Learn to Animate! Complete guide to animation principles | Siobhan Twomey | Skillshare

Learn to Animate! Complete guide to animation principles

Siobhan Twomey, Artist, Illustrator, Instructor

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22 Lessons (2h 29m)
    • 1. Learn to Animate

    • 2. Software Options for Animation

    • 3. Introduction to Adobe Animate

    • 4. The Timeline

    • 5. Common Keyboard Shortcuts

    • 6. What is a Symbol

    • 7. Frames and Frame Rates

    • 8. Key Frames

    • 9. Breakdowns

    • 10. In-betweens

    • 11. Spacing for Ease Out and Ease In

    • 12. Timing and Spacing

    • 13. Squash and Stretch

    • 14. Anticipation, Overshoot and Settle

    • 15. Bouncing Ball 1

    • 16. Bouncing Ball 2

    • 17. Bouncing Ball 3

    • 18. Character Jump 1

    • 19. Character Jump 2

    • 20. Character Jump 3

    • 21. Character Jump 4

    • 22. Character Jump Fixes

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About This Class

This is a beginner's guide to animation. You will learn everything you need to know in order to be able to animate objects, text, and even characters.

If you want to learn how to animate from scratch, you can start right here with this course. I've made this course for complete beginners, so if you’ve never heard of a key frame or you don’t know what a timing chart is, then this course is for you.  I also think this course will be great for anyone who has a fair idea of animation, someone who is a beginner animator, and has been using software to make things move around, but who would like to really know the fundamentals and core principles in order to bring their animation to the next level.

These core principles of animation will set you up for life as an animator. You will learn step by step how to create realistic and appealing motion; plus you'll learn why specific animation techniques effectively bring objects to life. And importantly you'll learn when to apply them to your work.

I use Adobe Animate in this course to teach you how to animate. But there are free options that you can use to follow along; and I cover these options in the first part of the course. What you’ll be studying is basic frame by frame hand drawn animation. This is the best way to learn these principles. And don’t worry if you think that you can’t draw, we are working with basic shapes to animate - to literally bring those shapes to life.

What’s covered in this course

Whether you want to ultimately work in 3D, motion graphics or 2D animtion, you will need to know the things like

  • easing in and out of key frames

  • how to create an ease,

  • why you need to do that - and when you should apply it.

You’ll also learn skills that will not only make you an animator, but will make sure you are a really good animator - skills such as

