many good photographs. I just want to point out this detail here. Look how beautiful is this part here, this magical light in the corner there. For me, this is the most interesting part of this photograph really. Okay. Let's have a look at the following photograph. If I say mine intention here is to produce the most beautiful shot of dislocation. What would you say? Is this light favorable or not so favorable? I know it is questionable. What is the most beautiful shot of 17? But I would say here, the most beautiful in the sense, postcards, beautiful. The answer is no, this light is really not goods. For that purpose. If you, for example, look at the color of this slide, I would describe it as pretty much more bit gray. And if I say that, then I already know the most beautiful photograph of something is not really possible. And if you go on, you will see, in your analysis, you will see one very serious problem here. And that is that this light is very flat light, meaning. Delight without contrast or with very little contrast. And that delivers one photograph with only two dimensions, you know, flat photograph, two-dimensional photograph without depth. And then it's really, really difficult to produce the best photograph of something, including dislocation. In this photograph, you cannot find any. Not need not even one place with some highlights and shadows. It's just flat light. What I mean is this, you cannot find this situation here. You have light, you have shadow, your depth. No, here just gray from here to here, just great. So this means that for this purpose, the best or the most beautiful photon of dislocation is not going to work today. We have to come back here other day for that photograph. I see also further that loss of detail. The intensity, the intensity of the light is low. So all these colors are very fade. Lock this red for example, here you have the seat and look here, dread. Every pixel red jumps into your eyes. So know this light is not good light for that purpose, the most beautiful photo type of dislocation. But if we change the intention, if you say, if you say, I want it actually to produce a photograph with a bit of a sad feeling to it. I would say you are doing a good job here really because this is a photograph with kind of Assad feeling to it. The change of the intention changes everything immediately. Let us go on. What do you think about this light? Is this light favorable? If you want to make the most beautiful shots of this park. I really don't think so. I think this slide is a rather favourable if you want to make photographs for an article about depression, I think you can make, in that case, many good photographs here. If you want to make the best photographs of this park, you had to come one day later, there it is. And you would make these kinds of photographs look at that. The life of a photographer here is very easy. Almost every photograph you take is great because the light is so great. I would use this occasion here just to address one question that I will get very often during my class is in the classrooms. And the question is, do you really need direct sunlight for the good quality of light? The answer is no. Just think that some of the best photographs out there we will make in the storms or after the sunset. And how about this photograph here? Is this light favorable? Well, the correct answer is Diane, I don't know because I did not know the intention. And then if the intention is, for example, I wanted to make a postcard of this city, I would say that chance is very remote. But if you say, I would like to picture for you pollution in a big city and alienation of people in this big city. I would say this light is very, very interesting then in that case, let us together have one more look. At y is delight. So determinative for the quality of your photograph. Let's have a look at this photograph here. The light in this photograph is quite good. The beaches very inviting and we have they are, they are a beautiful blue sky. Ten minutes later with the very same camera. Very same camera settings, and pretty much the same composition. You will make this photograph not beautiful at all. So what is that big difference? Only one big difference. And that is delight. Light in this photograph is just not good anymore. Please take a moment to realize how hopeless is it to stand here and to expect to go home with this photograph? It is just not possible. You can have here the best camera that you can buy. You can have all the knowledge of composition. But this is how far you will come. One waters photograph, because the light is waters. So you can conclude that out there. We are depending on debt light for 100 percent. If the light is favorable, we will make good photographs. If the light is not favorable. In this case, it's much better to go to slim down there, but there is no point to get your camera out of the back. Earlier in this course, I said that if you do not have knowledge of light in photography, it's pretty much same as photographing blind folded. Well, this is actually what I meant by that. If you do not understand writing photography and you arrive at this location, this moment, you will make this photograph. If you arrive with later, you will make this photograph. But you've not have idea, absolutely no idea. Why. Why is it here good, YZ or bad. It is really completely coincidence that she made good or bad photograph. Pretty much same as photographing, blindfolded. Let's have a look at a few more examples here. I just want to say one more thing. This information, this part of the course is really the parts or the information that I want you to understand it. I want you to learn it and I hope you will be able to use this from this moment on to significantly improve your photography right now. Have a look at this shot here. And again, the light is very boring. And look, the speech is also looking boring to actually not inviting at all. If you wait 10 minutes, locked at what a change. Only the light. Here, also, quite a boring light without depth, color or contrast. If you wait half an hour, you would make this photograph the same camera, the same composition, the same camera settings. Here. This photograph you have already seen at the beginning of the course, very bad light for this architecture and very good light for this architecture. And again, if you stand here, here now, you make 0 chance to make this photograph. And in this photograph here, you can see all the glory of light in photography. Delight is reason to take this photograph. The light is the main subject in this photograph, the light is main composition tool in this photograph, light is everything in this photograph and more than enough for one find photograph. Well, the analysis of the photographs that we just did is really the heart of this course. That is exactly the knowledge that I'm trying to give it to you during this course. I hope that you realize the value of this knowledge, that you appreciate this knowledge. And I hope most of all that you will be able to use this knowledge to dramatically, dramatically improve your photography in the, even in the coming days. For me, this was the most important parts that I have ever learned about photography. The moment I understood the light duress really was very easy for me. As I said a few times earlier, this is not transferable knowledge. I did give you all the information, examples, photographs, but still, there is still a lot of work that you have to do yourself. In the coming days and weeks. You have to exercise your eye, you have to exercise your judgement of delight. And I'm sure in two or three weeks, you are going to be quite good in it. And in two months you will mass it completely. To help you further with this, I added one complete section at the end of the course with more specific ideas and advises. 8. The Quality of Light: Project: For this part of the course, the quality of light, I will give you two projects to do if you like, and if you have time. Project one, if you are one day, hold the home, find one subject and photograph it all day long in very same fashion. So for example, every two hours, let's say you start at eight o'clock in the morning, and then every two hours you make the photograph in the same way, same composition, settings, etc. If you position your subject well in your hole, and I imagined summer near the window would be a good idea. You will see that many of these photographs of the very same subjects for the data in the same way will look completely different only because the light changes during today's project 2 is very similar, but then outside, if you have time fine, one occasion and or one subject outside and photograph that subject in various light conditions or weather conditions. And you will see how big the differences these photographs, again, only because the light is definite. Please have a look at these photographs. As an example. Photographs of my students, one of the students here in the Netherlands who did this project. 9. Exposure: After you evaluated the quality of light in the scene that you want to photograph and you decided to take that shot. Your next decision would be about exposure. Do you want to register that scene lighter or darker? So when you take the shot and when you judge, is the exposure in that photograph correct. You're going to be judging is that for the dark to light to dark or just right? I just set your decision. That means that exposure is truly your decision. It is an issue of camera settings. You can always determine yourself. Do I want to shatter this photograph lighter or darker? You can influence or determine the exposure in different ways on your camera into shooting modes, aperture priority and shutter priority. You can influence the exposure only in one single way. And that is using the setting. Exposure compensation. If you are shooting in manual mode and you can influence the exposure in three ways. Aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. On the other hand, the quality of light, including dynamic range, is the light conditions that you find on your occasions. It is not your decision. So many photographers have a wrong idea about relation between exposure and quality of light. They often think that they can proof for quality of light. By choosing four different exposure. You can't pour quarter light is a poor quality of light. All what you can do with our other exposure is to register that for light, lighter or darker, but it really remains poor light. If you want to improve the quality of light, there is only one way to do it, and that is you need to change the light conditions there. Please remember this. You can see exposure also as the amount of light that reaches the camera sensor. If you set your camera for more light, your photograph will be lighter. If you set your camera for less light, your photograph will become darker. The decision about exposure is one of the most important decisions of you as a photographer. Bolton technical as in creative sense. In technical sense, you will notice that big mistakes with exposure lead to loss of photograph. For example, if you overexpose one subject heavily, you will not be able to recover the lost detail and that will lead to loss of that photograph. Also, you will notice that the best photographs always have the optimal exposure. In the creative sense, you will see that you will produce some of the best photographs. By using subjective exposure. You will consciously overexposed or underexposed some subjects. And that will lead to some of your best photographs. I will show you at the end of the course. Quite a few of these examples. If you now would state, Dan, you're talking all the time about lighter, darker. Is that not something subjective? Maybe I find something to light, but maybe Zr, your idea about that completely different. If you would make that statement, I could do anything else except agree with you. You are very right. Exposure is truly something subjective. There is no such a thing as correct exposure, only. Correct exposure according to the photographer. Let us now see a photograph of two. Then you will understand all of this even better. We will start with this photograph here. When I ask in a classroom, is this photograph to light, to dark or correct? Exposed? I will get all possible answers. It is too light, it is too dark, it is correct. And even answers as the upper part is too light and the lower part is too dark. That kind of answers I cannot accept because you have to judge exposure as whole, not partially in a photograph. Every photograph is exposed as a whole. So you really have to choose between two light to dark or correct? The most of students will go for too light. And I can't agree with that opinion. The photographer thought the same, that the photograph is too light. So he or she set the camera differently. And a few seconds later, the photographer shot this photograph of the same subject. And as you see that is completely different photograph. You can compare it here one more time. I believe that this photograph here is better, that this exposure is better because you see more detail. The color is nicer. You see more depth in this photograph and cetera. But most of all, I see also the subject, I believe this is a photograph of a sunset here. And in this photograph I see the subject. And in this photograph I do not see the subject. Considering that the base our exposure on the subject, this, we have to make certain that the subject is correct exposed. Then I must say that this photograph is better because only in this photograph I can see the subject in this photograph not still. Some students will remain with their choice that this photograph is better. If you think that I will definitely not fight you on that. You heard my arguments. And as long as you understand the logic behind this evaluation here, I'm happy with your choice for this photograph to. As you see, Exposure is really a big decision. The same subject exposed in two different ways, produce two very different photographs. So exposure is one of your highest priorities. You need to try to produce correct exposures as soon as possible. Before you are able to do that, you really need first to learn how to evaluate exposure, and that is not that difficult. I think. You need to ask yourself two questions. First is the loss of detail in my photograph. And in this photograph is the answer yes. I do not see any detail and also the sky very little detail in this photograph here is very much different. Yeah, I see the waves here, little waves and much, much more detail in the sky. It's much more impressive here than here. So that tells me that this photograph here is better exposed. The second question is, is the color in my photograph saturated? Know, in this photograph, definitely not. This is saturated color are strong clue that your exposure is correct. So when you answer