Learn to Fly An Airplane2 | Howard Forder | Skillshare

Learn to Fly An Airplane2

Howard Forder, Technical Trainer

Learn to Fly An Airplane2

Howard Forder, Technical Trainer

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30 Lessons (5h 56m)
    • 1. LearnToFlyIntermediateIntro

      4:58
    • 2. Module 1 Lesson 1: Taxiing with Rudder Pedals

      3:30
    • 3. TaxiDemo

      16:42
    • 4. Module1 Lesson 2: The Takeoff

      6:38
    • 5. Module1 Lesson 3: Return to a New Airport

      7:14
    • 6. DEMO: Return to a New Airport

      12:08
    • 7. Module 2 Lesson 1: Precautionary Landings

      5:09
    • 8. Module 2 Lesson 2: Emergency Landing

      9:00
    • 9. Module 3 Lesson 1: Diversion Preparation

      10:43
    • 10. Interm M3 DiversionDemo

      18:26
    • 11. Module 3 Lesson 2: Return To Buttonville

      6:58
    • 12. Module 4 Lesson 1: Short Fields

      8:48
    • 13. Module 4 Lesson 2: Short Field Landings

      6:18
    • 14. Module 4 Lesson 3: Arriving at Uncontrolled Airports

      10:37
    • 15. Module 4 Lesson 4: Crosswind Takeoff and Landing

      8:06
    • 16. Module 5 Lesson 1: Navigation

      9:34
    • 17. Module 5 Lesson 2: Cross Country Flight Planning

      11:36
    • 18. Module 5 Lesson 3: Fly The Plan

      5:44
    • 19. Module 6 Lesson 1: The VOR

      9:24
    • 20. Module 6 Lesson 2: DME

      18:36
    • 21. Module 7 Lesson 1: The NDB

      5:10
    • 22. Module 7 Lesson 2: Final Flight Test

      12:48
    • 23. Module 7 DEMO Phase 1

      27:55
    • 24. Module 7 DEMO Phase 2

      21:35
    • 25. Module 7 DEMO Phase 3

      15:59
    • 26. Final Homework Assignment

      6:41
    • 27. HomeworkDEMO Phase1

      19:15
    • 28. HomeworkDEMO Phase 2

      20:06
    • 29. LearnToFlyIntermediateFinalGreetings

      2:08
    • 30. FlightSimulatorFirstLook

      33:59
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Now we continue our flight lessons using real flight lessons but practicing with the realistic flight simulator on your computer. The Beginner course is the prerequisite for this one. There are a lot of basic skills needed from the beginner course to continue on to these more advanced lessons in this Intermediate Course.

Grab your yoke and rudder pedals and let's fly somewhere.

Howard Forder is your instructor and this course was conducted in a flight school for years to prepare pilots for real flight training. Come along and enjoy the thrills and skills that flying offers in this Intermediate  course. 

Meet Your Teacher

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Howard Forder

Technical Trainer

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Hello, I'm Howard.