  • timing and spacing

  • squash and stretch

  • working in arcs

  • working with timing charts

  • how to animate with anticipation, overshoot and settle


1. Learn to Animate: hi there, I'm sure born I'm an artist and an animal's professional on this course is part one in a series on learning how to animates. If you want to learn how to animate, then this course is the place to start because it teaches you the absolute basic foundations from scratch. The principles and the techniques that I cover here will literally set you up for life. As an animator, I've made this course four complete beginners. So if you've never heard off key frame where you don't know what a timing charges and this course is for you I also think that this course will be great for someone who has a fair idea off animation who has maybe being using software to move stuff around, but who would like really deeper understanding off the core principles and techniques. So what you'll be studying in this course is framed by train, hand drawn animation, because I believe that's the best way to learn these principles. And don't worry if you think that you can't draw because we're working with basic shapes and simply focusing on bringing those basic shapes or objects to life, the course starts out teaching how to animate with key frames and then takes you step by step right the way through to an amazing A character jumping. I'm structured each lesson so that it's neither confusing nor overwhelming. And because I keep the application of the principle is very simple. You really have a chance to get to grips with all of the ideas that I covered without having to worry about drawing or working with symbols or working with complex ribs as we build from one stage to the next. You can had layers of Polish t work on eventually progress to an amazing a fluid and dynamic character action. I really want to ensure that you feel confident animation, a complex character with moving parts. By the time we get to the final project, whether you want to work ultimately in duty or even three D animation, you'll need to know things like easing in key frames why you do the ease and when you would apply us. Plus, I also want to make sure that you know skills that will not just make you an animator, but will make you a good animator skills such as squash and stretch and timing and spacing without really knowing about timing and spacing. Your animation might look very flash and mechanical, and in addition to that, I'm also going to teach you classic animation principles such a squash and stretch aunt. How to give your character appeal. Once you're enrolled in this course, you've got access to all of the student downloads that I've left in the resource section. You also have access to me to ask me any questions that you want or to get feedback on your work, because I'm here to help you along the way and to monitor your progress. So I worked in animation since about 2005 or 2006. About 10 years ago, I designed and directed a series of three short films. One of them won best animation in a film festival and went on to be incorporated into an educational pack for primary schools across Ireland. After that, I went on to work in animation studios in Dublin. I also have worked in atomic cartoons in Vancouver, as well as doing an internship at Bardhyl in Vancouver. All in all, I've got over 15 years experience in the animation industry, and now I'm really focused on teaching animation and art skills in general. On my main aim and goal is to teach you the skills and the techniques that you need to get your own animation career up and running. So thanks for checking this. I wish. I hope you enroll. And if you do on afford to seeing you in the course. 2. Software Options for Animation: in this video. I'm just going to introduce you to Adobe Animate if you don't know the softer already, and I'm also going to discuss some alternatives. This course deals with animation principles, so that means that ultimately what I'll be teaching you will be applicable. Teoh Any software that you want to work in as well as any kind of animation that you end up producing, whether it's three d two d or even stop motion. I'm using Judy software because it's the simplest set up in order to explain on demonstrate these principles. And for me, Adobe animation is also one of the simplest software options out there. I suppose it's not simple for beginners, but I should say that it's really the most straightforward of tools. Once you've gotten familiar with all of its corks, I like it because you can use it in a really direct way. You just draw on the stage and you make key frames on your timeline. So that, to me, is very straightforward. Um, and that's why it's such an easy program to learn on if you are starting out. Also, animation is professional grade software. It's been used in the past to make numerous TV shows with huge production pipelines, although in recent years June boom harmony has become more of the industry standard, so animate costs about $19 a month. If you sign up for a year subscription or could run about $29 a month if you're just leasing it month to month, and I totally understand that that's not really an accessible option for everyone, especially if you're just starting out. That's quite a fair price to pay if you're only experimenting and seeing if animation really is for you. So if you're happy enough to work alongside me in this course with animate, then you could just skip ahead to the next lectures. But if you want to hear about some of the free options and right there, then keep watching. I made a list off five free animation programs that I think are really the best options to look into, and I'll go through them one by one, and then I'll show you the one which I think I would go for if I was picking a free auction . The 1st 1 is open tunes. It's a very popular option. It's open source takes a little bit of time to get used to it, but once you do get used to the workflow inside of us, it's great. There's also tons of new features being added to it all the time. Another one is Sin Fig. It's also open source. It's got a timeline that looks more like aftereffect and also has a great library of resource is on editorials to help you get started. Pencil to D is also open. Source. It support Specter on bit map images. Hanish has a similar timeline to animate, so it's a very easy to use and very intuitive program. Then there's animation paper, which actually is now called Plastic Animation. This is This is a program based on the old traditional way of animation with ex sheets down the side. And then lastly, there's Christa. So this is the one that I would go for if I was choosing which software to use for free. It's great because it's very similar to photo shop. In fact, it is primarily a drawing program, but you can set it up for animation along with a timeline. If you go up to this window here on, choose Thea animation layout. So then, for the next couple of videos, I'm going to explain Animate CC and how to work with that program specifically. And then we'll get into the rest of the course, which is looking after principles of animation on starting to analyze. 3. Introduction to Adobe Animate: when you first open up animals because this welcome screen and as you can see, there are many different options for creation documents up here, you've got different presets. For example, if you were making specific files for Social Media four games or for the Web, but for now, for our purposes, we're just going to stick with this tab, which says character animation And I just now noticed that the icon for where this is the fancy ball, which is interesting, since that's going to be one of our course projects. That's a good sign where often could start with that. So just make sure that your own full HD that's going to refine on the only other thing that I want you to change on on this page here is that the frame rate. Just make sure your frame rate says 24. Andi, you can leave this on acting script 3.0, right, So then just click create. And if you've never opened and make before, your interface might look something like this. This is just the deport layouts, and we're actually just going to arrange things to suit our needs. If it's not looking exactly like this. Maybe you've got it set on one of these other options. Just come up here and Jews essential. So you're starting off on the exact same pages? Me. So like every other adobe program, you can drag panels around and you can change things up exactly how you wanted and customize your space quite a bit. What I'm going to do is drag the tools over to the left. So when I see that blue highlights on the left there, I'm just going to release on that snaps into place over there. I'm going to drag it into the side so that there's just go to be two rows of tools. If I drive it all the way over to one row, one row of tools, you can see that you lose some of the options. So too, Rose is fine. And then these panels, I'm actually going to drag into my right hand menu like this, but they're a one underneath each other, and now that gives me a lot more room, a lot more screen space to work with. So the space over here is usually called the stage. You can think of it as the screen that your final movie is going to play as John. Or you could even think of it as the camera that is capturing the animation of capturing the action. Whichever of those is handiest. But just know that anything that's off to the left or outside of this white area is not going to be registered when you play. When you export your movie, you can definitely make use of this gray area to, you know, have things come start off screen and come into brain. So you could definitely animates things that are off this white space. But once you export your movie, you won't see anything that's over there. You only will see what's on your stage. All right, well, I'm going to just go up here and save this layer in case anything gets changed down the line on if something does get changed up when I can't find the panels of the tools that I'm looking for, I can always just go back up to this window and find my personalized workspace. All right, All right. Well, for me, I believe I think it's really important to have a very clear visual of the stage on your timeline as well. So the timeline is down here underneath the stage because for animation, this is where you want to create the keys or the brains that you're gonna be working with so you can zoom into the stage on day, work on things in detail. But what I'm going to do for all of the lessons in this course, is I will always just go up here on choose the option to set my stage to fit within this window. So that way, if I drive my timeline up and down, the stage will always appear like that. Okay, so you've got your documents set up. You're ready to work. If you do want to save your document, it's like any other program you can use. The FARC commands on a Mac anyways, command shift s to save as or control shift s on on a PC, or you can come up to file, save as and save things that way. All right. For this course, we're learning frame by frame, hand draw, northeast digitally, hand drawn animation. So one of the most important tools that will be using is the brush tool on that's over here on the left like photo shop, you can hit be on your keyboard to bring up the brush tool or just come over here and click on it like that. And then once you are in brush mode, you can change the dynamics off the brush by clicking on these icons here. Pain pressure were the pen tilt, and that changes it, as you can see. But I'm just going with the regular brush. Follow along with