these two questions, I think that you will be able to determine your exposure, correct, or you need to shoot again with other exposure. Earlier, I said that unfortunately, you will not be able to improve the quality of light with very correct exposure or different exposure. And they also set, unfortunately, other way around is possible to destroy good quality of light with for exposure. And I think a bit of that you can see here, as you see this slide is very interested in really. But if you overexposed that a scene, this is what you get. You lose most of this quality here because of poor exposure. One more thing about the photographs that we just have seen in a classroom, I will regularly get the following question. Are these rocks on the foreground of the photograph a problem because they are just dark silhouettes. And how to fix it. First of all, you cannot fix this. If you're photographing a sunset, then you are photographing at the moment when dynamic range is the widest your fault because you are photographing directly into sunlight. Any shadow out there will become pretty much immediately. Assume it. So you cannot should this photograph, at least not in one time. And properly exposed everything in that photograph. Dynamic ranges just too wide. You could, for example, try to eliminate these shadows with editing, know using Photoshop or similar software. Or maybe two should. Hdr high dynamic range. But to be honest, I do not believe that these solutions leads necessarily to a better photograph here. Further, I do not believe that these zeros are two big problem in this photograph. I think this photograph just reflects the natural states of affairs. I think if you stand there, these rocks would be pretty dark for your eyes still. Plus the cost of the photograph is very light. So a few of these silhouettes make probably a welcome contrast in a photograph. Before we go further, let me please sum up some of the most important things that I have said about exposure. Exposure is your idea how light or dark your photograph should be. Or exposure is the amount of light that reaches the camera sensor. It is very subjective decision. We cannot talk of correct exposure only of correct exposure according to the photographer. Exposure is something that you can determine yourself every time. Again, with camera settings. On the other hand, the quality of light is something that you find in your location. It is the light conditions in the location. If you want to change exposure, you can do it anytime with camera settings. If you wanted to change the quality of light, you really need to change the light conditions. You cannot improve the poor light conditions with correct exposure. Other way around is possible. If you have great like conditions, you can ruin it. By choosing for wrong exposure. You base your decision about exposure on the subject is the most important thing, which really needs to be correctly exposed. If you want to evaluate exposure. The following two questions will help you with it. Either loss of detail in my photograph and is the color in my or the colors in my photograph saturated? I will address one more questions or question that I will regularly or frequently get in the classroom. And that is about why the camera makes the wrong decision with exposure. Because automatic exposure or exposure coordinate camera the often not be the correct exposure. The only reason that the camera makes mistake with exposure is our wrong measurement of light of the scene that you wanted to photograph. It is not as many photographers think that if location is too dark, the camera will underexpose. Or if the location is very light, that the camera will overexpose. In fact, it is rather opposite. I will give you two examples. If you start in a room, darkroom, and the only light sources, one candle, and you want to make a photograph of that candle. Well, the camera will certainly heavily overexposed that hump, that candle because the camera matches the light also on the walls, completely in the shadow. The camera is trying to properly expose also the wars. And that will lead to very, very wrong light measurement and eventually to heavy overexposure of the candle. Or if you want to photograph snow or on a beautiful sunny day, it's of course, very, very light sanding. The camera will probably underexpose because the camera sees all that light, all these reflections, and the camera thinks, wait moments. We have here really too much light. I need to cut some of that light away. And the camera will very often go too far with that. And under exposed photograph. So the only reason that the camera makes mistakes with exposure is the wrong measurement of light. I must say that this measurement of light can happen in different ways depending on how you set your camera. But the standard-setting is working exactly as I just explained. 10. Exposure: Project: If you want to improve your skills and understanding of exposure, you can do the following project. In the coming weeks. You can photograph once a week, 45 minutes, go out there and photograph various subjects. The goal is not to produce great photographs. Instead of dat. Take three shots of every subject. You photograph. One shot exposed according to the camera. One shot, two stops overexposed plus 2. And one shot, two stops underexposed minus2. Go home and compare these photographs. You will see that these divergent exposures very often are much better than the photographs exposed according to camera. You can use this knowledge to produce some of your best photographs. 11. In Search of Good Light: So we are at the last part of this course. I hope very much that you already become significantly better photographer watching this course so far, following this course, so far. But I want to go even further. I really want you to have on this course as much as possible. I'm not in position to go to photograph together with you or to answer questions directly or to review their photographs. But I can do one thing and that is to give you as much input as possible. So in this part, I will show you quite a few photographs to 300 and AB. And I'll give you some comments, ideas, tips, how to use light, how to see the light so you can improve your photography even further. This part consists of two sessions. In the first section, I will show you some of my photographs taken with this mobile phone. Now, these days I do not carry my camera all the time, but I do see regularly interesting things, mainly light. And I think these photographs to show to my students, I think it is a very educational. So you're going to see what interests me out there. What I will see you when I'm going to photograph how I see the light, what do I do with it? And I do not ask of you to see it in the very same way or to use it in the same way. But you can use this comments, these examples to form your own opinion about light, how to see it, and how to use it. In the second part, I will try to give you some very specific advises per subject, where the light remains the central topic. So we will discuss the landscape photography, architecture, portrait, and among photography, plants and flowers and food photography. Many photographs will be discussed. Many comments, many ideas. And I hope, and actually I know that you can use that information. So apply to any subject out there. It covers villi enough. So let's now together, have a look at these photographs. Let's begin with the photographs that I've shot with my mobile phone to show them to my students. Because I think that they can learn something. And I hope you took none of these photographs is edited. So let's start with this photograph here. This is what I can see from one of the windows here OF MY studio. The suburbs of the Hague. As you see, this shot is taken in poor light conditions. The light is very flat, gray dawn, and it doesn't look good at all all this together. Can you make this scene more interesting? Yes, you can. Look at this. It is the same building later that day when the light condition changed. Look how big is the difference? Look at that. And this can even get more interesting. Look at this. Again, other light conditions more dramatic. This shot is underexposed. To make that light even more interesting. What I see with my eyes is sunlight deaths, underexposed, is it that, And back then, Today's lab conditions and back to the slide conditions here. So you see in which extent light will change the experience of one of the very same subject where the composition remains the same. This is a photograph of the house of my neighbor diagonally across the street. And look at this. On this slide here, I mean, how beautiful can't be. Anything is beautiful in this slide. And what I like about this slide is the drama that you can find there. That contrast between sunshine here, sunlight and very dark threatening skies behind. I made shot of this house also today, just to show you the difference. This is that house today. I mean, look at that. What light does with your subject? Also, my neighbor, exactly across my house. I can see it very often. So I catch this special moments with special light. And this light is very extraordinary. Again, that moment of huge contrast between light and dark skies. Today this house looks like that. Nothing special. Again, the flowers on the table in my living room. This is what I see with my eyes. If I expose this photograph differently, you get this. And it's already interested in, namely because of this flower here, which is hit with one sun rays. Sun ray. And it just makes it interesting, you know, again, it just jumps out towards you. The light conditions change, be it all the flowers get a son. This is what I see. Well actually this photograph is a bit underexposed. This is another composition. And I think this looks really good. You know, the quality resolution is a bit poor because I zoomed in and then you lose a lot of quality with mobile phone. But I think this slide looks gorgeous. That black surface behind is actually my white wall in the living room. It's this part of the wall. No. It's get hit with direct sunlight in this photograph. But as the light changes, direct sun hits now my subject and not the wall. And the dynamic range in this scene is so white that at the moment, when I properly expose this part here, white wall is for the camera black. Learn this, use this. There are so many chances here for the best photographs. And again, back to the scene with vase bit wider. The sun is still present here, sunlight, very directional light. And moments later is it gone? And this is what you see. So look how big is the difference here? The very same scene. And this becomes in this new light, this boring. And you see the wall behind this again becoming white. Because dynamic range is changed. Again. The amount of light here and amount right here is just about the same and the camera can see everything, but not here. Where dynamic range is so wide. Just across the table on the window frame. At the same moment, these two ways is being hit with the sun rays. Again, looking good. And the environment is again dark because of wide dynamic range moments later, it's this, again a very boring. But as you see again, you can see everything also outside because dynamic ranges narrower. This is my kitchen. And you could maybe think, Okay, but what is special about this varies the photograph. Well, if I zoom in this part and expose the photograph differently, this is what you get. Well, this is one of the strongest tools in photography. Exactly this. Remember this, use this. You will make some of your best photographs in these light conditions. But you need to see it. You need to spot it. But you're looking for is wide dynamic range contrasts. And you need to expose it properly. You see these tiles which are afford I, very visible, not for the camera anymore. Almost black. And that's fine. You see enough here. My glasses as I walk into the room and I see the window is mess. Never mind. And you see immediately here interesting light. I make a few different compositions and it looks quite good actually, such a simple thing on a simple table. Look what happens with surface when you photograph against the light. It is very much emphasized all of these structures, and that looks very good, very often. And then what are my glasses on? Not just the ordinary, ordinary artificial light, just boring as it can be. Look what a huge different cities. This is a photograph of a flower in my garden. And I must say when I look at it now I think it's quite good photograph really. Not just if you look at the light, but generally it's sped. Nice photograph. Anyway, you see the background is black. In reality it is just my fins which is not black at all. It is beautiful, sunny day day light, so it is just for my ice. Very good visible fins, wooden fence. But again, I make use of debt wide dynamic range. This flower gets direct sunlight, but not the fence. The fence is just a kind of indirect light. So very a bit of a shadow there, you know, for my eyes, not even visible. But for the camera. It is like this. The moment you properly expose this is that behind completely black. And again, just look at this, how many possibilities you can have here. It looks really like a shot made in the studio. And I made it my garden with my mobile phone. Also my garden here. And what I find here very beautiful is this contrast between this very bright flower and these flowers they are, which are not so actually a vivid, you know, not, not, not so bright. So how did I manage that? I didn't. These are actually the light conditions that I found there. That's exactly the reason why I took this photograph. Because I saw this flower is in sunlight. These are not and I expected the institute photograph and it is instilled photograph Holland during winter. It's cold at the moment I saw the water here. What I am exploring here is the contrast between this very warm and very cold area, cool area. And there are many possibilities there. Moments later, it is this, the sun is gone and the light changes dramatically. So it's up to you to say, you know, is this also the light of certain quality or no. I think there is still possibilities, at least this part, the house is not anymore. This stuff still quite good. But this slide here, office probably more chances. So once again, these are the light conditions that I'm interested in. This is about ten minutes from my home, the Port of Rotterdam. And I mentioned again in this contrast between this highlights here and shadows, I zoom in a bit to see what happens. And again, I'm looking for these extra ordinary light conditions. They're much more than these light conditions. You know, this is maybe you think the best light but you can have. But it's really, it's really not, it's really not. You know, it is definitely nice and the colors are nice and just name it. But there's nothing special