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Transcripts

1. LearnToFlyIntermediateIntro: Congratulations. You made it through the beginner course, and you're getting very familiar with your Cessna 1 72 and you can confidently take it up and put it down gently where you're supposed to. Now we start doing more advanced maneuvers with your playing so you can handle these things as they arise. Some of the skills you will learn in this intermediate course include using your rudder pedals to taxi and fly precautionary landings, emergency landings, short field takeoffs and landings. Cross wind take offs and landings, slips, skids and flat lis landings. And finally, cross country flight planning and execution to acquire these skills as realistically as possible. You'll certainly need a yoke, as in the big intercourse or the very least, a flight stick. They're cheaper, and they're like fighter jets and experimental planes, home built planes, used flight sticks. They're easier, cheaper to put in, and there are more responsive to. Certainly, as you snap them left and right, you can do roles and things like that. We don't do roles in our Cessna 1 72 Yeah, so you can use the flight stick. But it is recommended that you get ah yoke because it's more realistic. And all the planes, you're probably going to fly. All right, So, um, not only the yolk, but it's best to learn with a yoke and your rudder pedals also for the floor. So let me just talk about a couple other things. You could buy an elevator trim that attaches to your desk like this one, or by a yoke that has an elevator trim built in like this one. But but don't be fooled by the mechanical trim wheel. On most basic yolks, they only adjust the springs in the yolk, and they aren't used for elevator trip. You will remember in the beginner course we used the acronym P A. T or a teepee, depending on climbing or descending. In both cases, the T stood for trim. We had to trim it, and it's an important step with flying without the stress of trying to hold the yolk against a certain position against the forces of the wind that could get very tiring. We always trim to the attitude we wish and even fly hands off afterwards. If you cannot trim it with hardware, you can still use your most as a backup. You can use your most on the elevator, trim in your simulator and use your most wheel to move it up or down. But you will also need to buy her bore the rudder pedals for this course. They also have a USB connection for your computer, and your flight simulator should automatically recognize him. Or we'll have to go into settings and make sure the rudder pedals are in all airplanes and in all real planes, you'll use them from your first lesson. I designed these courses so you wouldn't have to buy everything all at once, and you could concentrate on each control and master at first. Now we introduce rudder pedals to complete the realism of learning to fly the skills of learning to fly. So with this newfound piece of hardware, I need to brief you on how to use them properly. You will get enough practice in all phases of flight, but start with taxing around the tarmac using rudder pedals. Only that will be covered in our first module while we are re familiarizing ourself with taxi and takeoff procedures. In this course, we're starting from Toronto Island Airport in Toronto, Canada, as in the big intercourse because it's familiar. But when we returned from the Clermont practice area, we will be returning toe button, Ville airport and remain. There is air base for all future lessons in this intermediate course. This airport is north of Toronto Island Airport. It's very busy airport for jets, float planes, helicopters and a busy radio frequency. It is said to be the gateway to the north or to cottage country, where float planes and executive jets get away for the weekend or a holiday. This is also home to Toronto Airways, the busy and active flight school that also attended and rent planes from to this day. From here, we are closer to the smaller airstrips to the north, where we will practice short field landings and takeoffs. It's also good practice toe, have them to navigate and return home to a different airport for each course. Good luck, and, as always, send me any questions about this course and the beginner course one. Once we learned these skills and it becomes second nature, this becomes, ah, whole lot of fun. Let's get started. 12 Turn left at 90 maintained 4800 to establish an approach 2. Module 1 Lesson 1: Taxiing with Rudder Pedals: lesson one taxing with rudder pedals The redder pedals, as in riel airplanes are attached by cables to the big vertical moving fin at the back of the plane. When you push the left pedal with the left foot all the way down, the rudder turns to the left all the way over. When you push the right rudder pedal all the way down, the rudder moves all the way to the right. A lighter touch on the pedals can deflect the rudder in smaller amounts. You'll get a feel for how much will taxing or flying the rudder pedals are also attached by tables to the front steering nose wheel. This will allow you to steer the plane on the ground. There isn't enough airflow past the rudder to steer it with the rudder while you're on the ground so the front steering wheel is attached to the rudder pedals. To it will be a strange feeling to steer the plane with your feet and only use your hands to control the throttle to keep your plane at a running pace, not a flying speed so further in this course, you will learn to taxi with our feet, but use the yolk in the air airlines to defeat the effects of wind on the ground. You'll eventually use the yoke while taxing, but but not to turn the plane. That's the sole job of the rudder pedals, and that's gonna feel strange at first. So let's add one more feature to rudder pedals. You break with your toes. That's right. You push at rudder pedal with your whole foot, but you use your toes to engage the disc brakes and stop. You have to use both feet to stop straight ahead. So let me demonstrate taxing with rudder pedals for steering. I'll use throttle to control speed, of course, and then finally breaks to stop using my toes on the rudder pedals. Now it's your turn. Start up the simulator from a saved flight on the tarmac before heading to the active runway. Used your side views the side windows toe. Look in the direction of your turn. Do complete turns in certain headings on the ground. If you're comfortable with taxing with rudder pedals, try taxing toe on a 200 to a runway taxi along the runway, accident taxiway and then try again. Here in the simulator weaken Do that? Unreal airports. Of course. You can't even taxi to the runway or even taxi on the runway unless you have clearance. Did you use the brakes? You need to get comfortable doing this. Really. Pilots don't use the period key to stop. We will use while we're still going to use the control period for emergency brake, but will use the rudder pedals to actually stop. How did you do? We will be using your newfound skill in every phase of flight. So this is important that some of you will transition to real planes and we don't want any surprises. I've included an article on why you should have a yoke, throttle and rudder pedals. That link will be available to you in our supplemental materials where you'll find your checklist. 3. TaxiDemo: All right, here for the taxi demo, we're button below report home of our intermediate course. And you can see here by the VFR map, this is a new video I'm making. This one is done with the new Microsoft Flight Simulator. And you can see that button builders north of Toronto Island Airport, which is really in their Trello and the airport doesn't even show up yet. Anyway, it's written in there. See, there's really a beginner courses and the handcrafted airport and a beautiful place and where I learned to fly. But here we are at button will, just north of Toronto. Very common to do flights from here down to Toronto Island and back, very common to deflates to Niagara Falls are back little further. So I'm on the tarmac. I'm going to taxi around and I'm just taxing around the apron, dance it. And then eventually we'll taxi down this one, which is Bravo, and will turn on to 33, which is the most common runway here at button Vale. You'll do a lot of that in this course. So let's go and try a couple of things. The very first thing I'm going to do, let me just close that. That's kind of in the way you'll notice in the right corner I have my rudder pedals. And the rudder pedals, you'll be able to see me move them in and out. You'll also be able to see me use the tool bricks. So make sure that your position so that you can push with your toes. Actually a good exercise is no. And the standard left and right turn both TO brakes to stop. Alright, that's what we're going to learn here in this video. Over here on the left, you'll notice I've got my controls. This is my throttle. That's all I really need. I've got four mixture rich. I don't need to trim. I've got everything working. Don't worry about flaps or gear. All we care about right now is getting around the airport. All right. And you've got to practice this every now and then. Now certainly every flight you gotta do it too. So take a look out the windshield now. We're just going to go straight ahead. And so we're making sure we don't have the brakes on. So we're going to let go of the breaks and we're just going to push the throttling about halfway. You got to give it a bit more power to get going. And then you pull back, and that's all I want you to do. Look, I'm pulled back and I'm still going. And now I'm going to just move my feet. And I just want to go straight and I want to stop. Right. So I'm just coasting. You can't even measure the speed, but you can see it's getting slower and slower and slower. And then both tools ready, both toes. Good. People is that you as it's different than a car. That's why I'm explaining it. Don't be insulted. I don't want anybody's intelligence being insulted. It really is a new way to drive. Right now. I have no hands. Or maybe I can show that no hands on the yolk. And here's my yoke over here. You'll notice I'm not moving the yolk when I'm taxing. Let's do it once more. It's still labeling, but is not enough power to get me moving. It's gotta pull the airplane. Alright, so little bit of power and money going in quarter-inch, half-inch and go into a little more doesn't seem to be up there goes a little bit more. Well, okay. And I'm moving. I'm going to pull back. I have no power. I might idle and look at I'm still moving, so I'm going to just move it to the array. Now I'm going to do both 2-breaks. Both 2-breaks. Good. Same thing we just did. All right. Getting control of your airplane. So you'll notice you always give it a bit of power to get going and then pull it back even to Idle. Now after a while you'll get used to can I leave it at an eighth of an inch? You don't measure it, you just can't know that it's not all the way back. It's in a little more. You might even want to start using your finger. I'm serious. You guys. You put your hand on the throttle and your fingers over by the lock or the stop on my throttle here I actually have a lock. You can't see it in the camera, but there's a little lock there to lock the friction in a real plane. There's a friction lock just like this one. And that makes it a little harder to push in and out or stops the vibration from from changing your throttle. So I'm all the way out. And now I'm going to go in with my finger. I'm going to go in and my fingers stops it against the Stop. Look at that. Now everybody's fingers are different lengths so you'll figure out where it is. That might be a comfortable travel taxi for me. Alright, so here we go. Now I'm going to have to turn around because I'm going to end up running out of taxi way. What do we got over here? So I can go between the building and that airplane. Sure. So I'm going to make a right turn, but you'll notice a couple of things you might have to come back to the video. A couple of things you're going to notice is how I managed the throttle before I break, I always put to idle. So there's our first rule before breaking. Always go to idle. Just very hard on the brakes of an airplane to leave it on power and try to stop. And it's also harder to stop. So power back, full breaks right now for turning, I'm just going to use my feet to turn one direction or the other. I'm not using my toes. Although you can, when you have to do a 180, you can break on one wheel and power it around. You're pivoting on one wheel. You can do that. It's called differential breaking. So we'll do that to finish this video. But we're not, this isn't gonna be a long video, but let me just show you this now. I'm just gonna do a normal term, which is normal redder. All right, and when you look at the back of the plane, normal rudder just deflects the rudder. And when you look at the front of the plane, normal rudder actually turns the wheel. Now it's not showing the wheel turning year, but when we're actually taxing that, we'll, we'll turn. Now. It's not showing it in static, but it will when it's turning. So this wheel turns when we use the rudder, so does the back then. So that's what we're gonna do right now. Just come back just a little. I'm going to make a right turn rate up here. All right, a little bit of power. Just to get going. I'm going to start from this end. I mean, you should see from inside the carpet and I'm turning left so I better do a little bit redder. Pull back. I'm leaving it at a quarter-inch. Now just going to do full rate writer books don't want to hit an airplane full right rudder. And in, you know, in the simulator because you don't have peripheral, you might want to leave it on this view. And now I'm just going to leave, I only have it on an eighth inch and it's still going. All right. So a little tiny throttle just to keep me going. And I'm just going to follow the line and keep on going. And I decide I want to stop here at the terminal. This is where the control tower is. I pull back power first all the way back and put on my brakes both toes. Look at that, how easy that is. Alright, so I'm gonna go again, just to get it go. I'm going halfway with my throttle, halfway. And it's finally going now I pull back, I'll go back to a. Now maybe you would want to look over here at this simulator. We can see it. Look, here's the engine where my controller is. I'm going to keep my brakes on as I pushed the throttle in. Look at that go up. As I pushed the throttle back, look at it, come back. All right, so that in this simulator, this is even easier now because I can say, okay, set it to maybe five for normal taxi. You know, you don't you don't always get that. You mean you don't always have that in a real engine to, you gotta get a feel for what's good for taxing. All right, then you'll adjust this as you go along. But anyway, maybe that's a good indicator read on the screen where you see that number 5 looks like that's probably a comfortable taxi. Alright, so you can see by that indicator now for me to get it up to start moving again, what does it take almost all the all the way up little bit or rather to keep going and now pull back to my five. All right, and let's see if that's a good comfortable one. Let's go find some more places to taxi. And pretty much we're just taxing around the apron. So I've left that a five just to see if that's good. It looks like that might work, you know. And again, you always keep your hand on the throttle in case you have to pull it, in case you have to go for and there should be a taxi way line here, but there isn't really, there isn't real life. And button velvet Five seems to be good. And if they start getting too fast, if I start getting too fast, I can always pull back power. That seems to be a good number. Yeah. Why not? Right now I'm going to put on the brakes are better. Pull the power back. You can see my indicator here is all the way back and I'm coming to a stop. All right. Now let's do it from here because this is where it matters, everybody. This is where you really fly. We don't fly from outside the plane. We only do that in group flies when everybody's flying with us and they want to see the scenery, right? And here we have to actually look left and look rate. And this is why I say maybe you want a taxi from outside the plane, you get a better view, right? So again, if you have to, you just put on the V key. The V key. V doesn't work. Yeah. Why not? All right. So what is it? We want the map. Probably. This one looks like a map. Yeah, I've never used this icon. Okay, VFR map. So you can see what we're doing. We're just gone through this triangle. They call this the apron, right? So we're just going here and here and here. And then as you get comfortable, Let's go down between airplanes and just see how we do with that. And just get comfortable with taxiing, getting control of your airplane. That's really what we're after here. All right. So I'm just gonna keep going around the apron until I get better with it. Alright. Willpower just to get going again. Useful power. I'm impatient. It's not good for the engine to go full power, but yeah, we're doing it in a sim. Now. I'm coming back probably around that five mark that we were talking about. And here's what it looks like from inside the plane. Now, I'm not doing anything with the yolk. Later on you'll learn about deflecting the AUC for the wind, but not for driving. So I have no hands on the Yogis. I only have a hand on the throttle. And now I'm turning around at the end of the apron and I'm going to still go. All right. I'm just showing you I have both hands and none of them are on the EEOC. The EEOC is not in play. That's gone a bit too fast. I'm pulling back to idle. Get it under control. Now I'm going to break both toes. Now I'm going to look right and I think there's a gap here I can go through after this twin. So I'm just going to go through here. I'm only touching my job because of their hat switch to look around. All right. So I think it's right around here. I've got lots of clearance. Now this time I'm doing a right turn, but I wanted to do a sharp right turn. So watch my right foot right about here. Watch my right foot. Break it. And when you put the break, I'm just like, wow, I really turn. If you do break and break and rudder, you can turn on a dime. I could probably just swing right around like this. Look, this is what they do in the group flies when you see them spinning around on one wheel. So I've got look at my foot, I've got the right foot, toe all the way down. I've got the right rudder all the way in. I'm just sitting here spinning now. It's obviously not good for the tire. It's no good for the engine. No good for anything really is no good for people who are around. But it's a way to get into take place. So that's, you know, that's how you drive home. We have to do that. Sometimes you got to watch out for your wings. On your wings determined the wingspan. And I gotta get by this guy, which they're always in the wrong place. Typically when you're taxing, you're all on the same frequency and that guy knows I'm coming and then go gets out of the way. All right, so you've got the idea behind it. It becomes natural after a while when, once you're on the ground, the yolk doesn't come into play. Trim doesn't come into play, nothing else really. It's just throttle and break through algebraic. Talk to the tower. Will break. There we go. All right, last test, you guys, and then that's it for this video. Last test is to go between the airplanes. Little boy. Here we go. So I'm looking over here. Yeah, there's one row of planes, and here comes another role-playing. So let's go up here. Does that going to work? Yeah, there's some planes can we do it? Looks to take Doesn't it? Especially that guy on the Kurt. And when you look outside, you just see that, yeah, That's pretty tight stuff. Now you would either use the shadow of the airplane, take a look over in the left. Depends on the day. Right now my shadow is crossing over in the middle line. But in fact the middle line, that middle line still is lots of clearance for me. I'm going to clear the guy, but when you're in the plane, this is our UGA. So you look over at your shadow and you go, am I going to clear the guy? Look at that? I'm going to clear them. It is looking at your shadow when you park your plane beside another plane. As I'm going to do in a minute, you'll be able to do that. Okay? So I'm going to clear him good. Knowing the simulator, they're always in their own place. They don't look out. Now I'm going to look over on the right and say, am I going to hit the plane, right? So there's no shadow over there because of their sons in their own place. So now I got to judge how far away from their wing I am well, a hiring plane crossing over lowing plane is pretty safe. Then again, they put the line in here to show us that you will have clearance for all ga aircraft coming through here. But we'll swear every very busy. Alright, so the last thing I wanna do is park. Alright, so let me just come over here. I'm gonna park besides this little guy right here. And I'm going to come up real close because there could be another plane right there. Yeah, there is. So I'm gonna come up real close. Little too fast. Break to the array. And a jittery to wow, we've got to check my settings. And I'm just gonna do a CIF kind of parking. And what that means is I'm just going to creep up and give a lots of room. You notice I'm doing breaks, I'm doing That's all I'm doing. That looks about the same level as AP plane. And it's not pursuing levels AP plane. And I'm going to go ahead just a little more. Maybe like that. How does it look over here? Oh, he's crooked. That's why. Okay. Well, then I think I'm good. And then you just take a look outside and say, has it look from out here. Hey, not so bad. So this is, I am kinda close to that guy. So I would think, and I didn't look at shadows either, but I would think that the fact that I'm a high wing, he's allowing It's not an issue. Although you try to keep your wings away from each other, but that's your lesson in taxing all feet, enteral feed and throttle, and all the while you're on the frequency for the ground, listening to what other traffic is doing. Simple as that you guys and when you're stopped, always put on your break. There are plenty of instructors who have said, Oh, don't use the parking brake at sometimes freezes and you just go Come on ships the thing well, yeah. And then you don't have to keep your feet and the toes. Anyway, that's the taxi. Just keep taxing around, go up and down in the plains after a while, it just gets natural. Or an answer said that I would actually just do a quick taxi up towards the runway 33 for takeoff. So let's say I just got clearance from ground. They're saying I can tax you to 33 via Bravo. So I'm just going to come over here and you'd have to have your airport runway. And if you don't have your airport runway, then you should get it. All right. Either sort of Google, just go to Google and find it. Go to Google Images and find it. Or just pull up the view for our map here and zoom in. Alright, so you can see what I'm doing here. I haven't cashed this scenery of button bill, So that's it. And I haven't used this simulator in the course yet. And I'm going way too fast. So I just pulled my power back. Pull my power back, pay attention or don't look at the map, should have looked at it before I left. I'm creeping up on the center line. There we go. All right. And now I'm using right rudder to stay on the center line. All right, now it's under control. And now I can look up here, you can see ram headed down the down the Bravo taxi way and this is 33 to take half, and that's what you'll do in the course a lot. Alright, so here, remember controlled all the time. This is actually pretty realistic. You guys. For years before I got my license, I would sit over here with all these parked cars on a picnic table with a radio, listening to traffic, watching planes, my lunch breaks or whatever, you know, wherever I was working, whatever CDOs inner would do that. So I've still been idling this whole time. I've been talking. I haven't done anything with the controls and why not? I mean, coming to a stop any way up ahead. All right. And so always keep it under control. As you can see him coming up to the runway right here. And as you'll learn in the course, you'll always park so that you can see the incoming traffic. Alright? So like this, I'll just give it a little bit of power. I'm kind of creeping up source law. But like that, so many people turn around and then call the tower. You can't see traffic coming in. There's any traffic in that circuit. You'll see it right now. And you can just wait because they're going to tell you to hold short anyway. All right, Once there's no traffic button, bell tower, this is fluxing material Fox ready for takeoff 33. And they see you on there and they see your flashing beacon. They see you're ready and then where you go. But you notice I was talking the whole time and I was taxing and once I got it under control, I could concentrate on the map or anything else. Anyway, that's the lesson and the hope that's valuable. And I'm going to be upgrading a whole lot of videos in this course, but the principles are there no matter which one you use. All right? And so hopefully that's useful for you guys. 4. Module1 Lesson 2: The Takeoff: Lesson two to take off with rudder pedals in our begin. Of course, I had to fly without rudder pedals to keep the cost down and to focus on flying itself in conventional flying lessons. You need to study propeller torque effect, adverse yaw and rudder trim in ground school before you can even step into a plane and fly it. You don't have the luxury of leaving that complexity out of training until you're more comfortable with basic flying. We had the default setting of rudder tied to the ailerons, so it was automatic coordinated flight. That's not riel, but it makes it easier to fly a plane in flight simulator for a beginner. You have learned already that the rudder pedals control that big vertical fin in the back. Your plane during flight speeds. Airflow is affected by this Finn and can make your plane yaw left or right. It's not coordinated. Flight, as you would skid or slip without the use of the ailerons to help with with those turns at slower speeds is certainly on the ground. They can be used because the air flows a lot less, and we we can't just dip a wing