me like that if you want to as well. We're not getting into any detail drawing at all in this course. We're just using basic hand drawn stuff to increase the size of your brush. You can use your square brackets so the open square decreases. The size of your brush on the closed square increases the size, and you can also change the properties if you come over to the right hand side and click on the properties tab. If you don't see properties on the right, just go up to window properties and that'll automatically open it up for you and just scroll down. And here you can actually change the brush shape if you want it. But as I said. I'm just sticking with the default brush size and brush a now because we're in a vector program. I just want to mention that your brush marks are directly at Facebook. Adjustable, yeah, directly invisible. So just be a word that if you are trying to select, say, a brush mark that you've made, you might end up doing something like this. Now this can be very useful in some contexts, but if you want to simply move your brush stroke around, then just make sure that you've selected the whole thing. So hit the on your keyboard, click honors or click and drag around us. Another easy way to select everything on your stage at once is just to come down to the timeline and click on the key frame for that drawing. So dash hitting the key frame automatically select everything on the stage that's assigned to that frame. They may be the only other tool that you might need. Apart from the brush tool is their racer. If you want to raise things out, so that's just e on your keyboard on and the eraser works. The exact same is the brush you could increase or decrease the size of the racer could also come over to properties and change the shape. But a handy way to make any changes to your joins if you wanted to, is to select parts. Because this is vector based on is directly eligible. You can just select parts of your drawing that you want to delete. But I always uses the lasso tool, which is L on your keyboard that allows you to select even just part of your drawing or select your whole drawing on either a race or redraw with us. So, really, those are the very, very basics for getting started. That's a quick overview off your work space on the most important brush tool, the most important tool that you'll need for this course, which is the brush in the next video, I'll go over key bushel cuts and specifically how they relate to keep frames. So if you've got any questions about your workspace, or if you're unsure about how to work within the animate TC enterprise semi arrested on, I will be happy to help you. Otherwise, I'll see you in the next video 4. The Timeline: as important stages because this is where we'll be drawing all of our animation. Equally important is the timeline down here because this is where it will be setting the duration on the key frames for the poorer animation. So the two components really go hand in hand. You can't have one without the other. If you want to animate and have stuff, move around all of these small, tiny boxes down here off rains on because we set our documents to 24 frames per second. Essentially, for one second of animation, you have 24 off these little boxes or 24 frames. You can see here where it tells you one seconds two seconds, three seconds, four seconds if you want to. You can also scale up this area by using the slider over here. Makes the brains bigger for you to see or not. I tend to use it just in the default view because I'm used to it. But by all means scale it up if you need to. That's fine. Now, another way to think of the stage area is toe. Also, I mentioned that you could think of it as a screen or as the camera view that's capturing the at the action of the animation. But another way to think of it is as she's a paper. So basically, there's two ways to animate. Let's say you have a drawing on frame one. If you go along the time line to this frame and white click, you'll see you've got all these options so you can choose. Just insert frame and what that does is basically hold. The drawing is on the first frame for the entire duration, so there's no animation because there hasn't been any new drawing. It's just one drawing that's being held for this amount of time, so it's still one a drawing on one piece of paper, if you like. So if you right, click and then choose insert key frame that's now created two drawings, so you can think of us as a second sheet of paper with a second drawing on. It doesn't look like you've got to drawings, because essentially, it's the exact same one. This frame is the same as the other one, but I'll show you that it's two separate joins. If I just selected Andi holding down shift on my right arrow key to move it. And if I move back and forth, you can see now that these are two different drawings. So, gosh, one second of animation with two key frames. But there's actually no animation because there's no change in anything that I've drawn. So I'm gonna come back along here to the middle. Andi in this 10 can right click again. And this time I'll choose to insert a blank. Keep ring. Now what I've done here is I've given myself a completely clean stage, or you could think of it as a completely clean sheets of paper. Generally, to make an animation, you would have to draw the same stick figure here in new pose on so inanimate. What you could do is come up here on. There's a small icon here called onion skinning. Turn that on, and now that shows you a ghost it or faint image off the first drawing. You can also drag these brackets out on. It'll show you a ghosted or faint image off the subsequent drawing or the next frame, as I said, because my first and last drawing of a say, you don't see any difference but now what you can do is simply trace that first drawing and then make whatever changes you wanted to that pose in this spring. So let's just say he's waving. His arm is going to be slightly different. Everything else is going to stay the same now. That's going to read as your basic animation because you got three different frames and you've got three different drawings. And as you can see, there is some movement. Another way to do the exact same thing is to simply, instead of inserting a blank key frame at this point, you could have also, you could also right click on insert key frame, which again, as I've explained, just duplicates that previous drawing on. Now you can just make changes to this one, so it just saves you having to redraw the full figure if you just wanted to change his arm , okay, So the other important thing to know about the timeline is that you can work with the timeline in layers very much very similar to photo shop or any of those other drawing programs you can use as many layers as you want. You could even grew players into folders on this all becomes very, very handy when you need to add things like guides, which I'm gonna show you how to do later on. I mean, you could even, like, have a background on one layer and your animation on top when we get into animating the bouncing ball and our character jumping will be using layers. A large to try and build up are our animation and stages. Okay, so that's the basics off the timeline on and keep frames as we progress throughout the course, you'll be working a lot with everything that I've covered in this video. So practice does make perfect Andi. It's not until you really start working with these ideas that they'll begin to make a lot more sense. In the next video, though I do want explain a few important points about keyboard shortcuts, especially for animation. So join me there on. I'll show you how you can use your keyboard shortcuts to create key frames on your timeline 5. Common Keyboard Shortcuts: I've already mentioned some keyboard shortcuts, such as B for the brush to be to select something or l to use the last so, too. But in this video, I want explain some of the shortcuts that you can use for the timeline. When you're an amazing your creation frames and key frames and blankie frames on, it's not really ideal toe. Have to right click every single time to access those options and then choose the one that you want. There's a much easier and faster way, but it does depend on how you have your keyboard set up specifically, how you have your function function keys, sesh. So for me, for example, my function keys at the top of my keyboard actually don't work. So if I wanted to press F six or F seven, that's actually my brightness on my F nine and F 10 is my volume. So what I've got to do is go into system preferences, then click on keyboard on here. I can check the box that says use F 12 etcetera keys as standard function keys. So with death switched on, I can now go back into animation on then if I use F six I can create simply create, uh, key frames just with that click of the button. Similarly, F five is for a blank for it or not a blank frame but a regular frame so that the words just it extends to keep the timeline hours rubbish. If you wanted to extend your timeline out a lot, what you could do is click and drag over a whole bunch off brains like that. If you hit F five now, that amount of frames that were highlighted will be duplicated or will be added on to your timeline. And then F seven is to insert a blank keeping. So OK, so if six is for a key frame F seven for a blankie frame and F five just to fill out the timeline toe, add frames. So that's very, very useful and very handy for your workflow. But now I just want to dip, make take a moment T to talk about the actual terminology for animation. So in animation, the terminology is that a key frame is your main drawing or your main hose within your animation. It's the most important one that, gosh, let's say for now you could think of it as say, it's the starting and the ending pose. I will explain a lot in a lot more detail what key friends are and how to use them to animate. But for now, I wanted to hide. Highlight the the fact that animators tend to talk about key frames as being poses or drawings that determine the animation. And just to make things confusing, animate to software called everything that has a drawing, a key frame. So basically an animation, you've got two key frames that are filled out by in between drawings. Andi In Animate CC, you could have two key frames that are filled out with other key friends. Basically, anything that has a drawing on it and emotion is gonna call it a key frame. What I want to teach you in this course is how toe animate frame by frame animation. So basically, how to animate your key frames and you're in betweens. But because of the software, every time that I'm gonna add a new drawing into my animation, I'm gonna have to choose insert key frame in order to make that drawing. So just be aware that even though animate likes to call everything a key frame. The thing to bear in mind is that key pose is the main drawing in your animation. This is going to make much more sense when you actually start an amazing, But for now, I just want to do to be aware off the common naming conventions that apply to key frames Andi in betweens. 