about this light most of the time really. This is again, moment when, for me, is like many times more interesting than this. This dramatic contrast that, that you can find between this bridge in direct sunlight and again dark skies. They are a bit further also this building, which is not special at all or in a, you know, ordinary light, very ordinary building. But in this slide it makes really instance subject. Again about stemming from my home. The cost. What I see here are these buildings with a Windows which deflect. Sunlight, sunlight. And you see these meetings are not. So I'm not interested in these buildings, but this looks good. So I come near and I made this photograph and I think it is not bad. You know. I turn around, take shot against the light and the HSI. It offers many possibilities. Still interested in civil rights reflections, just name it on the way home. I make also this photograph. And, you know, the sun is gone. You would think it's over, but it is not over until it's already know. Dusk offers some of the best chances for some fine, fine photographs. Just this beautiful reflections and colors. And this is again one of these moments when I want really you to, to, to, to, you know, have full tension at this case here. Because this, what I'm going to show you here is one of the most powerful gains tools, again, that you can have in photography. This is a photograph that I recently made in Germany again with my mobile phone, and this is what I see with my eyes. It looks pretty good. The light is pretty good. But what I see is this area here is lighter than the rest. And again, I make use of it with different exposure. I'm going to underexpose this photograph and look, look what happens. Look at that. This is maybe here, good, but this here is magic. Please remember this and try this as often as you can. You will produce some of your best photographs in this way. And again, similar similar situation. This is what I see with my eyes underexposed. It's this, it's more interesting is that this is Nancy, France during the day, nice occasion, nice architecture here. But look what happens during dusk. Is that ten times more beautiful? I mean, I didn't even look at or tried to make some nice composition of a territory I just made a short for, for the light and it's still it's a decent shot, you know. So as you see, I'm all the time searching for that special moment of light. I'm not so much interested in this. And this photograph of my wife made in Brittany, France, where we go very often for holidays, for vacation. I was just walking there across the garden and I see this scene here. I thought that light is really aims to, you know, she said, since they are in the darkness, it's already yeah, evening and beat her laptop and laptops. Laptops produce juices that light there. And I thought it's really a chance for for short and I took it and I think really that, you know, it's skewed photograph. I'll just show you this very spot during daylight. Look, it's there. And as you see, you think, good Lord, it is not possible to make there any good photograph. But as you see, it is again the same garden in France. And in Brittany. You will have this dramatic light very often. That's why I love it also to be there with my camera. And in this slide, you know, everything or NDT looks good if you put it there. Even these simple plastic chairs, you know, are good subject and instant photograph. If the light is so special. Sunshine against black sky. On an average day, it's like this and it is okay light but nothing special about it. If you ask me, I prefer this very much. And back to that, shall I say, average, safe, beautiful light. Mid-day, somewhere around these hours. Just the white intense light reaches definitely beautiful. No doubt about that, at least with this subject here, or here, or here. But I didn't find anything spectacular about this slide. I am much more this to the same, that average light lumbar in France. It looks nice, but believe me, you can make much better for the top of this area here, this location. If you wait for more instant light, one detail here I want to show you. You see that highlighted there? Do you know how is it possible because it is in the shadow, as you see, all these houses here are in the shadow, but suddenly this is not in shadow. I mean, the sinus on this side. You see the shadows are here, so the sun is there. This is light because of the reflection from this house. Sun hits this house, which is also white. And white reflects back to this house instinctively. So this is actually the light that I'm much more interested in. Then in this safe, normal midday light. Again, dusk. And I think it's quite nice photograph, it's not edited. It's shot a few days ago with a mobile phone. And I think there is this photograph of works so well, is actually because of these reflections here on the ground. Because you have also then in this part of photograph, instant light, not only in the sky. If all of this was done as this area here, you see that it will be quite yeah. More would be lesser. Spectacular photograph definitely. Also the light on the tops of these cheese. It is interesting. If you compare it with this tree here, this looks much better. So these two details, this slide here and this right here, makes this photograph very interesting. But France just show you how that light can change quickly and enormously. This is a shot taken some moment and just manipulate this. You know, the Cloud is in front of the sun and that's it. Just like you put lights off in France to again, beautiful evening light. And I make very easily this very decent photograph here. I make also use of daylight. That's point. If you are making photographs in the evening, Do not wait. That is completely black out their moms later may cause this shot following these lights here. And I have loved to have this slide here on the outside, which makes a bit of a nice balance with lights here, It's just feels that darkness in there. I just see in this photo here, I just miss it, for example, they're just think it's a bit too dark there. So yeah, light again. My living room. I was a walk to my living room. I see my boys, my son, youngest son playing on his PlayStation. And I'm just a stroke. This contrast for warm lights in my room and coldness outside. And I think it's just interesting. It is winter in my village in Holand and we were lucky to have some snow. And I'm having a walk around the beads. And as you see, also artificial light with some snow and a bit of daylight offers many possibilities. I think it's a lovely photograph, are under corn also, this house looks really nice in this slide. Last winter in Holland was very cold. We were skating around. The quality resolution of this photograph is really poor because I zoomed in on a mobile phone and lost water quality. But the light remains interesting. It is shot against a light or a CAR. These silhouettes, but they are lovely, aren't they? And look all these structures in ice, how emphasize the R by that light against my camera. And here is, again, I want to show you the difference in light. If you photograph, we'd light behind you and light against you in this photograph is light behind me. And then you had to, you know, beautiful warm, soft light. If I just turn around, this is what I see. Immediately drama, you see so much, so many shadows and many interesting things. And one important thing is that should know if photograph against the delight is that all the structures, shapes, structures will become enormously emphasized. Look just at this part here, the grass. How sharp, sharp RD is shapes. And these shadows produced a lot of drama that should not have if you just look down light with light. So this is something that I advise you to try regularly, you know, to shoot against light. Here I see these shadows and light and I think if I exposed differently, maybe it'll be interesting. I find it interesting. Corner there, hidden corner. In reality it looks like this, you know. So you really need to know that this offers some chances. As you see, it's very ordinary light around. Dislocation here is just in this neighborhood of this castle. And you would think castle must be more beautiful, more interested in this field of flowers. But I just think this site is more interesting here, so I prefer this photograph than this. And finally, I was seriously again in Germany. I go to this hotel from, from time to time just for a weekend or sometimes I work in Germany. And this photograph is shot during daylight around this media hours. And it looks lovely, grass and sky. But I'll just show in a moment that the photographs that I shot later that they, even from this point here, towards this side, it just outside of Cologne, the skyline of Cologne with Katia and cetera. But look how the light changes dislocation. I mean, look at that white intense light against this soft, warm light. It looks quite good. If I atomic AMA more to the left, I see this. And again, I think it is quite decent photograph. I mean, this building looks really good and it's to be honest, very ugly building if you see it in normal daylight. So I hope that you are inspired with these photographs and some of these comments and remarks that I made. And that you're going to be able to use them to improve your vision of light and all possibilities that lights, that light gives you in photography. 12. Practical Applications: Landscapes: Light and the landscapes. Well, obviously the most important fact about delight and the landscapes is that you cannot influence this light. If you wanted to shoot the best photographs of landscapes, you really need to find they're the best light conditions. You need to accept this and to learn to live with this. There is no other way. So obviously, you need them to work here. Smart. And also you need a bit of luck. Working smart. What I mean by that is you need to discover, when is your chance to find that beautiful light out there? The biggest. And it filled the almost certainly early in the morning and light late in the afternoon or early evening. So I'm talking here about 456 o'clock in the morning, depending where you live and depending on the season of the year or the end of the day. Six o'clock, seven o'clock, 89. I'm talking especially about the last hour of the sunlight and first half, an hour after the sun has gone. I think at these times, you will produce some of the best photographs of landscapes out there. And you need also to be lucky. But just, I will come back to this point of went photograph landscapes. I gave you the parts of the day when you're going to make the biggest chance to, uh, produced some good landscape photographs. But this doesn't mean really that there is absolutely no chance to produce some fine photographs at two o'clock in the afternoon. It can just happen that you also make some nice photographs at these times of a day. But I know for sure debtor not happen too often. You know, that they're not happen too often. I will give you one example of a photograph. We just shot around death time, around noon and which was working for me. It was a photograph of an old chart. I think, apples apple trees. And it was taken in that mid day harsh sunlight from above from, I think a heel locking down to the chart. And that harsh sunlight produced incident highlights on the top, tops of the trees and very deep dark shadows. I really thought that symmetry of the shadows was looking very good and play between highlights on the top of the cheese and it's very dark shadows was also very nice. Producing pretty pleasing photograph. Maybe not the best photograph you can shoot out there, but definitely worth taking. So just try whatever you think of. Explore all possibilities. If somebody tells you this will never work in photography, never tried that. I would really not trust, you know, I, I don't believe it. I think you need to keep all possibilities open. And that gives you the most of chances to produce some good photographs. If you exclude some possibilities immediately. You are really making the area where you can explore much narrower. And I don't think it is good idea. You're saying this inner work in photography is for me like saying, never start a book with the letter F A0. I'm not a writer, but just doesn't sound convincing. Same goes for philosophy. And I was starting to talk about luck. You need to have some luck definitely, as a photographer, to be at the right moment, at the right place. But I remember saying the success overnight Comes usually after ten years of hard work. And I think that works pretty much for everything else for photography. If you are out there often enough, if you work hard enough, you will definitely get lucky to further explore or the possibilities with exposure. Experiment, with exposure, experiment with underexposure, overexposure. That will offer many chances still, sometimes you think that light is, they are just average and you expose it in a certain way, and suddenly that light is magic. So this is also around these points that will help you to produce more. Find photographs out there. Also. Try to see everything. Do not look ALL is big chain of mountains there. Maybe they're in the corner of the Bali is fine light, but you just miss it. Tried to not overlook this kind of chances. And you will be making even more phototrophs, good photographs. So at the end, I would just say, explore your locations in the neighborhoods, Find the best. Subjects varied. Think this is the place where I can, where I can produce some great photographs. Go regularly back to these locations. And it just matter of time when you're going to find the greatest slide that you can find. And these are going to be your V01. Father does. Let us explore delight in a few landscape photographs. We will start with this. One. Is this light of high quality. I would say this is very decent light, definitely. And many photographers will think this is the best light edge can have. This beautiful blue sky, blue water Greengrass. Can this get any better? Well, it can't believe me. This is beautiful light, but I will assure you this will be never the Vin light in photography. This light is incident. If he wants to make a postcard, this light would be interesting for travel brochure, but you will not win a photography contest with this kind of light. How about this one here? Is this more interesting? I would say this is a 100 times more spectacular and lighter than this. I mean, what is the chance to make this photograph? I would say maybe twice a year. And that make, makes this light here much more interesting. And this is a much bigger chance here to produce some V01 photographs. And how about this year? Isn't this gorgeous or what? When I see this photograph, the only thing I can think is I am going to get right now suitcase and spent the rest of the year. And this spot here, it's so beautiful. You see here