one way, the other to turn so they're connected to the steering wheel. Also, we're going to use them in later modules to do slips in cross wind landings and takeoffs. We will also use them to do flap lis landings. In the event that you have an aircraft power failure and your electric flaps won't work, you still need to land somehow without the fast speed that diving to the runway would cause without flaps. Has many have done in simulator and then gave up? So we'll have this method that we can use in the emergency case that we don't have electrics for our flaps. So to start with, you've taxi to the active with rudder pedals and use the tow brakes to stop short of the active. Always remember to cut the throttle before applying brakes, but now we're going to take off using rudder pedals the way an aircraft is designed First, some theory on why we need to do this. We're flying an airplane with one engine, and it's piston driven, as opposed to higher performance airplanes or even jet engines are single. Propeller is on the front of the plane and rotates clockwise when viewed from the cockpit. The torque caused by this propeller when you give it full power to take off is enormous and causes the plane toe. Want to veer left? The designers of the aircraft have adjusted the rudder tab at the back already to reduce the effect, but the adverse ER requires us to correct during times of high rpm or high torque. You don't have this problem on aircraft with counter rotating propellers. These air propellers that rotate in opposite directions, they cancel each other out. We have a single propeller, some of the terms you may want to look up if you are interested. Maurin this is yeah, torque adverse era P factor. Also, keep in mind the prop wash something called the Spiralling prop wash, and it hits your big thin in the back. All right, so these are things that you'll learn in ground school course. If you were to take ground school and we add some of this information and as we need it in this course, So when we take off, we need to be mindful of this effect and use rudder pedals during the take off and the climb configurations. You'll always put more pressure on that right rudder to compensate and keep you on the center line. This was less noticeable in assessment 1 50 but more so in the 1 72 And every aircraft will be different, not full rudder to the floor, but enough to keep the ball in the center. Yes, there is an important instrument we need to consider now that we have rudder pedals and the main purpose for it. Now, this has nothing to do with outside wind. We will be visiting the effects of wind in our cross wind module. For now, we concentrate on using the rudder pedals during all phases of flight, so the turn and ball indicator is an instrument to glance at during the take off roll. You're trying to keep the ball in the center. If it is not, you're going to use the rudder pedals to step on the ball. If it moves to the right, use the right redder to compensate left rudder when the ball is to the left of centre. Simple. Don't stare at it, but be mindful before I demonstrate this. Keep in mind that we're now monitoring one more instrument during the take off roll. So the tack ometer for RPM's to ensure the engine speed the pressure and temperature to ensure the engines running properly, the air speed to know when to rotate and when decline and the turn and ball indicator. Now to keep us coordinated during the take off, all the while looking out the window and staying on the center line and flying the plane. This, too, will become intrinsic or or natural. With practice. Let me demonstrate, starting with the whole short of the active ready for takeoff. Here's some things I want you to look for. Well, I'm demonstrating first after clearance, my hard left turn using the left rudder pedal to the floor tow line up with the runway. It's a sharp left turn second, applying full power and the ball moving without correction from the right rudder. Now this is important part to think about. I might even pause the video of this part, and you know, that's that's where the full power and seeing the ball actually move because it's going to already start to yaw without any correction from the right writer. Now Number three. Here, the application of the right rudder to keep the ball in the center and my plane aligned with the center line number four during Klima noticed the ball still in the middle. I'm still applying some right rudder as the engine is still at high torque. Okay, now it's your turn to do the same thing I just tried. Reset your flight back to the whole short and do it again. The beauty of flight simulation is that you can reset it and do it again and again until you get it. This is a lot faster, learning that only doing it once, where every flight lesson in real airplanes. 5. Module1 Lesson 3: Return to a New Airport: Lesson three, return to a new airport. Congratulations and welcome to a new airport button. Ville Airport is where we're going to be basing this whole course because of its proximity to the north and the smaller strips and other places that we're going to fly to. So let me introduce you to Button Ville Airport, our new home for this course, the call Sinus. See why KZ if you're ever doing a flight plan and, uh, in this course, you can see where it's located. But Bill Airport on our map is located north of our Toronto City Centre Airport, their city Centre report and straight north. That's pretty much straight North is Button Ville Airport is actually follows along a major highway. This is called the Don Valley Parkway four or four, and there is a ton of traffic on there, and so it's easy to follow even visually without drawing a line. So what we're going to do is we're going to approach Button Ville for the first time from the Claremont practice area where we've been hanging out and earlier. We flew to the practice area from Toronto led report like in the beginning course, but now we're going to head to, but really report. So let's just give you an idea how this works. We're gonna go through more details about it, but you can see from the practice area. It's west and slightly south. You notice rate above this a row. You'll see that there is a small airport called Markham Airport. We're going to be flying by that on the way through. And there's a new Aidas frequency, as you can see here. 1271 And there's a new tower frequency 12 for you. And there's also new ground, Of course. So you know, you These are things that you'll have to keep nearby so that when you need these frequencies, you have them handy, and you're not flipping around looking for them. Now what typically fly toward the airport within that 10 mile zone, we're gonna typically fly at 2000 feet and will descend to 16 50 which is the new circuit height, all right, which is 1000 feet above its elevation of 6 50 So when we get closer, we will drop to 6 50 as we do our final legs of the of the approach now, Once we land, we're gonna taxi Charlie Bravo toward the tower. We'll do the shutdown in the safe. But as you can see from this diagram, we're going to be going past Markham Tower South and over. We're going to go into more detail about this in a moment, but let's talk about Button Ville. The most common runway will be Runway 33. As you can see here in the visual Runway 33 you'll notice in the terminal map, we can see that we have a runway 33 the longest one, the most common one that's being used at Button Bill. Once we land, will Taxi Charlie Bravo, as you can see in the diagram here, and we'll find an area in the apron that we can shut down. All right, you can see as your as the approach shows us here. As we're landing, we can see over to the right, and here is, ah, closer view of it. Pick a spot on the tarmac. You won't see all those planes and simulator depends on the add ons that you have, but it's pretty sparse in the in the standard simulator scenery. I don't think any of those buildings air there, either. There's just the tower and we'll go take a look when I do my demonstration. Once we pick a spot on the tarmac put probably near the tower, we'll do our shutdown checklist and will save the flight Start from there. So let's go into more detail about this return from Claremont, and let's make sure we know how to do that properly. As with your return to airport procedures for Toronto City Centre, there are published procedures to follow for approach and landing about Annville Airport. This busy airport has call it points all around the airport, as you may be approaching from any side. Your flight supplement or sky vector has a map of the button ville area with call it points and radio frequencies. If you're coming from the north, you can easily follow Highway 404 south and call the tower. When approaching Preston Lake, the tower will ask you to report Victoria Square for further directions, and then they'll clear you to the right down wind. If you recall, this means that you joined the down one on the left side of the runway as you're approaching. But keep in mind that the whole circuit is done with right hand turns. All right, very simply put. So you're becoming right from would buying or rate from four or seven. You just simply move over to the left of the runway as you head down and and then make right turns to come in on 33. All right, that could be that can be confusing, but we'll we'll take a look on the map. You'll see that it's very simple when you look at this example here, the write down one right here base and then finally and you go away, you go. So we just remember right hand turns in the circuit coming from the east as we are from Claremont. We could use the three silos as a column, or we could use the Markham water tower. But that might not show up in our simulator, so we're going to use a distinct visual clue by simply passing Markham Airport. And why not make it interesting? Let's do a down wind pass at 1500 feet. It's not necessarily needed, but it's nice to see and then immediately will turn south left to follow the road, which is how a 48 market road. We'll follow that road south down to Highway 407 or seven while adjusting our altitude to arrive at 2000 feet. So that sounds a bit complex, but we should be able to handle that now after the beginner graduates and we can adjust our altitude and turn and we're going to be listening to eight. It's all the same time. It's getting complex. It's getting fun. So in this case, we would call up the tower at the intersection of 48 7 to report our altitude. Our position and our intention to land Button Village will clear you to a right base for 33 which you're already on, so we'll turn to the west to the right to follow the highway to the threshold of button will Runway 33 set up for a final approach. We'll talk about the exact procedures in my demonstration, but we'll give, and we give you some examples of what to expect as we go along. Keep in mind you could be cleared to any part of the circuit and any runway. Runway 33 is the most commonly used. Unless the wind dictates another runway, you should be prepared to join any circuit on any leg. That's the review from the big intercourse for these first few times, assumed 33 visualize your approach. 6. DEMO: Return to a New Airport: let me demonstrate. First we fly into the Claremont practice area or we load a saved flight. And a NPAs are simulation using the peaky. All right, Whatever direction you happen to be heading, make a medium turn left or right to send you straight west, which is 270 degrees Now. We're heading in the general area of the market airport. You'll have to adjust your heading to get to the airport, depending where you are in the simulator. We're gonna locate Markham Airport on our map and visualize air flight direction from Claire. Amount to Markham. You might see that it's not directly straight across. It might be a bit lower, so you might have to go to 60 maybe 2 50 to get to their But before you descend, find the airport first, see it in your sights. Once you see the airport, then descend. It's harder to see things once your lower. All right. If you still can't find the airport, go higher. Go up to 3000 feet, go up to 4000 feet. Where is that airport? You'll see. It eventually turned toward it, and then we can descend to 1500 feet before we reach the airport and we're going to do our low level pass were not landing here. We're just using it as a visual clue to turn. All right. Typically, you keep clear of other airports in real flying. Now with just our airplane to keep the Markham runway on your left in plain view. When you look out your left side, you might want to use your s key toe. Watch your plane past market report What your options. - As you passed the airport, make a steep turn left to follow Markham Road. You're going south to Highway seven while climbing back up to 2000 feet. This important intersection is where you will make your call button feel tower and request landing instructions. Now first, look in your flight supplement for Button Ville Airport and locate this call a point. That's highway seven and 48. Tune the button vill a tous before you get there and get the current airport conditions right down The identifying call sign you have Charlie. You have Fox trot before you arrive in your column as you near the call a point, get ready to turn west to follow Highway seven tune button Ville tower and make initial contact. Here's an example. But until tower, this is golf November Juliet at 2000 feet over highway seven and 48. Request landing instructions with information. Foxtrot. This tells them you have the eighties, but until tower will clear you to a right base, which you already on, swing out to the south and give you give yourself a longer final approach and set up for landing when you're close to the airport. If you wish, that runway will be 33 which is 330 degrees almost north. Perform a normal landing and exit on the first taxiway. Right. Stop after your hold. Short line and do your afterlife checklist. Get taxi clearance and taxi to the terminal near the control tower and park your plane. Do your shutdown checklist and save the simulator position. We will use this saved flight as the starting point for the rest of the course. Congratulations. You have arrived. And now you're ready for the intermediate 7. Module 2 Lesson 1: Precautionary Landings: the precautionary landing. The precautionary landing can be described as a voluntary landing at an alternate location when there is doubt as to the suitability of the landing surface. This can include, of course, an off airport landing such as a golf course, Ah farmer's field or a highway, or simply include another airport debts in use or not. In its simplest form, a precautionary landing involves two parts. A normal circuit flown to a low approach over the intended landing site just to visually inspect the potential landing area. But you're not actually landing on that one. The second circuit, a normal circuit ending in a safe landing. The pilot should consider a precautionary landing under such conditions that the continuation of the flight might be detrimental to the flights safety. Before initiating the descent, the pilot should consider the approach conditions, including the wind direction, any major obstructions such as power lines and buildings. Once the landing site is found suitable for approach, a descent toe in altitude where obstacles can be clearly observed, should be commenced. Entering from either the base leg or the up wind. The airplane is slowed to normal approach feed with the wing flaps set to the recommended position. We've been using 20 degrees. The terrain has to be carefully observed for obstructions while flying this low pass on the up one leg. Then an upward climb should be initiated and the wing flaps retracted at a safe altitude. After turning to the cross one leg, a normal traffic pattern should be flown. A lower traffic pattern is continued when the reason for the landing is low clouds. But this second approach will be a normal landing. On final approach of this normal landing, the wing flaps air fully extended. All radios and electrical equipment should be turned off and the cabin doors should be unlatched. Landing is made with a slightly low tail after touchdown. Brakes are applied as necessary while the ignition and the master switcher turned off. A precautionary landing should result in stopping near an airport terminal or a farmer's house, where there are people that can help hands on precautionary landing. So open your safe flight over the Claremont Practice area. Head west 270 degrees toward Markham Airport. You'll find that on your map, we will use Markham Airport as they're intended landing site much easier to use. I mean, we could certainly use a golf course. There's a few of them around in that area, but let's use an an actual runway for this. We will simulate that there is no radio contact, and we need to assess the condition of this simulated unused airstrip. We have bad weather moving in, and we need to get down soon. Approach the right side of the airstrip on the upwind side to the right of 27. Heady west at 2000 feet, turned to cross wind at the end of the runway and perform a normal circuit, turning down wind at 2000 feet, as if you intend to land on 09 Do your normal slowdown and turned to base while applying flaps and descending to final approach height 500 feet above the ground. Or, in this case, because of the elevation of this airport, it'll be 1300 feet on your altimeter as you turn for final stay to the right of the runway and keep your altitude. Same thing we would do when we do a missed approach or go around. We stay to the right of the runway. We're now performing are low level inspection of the site. You should see the runway out your left side. You may have to use your s key to use the spot. Plainview. As we can't poke her head over the door, proceed to the end of the runway to inspect the whole runway. Then retract flaps in increments while maintaining 1300 feet. Then climb cross wind to circuit height, fly a normal circuit and perform a landing on runway 09 And then please send me your submission, all right? 8. Module 2 Lesson 2: Emergency Landing: Lesson two forced approach. Well, this is when the engine quits. Ah, forced approaches an emergency landing somewhere near where your engine has quit. It is a reflex procedure that you practice until it becomes second nature in the event that you have a total or near total loss of engine power, and you need to land somewhere safely. Although engine failures are rare, they do happen, and every pilot needs to be prepared with. Automatic reflex is toe handle the situation calmly and with skill to bring the airplane to the ground safely without the use of the engine. This gliding technique has to be practiced a lot and revisited occasionally to ensure that you can confidently handle this undesirable condition. The general procedure to follow when your engine fails is first of all, control. The aircraft established a glide, select a landing site, plan the approach, make the appropriate calls and checks, will gliding to the selected site. Some of the calls and checks you can make during your descent should include your cause. Check the cause for the engine failure, and you're because check is to ensure that the engine didn't quit from something you can control. your made a call to ensure that they confined you afterwards. A mayday call makes people pay attention. It makes all pilots stay quiet. Well, someone is calling on May Day. All right, so we'll talk about that, and we'll practice that in a second. Your passenger briefing. You have to calm your passenger and prepare them for this type of landing. They will probably panic. And so you have to remain calm and assure them that you know what you're doing that's going to take some practice the minute your engine is failed, you should immediately apply carb heat if you have it. These air the older carb rater type airplanes. That's the ones that I trained on. Carpet was always a rule when you were below. I have to think about it. It was probably below 1500 rpm. Anytime your rpm's of the engine were lower. You always put on car Pete to ensure you didn't get icing at the higher rpm's. There's probably enough heat that we didn't have to do that. All right, so we're applying carb heat if necessary, and then we establish a glide configuration using our trim wheel. So in the Cessna 1 72 This is 65 knots. Now some people take their time to get to this configuration, but every time, but those you who are wasting your time getting to this configuration are losing valuable height. So we want to get to a glide configuration right away, because with engine failure, your airplanes, already starting to descend, established the glide and preserve as much of that height is possible so that you can have more time to do, Ah, to do all of the checks and to pick your landing site. All right, but certainly the farmer's field is your typical placed, and that's what we would use in the market area. Ah, lot of our cross country flights are over undeveloped land, so that's what we would look for. Something in the clearing. Now we plan our approach by picking. Keep position for base and final. All right, you got to pick your key position, and typically it's something easy to see. A landmark of some sort buildings always make good landmarks, but certainly the counters of the land they could include road intersections, bodies of water or buildings. All right now, head to your key positions while gliding and plan to arrive at your base position. Ah, 1000 feet above the ground. Look at the challenge here. This is fascinating. We practice this all the time, but we do everything but land the plane. We're pretty close to the ground. You're not going to land the plane for further, you know, just for practice. All right? So as you're heading to your base now you're gliding. Now you know your base point. You've picked your two points. Just do your cause. Check in your radio calls at this point. All right? You see how important this is? They are important points, but you've got to know where you're going while you're gliding. All right, that's what's important. Next flight to our final approach position are based. Position that body of water or that building plan to be 500 feet above the ground because we have no engine power to adjust. Our descent simply turned to final sooner if you're already low or turned to final later, if you are still too high. All right, apply flaps and we'll plan to touch down as soon as possible. In our selected site. Some pilot training courses will say the 1st 3rd of your landing site. Keep the nose wheel off the ground as long as possible. This is actually a a soft field landing technique. And then check all your switches and fuel before leaving the plane. Certainly make sure they're off. So So let's get an idea of this. Let's let's let's do this in action. All right? I'm going to give you a demonstration here. Uh, you would load your safe flight over the Claremont practice area. Climbed to around 3000 feet. Level off in cruise configuration. We're gonna pull the mixture. The red knob all the way back to kill the engine. All right. This is something you can do in a real plane. Never want to do this, but immediately establish a glide. The engines, debt. The propeller actually stops. It's sitting right there on your screen. You can see it is like I have no propeller going here. You should be able to fly hands off at 65 knots if you trim it. All right. Now, once it's trimmed now start looking around for a landing site. Now in simulator, there's a lot of bare flat land. There's no doubt about it. All right. Keep gliding while you make your made a cult. I want to give an example of what this made a call is going to sound like. All right, So here's here's a typical mayday call now. All right, So you would say Mayday, Mayday, Mayday. You would always start with 3 May days that gets everybody's attention, and it makes the frequency quiet so that you can keep talking. Mayday, Mayday, Mayday. This is Gulf November Juliet, Cessna 1 72 with an engine failure making an emergency landing in a farmer's field. We're three miles south of Oxbridge. There are no passengers. I will make contact once on the ground. Mayday! This is Gulf November, Julia. Now, this call should be made on 1 21.5 Emergency channel if you can. All right. If you are already on a tower frequency, just talk. Just talk to the tower. Ah, And if you're not on the tower frequency, maybe you're in the 1 22 8 practice zone. Wherever you are, as long as someone can hear you. Maybe flight service. All right, So now plan to glide to your base position. You've taken care of your mayday call while you were still up in the air while you still weren't panicking near the ground. And so now you can focus on safely landing the plane. What's nice about simulator is we can do a replay, go back as far as you want, and you re play go up to the replay menu and say replay. We weren't recording it, but the replay is there. And then we can go with the s key to the outside view and see the plane turning on base and see the plane turning on final and see it actually touching down this is actually pretty cool. You can't do that in real planes. Get out and watch how you did. You know, in an emergency, the point is to get down to the ground safely. 