6. What is a Symbol: I think this video. Then explain a feature off Adobe Animal. That's important for you to understand, although it's not necessary to work with in this course, and that's the whole side off symbols. Just to be clear for this course, we are learning frame by frame animation, so I'm no working with symbols at all. But maybe you know what symbols are or you want it your tears about how they work. So I just wanted to have one video that covers slash. This course is the first in a series of courses on animation. On In the next course, you will learn how to create a character from scratch, using symbols that will animate based on the principles that you learned in this course. So before I get into explaining symbols, I do want to point out these drawing tools here. Um, you got the line to square the oval on this guy here, which is the Poly Star on. All of these basic shapes can be used to create very complex drawings. Each of the shapes is made up off an outline as you can see andan inside fill color. So the very the main difference between a line on a fill in an image is that the line is made up of vector points, which are the points that make up to the object on those vector points are only on exist within the width off the line. Where is the Phil is made up of vector points around its boundaries, so you can actually pull and push these points or these lines to manipulate the shape into whatever where you want. So there is our That's a quick overview of the shape tools. If you've never come across assembled before then, the main thing to know about symbols is that they're just drawings. I could make a drawing, but then I can right click on Converted to a Symbol. Now for animation. I always choose graphic in this box here. Don't ever worry about advanced sessions on. I can also change the anchor point work that, say, the registration of the anchor point to If I wanted to be in the center, that's really useful. If you want to rotate on object, it will rotate around the center anchor point. If you wanted to rotated around the top left, you could set your ankle point there or anywhere else within this books. So once you've converted a drawing to assemble this now act in a very different way than if it was just a regular drawing because the software has now categorize destroy as a symbol. So, for example, a symbol can between for motion between one point in another on a symbol can also be duplicated as many times as you like without the software having to duplicate the information. In other words, you can have a load of these all over the stage. Then, if you click into this one and change the color here, you'll see it changes in every other instance off that drawing now animation with symbols. As I say, there's a whole other world off processes on that is organ recovered in the next course. But it's important that you're aware off the side of animates. I'm very excited that you get to learn the principles of animation frame by frame in this course and then apply it to complex character animation later on. Up next. Let's just cover one last video relation to technical stuff before we dive into learning how to Adami's 7. Frames and Frame Rates: throw this meeting is quick video on frames and brain rates because it's a really important part off have you animation. But it's also an area that could be a bit confusing. A frame race is really the frequency or the rates at which consecutive images were frames appear on the screen. Nowadays, everything is all about ah, higher frame rish you about four K at 60 frames per 2nd 4 K at 120 frames per second. Essentially, ah, higher frame rate means smoother. Motion on the higher resolution means more details within the image, and you've heard me talk all along about 24 frames per second. That might sound a bit boring when technically 60 or 120 frames per second makes everything look smoother. So you might be wondering why we working 24 frames while 60 frames per second or 120 frames per second is generally used for high action film or gaming. A lot of the way that we have a maze for cartoons or TV shows is done in 24 frames per second not and 60 or 120 So for the most part, this is a standard frame Roesch on it was It's been standard since really the beginning off film when we were shooting film on, said annoyed. You'd have 24 little frames for one second all filmstrip, and it was decided upon 24 frames per second, because that's what the I can easily read to recognize motion. Now, the point that I want you to be really clear about is that not only is 24 frames per second a standard across the industry, but and this is very important, 24 frames per second is the easiest brain right to work in. If you want to animate on twos, the animating on Jews means that you will only ever need to place a drawing on every second frame and animating on one's means that you animates. Or you draw a picture or draught maker drawing on every single frame in between zero and 24 . So by making a drawing on every second frame, it works because even though there's just 12 drawings, we still read emotion exactly the same and therefore as animators. That gives us the opportunity to cut our workload in how and that becomes crucial when you're working in the industry on a TV show, and you're trying to put out an episode a week, Um, to be able to cut your time. Your work time down by half is is quite a big deal. Working in any other frame race will really start to make animating on tooth very complicated and a bit messy, and you wind up having to animate on one's for a lot of it. So as you're learning animation on getting to know all about the principles that I'm gonna teaching this course, I highly recommend that you work on in 24 frames per second. Later on, when you're using Tweens and you're making complex character animation and you're comfortable with the principles, then I encourage you to experiment on dry working in a different frame rates. But for now, that's the logic, anyway. And that's how we worked. As we move forward through the course 8. Key Frames: keeping an animation represents the main action or pose within a given movement. A very simple example is the animation of this ball moving. It moves from A to B on thes two poses here represents the key firms within the entire animation. In order to get an object moving, you have to lease established the first key pose or the starting position, and then the next key frame or position in character animation key poses, sometimes called an extreme on this is because these drawings represent the most extreme point with most extreme place for that action. For example, in this ball, going from any to be this here is the most extreme position on the left of the action on this position. Here is the most extreme that the ball gets two on the right hand side. So if the same ball traveled, for example, in a zigzag motion like this, then you could also call these drawings key friends. And again, these are the extreme points off each path that the ball travels so you can think of keys as being drawings that show any change in movement or direction. So now the whole point of key frames, along with the fact that they represent the main action is that they also indicate the timing. Andi. They show how long it takes, for example, this ball to get from a to B, So the first you frame is at frame one on the ball starts to move on. It takes one seconds to reach this key frame. So that's because I set Thesis and Couperin at Frame 24 or, in this case, 25 Andi. There are 24 frames in one second, so that's why it takes one second. So let's see how you would go about creating this simple session. First of all, make a new documents in animation and then go down and make sure that you set your friend rate to 24 Click creation, then go down here to your timeline and you'll see there's a frame already with the blank circle undershirts. Your blank keep rain so you're ready to go if you click into there and if you draw on the stage that will record your first key friend, you just drew a simple circle. You can move ahead in the timeline to frame number 24 then either six or right click on Create New Key Frame. And now what's happened is, is that an image has recorded the position off this existing drawing in a new T friend. So you're just gonna drag it across. So be on your keyboard on a quick and dragon out. I'm holding down shift. So to ensure that I get a straight line, I'm dragon into position that you want. Another thing you could do. It's on. Do that quickly. Another thing that you could do is go over to your first key frayed, go to the next frame and insert a blank key frame by right clicking or hitting F seven on your keyboard. And then when you do that, she could just do your drawing where you want it to be on the stage. So I'm going to turn on onion skinning so I could see reference my first drawing. So now you've got the position off your second drawing, and you just need to click and drag that key frame over to where you want it to be in the timeline. But obviously know this animation is not really an animation. The, you know, it just really jumps from one brain to the next, so there's no kind of movement here. Well, that's because we haven't put in any in betweens in betweens, other drawings that literally fill out the motion on a lower I to see sort of progressive drawings as movement. So I'm going to go over in between in detail in the next couple of videos. But before we get into that, I do want to show you how you're software. It can coordinate your in between for you. I'm gonna show you, obviously in animal. But this is common to any program that has a timeline like adobe after effects or premier or anything like that. You will always have the option to have the software ultimate your in betweens. In this case, what you do is you come down to your timeline and just choose anywhere in between these two key frames, right click on, then select and Jews create classic between. So it's going to show you this message, which basically says that it wants to convert your joints to symbols on You could say OK for now and then when you hit enter, you've got a perfectly smooth immersion created between your two between your two key drawings. So that's great. However, there are a few issues with this on day one is that you still have no idea, really, how to in between yourself on if you're interested in in animation, you do need to know how to draw your own in betweens. Secondly, as you saw in the earlier error message that we got Tweens in animation way really only worked with symbols. So in this course, I really want to teach you how to master frame by frame animation on how to use, like, even the most basic drawing skills to create believable and realistic motion. So for that reason, I'm not going to really deal with Tweens too much in this course, at least not for now. That's material for the next course that I'm going to do. So I'm just going to delete this on Go back to back to normal. If you do feel the need to have a big, like more of a discussion about Tweens, you could let me know just any a quick message on. I'll go through things with you, but for this course, let's focus on getting our skills up and running in just my digitally handle on frame by frame animation. So have a go at creating your key frames and get comfortable working with spacing out your drawings and choosing your timing and see See how it goes if you choose less than 24 frames or more, then when you're ready, join me in the next video. I'm going to talk about breakdowns and they move on to in between. 