directional light. Just certain parts of the scene are elite, the rest is in the shadow, and that produces very interesting atmosphere. So it is a very important property of light. Direction of light. To see more is not necessarily better in photography. I mean, you can see it here. You see just about everything. But that makes it a bit ordinary to this year. Looks like magic. And in this photograph, you will see light conditions at dusk. You don't need a strong, powerful, intense sunlight all the time. For a fine landscape photographs as you see here, just a bit of light here and there is more than enough to make it very, very interesting this photograph. And then early morning. Also, some fine, fine moments to produce very good photographs out there. The sun is very low. And again, we are talking here about directional light series, long shadows. And this photograph is for me, just play between light and shadow much more than landscape itself. And it looks gorgeous. Hear morning fog, and go on. Again. Directional light. You will see many photographs of many subjects. With this kind of light. The sun rays fall exactly on this beautiful colors here. And these patches of water here makes it very, very beautiful behind, you know, just gray and dull. But this contrast between this and that is what is so interesting. Again, a shot taken at dusk, the sun is just gone, and this is a beautiful, beautiful mix of artificial light and daylight. You need to explore this possibility, often also, directional light. Again, the sun rays fall exactly on the spot here. Dress is very dark and that produces dramatic contrast out there. Beautiful. Here. We have very simple landscape. It is absolutely not spectacular landscape per mountains, lakes, whatever. Now, we have there one bench, a bit of a metal, and one tree and it looks just fine. Why? Because the light is so beautiful. This is light against the camera opposite, and it will work very often, very good. Night photography also offers many chances, as you hear, as you see here. And now. Let's have a look at some photographs where the light is not so fine and you see how far you come. Now this is not winning photograph, and this is not even a good photograph. This is very boring photograph, I'm sorry to say, but it is. What is here? We're looking at nothing really. Look this black patches, you're black. You know, it is a midday sun, harsh sun, dynamic ranges extreme and just black. They're not interested in this photograph. The same here. This patch of light year is not enough to make this photograph interesting. Very dull. You know, and you have he also mountains and lakes and Meadows, but we need good light to the same here, very dull, boring gray. And this is again, just perfect light here and perfect location. Yet here you make absolutely winning photographs. Or here, or here. And then back to dL, water slide here. At this moment here, it is impossible to make any instant photographs. Again, directional light. When I told you earlier, do not overlook little patches of incident light, you know, do not always look big like these mountains. No, they are not incident subject at this moment, but look there in the corner, beautiful light on that tree. And that's more than enough for a fine photograph. As you see in this photograph here, you do not always need a lot of light or intense light. For instruments with photographs, I think this slide is very quiet part, more than enough, mirror, more than good enough for also instant photograph. I think the atmosphere, this photograph is very, very interesting. The same here. Very quiet light, but more than enough for a nice photograph. A waterfall here. This is very nicely done here. But look around again. That's dull gray light. And it is just not enough to say this photograph is our success. Photographer did a good job with settings and composition, but unfortunately the light is not favorable and this is how far you can also hear, you know, even better landscape looked at mountain there that looks impressive, but in this slide it's just not good for tough, you know, try this. Look at this. Isn't this gorgeous or what? These fractions here, light there. This is much more interesting. But two, that should I say, normal safe light. You know, many photographers would think, as I said. Often this is a great slide that I can have that beautiful blue sky, green grass. But now this is just average, really, just average. How about this? Against, again, against the light shot. And it produces a gorgeous photograph with the, this, this display of shadows and lights there. And see this grass here. It looks, I would say, very, very interesting. You know, just simple ordinary grass because the light from the opposite side will emphasize all these structures. And that looks very Good. Very often. Look this grass here, does it looks good. Now I would say this also not just ordinary. This is for me special. Also against the light that will work very often. Very well tried leg Larry. Tuscany, beautiful, beautiful photograph. I think you must agree with that. Let's have another look and dislocation. This photograph. How about this? How boring is this? As you see, this is very, very same spot here we are talking. And the composition is almost the same to look at that. But look how big the differences in the quality of these photographs. Just not to compare mountains, the very last sun rays still interested in a bit moment is the light is gone. Nothing to see there anymore. A lot of, a lot of light here, but the display of shadows and light, beautiful to see. A lot of light and intense light is not always necessary, as I said a few times, for good photograph, look these slides very quiet. Actually it is kind of dusk in the valley here. There is no sunlight here anymore, direct sunlight. But I just love this photograph. I must say this photograph, this slide works only because these buildings here are white. If they were dark, this photograph wouldn't work. This white reflects light very much and then you see enough. But look, this house is here. They are dark, you hardly see them. If all these, all of these buildings were of this color here, then, you know, you would hardly see them and then it wouldn't work in like this. As extra, you have this beautiful light patches of light touches on the top of the mountain. Just beautiful photograph. And here, back to that bad light. You do not have here much chances at this moment at least to produce some instant photographs here also, just offering this case midday light. Again, just black, harsh here again, opposite that. Cloudy, better conditions. And then you have that darkness there. Again, very, very boring. And look at this. You don't need spectacular landscapes for beautiful landscape photo in or just few trees, middle and great light. And there it is. Let's have a look at the man-made landscapes, cityscapes. As you can see yourself. This photograph is very boring here because light is born. You could also say, well, this city is not beautiful. But how about this? Is this enough for you? Is this photograph a success? No, not at all. This light is awful, just awful. And it's very bad photograph too. How about this? Again? Directional light, late afternoon. So much depth in this photograph. Colors? Yes, this is much better photograph. And then back to that. Bad likely to see fine architecture is not enough. For good photograph. We need good light to light like this. Here. Again, that's a midday white, harsh light. That's very many photographers think it is the best light that I can have. Also in the city is not working that great. You see? It is. Okay. But nothing spectacular. This is much better. They need. You don't need only light. We need some shadows to, when photographers talk about light, we always think of shadows still. If it's only light, the light is and all of the photo that is always flat. There is no debt. So these shadows here are just so, so very welcome. Beautiful. Or this here beautiful, or this here beautiful. And then again, not so beautiful. Now in this slide. It'll never be. And here we have the imager, romantic image of a city that we all have. This side is flat light as you see, two-dimensional and doesn't offer the greatest chances. I must say the photograph is still pretty good because this subject is so nice. But you could find here some better light conditions. So with some luck, maybe conditions like this, light conditions like this. I added this photograph here to show you how you can make use of a dynamic range. Again. You see here one boat shot from above. And the Black Sea. Is this C really black? Not at all. I bet this C is dark blue for your eyes, but not for the camera. I see this bought the color of this boat. That blue is typical for Greece. And I really suspect this shot, this photograph is made in Greece. And I know Greece has beautiful blue sea. But in this photograph it's dark or black. Why? Because it's shot in harsh midday sun. And this both is, for biggest part white. And you need really are little light to properly expose this boat. So you set the camera in that way. But when you set camera in that way, for very little light, that dark blue C is going to get underexposed completely black as you sit here. And that's the way to make some interesting photographs. Definitely. I added this photograph also to explain you this one more time. You can make here exactly the same photograph as this. If you would stand on this spot here and zoom in on this person here with this board. But what's happening is at the moment when you set your camera to expose properly these whiteboards, this dark blue C will become immediately dark as this. That is how you make this kind of photons. Is this photograph here good or bad? Is this shadow here? Welcome or not? I would say it is welcome. I think this dramatic contrast between light and dark in this case works for me. Pretty good. Much better than this. You think again, to see more, to see everything is better when it's not. As you see, this is a boring photograph if you compare it to this. So there are no rules out there. And I added at the end of this photograph here, just to show you one of the ways you can go. As just seen this photograph actually behind there, the landscape is not that great at all and just look at that just doll really. But the photographer added a beautiful element on the foreground with beautiful light. And then you experience all photograph as a success and a photograph with beautiful light. So this is also one way to do it. 13. Practical Applications: Architecture: Light and architecture. It is pretty much the same story as with landscapes. You can not influence the light. The subject is too big. So all it can do is to get out there often enough with hope that you will capture your subject in the most beautiful light. But there is at least one big difference between architecture and landscape. I said earlier that you do not make too much of a chance to produce a lot of landscape photographs, good landscape photographs around midday hours. It is different with architecture. I think that you, your chance to produce beautiful photographs of architecture around midday is much higher than to do so with landscapes. For example. I think that you will make some spectacular photographs are far as texture. If you choose for extreme exposure into the inner conditions of extreme wide dynamic range. For example, I've seen some time ago a beautiful photograph or a breach of a pole rising to disguise. It was white pole shot in very intense, in very intense sunlight against blue sky. And all you see is actually that white Paul disappear in blackness of the sky. The sky is completely black because dynamic range was so white that the moment you properly expose that white pole, the sky becomes black, and the photodiode is also converted into black and white. And it works perfectly. So that is one of the examples how you can produce some fine photographs or part texture in that harsh strong Sandage have around midday hours still, I suspect that you will produce much more good photographs of art, of architecture early in the morning, but especially especially late afternoon. At the end of a day, the last hour of sunlight, and especially first half an hour after the sunset. I think I suspect that you will make that you'll shoot the most beautiful photographs of architecture exactly. At that moment, dusk, the sun is gone. And then first half, an hour after death. If you look closely on Internet, for example, you will see the following thing. The hotels which don't have that great building or it's just not nice to see the photographs they have of that building on their website in their brochures is never shot in daylight. It is almost always shot during dusk. With that mix of daylight and artificial light. And that makes even these buildings look better or goods. And that's probably the reason why actually the photographs of architecture works so well during dusk. Exactly. That didn't beautiful mix of artificial light. And the light do not underestimate the quality of that artificial lights? No. The City Lights is the sights, the lights in the building or street lights or traffic lights, traffic lights of the cars and buses going around. But there it is. It can bring, and it will bring some significant amount of the quality in the photographs of Architecture at that moment. Further, it is pretty much the same story as the landscape. Explore, explore. Different exposures. Try to shoot against the light or child should have good light behind you. See big C small. And also do not forget to invest enough time to get out there often enough. And that must be enough to produce some fine photographs of architecture to, let's explore it together. A few photographs. Let's start with Eiffel Tower. As you see, the light is very beautiful in this photograph here, both on the subject as on the background. And the photograph is very, very pleasing. Also this one, very good light, very good composition and great photograph. And here too, and here too. Also, this is very impressive. So can you actually, should a bad photograph of such iconic landmark as Eiffel tower. I'm afraid you can just look at this photograph or this one, or this one, or this one. As you see also in Paris, you need some good light to shoot some good photographs. Here, that blue sky Greengrass light. When you maybe think, okay, either should the best photographs around here, but usually it is not. So what do you think about this slide or about this slide? And here you see again, Don light, flat light. And if you are today in Paris, I'm sure you will not shoot many great photographs of Paris to more photographs of Eiffel tower. Just to show you how that light changes your subject. I just see the composition is almost identical, but the light changes or subject dramatically. I think both photographs are okay, but this is my favorite