9. Module 3 Lesson 1: Diversion Preparation: diversions Preparation. A diversion is simply a change of plans to arrive in an alternate destination. The planning and execution of a diversion is done in the airplane while you're airborne. Therefore, it's essential that you learn how to quickly and accurately plan the diversion and then executed. This essential skill is needed when you have a sick passenger problems with your airplane. More deteriorating weather maybe has forced you to change your original plans at any one of these things. If there is AH line feature such as a road, a river Ah power line or a railroad leading to your new destination than use that simple enough, right? This is not the easiest and most recommended method to arrive accurately your destination. You will still need to compute time, distance to the destination and fuel. Now, in our simulator course, we may not calculate the fuel or will do. Ah, quick, easy calculation, but in and certainly in your flight test and certainly in practice, you need to know whether you have enough you on how much you have left. The alternate method involves drawing a free hand line with a pencil and determining the heading the distance the time and the fuel needed. This is the method we will practice in this module. First of all, the most common diversion is simply to return to your departure point. It is certainly easy enough to look at your heading indicator for your reciprocal heading. If you're going north now you go south. You know, you get the idea if you're going to 70 than to go the opposite. Whatever it says in the opposite society you occurred. If you had a wind drift correction, simply apply it on your reciprocal heading. Taken into account the new wind direction many times you are too far from your departure to consider this. So you must decide on an alternate landing site and make the necessary preparations to plot a new course to an alternate destination. We first determined the alternate. What is it going to be? Where is that? You need to put the plane down. I would prefer to land at an airport. It's the easiest, the simplest and no legal implications. Let's go to another airport. It should be an airport, but it could be a grass strip. It could be a flat field, you know. Depends if it's deteriorating, whether if it's someone who really is sick, can we get them to somebody? Can we phone ahead to somebody? I don't know. What can we do? Something like that. So you have to think about it in our hands on practice, we will divert toe a grass strip airport nearby, toe land and wait out the storm. Well, I'm very common here. The general procedures to follow. No matter how your diversion is done, find a road to follow in slow flight while you perform these in aircraft calculations. All right, So to prepare for the diversion, we're not actually going there yet. We're just gonna put the plane in slow flight and follow something that's easy to glance at . While we were doing our calculations. So typically it's a road. If there's a road nearby, railroad tracks turn ah lot while some roads due to. But but follow something easy to see in slow flight so that you can not be distracted by flying right now while you figure out where you're going to go. All right, so slow flight performing in crowd in aircraft calculations. So we'll trim our plane for slow flight and keep the road to our left. It's always easy to look out, are left window because it's the closest. Determine a new departure point for your new course. So you're gonna look over your whole map and say, I need to go there. I need to go to that airport. I need to go to that grass strip or wherever it is you're going to go, Not necessarily the direction you're headed right now. But you're following a road just to keep just to keep the plane level in this little flight right now. All right, so we're gonna find our departure point for a new course and circle it. Determined the alternate destination on RV NC map and circle it and then draw freehand pencil from your departure position to the destination. Now let's say you're departure position is a small airport we just finished seeing, but we're trying to get to Green Bank. Let's say, you know, for as an example, we might be a near Markham airport, but we're trying to get to Green Bank. All right, let's just say that's the example. So we would circle Markham Airport and we would circle Greenback. There's are two points now we'll just connect the two together. All right, so we're going to draw a line. Now, this is a free hand pencil line. You don't have all your instruments and you're not going to set up on office in the airplane. You're just going to simply take your pencil, which should be on your lap. Board something attached to your to your leg, and you're going to simply draw freehand as straight as possible from your departure position to your destination. Now we place our pencil over the line. We just drew, and we transform the direction to a compass rose Somewhere on your maps. There's a compass rose. There's one on every map, and so that's the hard part. Placing the pencil and trying to keep that same angle as you move over to the compass rose to get an idea. It's not purely accurate, but you'd be surprised how close you can get. So we put the pencil over the line, transformed the direction of the compass rose, read our magnetic heading and apply wind drift. If we have to, we're gonna estimate, you know, the stronger the wind, the more it'll push us off. That course and will have to steer more to into wind. So that's going to take practice. Everybody. That's not something is very easy to determine. Now will determine our distance using a notched pencil or on map scale. All right, a notched pencil is a very good tool to have in the airplane. All right, take a look at this diagram. I mean, here's what a notch pencil looks like. And I have two of these that I keep in the aircraft at all times. In case one you know, a pencils break. Pencils break, you know. So a notched pencil is notched for every 10 nautical miles. Typically, All right. So you can just place your pencil on your line and go, Yep, seven nautical miles. All right. Or just keep placing it and and add them all up. It's pretty cool. Now, using your ground speed from your current flight determined the time to the destination. If your normal cruise speed is 110 how long is it going to take you to go? Seven nautical miles, 10 nautical miles. And then you would normally estimate your fuel burn to destination. All right. So here in the simulator. The tanks always stay full. This is what we call easy mode. So we'll just leave that complexity to those of you who intend to move on to real flight lessons. All right, Neil. So you'll certainly need to estimate your fuel burn on every diversion and certainly on every flight. All right, So what's next? Well, let's fly The plan. We've done all the planning were still in slow flight. While we did all this planning while you were doing the planning, you didn't just focus on the map and get your head down in the map. You still looked out the window. You still glanced all the time to see if there's any other traffic. Make sure the road still on my left. I'm still in slow flight and then go back and do more calculations on your map. All right, You've got to keep that plan of always looking around. Glance down, do some things on your map. All right, while you're in slow flight. All right, so let's fly the plan now. So no matter which direction you were flying in slow flight while you calculated your diversion, now you can turn back and fly it or turn towards your destiny your departure point. So we're heading back to our new departure position in level flight, While adjusting are heading indicator to your compass. This needs to be accurate. The heading indicators everything right now, and we always check it against the compass. Wall wins in straight and level flight. Now we transition from slow flight to cruise speed before we get to our departure point. All right, we don't want to be speeding up once we're there, because it'll it'll mess up our calculations. So we just want to be in cruise configuration, ready to turn at our departure plane. Now we're going to turn at our departure 0.2 are computed, heading look Outside and confirmed that the departure angle looks similar to the map. I just don't take some practice. You look out and see that there's that road or that really tracker that building and see if it looks the same angle as what you're heading out for. Note the time over the departure point. This is important to determine your estimated time of arrival at your destination, and now that you set on the right course at cruise speed and you know your e t a radio, someone with your new destination in your E. T. A. As you can see, there's more to a diversion than simply deciding to go in a car. We simply follow the roads and follow the road signs, and, well, people still get lost in the air. We need to plan properly, or you could be aimlessly flying around without a destination in sight. Add to that the pressure of deteriorating weather and confusion can easily set in with proper planning. This can be an easy task on a flight test. The examiner's looking to see if you are laboring at it or or if it comes easily, there's nothing finer than arriving over your destination on time and on your intended track Justus you'd planned and a smile on your examiners face. 10. Interm M3 DiversionDemo: really? No. Ever a great American. 171 one mile. We'll wait. Really? No, ever. 47 1 mild mountain runway. Great one, Remember? 171 Yeah, while you will run late. 31 Okay . 171 Learn the runway. No, no member there in my urine, you know, runway in order to help Charlie , but I tried Blanket three miles west. 1 £800 land 0.1. You're number traffic. That my final runway one. Okay. 11. Module 3 Lesson 2: Return To Buttonville: returned to Button Ville. At this point, you could be at Green Bank or Baldwin wherever it is you diverted to all right, depending on the homework assignment. Or you were depending on what you decided to do. You may wish to wait until you are home to executed the diversion homework kind. So regardless of your president plane location, locate your airplane at Baldwin Airport and take off all right, that's what we're going to do. So go but into your settings and then go to Baldwin Airport and then start from there. Now, take off from Baldwin Airport. That has some great history. And there's there's, Ah, there's actually a parachute club there that I think it's probably called Toronto Parachute Club at Goldman Airports. You've always got to be looking out for parachuters and certainly talk to them on the ground about it. There's a lot of home built airplanes at Baldwin Airport, a whole lot of challengers, puddle jumpers and all those funds fund airplanes that are there, and and, ah, it's a great place to go. They have their their flying and Father's Day, and now and then, and so it's actually a really quaint grass strip airport, not fire north of button ville. So we're gonna go from Baldwin now, take off and head toward button that we're gonna come back to button feel from a different direction now, Um so So, from Baldwin, take off head west toward the southern tip of Lake Simcoe. Well, it's actually town called cheswick. Create on your map. All right, then follow south and follow. It's called Highway 404 straight into Button ville. Typically, though, we would move over to Woodbine Avenue. Alright. Woodbine Avenue is where the flights typically happen at 2000 feet. Stay to the right of Woodbine and outgoing traffic will stay to their right of Woodbine, just like on a highway. All right. And that way we're never clashing with each other, never to close. All right, just so you get an idea of how that's supposed to work. But highway for four, that's our gateway to the north. That's that main artery where where we saw an airplane have to land on at one time for a nice long runway. So we're gonna follow one of those roads down toward Button Ville. We're gonna tune button bills. Aidas, take a look at that on your checklist card and get the active runway in the conditions. Typically, it's 33. In most cases, that's the prevailing wind coming right at us on runway 33. All right, so in this case, ah, we're going to use that as our example 33 when we've determined that you are around Preston Lake now, typically, they would ask you where to call up Markham, Tower, Preston, Like whatever this that they say to do your call up. And that way you're close, right? So around Preston Lake, we're gonna call the Tower and report our height, our location and our intentions, as we normally do. Like we learned in the beginner course, our height, our location and our intentions and certainly who we are, right. Then follow a write down wind for 33 a write down wind for 33. That means right turns everybody. And I know some people are confused about that. Even still, after the beginning courses over what's a write down wind as opposed to a left down when it simply means right turns to land. Okay, you are actually on the left side of 33 all right, there is where the confusion. That's where the confusion gathers. All right, as your as you are approaching 33. All right, so you're coming down the left side of 33 turning to the right, turning to the right and landing on 33. All right, we'll see this in the diagram. So now you're on left base for 15 depending on the eighties call. All right, so so one of the other. Now check your CFS for the Trona button film Uni ah, via fire terminal procedures chart. Now it's That's a mouthful. But any one of you who sends me an email and says I'd like to have one of these books, I'll mail it out to you. All right. I typically give them to people who have graduated the begin. Of course, if you finished it 100% and you're asking for this intermediate course, I'll send you a CFS. Now it's I have a bunch of them that I use in simulator classrooms. Now, the CFS is what real pilots will use for every airport in your country. I'm serious now. Ours is the Canadian flight supplement for all the Canadian airports and so in there would be a page or two or three on Toronto Button Ville on every airport and tells you all the details. All right. Now you can do the same thing by going to Sky Vector. All right, as an example. Here, here's your button Ville sky vector. If you take a look at the details that are there, including the runway sizes, the radio frequencies, what facilities air. There's a lot of stuff here, all right, so we don't need a CFS. Really. We don't need the paper anymore. Use something like Sky Vector, and I've got their permission to talk about them during our classes because we do use them in the field very handy. So they'll be what's called the via Fire Terminal procedures chart. In other words, I think you know, I think I've included one of these in the supplemental materials, but the point is that we know how to approach each airport. The busier airports have actual procedures. If you'll remember on Toronto Island Airport in the beginner course, we had to go out to Bluff Er's Park, the islands near you know they're still on the lake, 10 miles out before we turned inland, we had to stay out just over the water. We could still in an emergency. We could still land on the land. But we had Teoh. We had to actually follow the coastline. That was the rule, followed the coastline and then turn inland. So those were the VFR procedures. Now, going into Toronto Island, we had to follow highway to over the land. So we've kept the traffic going, you know, separated by 2000 feet and and completely different areas. You'll see this with Button Ville over Woodbine Avenue. Woodbine Avenue shows a few arrows going out on the right side of it. Few errors coming in on the left side of it, and then you actually see that that's the proper way to do your traffic, just like on a highway. Keep everything to the right and that way we're never worried about heading into Button Villa 2000 feet, and someone's coming out at 2000 feet directly at us. All right, this is how we keep the traffic separated. You're still always doing the lookout. You never know if somebody's not following those rules, and you have to keep a look out, all right. And sometimes, you know, the tower will even tell you to, you know. Ah, check traffic outbound on Woodbine. So we know someone is coming on. Woodbine, Probably over until left there Will see them at same height. You know what? They'll tell you where they are, and then you'll tell the tower that you've got the traffic. Meaning that I see it. Yeah, I see it. It's right there in front of me. 12. Module 4 Lesson 1: Short Fields: - short field takeoffs in Lesson one. Under most conditions, your departure airport and destination airport have adequate length for a normal takeoff and landing conditions. In real life, though, there may be snow drifts, puddles of water or other hazards limiting your runway length. I once encountered a tractor 3/4 of the way down the runway in pieces being serviced in flight simulator. Your hazards that limit your runway length are non existent, but you'll encounter some very small airstrips where you'll need to use your short field, take off and landing techniques. We will cover soft field landing and takeoffs in another chapter, but here, short field, take off. Let's compare a few of them as we go along, so we've heard the expression short field. A field refers to the airport and typically is used for the smaller ones, obviously less expensive to keep up or even to start up. So we need skilled to land a plane on a short runway, and this is what we're about to take a look at. I'd like to compare the difference between them the short runways. Let's start with Ah, Toronto City Centre. We I mean, we've been there before. Now this comparison we're going to do here now is to see whether this has any short runways . And if you take a look at this, you've noticed I've just pulled up and you could do the same sky vector information for See Whitey's Ed Orgeron, a city centre report. And if you look at these numbers, you can see that it shows each of the runways and it shows you the length of them. You can see down here the dimensions. Here we have a 4000 we have a 3000 and we have a 27 80 Right now, the 27 80. You can see that this is the 15 33. That's the same alignment as button ville, believe it or not 15 33. But you notice that it's 27 80 almost 3000 feet. That's still plenty for a Cessna. It takes approximately from the P. O. H. It takes approximately 600 feet to stop a Cessna 1 72 And, uh, certainly that's long enough. But when you take a look at the normal everyday airport runway, we'll use the longest one that we see here and thats 08 26 the normal one we've been flying out of on our big intercourse, and you notice that it's 4000 feet. Even Runway 24 here on 06 is 3000 feet. That's still plenty. All right. And you can see that. I mean, they're landing dash aids there. They're landing any prop playing there on the 4000 foot runways. So is that a short runway? The answer is probably no. All right, let's take a look at another one. Here's another one that will be revisiting, Uh uh, Trone old button ville. And in button Ville Airport. This is where this intermediate courses focused on for the whole course. Does it have a short runway? Well, we take a look at the runway data here, and we can see that are 15 33 is almost 4000 feet also. All right, which is what? You know, that was the same as the 26 0 wait, that we were on on a train island airport. But you notice that the 03 21 is 26 94. All right. 26 94. A little shorter. I've certainly landed on there, but even in a long float. When I was first learning to fly and first learning toe land on a long float, I actually had to brake really hard at the end of the runway. Not anything emergency. No screeching of the brakes. But you could see the end of the runway coming up so you could use that whole length. So could you call that a short runway? It's going to be depending on the plane, your landing with or taking off with. And and it's certainly in the skills of the pilot to a student pilot shouldn't be chancing that uses much runways. You need touchdown as soon as possible. Let's look at 1/3 1 here. We see Baldwin Airport as we started at the start of this module, and you can see that in this one we can see the runway length is listed at 24 60 by 100 feet. So the 100 feet I mean, that's how wide it is. So 24 60 Now we're getting down there, and this one is a field so you can go into longer grass to toe finally take off where you can go into longer grass to land, but certainly not desirable. This probably is considered a short runway. Let's try one more and then would compare them all together. You see in here a short runway and it's talking about spring Waterbury Airport. I really like this one. Although it is paved, you can take a look at the size of this 2100 2100 feet. So now we're getting down there. I mean, we're at the point where when you come into this runway now there is an offset rate over here. You see that offset? You know, zoom in a bit. You see that offset on the runway? That means you can't land on that first part of the runway. You could certainly aim for and float till the actual threshold. But we've got 2100 feet to come to a stop. And also when we're taking off, we've only got 2100 feet to get into the air, so I would consider this a short runway. So in comparison, if we were to look at the three that we were talking about for three of the ones we were talking about, you can see Button Ville has a hard surface, we would call it. The typical runway 38 97 is certainly fine for props, small planes and certainly Jets. Lots of jets come in and out of button ville float planes. Everything you can think of certainly not the airliners, but certainly the private jets and the airliners, private jets and the and all the promptings Baldwin Airport, the Little Grass strip, 24 60 its turf toe land on. So you have to think about that. Also, that little certainly won't be a smooth as asphalt, and it's only 24 60. We consider that a short field. Everybody certainly cause it's grass. You'll be slower to take off and slower to land. Um, and then finally, we see the shortest so far. Ah, spring water at 2100 feet. Now there are even shorter ones than this if you look in the north country, where all the Bush planes flying in and out, and some of the small lakes that they fly in and out of two and it's amazing what they can pull off there. So this is really what we wanted to do is compare the different types of runways so that you get an idea about what it means by a short runway and here will finish with this and then we'll get back to, Ah, the presentation part. But you can see here this pilot is coming in on a short field landing and you can see that a short field makes it a challenge to land and roll up before the runway ends. And in this case, it even looks a bit uphill, which is a good thing. And, baby, that's the prevailing wind coming through there all the time. This particular plane, if you notice he does have flaps down. And if you notice he does have Tundra tires and it's a tail dragger. All right. Now, Tundra tires simply are big, huge, inflated tires that can bounce around even on rocks so they can lend on some pretty rough terrain. That's for sure. Simply requires that you taxi to position as close to the runway threshold as possible, but still stay on the pavement so that you'll have the most amount of runway ahead of you. Then, while standing on the brakes now control period. If you don't have a rudder pedals or the toe breaks with your rudder pedals. Stand on the brakes, give it full power and bring the engine and propeller to full power and look at the gauges . All right, We're going to make sure the gauges air fine while we're standing there. All right, then we release the brakes, rolled down the runway and perform a normal takeoff. The two major differences between a normal takeoff and a short field take off is use of the whole runway and full power while holding the brakes. That's the only change. 13. Module 4 Lesson 2: Short Field Landings: lesson. Two short field landings. Short field landings are a bit more challenging than takeoffs from the air. That airstrip looks mighty small, and you have to ensure your plane is technically capable of landing there. In recent aviation news, a group of aviators were flying together. Some had ultralights, but two of them had Cessna at 1 80 twos, slightly bigger than your 1 72 as they neared their destination near the Canadian Rockies. The ultra lights could land on the small strip, but the Cessna's had to divert to an alternate. They didn't plan that properly ahead of time, and they certainly couldn't camp out together. At the destination, at least, the pilots could recognize the strip was too short and didn't even attempt it to perform a short field landing. The circuit is performed normally, but during the final approach you use full flaps, a lot of our landings and simulator. In a beginner course, we were using 20 degrees of flaps, and in most landings that I do in real airplanes. 20 degrees of flaps is the normal approach. Full flaps is is Ah ha is a lot slower and a lot steeper. All right, and you can fall short of the runway so full flaps will use when we have to come in high and get down fast. All right, So in this case here, we do have to get down to a specific point at the start of that runway. So we're going to use full flaps. And while we're aiming for the very edge of the runway, we want to land at a slow speed and at the very end, So we have enough runway for the role owed. We immediately apply brakes and come to a stop, possibly taxing back to the taxi. Wait while still on the runway. That's very common in smaller runways. Getting this exact speed without stalling or approaching too fast is the challenge. Flaring without floating is desirable. Get the wheels down fast and apply brakes. You can't apply brakes until you're touching down on a short field approach. Some power is required to more accurately controlled descent. Furthermore, with with with full flaps and lots of drag, the extra powers needed to keep from stalling leave the power on until the landing flair is completed. Retraction of flaps after touchdown is recommended. Vice some airplane manufacturers, but we'll keep them extended and concentrate on landing Alright, leaving flaps extended. It does Aidan breaking, but it also produces some left, taking the weight off the wheels. So then that we've looked at the fact that pilot capabilities versus the pilot workload and the landing is the most stressful part. What makes that stressful? And you can take a look in this list of things that could happen here. The questions of Pilot has to make on the way in. What if I come in too fast? What if I float too long? We've got a short runway, everybody. What if I run out of runway? Can I fly back out afterwards? Very important questions. So the p O. H states a short field checklist that we can use. We can look in the pilot operating handbook. For this. We need to simply get slow and full flaps. We need to touch down as soon as possible. And once our wheels air down full breaks in the p. O. H. The 1 72 normal landing role of 600 feet. So we need at least 600. Certainly more than that, because we're not going to be perfect and the wind conditions won't be perfect and our landing won't be perfect. So we have to think about that. So as we mentioned now, here's a formally you can use Fly your final approach with full flaps and 1.3 times the VSO . Now 1.3 times the VSO know if you remember, the VSO is our stall speed. We don't want to stall. We're going slow Everybody, we've got flaps down. We're approaching the runway. This is a volatile time. This is a time of high stress. We got to stay that airspeed above stall So what they recommend and certainly with full flaps and all the drag that goes with it, you go 1.3 times your stall speed with flaps. Now that's what the eso is. Flaps out Alright, stall without that's ah, memory aid that I used earlier to help you understand what the V speeds mean. So if our stall speed with flap sodas 47 knots 1.3 times 47 is 61 so 61 knots is pretty low , that's for sure. But we're not down around the nervous part around the 47 not so it's still within the white arc of your air speed indicator, and that will give you the slowest approach. And you'll notice that we're going to land on the runway rate when it starts. This is the grass on the left. This is the runway on the right. We're going to try and touch down as you get better. With with landings, you can touch down exactly where you want to. And typically we used the expression on the numbers. All right, we try and land rate at the start of the runway. Certainly not shorter than the runway and write on it. Now, in the event that that doesn't happen, you always have toe have a what if scenario and will typically do the go around. You learned this in the big intercourse, full throttle and simultaneously pitching up to climb at whatever best angle. Best rate. Alright, whichever one you prefer, depending on what's at the end of the runway. For sure, we tracked your flaps 10 degrees at a time to maintain the positive rate of climb. All right, but you got to make sure you have the positive rate of climb first here the Vieques is 60 knots V. Y. 76 assessment 1 72 And these were things to memorize if you'll remember from, and we'll just do a go around and we'll try it again, go round and we'll try it again. And in the simulator. Certainly we don't have as much stress because if something goes wrong, well, we'll just reset it, so we're very lucky. 