9. Breakdowns: Theo Breakdown during an animation is really important because it actually determines the path of action between two key frames. It's not a key frame, but it's not really a regular in between, either. The breakdown drawing is created after the key poses on before the in betweens. That's basically the hierarchy off the drawings. When you that you need to know when you're animation stuff, it's generally the order off. How's things get animated when you're working, posed, oppose. So post oppose an emotion really means that you've got one key pose on the second key pose , plus the breakdown already established and you work out your in betweens progressively. The other way of animating is called straight ahead animation, where you just have one key pose and you sort of free stylish into your second key posts. So you don't really have a second key to reference or to know where you're going. This is very often used in stop motion animation, but for now we'll work post oppose. So if you had these two key poses, well, you could assume that your animation or you're in between. They're just gonna join up in a straight line and create a smooth, straight animation from one key to the other. But if you were actually given the same two key poses plus this breakdown drawing, then your animation becomes very different. So you know Okay, my in betweens actually have to come down and then up again. Now, this also brings me to the very importance principle in animation off arcs. So I'm just gonna take a moment to explain the idea of arcs. In animation, arcs are the most commonly used types of trajectories or pounds of action. What that means is that even if a character lifts his hand up two point that's going to be charted or tracked in an arc, his arm moving from this pose to this pose will actually travel in an arc. If you think about it, arcs are present everywhere. So when you're walking next time, no shows how your arms swing in an arc. When you're running, your fish tend to make small little arcs, as as you run along. Everything really naturally moves in an arc instead of a straight line. Things that move in a straight line from one point to another are often, you know. I feel very mechanical. So an animation. This is actually really handy because it just means that you can do something like create a new layer above your keys on draw and are to use as a guide. You can actually come over to your layer, right click and choose. Choose guide on that will ensure that that layer doesn't export out in your final animation when you're finally exporting. So I'm gonna use this arc as a guide for where I'm going to place my in betweens on. Then it becomes much easier. And as you can see, that's quite ends up being quite a smooth on even natural looking movement. Just to recap your breakdown drawing is the sort of most important in between, which tells you where the powers of action goes. And then and then your ark will ensure that you've got a nice, smooth and even motion when you do go to in between. Okay, so let's look at in betweens. Then in the next video 10. In-betweens: So in the old days of animations, when everything was hand drawn, there was more or less a division of labor between the animator and the in between er so the animator were generally draw all the key frames and the breakdown drawings and hand those over to the assistant who would then do all the in between Well, nowadays, obviously you've got like digital animation, Andi, you could do the in between ing and the key framing yourself. So in this video, we're gonna take a close look at what in betweens are and how to work with them. As you saw in the previous video. In betweens are literally the drawings that come between the key drawings with the key poses. So they are those drawings or frames that really fill out the motion and create the sense of motion. Um, this ball isn't actually moving, but each in between is placed in such a way, or it's positioned in such a way that the I can read it progressively and think that it's moving on as I showed you already. You can very easily automate the motion between two key frames. If you want just a very straightforward, constant speed from one key pose to the other. But as an animator, you'll always want to be able to control the motion. Andi also controlled, where you place them relative to your key frames that will really determine what how the animation will look. So the two questions really are. How many in betweens to use and where do you place them? If you've already determined from your keys that it will take one second, for example, for a ball to go from A to B, then that already tells you how many in between the need because you're either needs 24 or 12. Remember, we're an amazing on twos, so we're just making a drawing on every second frame. He I will still read this as progressive Motion. And then as to the question, Where do you put your in betweens that's determined by whether or not you want to fast or a slow speed? So in this sense, really, there's two things to know joins our space close together, will actually slow down the motion or the action and joins our space far apart will appear to speed up the action or the motion so this example is off two balls, going from one side to the other at different speeds. They both have the same starting and ending position. But this one is fast and just has a few frames on. This one is slower, and it has way more frames. You can see here on the timeline that the so bold takes twice as long to get to the same position. Andi. That's its timing. The timing is slower than the first ball. That one takes about 1/2 a second on the slow ball takes a full second, but you can have the same timing on still affect the appearance of speed simply by adjusting the spacing of your in betweens. So take a look at this. This example. This is four separate animations off the ball, going from left to right on. When I play it, it really looks like they're moving at different speeds, doesn't it? In a sense, they are. But yet they all have the exact same timing. It's actually takes one second for all of them to get from a to B. But because of the spacing of the in betweens in each one, they've got different variations off speed. This one here is just constant, even speed. And this one here starts off slow and speeds up into the end, pose this one speed out of the first pose and then really slows down into the end on this animation here has what's called a slow out on a slow in. So it slows are just the beginning, kind of speeds up here on. Then it slows in to that last key pose. So that's essentially how you can add contrast in motion between two key frames in your animation. So now let's break it down. I want to show you how to go about applying that to your in between ing. And there's basically two systems of in between eating that I want to show you in this video. I'll show you how to space out your in between for normal, constant speed, and then I'll show you how to work with burying your speeds and how to do it easily and unease in In the next video, I'm going to create a new document. I'm gonna sit way frame rate to 24 and then I'm just gonna make my first drawing in this frame here on the left hand side. Then I'll move forwards in the timeline and create another key frame and then dragged at drawing over to the right. So now I've got my two poses, my starting pose and my ending pose, and I'm gonna turn on the onion skinning and drag it back so I can see both drawings at the same time and right in the middle. So on my timeline, I'm going to be at frame nine. I'll create another key frame there and dragged us going right into the very center so I can see where my toot key poses are. And that is essentially a breakdown, drawing guts in the very middle. Now all I need to do is break up this left hand side of my timeline into halves and this right hand side into haps. So what I'm gonna do is step backwards towards my first key pose and create another right my cash. Drag this into the middle, destroy, step back. One more grid of key frayed and drag this drawing into the very middle between those two. All that's left now is just to do that. That drawing between those two keep brains and drive that drawing as carefully as I can't the middle. So I completed 1/2 my timeline, going to do the exact same on the other side between my breakdown drawing on my very last key pose or creating new key frame. Oh, and drag that going across on. Then step forwards one QWERTY key prime. Drag my drawing to the middle and finished up, out with the very last drawing. Make a keep going there and drag it in to the middle. So now we fight to look onion skinning. Go back to frame one and hit Enter. That's very even constant speed. Turn on onion skinning again, and you can see how evenly spaced out all those drawings are. And I didn't really have to, like, fuss too much about finding each of the middle points. Once you make your first halfway point and work backwards in hubs and then work forwards in house, breaking up the spacing that way it's very easy. It's very straightforward to do so. I want you to practice this for a while if you can, like, just get comfortable making in betweens and get comfortable spacing the moat for really even constant speed when you feel okay. What's doing that? And it all makes sense to you and you can see how you can apply it. Then come and meet me. In the next video, we will start to apply. Ease out turkey, easing out of key frames and easy and to keep brains. 11. Spacing for Ease Out and Ease In: remember earlier when we animation the bull moving in an arc like this, while when you have emotion like this, that's at a constant, even speed. It's a little bit boring on it sort of lacks any character. People often say that to make the motion look more natural, you need to add, was called a slow out of a key frame or a slow into a key frame. So let's take a look at the same example of the sport moving in an arc on this one has an easing on Danese out applied to it, and you could see that it does actually look a lot more natural. Looks a bit like a pendulum swinging from one side to the other. What's happening here is that this ball leaves this key frame and it slows out of this key frame so it takes the drawings are space closer together. And remember, as I showed you drawing their space closer together will appear to slow things down. Then it speeds up because there are fewer joins in the section on. Then it starts to slow down into the final pose. That's a century warden easing or he's out. Is so I'm going to explain each part of this pendulum separately. Andi, as you saw in the last video, when you do in between for constant speed and even motion, use that method off harps that I showed you. You break your timeline down into 1/2 and work back towards the first key frame our forwards towards the last keep ring. It's pretty much the same for easing announced, but you assign your drawings to your friends a little bit differently. I'll show you what I mean by Dash. Let's look at an ease out of the key frames first. What you'll do is you'll determine the halfway point between your two key drawings. But then you give that drawing to your last in between on your timeline so that halfway point drawing actually goes very at the very end off the in betweens close to the in the second key. So now with onion skin Jordan, you can see that I've got my first drawing on my last drawing, and then my, um, middle point drawing is in between these two drawings, but it's actually assigned to this very last in between. Down here on my timeline so then I'm going to step back. One on, create you keep frayed, dragged a truck. My going to the halfway position. Now between those two drawings. Now I step back a frame, create a new key frame on a sign dash to the halfway point between those two drawings. So, as you can see, I'm working backwards for in ease out of an over keep pose you can in between by working backwards. Um, it'll all make sense in a minute. I'm just gonna finish filling in these drawings. I'm just basically stepping back one creating a key frame on dragging the drawing into the halfway point. You'll see that the spacing becomes incrementally smaller and smaller, right up until the very last key play on. Then when I hit