here because of these reflections here it is nice, very nice to see in this photograph is that foregrounds here much less interesting. The Statue of Liberty. As you see, artificial light will work good with architecture. I think this is decent photograph of the subject. This one, much less, much less. I think the light is really worthless and composition also not so great. It's really snapshot. Much better gain, mostly because of that beautiful sky behind. There is also enough light on the subject itself. And the beautiful detail is the boat. They're very bad, very bad light and bad photograph. You can see it yourself too. Flat, boring. If you think blue sky and some sunlight is enough for a good photograph. You can see here it is not. This is not very good photograph at all. Because at least the directional light is wrong. Too much shadows here. This year is much better. Directional light is better. You see the phases really well visible. And there's so much debt on your subject here with the shadow sunlight here. This is quite good shot. And again, very bad. The cloudy weather conditions will produce some dollar light, some flat light, and did kind of light is really not favorable for subject as architecture and landscapes. It's pretty hopeless to try to make some good photographs of these subjects in such light. And here you have a moment of luck. Some spectacular light there. Your subject is a silhouette, but it really works well. Also, quite, some, quite a bit of luck here. Real light exactly on your subject, making beautiful contrast with these dark surroundings. And again, pretty bad. And finally, very good photograph of this subject. Nice light, good composition. Very impressive. Let's go to Australia. And I can assure you it works very, very same way in Australia. Too. Good light, you will have some good photographs, bad light, you will have some bad photographs. This is gorgeous, gorgeous photograph to see. Also this one and this one, but not this. As you see, it looks awful. Also. This is not that impressive. This not to. And this is one photograph where you can say, very, very decent, quite a nice composition and that light is not bad. But this photograph you'll never Vin. If you're compelled to this one. As you see so far, quite a few photographs which are very good, shot during dusk or night. That artificial light, I say again, works really well bit. Architecture very often. Cathedrals. Some of the most beautiful pieces of architecture that we can't see. Good chance for beautiful photographs, but also they do need some good light here. You do have that good shot here also, but here not anymore. Just boring, terribly boring photograph. Also this the same. This is better. You see some nice slides here, reflections here and there. Also that and back two good father task. Very good, Very good. Then is, I hope that you understand by now that this slide is not that great. It is flat light, light without depth. The same subject, almost the same composition. In the light around midday. Ours. Is that the best you can have? I doubt it. I doubt it. I think this is much better. Look at that. The light changes the subject again, dramatically. Look beautiful the cities. Let's stay with this for a few moments more. To have a look at this photograph of one of the canals in Venice. I think this is just an awful photograph shot in awful light. Is it really so bad compared to yourself? Let's move to Germany. To this gorgeous castle. Probably one of the most beautiful castles in the world. Can you mess up this one, Kenyan? Should a bad photograph of such a beautiful subject? Or yes, you can. Just look at this and compare again to these two photographs. What does it mean for your photograph? In the winter? Also the same. You can judge yourself, which means better. I added this photograph just to show you the problems you can face if you photograph in the city in the harsh sunlight with problems with dynamic range, when I was talking about the dark shadows, Black-Sholes. This is what I meant. Really black. If you want to watch shadows, you can try during cloudy days, then you don't have these charles because the other light is much softer. But as you see, you have other serious problem here because this slide is terribly boring. So yeah, you need the, you know, quite some luck to find great light conditions on your location. I added this photograph just to show you that you can really make some fine photographs around midday hours with a lot of sun and other shadows. I think this is very beautiful photograph. Also this photograph just a lot of light, some soft colors and some shapes. And you know, as far as I'm concerned, this is just one beautiful, lovely photograph that you do not think that I only like photographs with a lot of shadows and dark photographs. I added this photograph here, which is very, very light. And I think it is a lovely photograph. Abstract architecture. And it's working very well for me enough consciously of CDS shadows going to light here and then against shadows. Well done. Also here. Abstract architecture, light, shadow, shape, that's it. And it's beautiful photograph. And finally here the same light shadow shape. More than enough for a fine photograph East, you know how to do it. 14. Practical Applications: Portrait: When you move from the subjects as landscapes or architecture to the subject as people, food, or animals. One major radical change will occur, an absolute game changer. And that is that you will be able to influence light conditions in great extent or even to fully control the light conditions. It is not anymore. The case. If the light conditions are not good, I have to come back some other time. No, if the light conditions are not good, I'm going to make them good right now. For example, if I need to produce a portrait here in the studio, I know for sure it is going to work. I know everything I need to know about camera settings and composition. And I have enough studio flashes to produce any light I need. So I'm sure I'm going to shoot that photograph or a portrait today. Also out of the studio under occasion, I will take what I need to influence the light conditions or to produce light conditions that I need with the tools like this external flash or reflectors. These are very powerful tools to help you to influence the light out of the photo studio. One of the best advices that I can give to any photographer is direct your photograph. What do I mean by that? I will give you one example. I often photograph events for big companies. Every time I will get the list with the key shots that are needed to produce that they usually photographs of people. So let's say that I photograph now one of these events and that I'm standing here and let us see one of these key targets for that day. They are studying one person, individual, and they see my chance to take that shot that I must produce that day. But I see also that the light conditions there are not very good. So I think that portrait will not be that great. At the same time, I see that the lights there beside the widow is just fine. And I know for sure that at that point there, that spot there that I'm going to produce very fine portrait. So now I have two choices. I can keep studying here, hoping that that individual suddenly gets the idea to walk there beside it to window and to stand exactly in the way. Which works for me. It is just some not santi that ever happened. I was hoping very, very hard, but it didn't work. My other option is to walk to that person and ask politely, listen, I really need to make one good portrait of you today. Would you please stand there beside the window in this way so I can make one nice photo view and then we can go on both of us. I don't need to follow you all day to make the chart. This works every single time. That is how I produce all these good photographs. I'm not hoping I am making it happen. That is very, very different sampling. So if you are photographing people, food products, editing of smaller size, and you see that the light conditions are not great. Don't just stand there. Do something about it. You can you can use your flesh, you can replace, relocate the subject, or do anything of that kind. Make sure that light condition better and you will produce good photograph. If you do this. If you direct your photograph and not just stand there and hope that it will happen by itself. You will increase the number of fine photographs 10 times right now. And you will also be producing these photographs much faster because you do nest the necessary things to reach the goal to produce that photograph. You do not wait. That it happens by itself. I remember. Reading 1 review few years ago of students who followed one of photography course. It was the course portrait in daylight. And the students, or the student wasn't happy at all with the course. He rated it very poorly. I think one or two stars or something like that. And he was saying in that review, this was the course, portrait in daylight. But the most of the day, we were actually learning how to use the flesh. And I thought, what exactly you expect to learn during such a course? How to control the sun or something like that. I have no idea. Because we are all happy if the light is fine and we can produce some nice portraits in that day like but what if it's not the case? If the deadline is not fine? But then well, I'll tell you what then the only thing that will help you is this flash. The only way to prove it is that light is to use the flash in a good way, or maybe a reflectors or sudden death. But if that daylight is not good, you need to do something about it. So skillful use of an external flash is really one of these essential skills of any portrait photographer. I know that you have also daylight photographs of photographers making portraits only in daylight. But to be honest, I think that they are daylight photographers only because they do not know how to use flash. I will tell you how my assignments look like. For example, I need to take a good portrait or a manager on Tuesday at 230 on the 4 fourth floor of their building? I have no idea what kind of light I will find there. Probably bad. And then I really need my flash to improve these light conditions to be able to take that shot. So the only reason that, that day I will earn my feet is actually distinct. Anyway. Let's have a look at a few portraits. Let's start with this portrait here. I think that the light in this budget is really lovely. I think that this photographer knows very well how to do this. First of all, the modal is very well positioned. The light source comes from this side, it is the sun. And in that way, the photographer creates a beautiful rim light here. See that on the body It's very nice to rest of the body is then in the shadow. What am I talking about here? It is not in the shadow at all. It is because the photographer fill it in. All of this slide here is not there just by itself, but the photographer took care to have it there. Read one quite big reflector. I know for sure just out of this frame here, there is assistant holding the reflector. How do I know that? Well, it's very simple. You see this slide here. That's logical science there. Light is here on the body, on the face. Website. Very deep shadow. Yeah. Right. Because the sun is not there. There is not their direct sunlight. It should be in shadow. But how it's impossible, that is, the upside of phase is suddenly noted the shadow. But even this piece here is in the shadow, is because obviously there is a reflector here deflecting the sun light coming from here to the reflector and back to the body. So this part, this light here comes from that reflector. The shadow is filled in with a flatter also here, but let's see. Leg not there is still shadow there. The reflector wasn't big enough, but I don't think it is problem at all. I think the light as it is, it's very beautiful. And also, I can judge that this slide is from reflector. It's very soft. You see this right? Still, still, still a pretty hard there this year. Very, very soft reflected light. And if you don't believe me, I'll prove it to you. If I go to the eyes there all the way, you will see there. Reflector. Very well done. This photograph here, unfortunately, this portrait is not of that quality at all. The photographer positions the model again very well against the sun and produces a beautiful lights there in here. But photo, the photographer fails to fill in this shadow, either with flash or a reflector. That's what you need to do it. How to do it. That is the way how to do it. Again, very beautiful light. And it appears to be daylight. But to be honest, I doubted it is somehow just too perfect to be daylight. It could be either, No, but I suspect there is, you know, here that the flesh is here used with one very big light shape or like a one big softbox to produce this beautiful soft light here. If I go to, I see this and I cannot tell you with certainty, but I think this is probably flash and softbox in way, very, very beautiful light, well done. You know, a bit of shadow here and there. And also their highlights. Enough depth in this phase. Well, well done. And here, on the opposite side, a mess really disliked is completely worthless. This is what happens if you do not influenced at light. If it's not nice by itself, you see there are no, any conscious here, no color in the eyes whatsoever. If you just compared with the slide, you see it yourself. So this is not the way to do it. I must say the composition of the ports, this is good. So shame that a photographer didn't improve the light. It would be a decent portrait. Again, here, we do not make portrait in this way. This is not acceptable situation in this phase. With all these shadows, you need to eliminate some of these shadows, at least. I like this slide here. And also see here nice touch. But all of this here, this part is, there are too many shadows there. And if you think ie, all I need is a lot of sunshine. I can ensure you you don't you really do not want to make Porsche's in such a harsh sunlight. You see here what happens with the ice. Just black holes. A look, What a mess is there to be found. Consisting of these lights and shadows. Just complete chaos. So you are really, you'd not want to be shooting portraits in direct sunlight. On the other side, this shot is taken during a very cloudy day. And if I have to choose between this and this, I would choose then for this either not this photograph is kind of bit underexposed, or maybe is this light really of this poor quality? It's difficult to say, but I do not see there enough contrast to be satisfied about this. Maybe is the model not well-positioned? Because I see here some highlights that you can use really well coming from this side, but too little of it. Maybe the photographer had to go more on this side to make use of this highlights. This is also a portrait taken