14. Module 4 Lesson 3: Arriving at Uncontrolled Airports: Lesson three arriving at controlled and uncontrolled airports. In the beginning, of course, you learn to call the tower and join the circuit to land that was at a controlled airport. This means there's a live person looking at the tower at the traffic in the circuit and most likely has radar, too. Well, the small. Some of the smaller airports don't have radar, right? You talk inter actively with the tower, and they advise you how to approach and land. They also advise on taxi and takeoff. Clearance is to keep things safe. It's all about safety. Everybody, things. They're easier. It controlled airports because someone can see the whole picture and and they know where everyone is. You simply have to follow the advice and join the circuit. You still have to watch out for others and keep your distance from planes ahead in the circuit. But it's not very hard to do. You also learned that you could join the circuit on any leg on the advice of the tower. The diagram here illustrates this point. All entries air done, a circuit height so you can see all traffic around you. Even the mid cross win has done a circuit height to join the downward descending to circuit height. Well on cross wind is dangerous now, arriving at uncontrolled airports, Uncontrolled airports are similar, except we don't have the luxury of advice from a controller. We have to tune the Unicom frequency or mandatory frequency MF before the zone and just listen for other traffic talking. If your flight supplement doesn't state the Unicom or the MF frequency, then use 1 23.2 in Canadians Guys, 123.2 All right, but it should be in and again I would say you sky vector, just go and see. Ah, better than having a book or paper nearby and And just know what frequency it is before you go when we do flight plans later on in this intermediate course, when we do flight plans, you'll write down all the frequencies you need. So you're not flipping through books or looking through stuff to try and find the right frequency. We'll know before we get to this airport. What frequency to tune into now you notice I called it a unicom or mandatory frequency. This is compulsory as far out as you can tune it in. You want to hear how traffic's doing? Is there anybody at that airport? If there's lots of people there, you want to find out which way they're going, where they're landing, What's the active runway? All right, so you due to an illness as far out as you can and get a feel for what's going to happen there, right? We call it the Unicom or the mandatory frequency. Now there could be a person monitoring the radio, but they won't necessarily even be located at that airport. It's very common, though, to find the Unicom operator is the cook, the dishwasher and the waiter at the airport restaurant. This person may also be the taxi to town, so it should be nice to this person. This person would give you information about how many in the circuit if there's any and airport conditions such as the active runway in the wind conditions. This is very helpful when determining how to join the circuit and which runway to land on. You can imagine that if one plane is landing on Runway 19 and another decides that Runway 10 is best, you would have both planes rolling to a stop on a head on collision. If there isn't a Unicom or no one is answering, you have to decide which runways best still make your call on the frequency to announce your position and your intentions. When you approach an uncontrolled airport, fly over the field at 500 feet above the circuit. Height. For safety reasons, you're staying above potential planes in the circuit. Observe the field for a wind, sock or flags. Grass smoke. Determine the wind direction. If another plane is landing, that will be your active runway. If they're going that direction, you should go that direction, all right. If you want to land into wind, we would look and see what the wind conditions are. If there's no one else around and the flags going that way, we know which way the winds going. Let's land into it all right, as we always do. We can only join the circuit mid cross wind or on down wind if no conflict exists. I just want to repeat that because that's different than a controlled airport controlled airport. You conjoined anywhere you want or anywhere your operator tells you here we can only join the circuit mid cross wind or on down wind. If there's no conflict, both are at circuit height. Once we've determined the active runway announced when you are joining mid cross wind or downwind. If no conflict exists at circuit height, don't expect a reply from anyone. But if they're listing, they can stay out of your way. You don't have to make a base call, as in a controlled airport, but you do have to make a call when you're on final with the runway number for clarification. The last call you make is when you are over the hold short line clear of the active runway . All right, so you can see that there's three calls there. There's three calls of your intention before your mid cross wind or before your downward at circuit ICT. There's a call when you're on final, and then there's a call after you clear the active runway. All right, now, taxi and at your own discretion, as you may not even get taxi instructions. Small airports are easy to taxi around anyway. All right, I'll give you some examples of this. Ah, very spring water, which we're going to do in our in our demonstration and in a practice, very spring water. Very small. I think it's 2400 feet airstrip. We're gonna have to do a short field landing on that. We'll do our intention first will call the mandatory frequency, and we will join mid, You know, mid circuit height, Ah, at circuit height. And then we're going to make the call on final. You know, final for 1971 72. Golf murmured Juliet. And then we're going to call and we clear the active. I guess. What? We're way down at the end of the runway and the only taxiways back at the threshold. We have to turn around. I'm going to say on that Unicom frequency that I am taxing the runway. I'm going to say Taxi 192 the taxi way. All right. In summary, it's desirable to arrive at the airport on the upwind side, descend a circuit altitude because you actually get a view of the whole airport Onda whole circuit. Join the down one leg from mid cross wind a circuit height. If you arrive from the down one side, you have to arrive no less than 500 feet above circuit height, crossover and descend a circuit height, then come back over the field that circuit height. It sounds complicated, but it really isn't. The point is safety. As you're approaching the field, you're high. You descend a circuit height to join in with everybody else, and that's really you know, it's really the point of it all now departing it. We have a few rules there. Also, when you're in an uncontrolled airport, this is the fun flying part of a flying taking off from a controlled airport. Maybe a congested city may be a very busy airport, and flying out to some grass strip were flying out to some remote airport where they've got a great A great burger, a great lunch. It's what we call the $100 burger. Well, we used to call the $100 burger. I think it's the $250 burger. No, you know the cost of renting airplane departing, uncontrolled airports when leaving an uncontrolled airport. Communicate your intentions. We always do that right for everything. During run up on the ramp, monitor the unicom where the mandatory frequency so you can hear other aircraft before you get out to the runway. You conform a mental picture of their position in the zone and anticipate their position when you're ready to depart at Baldwin Airport and remember doing that. And remember hearing that there are actual parachute jumpers doing their jump right now, I don't want to be taking off or landing. When there are parachuters in the area. You don't know what height there at. You don't know where exactly they're landing. Most of them lend rate at the airport because that's where their base is. That's where their hanger is with all their all their gear. So I'm not going anywhere near that, and we shouldn't. Another example was to, um this is a very interesting one. Two aircraft home built aircraft without radios were in the circuit, so they weren't announcing anything. They had no radios. They call it Nordo. No radios. And so, um, I listen on the frequency, nothing's happening. I'm doing my run up, but I look out and I see a plane landing. I didn't even hear that person come in, all right. And right behind him with someone else in the circuit. Another ultra light. I didn't hear him in the circuit, either. So you got to do the visual. You never know because what's going on here anyway? And really make sure before things happen like that. So form your mental position of the of the zone and anticipate their position when you're ready to depart. So I've heard that three took off already, but only one state in the circuit. But he's on downward. I'm good. I can go to the active and take off from there. Keep in mind. Also announced, if you have to backtrack on any runway to get into position but ensure no one is landing at the time, it takes time to backtrack. You're taxing back towards where you just landed on the runway. Right? Has to happen on a lot of these smaller strips. When you depart, climbs straight out at runway height until circuit height. This is different also. All right, Typically, when we're 500 feet above, we turned to our cross wind. Remember, on a normal circuit here, we're going to continue straight out the runway heading until circuit height. Don't turn before circuit height unless you're practicing takeoffs and landings. Something, of course you're not going to go. That far out and then try and turn around and get back into the circuit. All right, but your typical departure is you stay on that same heading until you're at circuit to us circuit heightened when you go. So if you're staying in the circuit, do your turn 500 feet above airport to continue the circuit like normal. And that ensures that all departures are clear of the circuit area. All right, you've had lots of practice leaving and returning to a controlled airport. Let's practice departing and arriving in an uncontrolled. 15. Module 4 Lesson 4: Crosswind Takeoff and Landing: cross wind landings and takeoffs. Now we're getting realistic all through your beginner course, we had no wind in any direction to contend with that. Let us focus on the skill of learning to fly. Realistically, there's always a wind component except on those hot, lazy summer days when there's no wind at all. Now airport runways, air constructed with a few factors in mind and normal or prevailing winds is one of those factors. Toronto Island Airport's longest runway is 26 08 and that is the one that Dash Eight twin props will use, and they'll use it quite regularly. The prevailing winds at Toronto Island Airport is from the west along the coastline, right in line with Runway 26 takeoff at Button Ville. The most common runway when the winds are normal, is runway 33 right into wind. If the wind changes, as it does even throughout the day, the active runway will change, too. If there's another one to consider, we will always pick the runway that most closely aligns into wind. There are two reasons for this more lift as we accelerate down the runway, which shortens the take off run more drag as we're landing with the wind in the front and full flaps and nose high, better engine cooling as we have air cooled engines in our Cessna 1 72 So the controller will tell us the active runway or the Aidas or other indicators that uncontrolled airports such as wind, socks, flags, smoke and even water surfaces. Now the wind will not always align perfectly with the runway, so we need to compensate somehow so we don't drift off the runway and landing. We do this with cross wind correction, using two methods side slipping with one wing low, like in this picture or crabbing, where you ya toward the wind? Let's talk about side slipping first, as you can see in this diagram a level approach to the runway. We'll have the wind push us or drift past the center line and even past the runway if left unchecked. As you drift to the runway centerline, use ailerons to dip a wing towards the wind, then use rudder to keep you aligned with the center line. You may have seen this approach on YouTube videos. They look dramatic and even scary on bigger airliners, but it needed skill to get you down on the runway and aligned. Keep in mind that you cannot always keep this configuration as you near the runway surface . Your wing loh could end up striking the runway, so let's talk about the second method. Crabbing. Yes, it's called crabbing because you're turning the nose of the airplane toward the wind. Source. You are young, the plane to face the wind, yet using the rudder to keep your flight path aligned with the runway. You cannot land like this without wrecking the landing gear because you were essentially doing a sideways landing of some degree and the wheels or not, you have to turn straight just before the wheels touched down, turning straight too early and you will drift, turning straight to late earth and the wheels will feel it. Let me demonstrate both methods for this demonstration. I will goto weather settings and add wind at any angle to the runway. If I'm taking off from 33 at Button Ville and could put the wind at any degree off that compass setting, let's say to 10 on the right. You can experiment with different degrees in different strains of wind, but no reported 171 They had one. Great. A mile. $5. 700 temperature. One Niner. Sample visual runway planning and departing runway here. Grab directed by all aircraft. Back. Hold short Control on initial contact. You have Fox trot. 16. Module 5 Lesson 1: Navigation: Lesson one. Introduction to flight planning. Plan the fly, then fly The plan traveling on our roads by car can be accomplished without much thought. We could head in the right direction, follow the road signs, ask people for directions and fumble our way to our destination in an airplane. Things are a lot different. We can't just stop mid air and ask directions. We could possibly ask air traffic controllers for directions along the way, but you can be sure they won't have the charts. The rulers, The compass is waiting on a table for your questions. We can't just head south in hopes of landing in Orlando. Eventually, we need to plan the trip, taking into account the distance, the weather, the fuel needed and the time to get there. We need to plan intermediate stops along the way to refuel, to use the washrooms and to stretch her legs. We also want to know precisely where we are at all times and predict a precision approach to our destination airport. Finally, we also need to plan the altitudes for the various legs of our flight, depending on our direction and keep the terrain below. Keep in mind that the use of GPS has revolutionized the aviation community with the accuracy and dependability of these electronic devices. Theoretically, we could take off and simply follow our GPS toward destination. All pilots need to know how to plan a flight, file a flight plan with the authorities before every flight, and then fly the flight plan without a GPS. We simply use GPS to double check our position and confirm our suspicions for this exercise . Please do not use GPS yet. Now flying can be broke down. The navigation part can be broke down into two main areas. Piloted and dead reckoning. Let's start with piloted. This first method of navigation is the most relaxed. This is the seat of your pants flying that many people want to do. Piloted just simply the ability to see landmarks fly to them and then pick the next landmark and fly to that piloted can be used near home airports, where you can easily recognize scenery and has little or no flight planning involved ahead of time. It can get tiresome, though, as you will be zigzagging throughout your whole flight to each landmark along the way. Let's talk about dead reckoning this method of navigation is a direct road or route, a direct route without regard to scenery or landmarks. Dead reckoning is a planned magnetic heading from departure to destination without regards to visual clues below. We commonly use a combination of dead reckoning with piloted when we're flying visual flight rules. This means that we planned magnetic headings will check the scenery outside to confirm our position, and we will see the landmarks on both sides without deviating our course heading. Now we're flying using visual flight rules or via fire, so we use reference to the ground at all times. But we can use some instruments toe. Help us get there. Let's start with the compass now. Although the heading indicator is the most useful in a plane to show us the any direction in the circuit and a steady reading on our heading, the compass is the Onley magnetic instrument that truly indicates our magnetic direction. Keep in mind in ground school, you would learn the difference between true direction and magnetic direction by applying a magnetic correction which varies greatly in your flying travels, depending on where you are, toe accurately plot Your course is so you're gonna apply this magnetic variation, it's called the drawback of using the compass for accurate flying is that it moves around a lot with the movements of the plane and its only really accurate when it's on the ground or in straight and level flight. So we rely on the heading indicator, which is a lot more stable. The heading indicator is a vacuum driven instrument. It relies on the suction or the vacuum created by your engine. You check your vacuum gauge during run up and down wind checks. Without suction, the heading indicator wouldn't work. In fact, the heading indicator has no magnetic sensors at all. So we must set the heading indicator against our magnetic compass at engine start up and occasionally during level flight, it is said automatically inflate simulator. Unless, unless you go to the aircraft menu, the realism menu and set a harder realism to allow for general drift. It's a gyro instrument here. We can see where to do this on our checklist card. The transponder. This is an important instrument that needs to have communication with the control towers so they can identify you on their radar screens. The code that you dial on the display will show up on their radar screen, and they will know it's you in the crowded skies. We will use a standard code most times, but a controller may ask you to put in a specific code and push the identity button to identify you. You will find your transponder at the bottom of the radio stack. You will be using this during your checklists and every flight and occasionally when controllers ask us to change it at all times. The code you should have on your display is 1200 1200 which indicates VFR flight. But there are two others you should know about. Besides the special ones that you may be asked to enter. Changing the code to 7700 tells the controllers you have an emergency on board. Regardless, if they hear anything on the radio or not, it's a silent way to indicate you are in trouble and could still work even if your radio isn't. Additionally, Code 7600 could be used to indicate that your radio isn't working. I once had to use both codes as that was 10 miles inbound to Button Ville and my battery had died. Obviously from not charging from my alternator, and I had no radio. I was wondering why it was so quiet. You can't enter control zone without contacting the tower as you know, and getting some clearance. So I had to dial 7600 for one minute and then 7700 to declare the emergency or the other way around. I had to use both those codes and they cleared the airspace and guided me in with lights. Needless to say, my landing was a forward slip without electric flaps and always well, yeah, it was a tense moment for a pilot, so the power knob on the transponder is adjusted before takeoff. There are three important settings stand by before takeoff, which doesn't transmit, but it's warm and ready, and and then we just flip it to on or Ault just before takeoff on transmit your code and all transmitter code, plus altitude information for all the controllers. So this is handy. So we will use all to all the time and 1200 most of the time, as you can see here a good memory aid while you were holding short and ready to take off is the three teas time talk and transponder. Meaning you write down your takeoff time. You talk to the controller to acknowledge your clearance and you turn your transponder from standby toe. Ault them, we can pull out onto the runway for takeoff. Now, the more modern transponders have smaller buttons but extra information for you. Like like flight time Transponder Zahra Radio instrument. So they are the most effective at 1000 feet or above and have a range of approximately 40 miles. With these new checklist items in this intermediate course, we are getting closer to flying riel lesson routines. Now you can see why we have checklists. We couldn't possibly remember to do everything every time. And many sloppy pilots have tried, which can be dangerous. Now, with our deeper understanding of these instruments and why we need them. Let's move on to cross country flight planning 17. Module 5 Lesson 2: Cross Country Flight Planning: The first step is to gather together the necessary tools for proper planning. At first, we're not going to take wind direction into account, as you would need the flight computer, a manual or electronic one to aid in calculations those of you serious and moving on to really flight lessons in riel airplanes. You'll certainly need to know how to use a flight computer and to compute wind direction into all of our directions. Now we will keep it simple. We're gonna keep it clear and and we can confidently planner flights as realistic as possible. Still, at the very least, will need a V NC map and any VT A's for destination airports if they exist. The V N. C. Is your VFR navigation chart. It's the most useful for your cross country trip, as it covers a very large area to draw your flight path. The V T. A's, which stand for via fire terminal area charts, are useful for air space limitations around Class B airports such as Pearson International , so we don't fly into the airspace of a 7 47 by accident. Next, you'll need a sharp pencil to draw your flight lines on the map. Ah, highlighter is handy for highlighting your flight path on the map. Many pilots are now using highlighter tape, which can be removed to clean up your map for the next flight. An aviation ruler is handy for measuring distances, but any ruler can be used for the nautical mile chart, and it can be transposed onto a piece of paper and then used instead, or, you know there's other ways you can do it. But, you know, here's an aviation ruler or plotter also has a protractor on it for measuring angles. This can be handy for marking your 10 degree drift lines. All right, so you know any type. There's many of them out there. But, you know, the whole idea is the protractor might be used for other angles to all right and handy for marking your 10 degree drift lines on your intended path is one way to do it. A simple protractor could do the same thing. Now open your map and flatten it so that you can draw on it. Look at your departure airport and find your set heading point. All right, This could be a lake, a water tower or other prominent landmark. Easy to find in the air near your departure airport. You can't just take off from the airport and go straight in the direction you want to. We have to use normal circuit procedures, etcetera. And then once we're up there, we can head towards our set heading point R A s H p. All right. The set heading point is near your departure Airport. It's It is Theo exact position where we will record the time and starter in flight calculations to determine our position along the route, we will be drawing ruler lines from the set heading point and to our departure. And then we want to be We want to be at cross country flight altitude by the set heading point. So if you've picked 3500 as your as your cross country altitude, you want to be a 35 100 when you turn at your set heading point, so make sure it's far enough away from the departure airport toe. Achieve that altitude and cruise configuration. You don't want to still be climbing, and you don't want to still be close to the airport and not get there in cruise configuration. so are set. Heading point for this exercise will be on the intersection of highway seven and 48. This is the town of