play off onion skinning, you can see how it slows out of that first key frame and then speeds up into the very last keeper. That's your easing out off key. Let's do an easing into a key on. It is the same process except going the other way. We will now work forwards instead of working backwards. Would it create a new layer aunt, hide this one and start over gay just to make sure that you and see the process. So in my first spray, my first key frame will make my starting drawing my last key frame. Dr that an autopsy pride out into position on. Now this is an ease in. So I want weird drawings to slow down and ease into this key frame. So I'm going to go to my start on Step one frame or sorry it. Step two frames ahead and creating your key frame, their turn on onion skinning and drag it out so I can see my starting and ending position and then drive that drawing to the halfway point. So halfway between those two I know, step ahead one creating your key frame. Drag my drawing to the halfway points between those two frames. Step ahead, create a key frame dr my drawing across and then I'm just gonna continue the process. It's very evenly spaced, but again, as you will notice, the space itself is becoming incrementally smaller and smaller. As I get closer to the final key. Gonna be careful to really find out halfway mark. It's much easier, obviously with a circle, because you can see It's very easy to spot that halfway the halfway point between the two drawings. But this for the very last two in betweens. I'm actually just going to use my arrow keys to nudge the drawing into place on those of those on my keyboard. The bottom rice, the right arrow. Not just Ford. Just a slightly. Then I'll turn off onion skinning and a few fish enter. You notice how it shoots out of that first frame and slows into the last, and that's a slow into a key posts. I hope that's makes sense just to recap. Normal constant speed between two points can look a little bit boring. So to make your motion of more natural, you can use and easing out of a key pose or an easing in Andi. Now I'm going to tell you why is basically all got to do with a law physics cooled inertia . Inertia Is the resistance off any physical object to any change in its state of motion, including changes to its speed and direction. So OK, the easiest way to understand this is to think of a car. A car takes a long time to get up to speed can't go really from 0 to 60 like instantly. You know, it has to take a while to build up to get to that speed, and similarly, when it wants to stock or similarly, when it comes to a stop, it has to slow down before it stops. It can't just stop and immediately. Now cars have to do with gears and engines and all of that. But it's just that to get that visual in your mind, just to understand the principle of inertia, inertia is just a principle that holds true for most physical things. When they're moving, it simply takes a while for a body at rest to get moving on. Once it is moving, it takes a while for it to slow down and stop. So that's why easing in and out is so crucial to animation because it reflects a natural state of motion. It'll make things look more alive, more believable rather than just having them sort of look mechanical and, you know, without with constant, even speed. Now the last thing that I want to tell you about MBA treating is went to users for character animation is very important for you, to feel out the act out, really the action that you wanted. You wanted enemies on. Use your kind of acting to determine whether or not something is gonna have a slow or fast speed. But if you are working with something like motion graphics, there's a guy a really handy guide to help you determine whether you want to use slow and in So lash. I mean, no point just stopping a slowing on that slow in and out on everything that you animation. Right? So let's say you have an object that moves on screen from here to here, So the motion happens on screen. We see the the objects starting and stopping. Then you would use a slow in and slow acts, much like that pendulum that I showed you. If you have an object that starts off screen, comes travels across the screen and goes off screen again, then you would use a constant even speed because we don't see the start and stop positions . And if you've got an object that starts moving on screen and boots off and then travels off screen completely, I reduce a slow out of that first pose on. Then just let it travel off screen. Andi. Similarly, if something starts off screen and comes in and stops, then I would use slow into that final key pose. All right, so now we've covered key frames. We've covered breakdown drawings and in betweens, and we've also covered easing in and out of key frames. I'm gonna leave an assignment for you now where you're going to try and put some of these principles to work in a very simple animation. Andi. Then afterwards, when you're ready, conjoined me for the next couple of videos which will talk about timing and spacing on bond , things like squash and stretch and anticipation. So when you're ready, join me in the next video or a little recap back timing and spacing. 12. Timing and Spacing: so I keep emphasizing the fact that timing and spacing represent the most important principle off animation. So in this video, I'm going to recap those principles. But I'm also going to show you a really handy way to, um, plan out your animation so that you do have timing and spacing. It's called the timing chart, and it's really like the Guide for the Arcs. It's a really essential tool when you're planning your animation. So again, timing means the rhythm off your animation. It refers to the timing off your key drawings and how long it takes for those keys to be played out. You should be able to look a set of keys. Andi know if it feels rush. In other words, if you want a fast movement, then you need fewer frames of animation on. If you want to slow movement, you need more friends, so that's your timing. It's based on the rhythm of the key frames on and the number off the frames. Spacing is where you place your object or you're drawing in each of those friends. Now, if you have an object moving from a to B, that means it takes the object one second to reach from a to B on if it has. If you've used and ease in or in ease out, that will determine or affect the way it gets from eight B. So here's a good way to ensure that you can plan out your timing and spacing and make sure that it's gonna work well before you start drawing all your in betweens and then you play them back and it looks terrible and you don't know why it's the timing chart. So I'm gonna go back to this very simple animation off the pendulum. So we're gonna make a timing chart for this where I'm gonna the show you how the timing chart would would work. So I'm gonna make a new layer on a pier. I will draw my chart, somebody be on my keyboard that time. And shark comes from the olden days of animation when things were hand drawn and animators used to indicate a key with a circle andan in between with a line. So if you had two key frames like that on 24 in betweens or 12 in betweens, your timing chart would look like that. But what we're gonna do is make a timing chart for the pendulum, which has a slow in and a slow out. So I'm going to do. That's my first key represented by the circle here. I'm gonna draw a line that just it's a random length of line, but it's just gonna represents the timeline down here on my last keep frame. It is a circle like that. Okay, so this animation has both a slow out off the first key frame on a slow into the last key frame. If you remember, I'm going to turn on onion skinning quickly, and it's just see that. So, basically, on my timing chart, the breakdown drawing would be here to indicate the destroying. And then, if you remember it, the slow out of the first key frame was all about working backwards. So we find the halfway point between that breakdown and the first key and draw a line that's find the halfway point between that and the 1st 1 draw a line there on their in the halfway point again. Now let's see. 1234 That's 1234 So there's my four in betweens represented on my timing chart on that. That's those four frames down here, okay? And then going forward for a slow into a key pose. You move, you work progressively forwards, so that's pretty much the same thing. You find the halfway point, draw a line there for that in between, find the halfway point for their with that line halfway again, that line. So the timing chart is really just a diagram for you to help you plan out and build your animation on. I work. My timing charts in the vertical diagram could also draw your timing chart on a horizontal line. If that helps you visualize things a bit better. Either way, as long as you can have something to refer to when you are starting to animate, then it's just a really helpful guide. Really helpful tool to use when you're an emotion starts to get a little bit more complex. It can get confusing if you don't have something. If you don't have a guide like this to help you along. So that's the basis off timing chart, and I'm gonna be working with this timing chart over the next few videos so you'll see how , how easy it is to apply it. All right. So I'll see you in the next video. I'm gonna cover another principle which relates to character animation, the principle of squash and stretch. 13. Squash and Stretch: the theme next important principle that we're gonna look at is squash and stretch. This is an aspect off your drawing to make your character looked like it has life or look like it's got a degree of flax of energy or like a cartoony or appealing look. All right, so let's hop over to my document in animals here. What I've got here is an animation of a bouncing ball. Now you can see I'm abused arcs to help me guide the ball bouncing. I've also used my timing chart to figure out the spacing off my in betweens I played over. You should be able to tell that it's there's a bit of, ah, slowing down when the ball's going, reaching the peak of the Ark, fast into the bones and slowing down at the peak again. So you could think that's quite a successful looking animation. Looks very good, but I want to show you the exact time animation with squash and stretch applied. So if I turn that off eternal, my other one, you can instantly see that this war has a lot more sort of life, a lot more character cartoony. The other animation looks a little bit like like it's a table tennis board. It's just doesn't have the same interest or appeal as this animation. Squash is when you literally squash your drawings down to emphasize gravity or contact, position and stretch is when you even get your drawing to emphasize speed or momentum. So here's another example. Have a ball just dropping down. That's just plain old, straightforward out of most without score. Shin Stretch. And then here's the same animation with a bit of squash in Stretch added. So I'm going to show you how you would do this. So Mitchell, my first frame over here and then come along to the end, draw my last frame, which is going to be a ball on the ground, and we're just I'm just giving it one bance. So going to move back in time to bite here, make another key Frey, and that's where the bull sciences in the air before it lands and it's obviously gonna have a contact position. So I'm gonna This is where it hits the ground. Then it bounces up, and then it comes back down. Okay, so when you play your keys, pray it back. That should make sense. Okay, Okay, so now it's just all about filling in these drawings, so I'm going to do my timing chart very quickly. So got