in a similar light conditions, you know, cloudy and as you see, you can shoot quite nice photographs. They are quite nice porches. Enough. Contrast in this phase, not enough. Depth. Highlight, shadow, highlight, shadow, highlight shadow. Enough to see there. Well, this appears to be a quite nice light. Is it possible that this light is really produced with this single candle there? I would say it is. It is. It is also hear enough still NEF of daylight to, and I believe this slide comes only from this candle. Usually, such a small light source would produce horrible light. But I think that the candle is light source which produces the light, which is very low in intensity. So that helps. And produces here this counter, quite pleased in soft light still. But the directional light is here wrong. It is too low. And if I zoom in, you will see that the shadow of the nose is completely at the wrong place of the face. You see that, that is the shadow of the nose where you do not want to have it. It's not nice at all. You wanted this shadow somewhere here. So the light source should be somewhere here. I think that the light at this moment, at this location is too low intensity for these kind of portraits. Full figure. If assuming, I think you can't say that head shot would be possible in this slide. There is there, is there enough contrast? I think I would still use a reflector or flushed improve this slide also for headshot. But this doesn't look impressive. How do you do it? How did it right? How do you make beautiful portraits in daylight? Well, one of the ways is to use window light. And that is here the case. Look how beautiful portrait this is. I mean, it cannot get any simpler than this beautiful window light. Put your model there and should. Why is the window light often so beautiful? First of all, you can determine the direction of the light. It comes from one site. That gives you huge control of that light. You know, if you go here, light comes from all over the place. And you have much less controlled light. Here comes only from this direction from the window. And you see here beautiful shadows, many beautiful. And if I zoom in, you will see the window there. There it is. So if you're starting with positive photography, well this is one of the best ways to prove your post-doc right now. Use window light as often as possible. Also here the same. You see how lovely that light is. It's beautiful photograph. And here also very well done. The directional light is good. Nice, soft light. This is the way to do it. But our window and the window light is not guarantee. For great photograph, as you can see here. This model is not positioned well and the directional light is wrong. You know, too many shadows here. This model needs to be turned more towards the window there. Also, the photodiode is overexposed. Also hear window light but not, you're not going to use it in this way. You're not going to shoot, push it against the window, against the light. If you do this, you really need to use your flesh. And here to this slide is just to low intensity to produce enough light in that face. And I do not like this budget. The same here, wrong direction of light. The water is nice touch, but only this highlight here is obviously not enough, you know, and all these shadows here, so the photographer has to stand on your summer here and the model needs to be turned more towards the light, towards the window. Well, this is a one photographer who displays great knowledge of photography light. If you think that this just happened like that, then you are very, very wrong. I mean, this light here has nothing to do with these light conditions. They are with the natural light conditions. At dislocation. It is all product of the photographer. So this slide has nothing to do with this slide really. The only natural light, completely natural light on the model here is actually just this, just the top of her head. So what happened here then? What's done here? Well, the photographer knows that he or she doesn't make much of a chance photograph in model in this harsh sunlight. So the photographer puts the model in the shadow. It is, of course, far from ideal conditions. They are light conditions they are, but at least you have blank page. We'd like to do whatever we wanted to build that light as you are pleased. So the photographers will fill the shadows from this side with a reflector, with a big, quite big, powerful factors. All these slides here, here, on the face, here on the shirt is coming from one big reflector on this side. But the photographer is not satisfied only with that. He or she is going even further producing another beautiful light here. I'm not sure is another reflector or flash, but I suspect this is flash because I see here strong shadow. And I think it is flushed coming from here making that shadow. But on the model itself, it's, the dead flesh produces only one tiny rim light, That's all. And that's more than enough. Very well done. And if I zoom in, you can see what I'm talking about, deflections of one reflector and here another light source, I suspect, suspect flash, very, very well done this, this is how you do it. What are your other options are to produce some great photographs there or great portraits. If the delight is not fine, you use Flash and that's done in this case. All these slides here is coming for one flash. You see that ring flash actually, it is originally developed for dentists, but the portrait photographers have discovered that that flash is very well working for the more upward portraits. And I agree very much. I think this slide is here, great. So here we have a highlight and here around the shadow, and that works very well. One beautiful portions. So this is also how you can do it using Flash. This portrait here, a lot of shadows here. Is it okay, I find this portrait very good. I think Well done here. I think this was conscience, conscience, decision of the photographer, all these shadows. I think a discharge work very well with this model. I think it's interesting light. One detail that I want to point out is this part here. I think it is really important to have this detail here. If you put your finger on this part and you walked away, it is going to like, like, uh, the model is just, um, you know how to say hanging in the air there. You see that without this part here. So I think it's quite fortunate that you have a bit light here. It makes the modal Hall really. So what I would say is that you don't need to void the shadow, shadows in a portrait as long as you do it in a proper way. If you think the shadows are bad, well, then have a look at this budget here. It is shot with frontal light. All the shadows are gone. And there you have face without any depth in it. I don't think you want this. I don't think also that you want this kind of experiments. I think this is complete house here. Not nice at all. As far as I'm concerned. Also, these kind of mistakes are fatal. The light is quite nice, But wait a moment. The hand of the model makes this horrible shadow here. And it's likes like she's missing a part of her head. I mean, as a photographer, you need to see this immediately and take proper action. This portrait here, very satellite, I think almost certainly studio shot. And I think it's really well done. I like this photograph. So you see just Hugh visible parts of the body. You can still produce some fine portraits. You know, there are no rules about that, that just need to see this or that. Again, one lovely portrait, I think almost certainly a daylight, that there's enough contrast. You see highlights and shadows also here. Highlights and shadows highlights. So beautiful light and a lovely portrait. Floral portraits. They call this portraits with a lot of flowers in it. This is not about done. I think this is awfully boring light here. See that very flat two-dimensional light. How do you do it like this? This is much better. Beautiful. Highlight, shadow. Enough debt in this phase. Also composition, Good, Well done. How it's done. Let's see. I see here. Does this must be flashed? Yeah. Yeah. Yeah, flash and the softbox. Yes. It is not natural light. I assumed that this photograph is Chavan photograph 12 portrait. And also during your travels, if you should port, it's the very same rule apply. You need good lights to end. I really like this lady very much. I think it's such an authentic phase. But unfortunately that light is far from ideal. Really. You need the photographer needed to do something about its shape. How you do it. For example, this direct sunlight, beautiful sunlight. The model is well positioned and you see it works quite well. He's looking a bit angry, but the light is beautiful. Enough shadows there to see that the shadow of the North on the right spot. Very good. And this is again one example how to not do it. It's completes really a messy slide. Shame, because again, the model is very authentic, very interesting, but the light is, and in the gut, how to do it again, like this. This is an extremely, extremely good portrait and I hope you agree with me very well down here. With these highlights and shadows, so much depth and this face. Extremely well done. I see here one instant detail, this slide here. And I suspect that the photographer made it happened there because I really do not see any other reason to have this highlight layer, highlight here from down, except if that photographer took here to make it happen. And it is definitely well done because it gives even more depth to this face without this light here. I think it would be just one big black area there. And in this way you see very well the job of this gentleman and that's very good choice of the photographer. So this is again, an example how to shoot one great portrait. 15. Practical Applications: Animals: From time to time, I will have some of my clients asked me, Could I take a few portraits of their children. I will usually make a joke that I only photograph kids older than 35, and then I will kindly decline that request because I am not Look look to my car keys. Kind of photographer. I am more. Would you please do this for me? Kind of photographer. And the fact is that animals do not want to do what I asked them. And that is also the reason that I did not make too many photographs of animals. I'm afraid the same goes for you. If you want to produce some good photographs of animals, you really need to take into consideration that that adventure will cost a lot of time. Because if you photograph the animals, the very same rule, rules apply. Among others, others, you need good life too. And you have so little control of the situation with animals. So that could cost out of time. If you have pets or domestic animals. I advise you really follow my advice that I gave you already. Direct your photograph. Meaning, try to make these animals to do what you want them to do. Or try to get an Very want to get them whenever you need to have them. Maybe for better light. So that means really pulled and pushed them or put them there. That will help. But I wouldn't be doing this with lions, cheetahs, and elephants. If you photograph these animals, all of that kind of animals. All you have is hard work. Pay a lot of patients, and good luck. Let's see a few of these photographs. Photographs of animals. Some good, some not so good. And I hope you will learn something from that. Let's start with this photograph of a discount. I think you can see yourself to this slide is not really the best light you can have. It is fairly flat, two-dimensional. And for the best results, you really need better light. How can you fix this problem? And also actually the surroundings here are not very spectacular as you see. So how to fix that? I think the easiest way is if you take this cut, if you come and put it somewhere else where the light is more nicer and also the background is more beautiful. That's the easiest way. So yes, a direct your own photograph. Don't just stand there. Take it photo after photo after photo. And you know, it is not working. Do something about it because with this kind of subjects, you can't do that. You could also try to flash. These are flash. But you need to find some skills to produce here. Fine photograph. When I'm talking about a beautiful light and beautiful window light, this is what I have in mind. Look at how gorgeous is that. Just perfect. The only thing is that the phases are in the shadow. That's shame. You could fill that with a reflector. I'll put it somewhere here and here. So this slide goes to the reflector and back filling in these shadows. And you can see it here. If you have beautiful video light, you are done with our seconds. You have immediately beautiful photographs. Look at that sharpness, beautiful colors, enough depth, lighter and darker. And it is a very beautiful photograph of this beautiful cut. It is a bit of a nightmare to photograph Black Cats, black subjects in general. And I think the photographer did here quite good job. As you can see, much of this cat, you have these, these highlights. And here the eyes are looking really good. So I say, well done. This is another studio shot of a cat. The light here is decent, not spectacular, but they setup say it's okay. But the background, I do not like that. Blackness, they are just black. I think the contrast is just too harsh between light and dark backgrounds. If you have, if you use a dark background, it will work much better with the dark subjects, in this case, a dark cat. I think also the photographer did a good job producing a bit of a debt in the background is C, lighter and darker point in one flash towards the background and lighten the cat is also nice, bit unusual composition of say, perspective onto the cat, but the light is okay, it's good. And backgrounds looking good to much better than this locker at very beautiful photograph. You must be lucky that these cuts choose to lay exactly in these spots where the light patches are. I suspect actually that the photographer put them there. It is for me, just too much of a coincidence. So it is probably easier than to wait that they go by themselves and lay in these spots. But maybe you are also very lucky and they do it by themselves. I don't know. But anyway, it is beautiful light and beautiful photograph. And here much less so as you see, the light is quite a doll. And despite that, if the cat is very cute, it is not static. Great photograph. Here back to very good light. It is opposite to the camera light, producing a beautiful rim light here. Also here, the photograph is a bit overexposed. You see that especially this part here bit too much to tolerate. To be honest. You could also fill in these shadows with two reflectors. And that's really necessary if you want to produce here correct exposure, meaning less light to expose this properly. That means if you saw these shadows will become even darker and then you really need