Markham with a small lake and a tower nearby. This will be very easy to find. I chose this s h p because it is on our way to actual our destination airport for this first cross country flight. If we were heading north, we would use, say, Preston Lake. Alright, for example. Now, now we look towards our destination airport. For now, we will pick something close, such as Ashoka. We will do this in her hands on lab with precise instructions. But ASHA isn't that far away. So it's a good choice for our first practice planning and flying exercise. We're gonna fly there afterwards. Then we would draw pencil line from our set heading point to the destination airport right over actual. At the set heading point we Markoff 10 degree drift lines. These air the dotted lines that you see coming up from both both areas from your departure and your destination. Now we draw the drift lines using dash lines, by the way. All right, those aren't your flight path. Those air called drift lines were going to use those to determine how far away from our course we are when we look out the window and realize wind or some other factor has thrown us off course. Those air used more precisely in flight planning in riel airplanes, because you can start using the math to figure out how far off course you are. According to your 10 degree drift line. Let's say you're five degrees off course. You would pick a course that could be five degrees to head back to your course and then follow your course again So you can do all those things were not going to do all of that here. In this course, we're keeping it simple to start with, we're going to stay within those 10 degree drift lines and head towards Joshua. So finally, now we marked the halfway point between them where your drift lines intersect. We can draw a straight line, which ends up being the halfway point. We can also mark our trip in 10 nautical mile increments from the set heading point. Since our trip is 20 nautical miles. Joshua, the halfway mark is a 10 nautical mile marker. Anyway, our math is now prepared. Next, we need to transpose this plan onto a flight plan sheet. You'll be provided with some extra flight plan sheets to practice with. You will use a sheet for this class as you follow along. But you also need a new flight plan for the next class, where you will pick your destination close to home so it can't so it could be executed during a short period of time and do all the necessary planning when flying and then you'll fly the plan. So a zai started to mention you'll be using. Ah, modern pilots today will be using a modern version of this course will be using Sky Vector and with Sky Vector. You can pick your starting and your destination, or at least the first leg of your trip and, uh, and start the flight plan from there, and you can make a complete flight plan in Sky Vector and away you go from there, right? So we need to measure the direction for each leg of the flight and transpose that into the flight plan. So the first one's easy. We need to climb to depart and climb in the direction of the set heading point. Our first entry will be button ville and an up arrow indicating a climb. We also need to write in our climb speed, which is 72 knots. The intended altitude timeto altitude and distance covered on the ground. We need all of this information so we can plan how long it will take to complete our whole flight and the fuel needed to make it safely. Obviously, full tanks will take us Tasha easily, But we want to practice for longer flights, and later we'll measure the distance to our set heading point and write it down on her flight plan for a cruise altitude. We are restricted by the VT A Class B Pearson International Air Space. Look at the VT A. Now, for a set heading point, we need to travel at 2400 feet, which is 100 feet under the ceiling of 2500 that are set heading weaken climbs still higher because we're outside the Pearson Class B airspace. We're gonna be climbing to 3400 feet for half the trip. After this last ceiling restriction, we can fly as high as we want, but we also need to descend at our destination, which isn't far away for this flight will stay at 3500 feet after the ceiling restriction for the rest of the way toe Oshawa When planning a VFR flight, we use a general rule to keep airplane separated. If your flight path is zero degrees to 1 79 degrees magnetic, you choose an odd 1000 plus 500 feet cruising altitude starting at 3500 55,759,500 years. Getting pretty thin up here. You get the picture because we're traveling to the east towards actual will pick 3500 feet to be legal and for safety, a good practice, right? That's our next entry in her flight plan S H P toe Nashua Airport. Measure the distance from S H. P toe Ashu along your flight path. We add this to our flight plan. We need to enter the altitude, and the indicated airspeed will plan an indicated air speed of 100 and 20 knots. General cruise speed Now compute using the calculator on your computer the time it will take to travel from your set heading point toe Nashua, using the indicated air speed and the distance. That's the only calculation we really have to do now for the last entry in your flight plan . Allow four set down the circuit and landing of six minutes and do that And normally would have you know, you right in the fuel to do this. All right, plan all your fuel calculations with a generality of eight gallons per hour. All right, this started thing we would find out of RP, Oh, age our pilots operating handbook. All right. And that's what we use here for now, for fuel consumption. Take into account that we're not using winds in our computations that would affect your ground speed. It'll also affect your direction. And you have to make compensations for it. If we have a headwind component, it will also be a slower trip. A tailwind component will speed us up. We only care about the ground speed. That is the relationship of our aircraft speed to the ground so we can estimate our progress and our estimated time of arrival. One last important entry for each leg of our flight plan is the magnetic heading for aircraft. This is normally done by first determining the true heading, adding the winds aloft and then adding or subtracting the magnetic variation. Okay, we're going to do something simpler than that. But true north and magnetic north are not the same at Button Ville. Magnetic north is about 10.5 degrees more than true. So although you know a real flight instructor, if you take a serious lessons can show you how to determine this using the proper tools. The flight As a flight SIM student, we don't need this complexity for now. Simply use a sheet of paper to draw the compass rose. Place it over your flight plan position properly and read your heading. All right. If you fan fold a piece of paper, you can place one edge of your flight plan and then extend the folds to the nearest compass rose. You know there's there's ways we can do this, even walk the paper over. You know so right. This on the flight plan many ways to determine this. There's also a special protractor that we can use to put rate on the actual lines on your map and then read the compass part of it. So you know, there's a number of things that can be done. All right, so this method needs to be done for every part. Every leg of your journey that has a different direction are set heading. Point doesn't need this as you'll be in the circuit and then positioning yourself toward this set heading point. Once you're at the set heading point, though, there's our first magnetic direction. We should know the general direction to fly in order to get to our set heading point. All right, so now it's your turn. Do your do your less cross country flight planning. 18. Module 5 Lesson 3: Fly The Plan: now they have a flight plan in hand. We're ready to fly the plan. Once you embark on your journey, you will drift from the intended flight path. The secret to navigation is knowing where you should be at all times, recognizing when you're not and taking corrective action. The reason we go to so much trouble to planner flight so accurately is to be able to determine exactly where we should be at a certain time. For this reason, we use the phrase watch to map to ground during our whole flight. Keep in mind that you'll have to plan a cross country flight for the flight test in the last class. It'll actually be. Module eight will do a flight test. All right, you'll need to planet before class and then executed during the flight test. Well, hard to do that in a virtual class like we're having here. A lot of these courses. This course I've done in a lot of life classrooms and night schools. We've done this for years, since ah, actually, since flight simulator 2000 and two. Believe it or not, we were using that in the classrooms at one time. Then flight simulator or four and then place in later eggs. So we've done a lot of this in a classroom, with everybody all together flying in the same airspace. The most important item you'll record when in flight will be the time over your set heading point. From there, you add your computer time for the whole flight and determine your estimated time of arrival. Next, you can record your time at the halfway point and determine your riel ground speed and again it revised ET a or again your revised ET A. The purpose of the drift lines is to recognize landmarks along the way and the relationship of the plane to those landmarks, then determine which direction to fly for correction and get you back on track. There are a number of methods you can use that can get quite complicated with opening and closing angles, etcetera. We will use the simple method of finding the next landmark along your wrote and flying to it in order to get back on track. You can also use the method that if you are midway between the intended wrote and the drift line, you must be five degrees off course. You get simply factor in the five degrees to your current heading to get you back on track . In riel flight wind has a great bearing on flight. Drifting, that is, is never completely constant, as we have planned. Our plane may be facing north, but being flown a number of degrees off north, the direction your plane flies is the rial magnetic direction for all calculations. For example, my flight might take me 355 degrees north, forcing me to choose an even 1000 plus 500. Let's say 4500. A strong wind from the west could push my plane direction to the east, resulting in a flight path of five degrees. Even though I'm facing 3 55 that means I have to plan a different altitude for my flight. I would use odd thousands plus 500 readjust to 5500 to be legal and to be safe. Now you see why we will fly in calm winds. For now, the advanced class will cover win calculations and cross country flights. You've already been looking at your maps and recognizing landmarks as you Comptel flight simulator is missing a lot of really life landmarks like the whole town of Claremont. You over, You know, a Claremont itself. Just take a look at your map. When you look at Claremont, you can see the railroad track the road with that little kink in it. You know, you can tell in the intersection of Highway seven, you can tell where Clara Mound is on flight simulator, but you don't see the town at all as you're approaching in a real plane. Yeah, there's a town up ahead. There's no doubt about it, and then you'll see the telltale really track and all the rest of it. So you will rely on rivers, lakes, towers and any extras Microsoft has thrown in. To check your position, you can also add extra scenery. There's all kinds of scenery for Flight X that you can add. I'm not going to give you specific titles. I've used quite a number of them. Ah, terrain scenery that adds more. You can get very high rez scenery to that. You can add the flight simulators such as the one I use the Toronto Island Airport. I buy the extra high rest scenery package to give us a better looking airport when we're there. All right, so there's a number of those packages around, and I'll make a reference article of things that I use and things that you could use. All right, so they So now it's your turn. Slide. Congratulations. You made it your first plan to cross country and you actually arrived at your plant airport at the right time are pretty close to it. Practice makes perfect. The first time I arrived in Nashua, I couldn't figure out the taxiways, and I had to ask how to get to the terminal. Isn't it interesting that we can fly for great distances with such precision and then act like a fish out of water once we're back on the ground and 19. Module 6 Lesson 1: The VOR: Lesson one introduction to radio, navigation, radio, navigation and cross country flights is a comforting aid to the pilot. It can be used for complete flight direction while flying or as a guide to confirm your position on the map. Radio navigation is a must when in sparsely settled areas with little or no landmarks to confirm your position. Radio navigation is also used when bigger jets fly higher or any airplane flies above the clouds air in the dark, making ground visibility poor or non existent. In this lesson, we'll learn to use the view are for accurately checking our position. You can fly to each radio knave aid just as you did in piloted with landmarks. Or you can check with the radio Naveda as you pass near it to confirm your position. I'm using the expression Naveda, because you're going to see it written in other articles. The knave Aid in this case will be the viewer. We'll learn about more knave aids in the next module, but this is for the view are so you can use it just like you did with piloted. You can check with the radio view are knave aid as you pass near it to confirm your position, just like piloted two landmarks, you could get tired of zigzagging to each V o R along the way. Instead, we fly Dead Reckoning and use the knave aids when we need to The view. Our is the most useful of the radio knave AIDS. The full name for VUR is very high frequency Omni Range Station. You know there's a good dinner topic tonight. Let's talk about that. The very high frequency Omni Range Station or The View are. Let's see how many, much response you get on that They're located on the ground, and they emit a 360 degree narrow radio signal bands, one for each degree of the compass. Amazing pilots tune into the view our frequency on their navigation radio. You'll use never one or knave to or both, and then determine the magnetic heading to the view are in relation to their plane. They can fly the needle directly to a view are or simply take note of the view, are reading and determine where they are on the map. After you tuned the correct view, our frequency on the knave radio, you use the omni bearing indicator or the Obi I needle to visually see your information about the view are the obi. I has a needle on the face that indicates when you are heading toward or moving away from a select magnetic heading, and you can adjust that heading yourself. We can easily use the view are to navigate when we cannot see anything, or we find ourself in less than vfr conditions. When you are flying toward a viewer, set your obi I heading to the to reading and hold the heading. When you fly away from a viewer, we set the from reading, and we hold that heading. A viewer has a limited range, though just like music radio stations, it is still a radio station for flight simulator. This is about 100 miles, but in real life they vary with signal strength, depending on how many of yours in the same area, etcetera, they could be 40 miles to 100 miles. If there are others at close range, ensure you have the right frequency before flying to it. Keep in mind this simple rule to find out your position. When flying, two of you are fly to the needle. For example, if the needle is on your right as it is on the Obi I and the previous page. I mean, if you take a look at this, turn your airplane to the right until the needle swings past vertical and I'll demo this. It's actually very easy. Once you see it in action as it passes vertical, turn your plane to the heading on the obi I to ensure the needle stays vertical. If it swings to the left, turn to the left to intercept it, then take up the heading on the Obi I All right, So think of it as the radios coming past your airplane. You're going to turn to intercept their radio and then turn and follow the radio. All right, that's the idea behind it. All right? When flying from a viewer, the opposite is true, and it really can confuse a tired pilot. If the needles to the left you actually have to fly to the right to intercept it. It's always easier to use the two heading on a no. B I, even if you're flying away from it, the video are doesn't know which way you are heading, all right. It just knows where your plane is. In position to the view are 20. Module 6 Lesson 2: DME: Now we also have something called the DME or the distance measuring equipment. This is another handy feature on most of you Are is that they also have this distance measuring equipment built in. Once you have tuned the frequency of the view are you can see how far you are from it as you approach it and pass it. You can tell from the DME using the heading to the viewer and the distance from it. Handy feature weaken. Determine precisely where you are on your map. Now you can also use to view ours and hence to obi eyes on your plane. And you can determine your exact position using triangulation, even with 10 b I. You can tune to different feel wires and determine your position. Tune one and figure it out to in the second. Figure it out. Let me demonstrate that. So I'm going to get I'm going to demonstrate this exercise one flying with yours. Look at your map and locate this simple view are that's what we're going to be using south of Lake Simcoe. You see it? That's got the compass rose around it also something very easy. They're very common to put compass roses around of you are on your map at at least one on your map so that you can see you can figure out your directions. So first we'll start a button ville holding at 33 Friendly 33. Get clearance for takeoff with a straight up departure. All right, that's gonna be our request. Climate to 2400 feet. Level off. Still holding 3 30 degrees from takeoff. Make the radio strike the radio stack visible by clicking the icon on your panel for the radio. Right to see the example here, tune the simcoe, view our frequency on your nev radio using your most. Don't forget to push the stand by button to transfer that frequency over to the active side . Observe the distance to the viewer on the DME stack, the second from the bottom. It should read the distance to the tune vur turned the obi I dial to a heading that centers the needle on the Obi I. We just want to get the needle into the center of the actual display instrument departure . They're for takeoff. Runway 33 No, like now turn your airplane toe. That same credit will be I. You are now flying directly to the cynical view. Or if the needle is not center, adjust the obi I heading until it is much easier than flying to correct the needle fiber tango Victor. No clear one way 33 that I don't go. Wait, my God. Go What ? - All right, so you can watch your DME distance getting smaller as you approach the viewer. When you're DME read. Zero. Pause your plane and you spot view to look outside the plane. You should be able to see the video are on the ground. It should look something like a nuclear reactor silo. Take a print screen for later or used perhaps to get that. All right, It's quite Here's what a real what looks like this is This is a view are that's what it's supposed to look like. All right, now get back into the cockpit now. Keep in mind. It will never read completely. Zero. It's reading a slant distance. You guys, we're gonna talk more about this as we go along, but but it's probably reading one nautical mile, or or even or even to if you're that high. But 2400 feet. You're going to read one or just less than one. Now get back into the cockpit and get ready to do a steep turn to the right and fly the VR outbound reading of 1 83 for 16 nautical miles on your DME. That should put you directly over the town of Claire Amount. Do you see what we're doing? We're going up to Simcoe turning and heading down to clear amount. All right. Our practice area that we're used to so practice on your own with different approaches and departures from the view are especially practice turning toward the needle and then taking up the obi I heading. - So we're gonna connect button Ville to our destination through a series of connected flight path. So this is the new you know, this is the normal way of doing things instead of the previous exercise where we did one single line toe our airport, our destination. Now we're using more than one that could be a Siris of connected flight paths or one long flight line, if it still works. Include at least one view are to fly over with a changing course direction after passing all right. So the obviously in our case, the cynical view are get to it and fly out of it to get to your next destination. All right, draw your 10 degree drift lines for each leg of the journey That has a change in direction . And you may also want to divide the long leg in half so your drift lines don't extend to borrow. Mark your flight with 10 nautical mile marks, and you're halfway mark as normal. Observe your landmarks along the way. Encircle them. You circling right on your map. I want to look for that. I want to see that I'm looking for that. They should be in relatively the same position as you planned on your map. Check obstruction heights such as towers and buildings. Transpose this flight into a flight planning sheet. Make your flight plan do all necessary calculations, including fuel. You know, you should you should. All right. The fuel part is the part that we might skip in Simulator for some of you, right? The necessary frequencies and airport elevation. So now you've got to write down. And this is the no pad. Always keep on my lap on my one leg strapped with an elastic band. I mean, is that actually you can actually get leg no pads? All right, we'll talk about it later, but I write down necessary frequencies and airport elevations. Read on the flight planning sheets. So you know that you're never one. Is this frequency your neft who might be that frequency? The destination airports that for, you know, what's the what is the Aidas as we approach that airport. All right, You typically check your flight supplement book. And and as we see now, we're typically using online resources such a sky vector to do all of that. Fly the plan. Keep your flight plan map and watch nearby. Also, keep a pencil handy for jotting down times as you pass over landmarks. Your most important timings will be the time over your set heading point and then the time over. A landmark or view are about 10 to 15 minutes into the flight. Also, record time over your halfway mark to double check, record your e t A and see how close you came. See how well you navigated compared to your plan flight. And then from there we can save this recording or do fs recorder and send it to me, discuss any confusion or needed clarification. Replay your touchdown men recorded so that I can see it for confirmation. That's pretty cool. And you might wish to record the whole flight by starting a flight video recording before leaving. But, Bill So it's up to you, and you can do this rate in flight simulator to you can record the whole thing. Send me your FS recorded files. I might be. You know, I'd love to comment on the main see it in action. 