one key there. Another key where it makes contact with the ground, another key where it balances up and a key frame where it settles back down again. So I definitely want to have. Since this is an admiration for Ball just dropping, it's going to go slow out from its starting position to hitting the ground. Then it's going to slow into this position here where it's the bounce on, then slow hours and come back to rest in its final position. So I'm gonna make my in between like this, then, from the contact position to the band's. It's going to slow into that that position, and that's I've got three two in betweens. There's someone to space them very close to the the top of the bounds, someone one in between there and one there. Lisi the Bulls in the bones and it's going to slow out on settle into this pose. So that's 123 Be a slosh like that. Okay, so now I'm just gonna place my drawings where I need to great frame there and dragged up to the halfway points, this one before that half and drag it to the halfway point and then then moving ahead to the section where it's going to ease or it's going to slow into that that frame. I'm going to click there and drag this up and then create another frame and drag that into position. That's and then as it comes out of that bones, it slows out. So I'm gonna make a friend there and just slow that out. Drag that down and then another one. Drag it down. So now I'm gonna turn off onion skinning on. So they we've got a decent enough animation off a ball just dropping to the ground and Branson. Now I'm going to add the score shin stretch. So if I find the contact position, the contract position is this frame here on that's using for You'll put your strength your squash because squash emphasizes gravity or contact. So all I'm going to do is select that frame by clicking on the frame of the timeline. Gonna hit Q on my keyboard to bring up the transform box. Andi If I on a medical downshifting Olt, I can constrain the proportion somewhat so I could just squash it down from the top. But now I have to be very careful because I've taken the ball and squashed it down top to bottom. I need to be also aware that it must that I need to change it on the sides as well. If I were to just squash it down, drawn top to bottom, the volume off the object would be different. So I want to make sure with squash and stretch, it's really important to make sure your volumes stay consistent. So whenever I squash it down from top to bottom, I just nudge it out on the sides as well. So let's see. So that's going from its normal stage to its squashed state, though the stretch drawing is going to emphasize that speed. So that's obviously going to be where gravity is pulling the object down very, very fast, so that's gonna be in the drop. So I think the bulls starts magically in the air from this position, and then it will pick up speed as a But as it gets down, maybe around here I'm going to stretch this drawing out, so I'm going to click on the frame in my timeline, acute on holding downshifting, old to constrain the proportions of just drag down at the bottom and then squish it in at the sides. And I might do that for this drawing as well. Then, after it's hit the ground when it bounces up, that's also another area where speed comes into play. So this drawing here might just get a tiny bit of a stretch. Not too much, because it actually just, you know, in this drawing, it's not traveling that farts just has a small butts. So I'm going to go back to square one and let's see how that looks. And that's what that does have a lot more appeal, a lot more flexibility and and character English so that tell your ads washing stretch. When we get to the animation, the bouncing ball in our final project will be using this principle of lush as the board Vance's. And so we worked through it step by step. But if you did want to have a go, it's practicing some squash and stretch Now, maybe pause the videos and go and try this out yourself. And then when you're ready, meet me in the next video. We're going to talk about how to really give your character animation. Ah, lot of life and a lot of appeal. Using anticipation, overshoot, unsettled. 14. Anticipation, Overshoot and Settle: Okay, so we've gone through key frames. You've gone through breakdown drawings and in betweens up also covered how to add contrast to your emotion, using easing out of frames and easing in. And I've also covered adding squash and stretch to your animation. So in this video, this is the louse principle that I'm gonna cover before we move into our animation projects . And this is the principle of anticipation. Really. It's anticipation. Overshoot and settle. What does that mean? It means that to give a character or even an object, a sense off believability or life. Almost these three poses off anticipation. Overshoot and settle will add a layer off, polished your animation and give things much more natural feel. Let's set aside the bouncing ball for a while and look at an actual character animation. This is just a very simple animation off a character chilling his head. Okay, so I've put all of the drawings onto one layer here so you can see the whole animation if I just show you my key poses First. Though I started with this post, this is the character looking over here. He anticipates forward. He turns the overshoots is blast his ending position, and he comes in to the final settle pose over here. So essentially you go from Idol pose through the action of turning to the Settle pose, which is the the last pose. The anticipation and the overshoot are what gives us kind of a fluid motion. And the reason for that is, if you think about it much like the principal off inertia, an object or a character, if a character is going to do a motion going in one way, he or she will generally anticipate in the other the opposite direction. First Summary. If somebody wants to get up out of a chair, they will generally anticipate first and then stand up. So in one sense, anticipation is pretty much like a like the law of inertia. It's a given. It happens all the time, even if we don't realize that we're doing it. But in animation, there's another reason why you use it, and that's very often to indicate to the audience that an action is going to happen. Um, so it could be very cleverly used if you had a character just who was taking something out of his pocket for example, that action is quite small. They must. The audience might not even read it. So if you anticipate and take something out of your pocket, then the audience will be queued up to know that or something's gonna happen. And there I won't miss it when it when it actually comes to it. So a good rule of thumb is that whatever the direction of the action is, your anticipation is the opposite direction. Then, once the action has taken place, the overshoes is sort of like the anticipation. But in the opposite way, Theo overshoot is when the carriage or the object hit. Suppose that is just slightly beyond that final, final settled pose, so the character will often pass through the final pose into the overshoes and then settle back. So, just to be clear, you have your first pose and your impose. So before the character moves into the action they've got at the anticipation. Once they've cleared through the action, they fish what's called an overshoot and then settle back into that final pose. Okay, so let's look at another example. This one is a very simple animation off a sack of flour jumping from a to B. I know it's crazy, but stay with me to just just stick with us. So it's a sack of flour jumping from a to B. Um, I've drawn in his ark. So that's the art that he travels. And these are his. This is his timing chart on his G poses and in between. So as you can see, it's very normal. Um, he slows into this pose, appear at the top of the Ark. He slows out into his final final pose Down here now again. Very boring and mundane on on interesting animation. It's just a very kind of flash to D looking sack of flour jumping from from one to the other. Okay, so here's the exact same animation with anticipation, overshoes and settled, plus a little bit off squash and stretch. And it's much more interesting. It's almost life like you actually really start to believe that this is a character who has appeal and interest, and it's all down to these three anticipation. Overshoot and settle, plus the squash and stretch. So let me break it down for you. These are my key drawings from the starting position. This is the anticipation This is the action where he's jumping. This is the overshoot pose, and that's a settle on on the right here. I've got my time and shocked. So what? The storage impose? I've indicated, uh, to in betweens, into the anticipation, which is there, Then I've got to in between, which is a slow into the action pose. They're a slow hours of that action. Pose into the overshoes and settle into the overshoot, which is that pose. And then there's a slow in two in between, into the settle pose rice on. Here it is, with all of those number two in strong. I'll turn on the onion skinning now so you can see all of those drawings. There's my slow into the anticipation leaps ours on theirs. That stretch pose comes into the action and has a bit of a stretch posed into the overshoot , which is a squashed pose and then a very slow into that last settle. So in the next two sections, we're going to start an amazing are our projects. With this course, the 1st 1 is going to be the bouncing ball on. That's like a standard project that you'll do in any animation school that you go to. It's always gonna be your first animation project. It puts to use all the principles of keys in between ing on breakdown drawings. Plus, you also get to play with squash and stretch Andi easing in an ash and then the second project, which is gonna be the character jumping. You're going to really get cigarettes with not only squash and stretch, but timing and spacing on this whole idea off anticipation. Overshoot and settle. So let's dive into these projects. Put all of this information to use on. Apply everything that would covered so far in the course in some decent, proper animation. 