to reflect or S1 here, woodcut MR. here for the dog to fill in these shadows. How are you going to do that? Not disturbing the animals? I do not have idea. I wish you a lot of success with that. And this is absolutely a gorgeous photograph. Again, window light, very, very soft window light, if you have that. It is really easy to produce some beautiful photographs of the cats. Look at that beautiful dogs. Beautiful photograph, beautiful light. It is, you can say window light, you know, you make it direction light because the dog sits in the car and the light comes from this side, not from above, for example. And then you have these shadows, which are welcome. I think, you know, just produce enough depth in the face there. Nice photograph here, much less so again, flight light without enough contrast and that's quite boring. How to improve it? You can use your flesh. This is much more beautiful series highlights here and there the shadows see all these muscles Beautiful. Back to the boring. A flat light without enough contrast is here. And here again, much more quality in this slide, these highlights which bring a lot of life in this photograph. And a very beautiful photograph of this dog here, again, subdural window light, very well exposed. Very, very nice photograph of this talk. Let me see. Yeah, you see window there. And nice sharp is look at that. It looks great. Studio shot here. A dark, dark, dark background. You see it works again quite well. Beautiful photograph. Shame that we don't see anything on the other side of the face. You could fix that with another flash pointing to this side of the face or maybe reflect on this side. The fear in this shadow here, but still nice photograph. This lady took my advice seriously. So direct your photograph and she took this bird next to the window for some beautiful light. You see it coming from this way. And that really is a good idea because you have enough depth in birds, you know, light and shadow much better than this here. It is very, very boring, light and boring photograph. Folks. Not so great light as you see it. Maybe have more chances here and definitely more chances here. This is just a great photograph. You must be very lucky to shut such photograph. The light is very subtle, you know, quite light, low-intensity, but just enough to make these scholars blue, beautiful and enough contrast with the background. Very nice. Lions, very boring photograph. You see it yourself, I think by now, flat light, you know, without enough contrast and that is just a snapshot. This is a bit better, but this is absolutely gorgeous photograph you see that? Very lucky for the photographer. You have a son. Shine on the, on the words on the lions and didn't back on the sexually shadow. There's a cloud somewhere up there, making all this area dark. It's shadow and debt contrast between this slide on the animals here and the darkest background work just perfectly this great shot, beautiful, just complete again with the other shots, especially with this one. And then you realize how good it is. Zebras, a bit boring lights, not that great shot. This is still better. But just notice that the, the light on the zebras is not that much better to be on. Sit still. You see quite flat light, quite bored light. What is nice is this. And you see that and you experience the whole photograph as better. But actually zebras hairs are not much nicer than a here. And of course, the environment is here more spectacular than this. So I guess that makes his photograph better. Giraffes, born like giraffes, inch too light. You see huge improvement there. Dear. Quite light satellites, Low intensity light, but enough for certain quality. You see here shadow and the highlight in our muscles there. And the interesting thing, the details almost posing for the photographer, very beautiful pose actually. So it is still nice photograph, but the light is probably better here. I think it's this great light. You must be again, lucky to find this deal in this light. Only the deity is not studying as instantaneous as in this photograph, but yeah, it's not up to you. But light is absolutely great. Look at that. Elephants. Not that great shots. Light is just ordinary midday light. There. You see the shadow is really under the animal, meaning the sun is up there. And yes, as you can expect, not that great light or great photograph, the same here, not that great. But this is very beautiful photograph. I mean, again, you must allot, have a lot, a lot of luck to be here at, right at this moment. You know, having such beautiful animal and such beautiful light behind. Great photograph also here, absolutely spectacular photographer photograph may be the best photograph here. Extremely directional light, it is coming from above and psych, as far as I could see. You see it here on the top light down there is a shadow. I'm not sure, very short and how, what are, what are the environments? Environments here. But I suspect that the background is completely in shadow, invade dark shadow under, been exposed that scene like this, all you see is these lights on the births absolutely spectacular shot. Especially if you compare it to the other shots of flamingos. They look just like snapshots. Look at this in this, comparing to this. A few photographs where the light is not that great. This one or this one, or this one here also not. And at the end a few photographs where light is again a pleasing. Here, for example, the animals are just silhouette, but I think a beautiful silhouette and then they're behind you have gorgeous light. And that's for me. Nice photograph. Also here. Absolutely beautiful light. The Sun is on the other side. They are producing beautiful rim lights on these birds. And I think it is a lovely, lovely photograph this and as you see, you don't need some spectacular animals there for great wildlife photograph. No, it just should I say, ordinary geese are more than enough when you have such a beautiful light conditions. Very beautiful photograph this. And here also beautiful and more beautiful light. You have beautiful photograph. And at the end of this shot here, I think it is absolutely magnificent photograph here. Beautiful light on the birds. You see that it is satellite again, but very nice. And on the background they're all in the background. Also beautiful light. Photon IF is very sharp edge, you can see in every aspect it's very beautiful. And I think you really need to work hard and investor quite some time to be able to shoot photographs like this. 16. Practical Applications: Plants & Flowers: I do not have really anything particularly new to say about light and plants and flowers. The main point remains, these subjects are of limited size and you're able to influence their light conditions in great extent. Relocate your subject into better light, or you prove the present light with reflectors or video flash. I would say. Exercise. Any implants you can to improve the results. Not only light but 18 you can think of. Don't just stand there and hope for the best, make it happen. So not the light, but anything else you can think of that suspect that that will improve your photography. This story goes in a pretty much way for any subset of this size. Is the bottle, is that shoe, is it a cake or a vase? It is a subject of a limited size and use it to your advantage. Let's have a look at a few photographs of plants and flowers, and I hope that you will find also some inspiration. We should start with this photograph here. I think it is not that great photograph. Not because this vase is not very special or that because the plant is not very special. I think mostly because the light is not that special. If you have a look at this photograph here, I think you will see that the veins is pretty much the same as this one. And the plant is also not that spectacular, but still this photograph is much, much better than this. Because the photographer made this light I see here, window light coming through and the light is very directional. This wall behind remains the shadow and expose in this way that will become completely black, making very dramatic contrasts with the plant. As you see, I will, I'll show you this concept very, very often. I'm sure if you use it often enough, you reproduce about very best photographs. The tulips in a flat, somber light. I don't think that is very much appealing. I think this is already much better. Again, a window light, the light's coming from this side, lighter, darker enough depth there. If you think this is a studio shot, it is not. You see here the windows. So the photographer makes use of it. Smart use of it. Plant is coming from this side. And why is this so black? I suspect that the photographer put there maybe black cardboard or some black cloth or Sunday that, and there you go. You have your own studio with daylight. Again, chips in a beautiful, gorgeous window light. I really loved this, these colors and this very soft light and these soft colors look how much better this looks than, for example, this. The same flower shops outside edges. You can make beautiful shots of chips or any other flowers, I guess. I see this is midday sun. I see the shadow here. This is in light, meaning the sun is right up. And as you see, you can shoot out. They're also very beautiful photographs around midday hours. Maybe not landscapes as I said, but many other subjects or will be nice in that light, as long as the direction of deadline is okay. And in this case, it's, you know, it is a good thing that light is coming from above. I don't see there any disadvantages. This very intense light brings out the color and detail. That is what these characteristics of midday light. In this case, it works just, just perfect. I would say this is a snapshot, a chaotic composition and also chaotic light. This is already better shot of the same plant. But I would go, I think for this here, this option here, photographing against with backlight, the sign is opposite to the camera, making the subject very, very light. And in this pose, the Chateau de behind the bill become completely black, produced in these dramatic contrasts which lead often sues some find photographs. Back to boring, gray, somber light. This doesn't look that great. The same subject, other light much better. Again, backlight that you see also something that'll work very often with many, very often good with many subjects, subjects. This photograph here is, as far as I'm concerned, not a great success. I do not think that this slide is good enough. It is too low intensity. I suspect it is a very cloudy day out there, and this slide is not good enough for one good photograph. This year is already much better. There is nothing density, therefore enough contrast and depth in this photograph it looks much, much better. Again, quite subtle light with not too strong contrast. I think it still works because the subject is so nice and the competition is actually also quite good. I see also some highlights there. So it works. Okay, but I think in better light, it would be even much better than this. If you take all I need is a lot of sunlight. It isn't, so it is not. So just have a look at this photograph. It is not guaranteed for great result. A lot of sunshine. On the other side. Let's see here. Just a bit of light capture some great shots. Here. Very, very satellite video, little orbit and exposed again in an extreme way, you get this very atmospheric photograph. So if I have to choose between this one and this photograph here, I think this slide is many, many times more extraordinary, more and more and more special than the other one. And I would go every time for this photograph. That should not think that I only love or like photographs with a lot of shadows. I will show you also this photograph. I think it is a very fine photograph, very beautiful. It just makes me happy to look at. It reminds me over the spring and a beautiful sunny day. And it is very, very enjoyable, beautiful light, beautiful colors. Also here the subject is very simple. But at that gorgeous light and gorgeous colors are enough for one nice photograph. Some flowers in beautiful lights. Water lily also in beautiful light. Again, mid backlight, backlight. Their son. Underexposed. You get this. And here, one sunflower in not so good light and also water lily, not that great. I just complete one more time. These photographs. Again. The light is determining what is about equality of result. This is also a way to go with your macro lens to zoom-in that leave. I think this is a lovely photograph with also light. That is absolutely good enough. There are there enough contrast you see highlights and the shadows. Enough depth. And very beautiful photograph. Really. If you look at this leaf, it is much less impressive than this. You could think it is not that beautiful Lee, I think it is not that beautiful light, to be honest, because if the light, if you are able to produce some incident light, almost anything is interested. And I will prove it to you. If you have a look at this leaf here, it is just one ordinary live. But this photographer, DSpace here, quite a few skills in the studio. He's producing magnificent lines here. And finally, one great photograph of one single simple leaf. I see here at least three studio flashes being used. One here to produce this light and to aside one flashes coming from this side producing this rim light and one flesh from here producing this slide. I see also one on a natural straight line here. And I suspect that is something that holds this leave straight up. And I don't think it's particularly bad thing this line here and just saying, yes, a hunting for that beautiful light, just one-way light to that mentioned there. And you have already one beautiful photograph. And again, one photograph which is very light. Just show you that I do not prefer necessarily just the photographs with a lot of shadows and dark photographs. I think this photograph is also very beautiful. And actually I think this photograph, you could even overexpose, making these flowers disappear in light. I think that would be also nice effect. So exposure remains an important tool. Important decision. Do not always. Just exposed as a DBA your seat yourself. Try regularly to underexpose and overexpose your subject. You will produce some of your best photographs. 