21. Module 7 Lesson 1: The NDB: lesson one. The NDB, the non directional beacon, is similar to the view are and that you tune the NDB and then fly to it. It is less sophisticated than the viewer, but still very useful when visual references air sparse or you're flying above the clouds or in a fog, nd bees transmit a steady radio signal in all directions but doesn't give compass headings toward or away from their location. Instead, the automatic Direction finder or the ADF instrument reveals the tuned nd bees direction in relation to your aircraft. With a simple pointer, Follow the pointer and you'll find the NDB station plain and simple. The ADF does have a compass card on it, but it isn't really necessary. You can use it for figuring out how many degrees away a bearing away from your current heading. All right, so if the ADF needle is pointing to the right about 45 degrees, simply turn your plane and head in that direction. You'll see the ADF needle get closer to the 12 oclock position straight up. When the needle is facing up, you are heading toward the NDB Simple. If it were pointing behind you, you are flying away from the NDB, The needle will always point to the NDB and flying away from an NDP NDB with a needle behind you is perfectly normal when you want to fly a certain heading directly from an NDB . What school with a view are you can position your plane on an exact magnetic radio with nd bees. There are no radials and hence the name non directional beacon. Viewers are replacing nd bees all over the country, but there are still plenty of them to make them worthwhile to learn. We have two of them in our button Dillashaw area that we can use one in button ville at Button Villa report nearby and one rate directly over the actual airport. So in my demonstration will take off from Button Ville All tune previously tune the NDB. I mean should try to do your your tuning on the ground ready to go. I'll tune the NDB first. You'll see where it points. As we're waiting to take off a 33 I'll head up to circuit height and turned toward the needle. Wherever the needle is pointing, it'll be to the right somewhere. As I passed the NDB you'll notice the needle turn all the way around, pointing down. Now I'm going away from the NDB. Next I'll tune in the Nashua NDB and flight toe and will actually end up in National. So that's how it's very easy to use. And that's what we'll do now. I want to give you a couple of pointers here. One last point about the distance information. All right, so we use DME and a lot of airports like Joshua will use the distance measuring equipment to give you distance information. And you can use the NDP and D B to fly to it. All right, But be I just want you to be where if in doubt, tune another frequency and then come back because your pointer will always point even went out arrange it will always point to the last ndvi it was pointing to it won't go back to a reset her toe a zero, so it could still be pointing to an NDB that you're out of range of, So just simply change the frequency of the NDB and change it back. Even a few digits change back, see if the pointer moves it. All right, if it doesn't move your at a range. All right, Now, for distance measuring equipment, of course, as you learned in the last module will just use our knave Radio tuned the NDB using our ADF , right, So our knave radio would be used for the DME part and our ADF and NDB for our direction. It's a nice combination. So when you navigate with NDB, you can use them for reference along the way more fly directly to and from them on inbound and outbound courses. It's handy when the ADF needle is directly left or right. You can tell when you are passing the station even from a distance without flying directly to an NDB. Now, with two nd bs within range, you can determine your position by triangulation. That'd be a nice advanced thing to try for some of you who want to feel the challenge all right, cause you can tune in both between a show and button will see if you can pinpoint on the map exactly where you are. Even pause your flight this first time to do the calculations just so that you could get the hang of it before you move out of that area. 22. Module 7 Lesson 2: Final Flight Test: lesson to cross country flight with many airports, for this is a lot of work, you guys, this is that though this is the final part, this is what we've been working toward actually doing flights properly to other airports similar to the flight test. All right, certainly not as strict as a flight test. There's all kinds of tolerances on altitudes and directions that flight planning and fuel. And there's lots of things to learn, and that's part of what ground school is for. But here I want to give you a taste of what that's like. So we're going to do it similar to a private pilot flight test in which you have to fly to to other airports other than your own departure airport and landed each one typically for a restroom break or a snack, and then get your logbooks signed by an airport official. And that's typically what we'll do. All right in my life Classrooms. The instructor signs your logbook, all right, but here, in virtual, I'm not sure how we can do that. You guys can give me some suggestions, but certainly the practice of it is what we're after here. So our cross country flight will include one NDB approached Nashua on our way back to Button Ville. Right. So near the end of our journey, and we're going to simulate it as if we're going through unexpected fog. Now, we're not gonna fly through the fog. We're going to fly below it. You cannot fly through fog. All right, We're using visual flight rules. So let's figure out how to do this. I want to go through a few steps here just to make sure, you know, and then I'm going to I'm still going to leave you with a demonstration video of the whole thing. Now, that's a long video, All right. But the point is that you can see it as an example of what year? What you're expecting to do if you're struggling For those who really want the challenge, do this without looking at my video. And then when you're done, look at my video afterwards, right. And I think that way it would help you to figure out what areas were heard or confusing or , uh, how it should look. All right now. So here's let's just walk through some of the steps here. You guys and don't be overwhelmed. It's a lot of work, but it gets faster with time. And obviously, if you're using things like Sky Vector, it fills in a lot of things for you. Your ground speed, your winds aloft and all that stuff. So Sky Vector would make it easier. For you will connect button Ville to our destination airports through a series of connected flight paths. Not just one anymore. We're gonna do a series of connected them connected paths. We're gonna include at least one view are to fly over with a change in course direction after passing now. Well, we're also gonna include the Ashura NDP. I keep calling an NDP. I think that's because there's a political party in Canada called the NDP. Not sure why include the Ashura NDB upon your return from Peterborough Peterborough, you're gonna have to find that on the map. Your destinations are Button Ville, certainly for take off and you're gonna be going around the lake north toe. Halliburton. Stanhope, where's that? All right, you got to find that from Halliburton. Stanhope is the long flight. The long leg, which has to be there in a private pilot flight test the long leg to Peterborough Airport and then back to Button Ville with stops at every airport. So we're going to draw our 10 degree drift lines for each leg of the journey that has a change in direction. You may also want to divide the long leg in half. So your drift lines don't extend too far out. That leg will look like to diamonds for its entire length. Second step mark your flight with 10 nautical mile marks. And for each halfway park for every leg do you have there used a highlighter for the flight path. Observe landmarks along the way and circle them. This is good ahead of time While you're doing your flight planning. You just using a pencil, circle him as I'm flying along. I see a circled landmark. Oh, yeah, I gotta look for that. I look out the window. There it is, all right. And we can adjust as we go along. Some good landmarks for flight simulators certainly are towers. You can't rely on the buildings, but certainly towers air there. And, um, airports air there, you know? So things like that transposed this flight into a flight planning sheet. Use certainly you sky vector if you want. All right, I'm just using it because it's handy and they've given me permission to use that in the sessions. All right, The weather for the flight is a cloud ceiling of 4000 feet with occasional fog patches. All right, so I want you to dial that in, go into your weather section. We haven't even covered weather in flight simulator, but you'll find it on your menus to go into whether I typically use the advanced button and go in and specifically put clouds in at certain heights certain density. And I specifically put wins in when I want to do wins. You probably did this for your cross wind part. All right, Step eight, estimate the time at each landed airport included in your flight plan. So what this means is, if you're going to stop at Peterborough and go in for lunch, then you should add that hour or 45 minutes to your flight plan. That's how long you are away from button ville before you land. All right, that's what we do. Either that or you filed two different flight plans or three different flight plans, which becomes a pain. So we just have one flight plan. With all stopover times already written down, you could put it right in the notes of the flight plan. All right. One hour Peterborough for lunch. 15 minute break at Stanhope. You know that kind of thing. And include that in your e t A. All right? Right. The necessary frequencies and the airport elevations of each destination. Typically on your knee pad. No, but no book. All right, check your flight supplement or sky vector for the destination. Airport information such as the runways, the elevation of each airport, whether the right hander left hand circuits now, certainly in flight simulator, as you call the tower and tell them you're inbound. Then they're going to tell you whether it's a right or left down wind, etcetera. So that'll help. All right. But you should know that ahead of time. What to expect? Any tower frequencies, ground frequencies, Unicom frequencies. All right. That's really what we typically write those down. We don't usually fumble around in the cockpit of an airplane while we're flying, opening up books and looking for airport diagrams and all that mess. We typically are prepared ahead of time, and they're usually on her knee raid on her leg. The elastic need had that sits on your leg. And that way you can flip through stuff as you need them. Now, in my in my physical classrooms, you present your plan to the instructor for marking an approval, and then you fly the plan. That's the fun part. No, we keep our flight plan our map and our watch nearby. There we go. I am certainly your pencil for, you know, for jotting down times as you pass over your landmarks. Certainly in the flight simulator classroom. You could have it nearby in a nearby table if you wish. But certainly in an airplane, you don't have that luxury, right? The most important timings, as you know now will be over your set heading point, Andi. Certainly when you take off and set heading point and then the time over each landmark or over each of you are. This is important early in the flight that that halfway mark could be another good one to write. The really cool thing about this is recording your e t A. On your estimate. Your estimated time of arrival and see how close you got. All right, That's really what the idea is. How close did I get? And Ah, and that's the challenge. Here. See how well you navigated compared to your plan flight. And if you find a stopover caused a longer delay, uh, you decided to have lunch instead of just to stop over. Then we would call flight service, typically on her calm radio and give them a revised e t a for button ville. Don't forget that. They will send out. They'll send out a search and rescue team if you don't land at your destination. So here we go. Fly the plan. Step one. Keep your plan. Your map. Your watch nearby with a pencil and one extra pencil for backup, as we typically do. Started button Villa, Runway 33 ready for takeoff clearance. Call the tower requesting they open your flight plan. Well, we can't do that in flight simulator, and we will never open a flight plan while we're doing simulator. All right? That is not right. That really scrambles a lot of people. Costs a lot of money, Probably even against the law. All right, so we're just going to assume we did. All right, now ready for takeoff, Remember? Time transponder and talk. All right, so we write down the actual time on our watch from our watch before we taxi out onto the runway and take off. Now, I'll presume your flight plan takes you over. The cynical view are I think it's the only one we can use on our way. And after takeoff, establish our cruise altitude and position over a set heading point record the time over the set heading point and then the time overall, your plan Landmarks record your time down and time up for each landed airport. All right, that will help with your e t a. And it will help you determine how long and how close you were. Now you're your second airport. Peterborough is where you're going to be headed from Peterborough back to Button Ville and you'll notice that our shores along the way. All right, So when we depart Peterborough at 10 miles out the zone ring for Peterborough, we're gonna call Peterborough Tower and clear to the West. Well, in flight simulator, they tell you that you've cleared their zone and you can change frequency if you wish. All right, so we don't have to actually be proactive on that. At that point, I want you to pause and change the weather to give clouds overcast from 1000 to 8000 or somewhere up there, Right, Because we're gonna stay under it. You could add an extra element of heavy rain and really make your visibility brutal. Now we're getting close. It's a matter of fact that 1000 feet, if we flight 900 feet were actually 100 feet too low in typical via fire. We can't be less than 1000 feet over built up areas, overpopulation areas. But we can't be any lower than 500 feet. You notice, when we did, our are forced landings, emergency landings. We were doing them right down to almost the surface of the field. All right. And then we would just pull up a go around, but ah, so we're gonna change the fog to 1000 maybe be legal and change it to 1100 and then fly it . 1000? All right, so we're low at 1000 feet above the ground. That's circuit height. You can't see much of in the line of scenery, and you've got a crowded sky when you've got a lot of planes flying around under that flower under that fog. All right, so this is this would be tricky. I don't think I'd want to do this in real life. I have been in fog near Nashua. I mean, the fog of ceiling was just above me. It was somewhere around 3000 and I was somewhere around 2400 and I still had a hard time finding landmarks. The lower you are, the harder it is to see stuff. All right, so this would be tricky and probably a nervous thing in a real plane. But we're gonna do it for the fun of it and simulator. So remember, we can't flying clouds. We have to drop below them to see the ground visually. All right, so we'll dial the Nashua NDB frequency and follow the needle all the way in. Well, let's also tune or knave radio for the ash. Wa DME and the view are all right. And that will determine when we're close to the airport. Because I'd like this. Have you still flying? Bound to the airport and outbound for 10 miles and then take the bad weather away. But I'd like you to contact Ashley Airport to let them know what you're doing now. We would dow the frequency, but we can't really say anything. We're not coming into land were just transiting the airport. All right, so that's communication. Letting the tower know what you're doing. It's always a safe thing. You guys now fly the rest of the way into button ville while observing all appropriate procedures. Record your time down. Asked the tower to close your flight plan. Just say it out loud, right? Please close. You know, button Ville Tower, Please close my flight plan and they'll say closed. That's an important part of flying, but we can't really do that here. Sit back and enjoy your videos and discuss questions with each other. If you've had contact with each other in the course or certainly send emails to me, maybe I'll start a discussion for him. I don't know. This is fun stuff, and I'm actually sorry to see its finishing. But this is where this is what we've been working toward. This is it. And so, ah, you know, keep in mind you approached. All airports have to have radio contact the airport. Current conditions have to be learned at that time. Call the tower or the unicom at the proper times and find out the active runway, etcetera. You know, there's lots to do there. 23. Module 7 DEMO Phase 1: - Charlie November. Helping more? No, I'm trying like Mile not wet. Now the Land Point, Charlie. November Delta form traffic. Brother, don't try final runway. No. 24. Module 7 DEMO Phase 2: - you really remember early ? What about back? All right, that's all, brother. No, North right now. Amount of the land. What? - Charlie ? But back traffic that off. Brother tried like Charlie. My back. Traffic off Mike on final runway. The land. - But run, Mike where? 25. Module 7 DEMO Phase 3: - Okay , - Charlie Yankee back traffic brother tried like taking out Runway Niner. Departure? - No . One hour. No, Dr Lying. That guy got on. Well, really that no wonder drug Mike were clearing larger one hour Lawrimore glare. I know, right, Mike? 26. Final Homework Assignment: No, there is a homework assignment that has to be done. We need to plan a cross country flight from Toronto Island Airport to ST Catharines Airport , where we'll land. Then, after some advice from the local flying school instructors, you'll fly over Niagara Falls on a sight seeing tour. We'll do a number of passes. According to the CFS, there's there's rules, everybody on how you do this. There's a lot of airplanes in that area, and then we'll return to ST Catharines just for a flyover en route back to Toronto Island Airport. Now, certainly the homework assignments, paper based, we're gonna have to flight plan the whole thing. But you can certainly do it in Sky Vector again. I keep mentioning it, but it's just a faster, easier way to do it. And it shows you an example of how it should be done right, so you'll prepare your chart, your map and the flight plan. Only now you're gonna fly the whole flight plan when you're finished with all the preparations. But I want you to keep in mind two things when flying to Niagara Falls, where we're located. You can't just fly so often. Anger falls. That's what airliners would do. That's what I have. Fire planes would do. Certainly commercial airplanes, twin engine airplanes. We are a single piston. Sorry, we're single engine, piston driven airplane. We don't have life rafts. We don't even have life jackets. So we can't fly over water. Just so you realize that the point is, we have to be within gliding distance of land. All right, So for that reason, we can't just fly straight south over Lake Ontario. That's a mighty big lake and lots of water. We'd end up having to. If we had an engine failure over that, we would end up ditching it in the water. All right. Not a good thing and not usually successful. So what I'd like to suggest is for realistic application. Let's do a flight plan like I've done many times already from Toronto on airport, around the lake. All right, so you'll be heading underneath Pearson Airspace State, twenty, four hundred two years. Clear that area, and then we're going to be heading toward Hamilton. Take a look at that Skyway bridge. It's beautiful in high winds. They keep cars off that thing, cause it their moves and and go along through Stony Creek through Grimsby and heading towards ST Catharines. ST. Catharines Airport is your destination. You're going to land there now. I've landed there and talk to the instructor's very first time. I went to Niagara Falls. I landed at ST Catharines. I offered the instructors there at their flying school to come with me. I'll pay you to come with me to make sure I do this right. They said it's easy. We opened up the map. They showed me the whole racetrack pattern over the falls. At what altitude, etcetera. They gave me advice on the frequencies and how to talk to the radio. And I'll do that in my demonstration to All right, I'm gonna divide the video into legs. All right. You may not care about the takeoff. And underneath the Pearson sealing the Pearson International Airport ceiling, we got to stay underneath all those big jets as we follow the coastline as we head toward Hamilton will probably do a segment of that where you're looking out, seeing the Skyway Bridge as a landing in approaching land in ST Catharines. I'll do a separate video there. That way, you could just pick up which video do you want and I'll name them, All right. And then from ST Catharines, you're gonna take off and head towards an annual falls. You're going to approach this racetrack pattern properly with a radio call on the right frequency. And you're going to do this racetrack pattern while you look at the Falls. Now, the nice thing about simulator is we could go back to instant replay, goto outside view and just have a look around. All right? We can do that. That's beautiful. All right, so it's gonna be fun. It's gonna be a realistic destination that I've done from Toronto Island Airport. And it's great when you can take a friend or two or three and head toward the falls. The more friends you take with you, the cheaper the flight because we'll all chip in for gas. It's a good thing. All right, so we got the idea. This is gonna be fun. And and this is realistic stuff from there. You could fly anywhere you want to anywhere you want, because you know how to do it now. All right, this will be our second long cross country flight. All right, let me show you an example of Ah, of Ah, a page right out of the flight supplement that shows us the procedures for Niagara Falls. Now, you can see here in the procedures. You can see that we have this racetrack pattern here. All right. With that racetrack pattern, we have to fly in the exact altitude to make sure that other planes can see us in here. Us. All right. And that way we don't collide. We don't descend and bang into each other. This is a congested area. I want to mention to you that helicopters get to flying lower than us. All right. Airplanes fly higher, and we do this. Racetrack pattern helicopters can just go down rate in the that, the lower areas. But they certainly have some restrictions to, But I shouldn't see from this diagram. We have to get on the frequency before we get there. Enter this racetrack pattern without conflict. Follow it the way she says, and we'll go into the details on the point demo with with with carloads. And then when we exit, we have to make a call. Also, you do as many loops is you want while you're in there. It's really just a holding pattern, everybody. That's what they do with holding patterns. And so we're gonna hold in there watching the falls, letting our visitors and our plane look over also and see. And then, as we acts that we call the frequency and say, We're exiting the area and we'll head back to ST Catharines. We're going to do a flyover. We're just going to fly over, Thank them for their assistance and away we go. You know, that's what I've done. And then I followed the same flight path as I came in, so that might not be so hard to figure out right. And I'll go around through the Stony Creek's and the Grimsby is in the Hamiltons and through Burlington and then underneath the Pearson airspace while I call the Toronto Island Tower and request the land. They'll tell me to whatever the wind direction is. They'll tell me what the active runway is in Homs supposed to join the circuit, and it's easy. It gets easier. So good luck with this homework assignment. It's a lot of fun. I'm about to go in and and actually record it now, so I'll go in and do this flight and chop it into a few different videos for you so that you can visit it to see how it's supposed, how it's supposed to go. All right. Good luck, everybody. And this has been a pleasure and good luck with your flying endeavors, because this is it. 27. HomeworkDEMO Phase1: important for me, honey. Greater than 20 miles. Look, I one point no Iowa, You're landing in a party. Many around off brother tried quite a taxi. West Partners, hold short of runway beat. Contact our on 118.1. Ready? Yeah. A short runway open, Mike. Like that. Runway ready. Getting our west no problem. Wait for takeoff. Runway like in our my birth November 11 mile? No, you never know our training. What? Piper? No. 28. HomeworkDEMO Phase 2: early. No, member. Go one one. I don't know when Greater than 20 miles. Where I want your point. No Niner Niner. Now you won't run away. Landing in the party. Run away. Yes, Murder. Why Won't be back. But early. You know, member here, like I think. No. No one trying like the more miles when? 100 down the land. - No one. Wow. Well, right now. Out. - Charlie here. No, right. Like one way right now. All right, run away. - You're Charlie here in November. Traffic brother Dr Lang and a clear the runway. 