17. Practical Applications: Food: Again, I do not have many new things to tell you about lights and food photography. The most important fact remains that food is a subject of limited size and that you're able to significantly influenced light conditions. But as food photography is these days so immensely popular, I would like to give you a few more tips or advice is how to do it. Namely advice about how to use light in food photography or about your options with the light in food photography. Show you say that your first option is the artificial light, the light that you have on your ceiling? I do not think that that idea is very good. I do not believe that you will produce any good photographs of food in that light. That is almost always completely worthless light. The color of that light is not favorable. The direction of that light is also worthless. And finally, the intensity of that light is also not very useful. So I would say, don't even bother to try. Another option would be daylight. Well, you will shut some of the most beautiful photographs of food in daylight. It can be absolutely breathtaking the quality of that light. But when I say daylight, what do I mean by that? Not just to take your foot to outside, into your garden or on the street and showed it if you put it. So just out there, you're going to lose any kind of control of that light. Do not forget the light properties that you mentioned throughout this course. The color of light, direction of light harness or light intensity of light. If you just put it out there in the middle of your garden, you really completely lose control of that light. So when I say daylight, I mean by that window light. Window light can be of a spectacular quality. You can should the very best photographs of food, but also portraits, just name it in that kind of light. The problem with this slide is that you do not have it anytime you want. So you need to explore in your home. Where do you have that light and at what time? Meaning reach window and at what time. And then you can photograph and produce some beautiful, beautiful shots of food. The food. What are, what are these differences between a window light and the light just out there in your garden. Well, if you choose for a window, you can control many things about that light. Namely direction of light. One of the most important decisions, direction of light, but also the hardest of light. I will explain this. Directional light. If you put your foot out in the garden, the light is coming from all sides and there is no controller direction. If you put your foot outside the window, here is the window where the light comes from, this site. And you already controlled light. You have here many possibilities. You use them as you are pleased. For example, you can choose for this window food. You, meaning you are photographing with backlight or window. You food. You're now photographing with light behind you or window you. Food, meaning one side of the foot is in light, the other one is in the shadow. And anything in-between. That is great extent of control here of directional light. But if you, for example, have blinds on your window just like knee behind, you can also control the harms of light. The hardest of light is, depending on the size of the light source. You put it in the garden outside, you lose that control. You put it beside a window and you have blinds. Well, if you open these blinds more, your light source will be bigger. You will produce softer lines. If you close these blinds, you will reduce the size of the light source and you produce the hard light. But you can go even further. You could introduce reflector. Here. It is. Just a white piece of cardboard, 50 Cent or something like that. When do you need this? Well, you need this if you need another light source, yes, it's true. This is a very useful light source. Let's say you have the following situation. Let's say the window is, shall we say here, this is the window light coming from this side. And you put the food here and you're studying just alone here, meaning that in your photograph, one side of the food will be in light, but the other one in the shadow. If you think that that shadow is too dark, that it will be just the black without any detail in a photograph. You can feel that shadow with this refractor here, the light would go from the window to the reflector and back to the foods. That is really all you need. These two light sources to produce tons of great photographs of foods. I will also use this black boards, cardboard to preserve my shadows. It is not just about light, but also about shadows. Sometimes there is just too much light and my shadows are in danger and I just want to keep them there. I will use this port, for example, if the window is too big and the food is here, and drag this coming also from, they're destroying the shadow that I wanted to keep. I will just put this cardboard here. I will just simply block that's light and shadow remains as is this dark. It doesn't reflect into my subject of the foot and the shadow remains there. I have various sizes of these boards. And of course, what are you going to choose is depending on how big is your subject. I would say if you have Cupcake, this is good enough. If you're photographing a whole tables with food, you probably need bigger reflector. But there is more. If you think that a reflector is not doing the job as you wanted to do it, then you can use maybe your flash. This is a repeat, extremely powerful tool for a photographer. So in this case, if you say, I want to fill in the shadows on the food, on one side, there is a window. On that side. There is a factor, but it's just not powerful enough in this case. Or whatever other reason. You can introduce your flash, your own private person light source. And to do with that, whichever you want to eliminate these shadows to fill them mean to produce highlights, whatever. You need to use. Your flash off camera, not on camera. That is not very beautiful light. You buy one trigger set. It is an expensive piece of equipment. And then you can use your external flash off camera. You put it on the tripod and you put it wherever you want. You decide you to turn, determine that way direction of light. Also, you can determine easily the hardens of light. If you use your flash, I will never flush with Bear flash to directly, directly to my subject. It is just too hard light. It is still very small light source. So what I'm going, what should I do is I will bounce the light from the walls or maybe bounce the light from the deflectors back to the foot. It will also make the slice light nicer. Or I will maybe use light shapers, which are developed especially for the external flash. In this way, I'm enlarging the light source and reproduce much softer light. Kind of right? That should need much more often. That's hard light. There are many products like this, you know, bigger, smaller. So I'm sure you can find 80 you need for the photographs that you, I needed to produce. Another thing about flashes. It is of course, a powerful light source. So you can also use it independently, meaning as a main light source, maybe a bit, a bit of a daylight, or completely without daylight. Use it as a main light source or the only light source. Just in a sense, like these studio flashes behind me. You need the 10 trigger set as a set. You put it on a tripod and that's it. Once you get one studio flash, you have again, one day you go to the light sources and you can photograph anytime he wants. The last option with light and food in food photography would be, I think to say, I want to photograph in the studio environments. I do not want to depend on a daylight conditions. I wanted to photograph whenever I want and whenever I need. That's means that you need to buy some of the equipment you see behind there. I think that's already one flash. Once you flash would be enough to start. I mean, really a lot, a lot of photographs in food photography are made pretty much with one flash. If you use one or a couple of reflectors, then you will have at least two light sources. And that is really enough for very strong starts. And I'm sure with that equipment you can make already hundreds and thousands of a great, great photographs of foods. You need one flesh, as I said, and you need also a light shape or I would choose, I think for Okta Box, as you see it behind me, 90 centimeters diameter, I think that's a good idea that is kind of a replacement for that window light. You could also choose, instead of buying a flash, studio flash, to buy continue lights. Let's kind of light that I'm using now here to produce this video. But table-like, I think both of these choices are goods. Let us now at the end, see a few photographs of food and make some comments. Let us start with a few shots of pizzas. I think this is really a beautiful photograph. This photographer knows exactly how to do it. I believe this is a studio shot. And I think that photographer creates here a beautiful atmosphere. This pizza looks very tasty. This is how to not do this. This is ending, but good. Here you see direct sunlight. So obviously this is a daylight. Here you have a piece of pizza, you know, in direct sunlight and it's completely overexposed. And the rest is that boring, flat light. And this pizza really does look tasty. Ato. Also, this pizza is not any better. It's not in my scene at all. This is a studio shot, but this photographer really has no idea what to do here. This is artificial light. And you see that it's pretty hopeless to try to make a good photograph of food in such a light. Look just the color of that light. It's orange, actually orange. Also. The intensity of light is too low. The question is wrong, and cetera. This is daylight, looks better, the window somewhere there. But I guess it can get even better like this here, even more contrast. But this is a very beautiful photograph in daylight. Enough contrast in naphtha. Intensity, just beautiful. The window is summer there as you see it herself. Light, dark, beautiful, very, very tasty. Lucky Pete's Coffee studio shot. Looks good. This is daylight, also looking good. And this is also daylight still looking good. But in this photograph here, the main light sources are gained artificial light from above. And that looks not that great at all. And again, you see that yellow, orange color of light, which is not a taste usually not so tasty looking. And here the light is not always guaranteed for good light, as you see here, doesn't look good at all. Brown is a gorgeous studio shot here. I see here only one writer source artists, one flash from this side coming as a main light source. And I'm pretty sure that is here. One reflector to fill these shadows seen otherwise, there'll be very deep shadow here. Very beautiful photograph in any sense. And Brown is in daylight. Now they do not look today at all. Look at us. So much better. Loss of detail. Too low intensity or light. Just name it. Again. Not that great shot. The intensity of light is too low. You know, we need more light here, meaning this cake has to be closer to the window. Loss of detail here. So maybe you can use deflector here to recover some details to make it look better. Also, one thing to mention is that it's not always easy to make a photograph of something very dark against almost white background. In this case, cake against a white wall. You see here it is a Swedish shot, beautiful studio shot. And you see here that this dark cake works very well with that dark background. I mentioned this also with photographs of animals and people are early earlier. It is not a rule that you never photograph a dark object against a light background. I'm just saying it is much easier if you go light on light and dark against dark. And this k here looks much better, much better than this. It's similar, I would say, you know, in colors and shapes. But this looks just much better. Why? I think this highlight is the reason it's strong enough to really change a whole light situation here. This is still a shadow, but this is big enough to make the difference. Back to artificial light. And look how horrible that light is. I think the cake is quite nice in some other light would be much more beautiful. But in this light, artificial light from above is just horrible. Very subtle daylight here. The window is summer, they're coming in. I think it is a cloudy day out there. Low intensity of light, but still enough for some contrast here. And I think it's gorgeous photograph here, one photograph with flat light. Throughout this course, I mentioned or make that, made a detriment, a remark. The light is flat and boring and not so good or terrible or bad. So actually up to this point, I think every time when I set this light is flat, I thought of it that it's not good and it's unwanted. But I just took this photograph here to show you that even flat light can work just perfectly if you know how to do it. I think this fact, this light is flat, as flat as it can be, as you think, as you see. And but in this photograph, the photographer really knows how to create that atmosphere where this light is welcome and good choice. So what I want to say is there are no rules. Anything is possible, as long as you know how to do it and what you're doing. Back to some a bad light conditions here, daylight, just, there is no enough intensity here. You see just flat light pad to that flat light incense as a bad light. You know, any tasty you see here. And let's see the windows, you see them there. So this is reflecting that light. Looks good. The fruit, but not the cake. Also here in the background is great. But here I think still too little contrast. The unsterile can be worse, but can't be also significantly better than this. The same here, daylight but not used well. Directional light is wrong. It's coming mostly from bag and you don't see it on the cake. And also the intensity of light is too low. I think this cake has to be nearer to the window, then these contrasts here would be bigger, producing more depth and more dimension in the cake. And that would be, I'm sure, more beautiful photograph. This is how to do it close to the window. Enough light, and just look at this beautiful dimension in this strawberry here. Just gorgeous. So tasty. So see, you know, going from very light to very dark there. That's how to do it also here, lighter and transformation to the shadow. Beautiful. One more example. Beautiful daylight. Enough intensity, good direction, and very bad choice. Look how sad it looks compared to this. Much, much, much better photograph. This, then that we are at the end of this course. I hope very much that you learned a lot and that you broaden your understanding of photography. We discussed many things during this course, many things about light. And I hope that it will be enough to motivate you, to inspire you and make you more knowledgeable about photography. So that you will be able to improve your photography significantly already in the coming days and even more so in the coming weeks and months. Do not forget that photography is a top sports that if you want to be good at it, you need to do it all the time. So I think you will need some time. So try out all these ideas that we discussed during this course. And to find out what is working for you the best. And after that, to try to get it as good as you can. I guess shot of success with that. Do not forget to enjoy photography. Greetings from the Hague and bye-bye.