29. LearnToFlyIntermediateFinalGreetings: Now it's for final grading. Some of you had trouble with that best recorder. I've got a suggestion from one of you on how we can do that with with Flight sim, ex steam addition. It doesn't seem to work well with Fs recorder. And this is probably why many of you aren't sending in submissions. So let me know what troubles you have. I'm gonna post what the solution is for that steam addition FS recorders. So you can record these things, but at the very least maybe takes screen snaps along the way, leaving button ville, zeroing in on an NDB or or flying to Stanhope. But certainly every time you're on your way into an airport, do a print screen, maybe, or while you're on the ground. All right, that would be a good thing to collect along the way. At this point, I'm going to say good luck. This is what we've been training for these air, The details that sometimes might seem boring might seem laborers certainly more work than just firing up a GPS and following it. But this is what real flight training is all about is learning to use the radio instruments that have been put in place and to use them properly and to always be safe and to enjoy your flight. Also, remember, when you take passengers with you, you don't do acrobatics. Straightened level is your friend. We want to make our customers comfortable. They get very nervous when you do steep Descents and sharp turns. All right, so although you can show off your skills to your friends, most of them won't like it. Just keep that in mind. 30. FlightSimulatorFirstLook: And here we are cold and dark. Now what I wanna do is just give you an idea here, your typical yoke controls for looking around. Here's my left, which is great. You always need a left and a right look. And then it has a couple of nice views in here. There's a look over the hood, which is really nice for landing. You get to see the hood over here, right here, and then come back to normal. Most people call this the normal view and step back some more so or sorry, go in more so you can see the panel and even more so you can see backup instruments. Now, apart from all of that, you can move around using the right click on the mouse and do more things. I want to look down and make sure my shields on both. I'm sure Mike, for takeoff. I might want to look at some switches. So let's get started. I'm gonna just get rolling here and let you see some scenery as I fly. It's not all about the scenery, but that's the wild part. That's the part that it's so realistic now that I've actually flown over and see my house that way, you can actually do that. Now when you get right down to ground level, it's all generated. It's AI artificial intelligence generated by the algorithms that they use on the data stored. It's being data stored in Azure servers. Now if that whole sentence doesn't mean anything, don't worry about it. But the point is that it's sitting in the cloud, tons and tons of satellite data. And it constructs things as you fly near them. Alright, so some things from the air are actually flat on the ground, but from the air they look 3D. As you get down closer, you realize they're flat. Other things are actually built up in 3D, so we'll see that as we go along. So let's put let's just go put some fuel in first. I'm gonna put to feel pop on over here, flip the fuel pump on. I'm going to just give it a better turn, some get some power going here so that we can see what's going on. Before I actually did the field public should do that because now I can see my fuel flow with my mixture. Anyway, we'll, we'll get into more of that later. I can go into more details on checklists, but I feel it's good now I'm ready to roll mixtures in. Eighth inch on the throttle. Beacons on. I'm going to come back to this view. I'm going to look left first. Nobody there that would either toss system test. Okay. Alright, prompt clear. Good. Beeping noise is, is alternators going on at low voltage. That should help you go. Henry avionics now will propose on that should give us our CO2. And looks good. And again, I say it looks good. You can go in like this and have a real good look at it. For those you haven't used a G1 1000. I've got a whole seminar on that, brief Essentials on that so you can get comfortable in it. And then a whole course, I've actually finished the whole course yet, where you go a lot more detailed into it. But the main things we're looking for here is we're just all be careful right now is what are the frequencies of our Coleman and her come to our main flying instruments? Here's our artificial horizon or decrease of bank. Here's our directional gyro. It's not actually a gyro, you guys anymore. But there is a backup for that. Of course there's a backup altimeter, a backup HI, and a backup air speed indicator, right. And you have to have those backups in case things happening in here, the inset one. Now I've, I've actually got a semiotic real one in front of me so I can push the buttons. But how would normally come down your push that button and just say inset is off. I don't mean that map because it's going to be over here. But we're not going to do a whole lesson on that. She went 1000, but it certainly is easy. And this is the built-in assessment, 172 that's in the new flight singular, and this one's the built-in. You actually have to have the premium or deluxe stucco get the conventional gauges, went, believe it or not. Usually you think could be the other way around, but All right, so from here, what do I need to do? Well, this is my air speed indicator, this is my altimeter. This is my barometric pressure and says my artificial horizon. What else do we need right now typically, I mean, what I'm going to do and in a lot of the courses that you guys have followed were just flying via far anyway where glancing and instruments and make sure things are fine. We're looking at air speeds for proper takeoffs, et cetera. So we'll come back out here now. I just want to step outside the plane for a second just to show you what's happening. In fact, I'm going to get rid of all of these labels. I don't really need all that mess and all those people that are flying. So I'm just gonna go to escape. I'm going to go to General and I'm going to go to traffic. And I'm just going to go into the traffic, show the name plates off for traffic, for aircraft traffic type. Let's put some AI offline. In other words, they'll throw some in there so you will see some traffic now and then AI airliners. So, alright, oh, general aviation, I've got it up. Full airliners actually, we shouldn't be seen those at all at this airport, so they'll still throw them in. And if this were live with people like you and I flying, yo see them all coming in and doing all kinds of stuff here. So that's crazy. Alright, so that's what we'll do. We'll save that escape out of here, escaped out of there, and we're good. You'll notice the skies are clear now there is some kind of traffic there, but it gets harder to see traffic now, doesn't it? Now that's an AI traffic. Alright? And then as you look around the airplane, you'll see there's one on the ground to all right. There's one taking off, so these are all AI generated now. And the runway 26 as a current runway. Now, what I'll do first is hit my scroll lock for my ATC. Tune in the weather first, let's see how that goes. Should come through on the radio. Seven trouble coming through on the radio. But anyway, we can see here which to A123, which is negligible. I'm visibility nine Scott condition, clear. Temperature 14, Good point. And altimeter to nine or nine or two. Now typically be looking at your playing when this was happening. They'll just come back here like this. To nine or nine or two is what we actually have. And the runway is 26202 and you change that appear with the parametric coder down. Alright, so we've got everything we need, all we need to do now, let's tune the traffic now in line 229. Looks like it's not yeah, it says not in US tower that is the normal tower frequency. They want us to tune traffic on 1229, which is like a mandatory frequency. So it's like there's nobody there. So I'll just announce taxi and head over. And you can see in here now, I have had it coming through on the radio and you just have a quick look here to change it over to column 22. Yeah, I'm trying to tune when 229 don't seem to like buy com reuse and others to try to announce tax, but let's see if that works. Tax into runway. Now they're actually saying runway here, so we'll do a shirt that must be the tax your way now. I'm just going to collapse that lets go. Take off my parking brake. Now it could have been pushed me back just for effect. It's a nice effect, but I'm just gonna leave that for now. And you guys runway towards your left, but tickers kinda blocked over there. So I'm just kind of go here. Now when you're taxing certainly with a single screen, you've got to look around, make sure you're not hitting editing, crashing, crashes are detected by default unless you turn them off. So I could crash into anything. That's realistic. Alright, so here we are. 26 is over and the last, hey, there's somebody taken off. And eight is over here on the right. Now you notice everybody's doing 26. So you know what, just so there's no confusion. Even though they said I'm supposed to go to eight. It's obvious that even a i traffic Sunni 2686. But that's the problem right now with the AI stuff. If there were I was on earlier today and there was a traffic controller telling us which runway to go on, but lots of people were ignoring. But again, you turn off all the live traffic of those who are just here to have fun. And you would turn it on for serious traffic or the rest of us, and then things get normal. There's someone taken off. Now I'm just I'm still not going onto the runway. I'm just kinda go over here, it down to the start of 26. And a lot of people will start raid at the runway. And I'm urging you not to do that in flight simulator. They start on the runway ready to roll. Fine on an airport where there isn't anybody, but if you've got anyone at all that's coming in joining you, there's just nothing realistic above the plane sitting on top of each other. Alright? Alright, so I'm using my 2-breaks looking for traffic. As you know, there's this guy over here that's getting ready to take off. There's 172 and then there was another one there, two there. And then again, you can also jump out. There's someone that just spawned in front of us. They weren't there before. And he said, yeah, you're too slow. He's kind of a taxi. Okay. And there's assessments TO sitting on the runway but made easily. So even though they're AI traffic and we can just ignore them and run them over whatever I still prefer to just delete and hopefully they'll move. Yep. And now you can see there is actually a couple of them there. They just ended up coming apart. And so what happens when you start there? Here's someone landing. Yeah. I think they might be learning on 240 and that's what we're gonna do. We're gonna land on 24, just so that you realize that the traffic and 26 was crazy. All right, so let's just do that and so you can see what that's all about. Select a runner, I'm going to select 24. I'm going to have my own traffic patterns so that I'm not in their way and I'm going to remain in the pattern. So that's sort of would say taxing to runaway 24, left touch and go. Yeah. That's what it is. All right. And so I'd better get moving once I've made that announcement. And I gotta jump back inside someone doing. So now 24, instead of following the circle all the way around here, where it is going to cut across to 2040. This is where we're going to be landing to. For those of you who have looked at this before on this airport, there's 24 right there. And you can confirm that by looking at your I'll just get out of the way for those of the lining on 26. And typically we would want to kinda position ourselves so we can see the runway numbers. Yeah, there's 24 up ahead of us and just stop there because it is a short runway. And I look at my heading indicator right here and we just have a closer look here. And you can see it is 24, so we're confirmed there too. And what I didn't do was the run-up and I should do that right now and try to keep the video from being like a half-hour video, you guys. So let's do that anyway, just so you can see that in action, hey, someone saw me on the runway and said, I think I'll just go around. Okay. So I'll just put the parking brake on. Let's do a run up real quick here. I'm surprised my other garment isn't on. It is here in front of me, but it isn't over there. That is strange. I don't know why. But anyway, that's fine. But just come down here. Look at our RPMs now. You can't see the RPMs and it's crazy. It's normally over here. And if this one is turned off, then it's over here. So I think for the sake of let's just try. This. Should come back to here, okay, So this way you can see it. Let's use this for an algorithm not sure why that's inoperative. So here you can see I'm up to 17, maybe 1800 for this test. You guys just bear with me. We'll just do a quick magneto test. Now I know in a simulator it's going to be fine. You can set failures, but typically they're fine. So I'm sitting at 1800. I'm now going to take the magneto. Some of you don't know how to do this or you haven't seen it. We're testing the engine under stress as what we're really doing. We're also checking that where everything's in the green, so we're looking at all pressures and the green, the fuel flow is normal, the vacuum is there when the vacuum for the old gauges. But what we're gonna do is use the start button here to go to the left or the right, and then back to both. Now you gotta go back to both both times. He don'ts. Now I happen to have my panel here in front of me. I'm going to go over to right. I'm looking at that RPMs and I see it drop to 1720. So I lost 80, right? Maybe even 90. Back to both. There's two spark plugs in every cylinder, so that's what we're testing. And now I'm gonna go to right, and just see it shouldn't be much different than about 50 rpms between them and a 150 total. So here we only ate dropping about 80 and then back to both. So we're good. We also take it back to idle, make sure it allowable without stalling. We typically put carb he'd on if it's an old corroborated engine so we can make sure that that works too. And here we see it's idling just fine. We also want to check the let me just go down here for a second. You guys, you typically wanna check also that your riches working. I have a vernier rich, so I can just turn it. As I turn it, it'll come out a little. And your RPMs that it mean for this to be a whole lesson, you guys, I'm sorry. Let's just do a quick one here. The RPMs as you turn it out will change. If you're looking up here, you guys he does. Hmm, it's 650, so it dropped. So I'm going to just take it back in a bit. It should jump up to 6060. Here we go. So that's the proper setting now for takeoff, I'll do full rich, but that was a good test. Sometimes you also test by just pulling it back till it drops off. Yes, drop enough. Okay. So we're good. Alright, we're good. You guys, thanks for hanging in there. Let's go fly, hey, a biplane doing some tricks. Nice. Alright, let's just jump over real quick. Let's go sign up while we're here. Whereas he, he's gone. Alright. Jump back in. Let's go, let's go fly. Were there alright, parking brakes off, transponder. And just want to put this on while I'm there, you guys gotta do it properly or also bugs me. Transponders on Sydney Tower, Gulf Labor, Juliet's on 24. Taken off. I'm going to leave it on a single a single display here so that you can see the RPMs. I don't know what's happening with the other one. Just so happens that when you record, all of a sudden, they're so we're on full pulling back a little bit of pressure to take it off the nose wheel, tried to align ourselves with rudder. We've got air speeds alive here it is, 34 here. And let me just show you that on this view, their speeds alive or good, somewhere around 55. I offer the nose at 60 or so it starts to lift off or good. Just like normal flying you guys. And and then you'll notice that we're probably going to settle in somewhere around 74. So I'll just take it back here. At this end, my trim probably in a div and check my trend, but let's just make sure we wanna settle in at 74. So 7576 maybe and already. Okay. It'll come back. Alright, and I'm off my target, so let's just come back to here. And while I'm doing this, let's have a look around them. Look. Let's look in print. There's Ontario Place ball over there. It's pretty good. We're going to see some more of that once we get up there. Over here. Water. Yeah. In fact, there's the island. Thank you. Back there. Okay. So let us do a quick look like this. Look back. We're leaving from CMI alignments, horrible because I'm talking and playing. But these are the kind of views you can do it. Let's just do our circuit while we're here. We're plenty high enough to do her left earn were too far out really for a glide. If we're an engine failure now we wouldn't make the airport, but that's fine. We'll give back somehow. Yep. So that flashing is The altimeter setting. I got it set for 1200. And that's where I want to pretty much be on my circuit. It's a 1250 circuit and here, I'll just take some of that off this come back here so I get a good idea of how this looks. And now let's just have a quick look out here. I mean, this is gorgeous stuff there isn't city will show you another one as we get closer, but just a gorgeous thing. And don't pay attention to much about the accuracy of my flying. If I'm trying to show things, then it's hard to concentrate on flight characteristics and pretty much doing a circuit. I am too high. And there's crank Adley pulled back some rpms here on the level flight. And we'll try and get this thing leveled up. So you can see that for a runway 24 circuit, I am too high right now and it's going to push down with it, trim it, and pull back a bit more. I don't want to be about maybe 2200 RPMs. All right, so while we're here, let's have a quick look here. And this is gorgeous stuff. There's tunnel islands. And I've actually sailed in these areas right here and anchored. Alright, but over here is our runway 24 here. Runway 26, the longer one. Yacht clubs here, here's the Royal Yacht Club here, CN Tower, sky dome, and the city skyscraper. This really is full of trees you guys at really as accurate. And as I'm doing that, I kinda went off course. But that's alright. Now over here on the left is what's called the Eastern gap. So right about there, it's coming into view. That's the eastern gap and for traffic reasons and noise reasons, that's where they want us to go through. So you don't do a normal, you don't do a normal rectangle through here. You actually go up to the gap like this is called the Eastern gap. There's a Western one over beside the airport. And this is where we're doing our turn. City Tower, this gulf November, Julia left base for 24 touch and go. And so I'm just saying that out loud right now you guys just for effect, but typically, let me just get up here where too far from the runway yet. I'm bringing it back to about 17. Bleed off. You can see you now get into the white area from my flaps. I'm gonna give it one flat. That'll take me down to about 80 knots. And a second flap will take me probably the 70. And I'll trim that out. Now because it's runway 24, you can't call rate over the city and then come back into land. So you gotta stay over the water, these all these skyscrapers and things. And you gotta kinda just slide in like this. Now I'm out of the way of traffic for 26. But keep in mind, I'll be crossing over runway 26. Here's my 500 foot range. Remember the elevation is 250 psalms actually taking off on 24 in my direction, runway six. That's what it looks like. This. So there's lots of activity going on. Someone's code up, a great big ones coming up on a, so there's still lots of traffic going on in this run, this airport. That's for sure. But anyway, while we're doing this and while I'm lining up there, here's the city look, really, it's gorgeous, unbelievable. So I'm not here just to show off the scenery, but certainly that's an important part. So what do we add here? Okay, let me just pull back some power. That's just trim that out a bit. I want to be somewhere around 70 on touchdown, maybe 68. So here we are. For now you can see someone's pulling out under 26. So I'm going to give it more flap. I'm gonna stay up. We've gotta be careful now and I'm going to be installed almost all range. I'm staying above that plane. But if I get too far down like that, here, I went over the plane good. And then now we'll come down. And that was a very rough landing, but that was because a plane was in my way. Now, let me just show you guys what we can do from here. I'm going to turn off let's just turn off two here. So I'm not in the way for anybody to show you what was in my way. Well, I guess he's kinda always tell there. So I mean, yeah. So it just gives you an idea. Now there's city scale. I know what know what you saw me do earlier. Let me just put my flaps up and clean up. Your flaps are up. Let me just take the altimeter. Sorry, the let's take the transponder back to standby. Back. And normally you'd not time down and all the rest. But let me just say this now there, now there's a mode here that's beautiful. You saw some of the camera modes here at left and right and all that normal stuff. You saw me step outside and look around the plane. And you also saw me use my mouse, my right-click on my mouse to do things like I commended for land. And let's watch that. Lots of speed camera. Now what you can do here's the next part you guys, I want you to see this is going to be the most awesome thing, not just the answer key. And now I'm using an Xbox controller to step outside the plane and go walking. Now, I can also, It's a drone really. I, so look, I can look up here. I mean, this is this is so it is can't do this at an airport. You don't I mean, you can't fly a drone live in airport without clearance from the tower. Of course. You can say something that my compared traffic, some see it, engineer it. So we're going to get the edge of the re-lend anyway. So the things that you can do here is now I want to move over here, maybe come down to his level. Let's follow this case. He takes off looks like a barren desert. So want to follow somebody who actually goes takes off in full. And also, just generally the killer's name was chasing withdrawn. Here's salmon. They're gonna come in at the public, gets 200 flyby attacking Mamma Mia, something you'd never see a trauma there? I almost fall on them. And then again, this oriented. Yeah. So this is, I hope this has given you an idea of scenery, of giving you an idea of what's gone. I mean, things that can be a pretty hairy and that's Fisher. There's that visited DA was that the diamond? Ta 40 W And then she goes back to the lecture. Following that, I'll be able to keep out the empathy. I mean, we didn't have this capability that's organized. I mean, talk about learning. I mean, if everybody's doing things right, you can learn a lot here. And there we are sitting down on the grass. And here goes this guy. He's leaving, he must have been doing some checks, some rather genetics. So just to give you an idea, you guys, I could sit here with the drone camera, but that's not really what I like doing. I like actually flying and that's really what we wanna do. The Toronto skyline, I know the city well, of course it's my hometown and I'll get this traffic going on here. The next thing I'll do in another video, I mean, there's gonna be a whole bunch more videos come out. First, I have to refresh a lot of the courses that I made because now I have more realistic scenery for the afar navigation and GPS. Angie went 1000 and there's lots of things that I still need to redo. But additionally, just, just the fact that there's water here. If we want to start using some of the water planes to and do some water landings, which going to be about back out into terminal in and area. Oops, oops, oops, oops, oops, oops, oops. Yet and he disappeared because this is wing touch the water. Anyway. Hope that's a good insight for you. Let me just press Insert and come back into the plane. And let's just tax it, the thing back over and park it closer down. If you want to see that part happened. A couple of bike lanes, look what's going on 24 over there on the right and another one's going on 26 on the left here. Nice. That's us. I'm sure that stop that's built him. So is this one and this is stock built into standard. This one I'm using the version I'm using right now is the Deluxe. I wanted to try everything and I will be trying everything as we go along. Let me just get over to a tax your way here alone. Yeah. This is something that you'd never have to do in normal life. Is that watch o for oncoming planes. Now you can certainly turn off AI traffic. And just as simulator typically is, with no traffic going on, in x plane, I've got global traffic in fs x. I've got some other kind of traffic tick to make traffic happen. Here. I'll just make sure that make sure I'm rich. Each parent meetings could hear taxi latent, landing lights off. Just to add a few checks here, you guys. And then maybe I can maybe they'll give me the option to tax tax here. Nobody's doing anything. Okay. To figure that out later too, this is still new to you guys. It's first-stage released, so I'm just playing. I'm gonna go back over to where I was part of left and right are good. The fast snore down. That was a taste anyway. Yeah, there is pushback, by the way. One of you did ask me that and just give me an idea right here. So let's say I can't go. Typically you can't because there's planes over on the left here. It's almost like a closed loop, right? So they won't push it with a propeller running, but certainly we can just, let me just do a quick checker. Magneto xs are good mixture there goes, I'll leave the battery on when a request to the push back here. So with the propeller off and this is something that you know, some people think you can do it well, it's own. Note when you gotta prop anyway, Shift P, any should. Look, he just looked around behind him. He says, oh, you want me? So let's just go outside the plane. Hey buddy, he can't fit in there. See this guy in actually pretty well being. And that's it. Easy to yeah, that fellow just landed and then turned off. You have to go for dinner or something. So that's pretty cool. I mean, we've seen that with add-ons to you guys in this default outside screen is really good when you're flying too, because it gives you all your vitals and a lot of people do fly like this. They fly from behind the plane with all of the vitals and trundling. Take us either engine. They can see the air speed, they can see the altitude. So you know, this is a lot of flakes, simmers will use this kind of screen. Now, I mentioned before, helps you better tell him to stop at some point. I think he can push one or two to go left or right. Now, have to look that up. Or maybe it's the cursor keys. Hold it. Hold it. No, that didn't work. Anyway. Better shift to P. Every go and away he goes. Thanks buddy. And then we can start up an early bill. By the way, they're kinda disappeared. It was because it was so close but he was still there. That's what they would do if they overlap lovers sort of ghost out. Hey, that's all I'm going to show you for the moment. I wanted to just give you an idea of what it's like. I need to learn a lot more about outside views. Inside views, I need to learn more about, you know, apart from the flying stuff, how to get around and look at this, the thing least I figured out some of these things. And they, these views I'm showing you are coming from my alpha yolk. They were just built-in mappings from my yoke. But what I did have to do was go into controls is annoying, is you'd think that would just take data off to don't have to keep hearing that, but just looking at the controls just real quickly here before we finish here, looking at the controls is an important part because each of your peripherals you've used before. It might not mapped them. For instance, over here, my alpha flight controls mapped everything beautifully. Alright, and that's what I'm using for even for the camera stuff too, right? And then you can see in here what it will do. But so that was a blessing because I didn't have to do anything. My trim wheel, it didn't really know what to do with it. My my full flight velocity term, we'll this is really just two buttons, but this is the one that it didn't have a clue and I had to set it up manually. Alright. And this one has this is the red bird alloy TH1 has a flap switch and it has a mixture and a throttle. It didn't know anything. So I couldn't fly at all when I first started. And I had to just go in here and it's not hard to do. I mean, you click on it to change it like this. You can clear it like this, cancel it. And what is this decreased flaps. Alright, so, oops, not clear. Clear current input. So now what we can do is just simply this is decrease flaps, so it's flaps up. I just push my Up button and away it goes on my flaps. So that's how easy it can be. You can make it, you can make it see what you have. And then say that. Say that. So once that was set up, I was fine. These two things had to pay attention to. The Xbox controller for the drone camera, I just plugged into USB and it just worked. And you press the insert key for that. So, so these things you have to learn. I mean, I learned a lot from beta and alpha testers who were playing around. And they, they taught a lot for all of us who tuned into that stuff. They taught us a lot back then. All right, that's it. You guys. Let's go let's finish off with a little bit of airport watching. There's 2426. Sure. Let's watch simply. And we'll finish off with It's almost like a fisheye camera. And by that looks at that senior and look at the scenery tilting as we move through them all lined up. This is nice to see. Now. With live traffic, it's nice to C2 with other people who are actually here. You don't think about it when you're in the older simulators, emulators, and don't know how many people are actually here. Pretty cool stuff. Alright. Thanks everybody. We'll see you again.