15. Bouncing Ball 1: for this bouncing ball animation. What we're gonna do is work in three phases. The first phase is going to be the preparation phase. And that's basically these three sections here. We're gonna draw arcs for guides, will create key poses on will determine our timing. The second phase, we're gonna make it timing chart and then in the third phase, will create in betweens and then adds caution. Stretch. So to start off with a blank document, the first thing I want to do is draw a line for the ground. Andi. I will then sort of on a new layer vaguely indicate my guides for my arcs for where the ball will be travelling throughout the animation. These don't have to be perfect. I'm just trying to figure it out for composition that looks about right to me. So I'm gonna lock that layer, create a new one. Now I'm going to switch over to the pen tool and I'm just going to click and drag out the anchor points like this to create a curve click down here at the bottom. They never switch over to command or control and click and drag the anchor points to get them exactly where I want. So for the second Vance, I'll do the same just with the pent or click and drag them out. I'm basically using this pen tool just to make sure that my arcs are nice and smooth, because I can't really hand draw very, very perfect arcs. But with the pen tool, it's a lot easier to control, so I'll just finish this off. This is the last one. This is just the time. Small, tiny bones at the end. Okay, so now for hide that rough layer, I could even delicious, actually. So just click on the layer and click on the trash can. That's it Gone, then. So that's my ground layer on This is my there with my arcs. So at this point, I'll probably make some tweaks and probably go back in and try and change them up, because that one's looking a bit wonky. So if you click and hold on the Penn icon, you can see that there's an option convert anchor point to on that will help you a great deal. You can just click on the anchor points there and directly edit them, so once you're happy enough with your arcs and you think they look OK? Then you can move. We'll move on to the next phase. I think mine are pretty much as close as I want them to be. It doesn't have to be completely perfect, but I just want to make sure that they're nice and smooth and even can you layer on? I'm just going to draw a round circle for my ball on What I want to do now is just check that it matches was gonna look, um, this same. I'm just basically checking to see that it's gonna read as a bold across these arcs that it's not too small or it's not too big. Okay, I think that looks just right, actually. So, um, I'm gonna go with that shape. And now the next thing is to just drag out my timeline down here with some frames. So I'm gonna estimate at this point that around the 45 frame mark will be how long it takes for this book. It was I'm thinking we'll take a least two or 2.5 seconds to bounce across the screen, so yeah, that feels right. That timing, but I mean, I'm going to change it once I place my keys, but for now, just to give myself some room in terms of frames, I will do that. So what I did there was I just inserted frames. I didn't make any. Keep rings. Yes. So my frame one. Now I'm going to place the ball into frame one. Come along for words and time to boats a frame 11 or 10. Great. A new key friend there on dragged the ball to the first contact point, Then go ahead to. That's a frame 24. That'll be my second contact point on, and the third contact point will be around this frame. I think it's framed. 33. Create a key frame, drag it into position and in the last contact point and then the very last time frame 45. So those my contact positions where the ball hits the ground. Now I'm going to go back in on place. The key frames for where? The balls in the air in a bounce. So as you can see, the bounces are getting progressively shorter. Andi in terms of time so it doesn't take as long to travel on the smaller bounces that that timing looks okay to me. I'm not totally happy about that. I think the first section here could be tightened up a bit, taking a bit too long to reach the first month. So I'm gonna just click and drag that keep going back on that first minds looks better. The second man's obviously needs also to be adjusted, so I'll drag that keep bring back to about frame 15. So it's all about just playing back to key frames and feeling out that timing and seeing. If it makes sense seeing it, there's enough of a gap in time between each of the keys. This is where you get really good at it. With practice, you will really be able to recognize if something feels right or there it feels like there's too much of a lag. Okay, so after much moving around and timing and ours and feeling and allows, my final final key frames are, uh, key frame number one. Number nine number 17 25 31 37 41 45 51 on. I'm just going to drag that last rave, um, the end frame into my stage, but like that. So if you're following along with me, then double checked your frames, your key frames of the same as mine. But if you've got different timing totally and you think it works, then that's great. Keep working with that, Um, but just so that we're on the same page at this stage, you should have your ground plane drawn in your arcs as your guides, and you should have your key frames for your contact positions and your chances. So in the next video, we will create our timing chart. 16. Bouncing Ball 2: Okay, so let's see where we are on our checklist. So far, we've done our arcs for our guides. We've created the key poses, and we've also determined the timing. So we're doing pretty good. We've just got to make a timing chart on, then create the in betweens and adds caution. Stretch. So let's go over the timing chart to make sure that we know exactly where we're going to be able to place our in between when it comes to it. Okay, so this layer has our key frames. I'm going to create a new layer above that on in that frame there. I'll just draw the timing chart on Essentially, I think I've counted out that we've got nine key frames in total, including the contact positions and the bounces. So I'm gonna go up here, and I'll just pretty much draw in nine of thes circles to represent the key frames. So I'm holding down old as I click and drag to duplicate them. Andi, I'll just move these ones along. What's up? Duplicated them. So undo. Um, I just want to move them in. So I got enough space. So that is, um I think that six. I just need three more click and drag. Hold on, hold. And now I've got all of my key primes represented by these circles, so just joined them up with the line on. Now I'm going to determine the in betweens, but specifically, I want to determine which of these Keeper is gonna have an ease in or inis ash. So this first, uh, key pose that balances into frame will haven't ease out because it's obviously in an arc already. It hits the ground, and then it bounces up into this key frame and this will have an ease in so and ease into that position. So halfway and halfway in halfway, then that's that contact position that will be an easy out into that contact again, easing into the bones from here to the bones. So good, uh, three, two frames there, two in betweens. Anything about two in betweens on the other side as well. So and he's out of that pose into this contact position. So now between that Andi the last bones, there's only there's only 22 in betweens or even know there's one in between. So what I'm gonna do is it's called favoring. I'm going to favor that in between. Won't draw directly in the same on the other side. I won't do it directly in the halfway mark. Ah, favorite that bounce key. So the very next thing that I want to do is just to make sure that when I glance up at my timing chart, I know where I am in relation to the keys on my timeline, I'm going to just indicate each of these that correspond to the key frame so I'll make a new layer on. I'm just gonna indicate it with I can get someone to make a new layer and with just a red dot I'm going to draw. I'm just gonna indicate which of these relates to which key friends. So I'm going along the time line, inserting a blank keep room. I'm just drawing a doctor, correspond lanky frame drawn there and sort of blankie frame. No one there blank key frame. And what this does is when I play it back, you'll see it's very useful. I can just instantly tell where I am in my timing chart, no matter what key frame I'm on in the timeline. So I go back to my first frame and play at the keys there. You can see that the red dot is really, really useful. It shows you exactly where the ball is at all times. So now I'm just gonna controlled at my layers. Call that keys. I'm gonna call this my chart on. I will make both of these layers into guides, then drag them down below this layer. And this is the layer that's gonna actually have my animation on it. So I'm gonna name this bouncing ball, and now I can just come down one layer on, create a folder, and then grab all of these guides and drag them into the folder. Close that up. Rename it guides. Ah, Now that's completely like hidden away. That's not gonna interfere or look confusing. When I glanced down at the timeline, I'll just see my ground layer and my animation. There 17. Bouncing Ball 3: Okay, So believe it or not, all of the hard work has done. The next part is really easy. It's so straightforward and simple, but it wouldn't be if we hadn't have done all of that planning and all of that groundwork in the last two videos. Making your guides and making spending time making her timing chart is so important. If you want to get good at animation, it's really the thing that will make your animation really good. Um, so let's forge force that's finished this bouncing bowl. Um, Now I'm just gonna start putting in my in betweens. I'm just gonna follow that timing chart up there this first sessions a slow out off my first frame. So I go to the last in between Between those two keys, let me just turn on onion skin so you can see on I drag that drawing to the halfway point round about there, then step back to the previous pray, make you keep rape and drag that drawing down on do the same with the last in between Pradesh section. They're moving ahead between the next between the contact on the bounce gotta slow in, So drag my onions getting hours. I could just about see that, um, bounce frame. It's a slow in. So my first drawing is on my first in between in between frame, and I'll make another one on Dr Drawing halfway between there. Step ahead, make another frame and drag that drawing there. Now I need the slow out from the band's position to the next contact position again. The slow eyes. I'm gonna work backwards so I'll go to the last in between between those two keys and drag my drawing to the halfway point, then stepping back one. Make another frame and drag that drawing to the halfway point. Step back one on drag that drawing into place following my guide. So it's making it very easy and following my timing chart, which makes it so, so simple. Okay, from my second contact position to that second bounce, there is just too in betweens, so dragging I've put that one on the wrong frame of my timeline. That's okay. I'm just going to click and drag down one so it's in position. Here we go and then make it my 2nd 1 Drive the drawing into place. Oops, There we go drive the drawing into place on, then a slow out into the final contact or second last contact again to two in betweens. Here, strike that one to the halfway point on dry, this one just out there like that, and then between these two, keep brains. Or between these two drawings, there's actually just one in between. And as I mentioned earlier, I'm favoring the bounce. So I want my even. I'm just putting one frame and there or one keeper. I'm just gonna drag this drawing closer to the bounce drawing. So the drawing itself is not exactly halfway on the same on the other side. I'll make a position for it, but I'll drag that drawing just slightly out. So it's favoring the bats and then my last set off in betweens. Or it's more or less straight forward in between ing. I've got three in betweens to put in. I'll drive him out like this. Oh, okay, so I've just noticed that for the last section here, I might need to add in another frame I think I made. I didn't I've actually got three in betweens in my timing, so I'm going to what I'm gonna do is just, basically insert a couple more frames just to space it out. Because I've only got room on my timeline for two in betweens, but I think I want tohave three, So okay, it's very easily done. All I'm gonna do is right click on insert frame, but I'll do that twice because we're an amazing on Tuesday, and then I have space to add in 1/3 drawing. So now that I've done that, I will add a couple of frames down below on the ground layer just to make sure that the ground plane continues out to the very end of the animation. Now I'm ready, so go back to the frame. One hit, Enter. Hi, my guides and we've got a bouncing ball. So after all that, the animation is actually working quite seamlessly, actually, um, it's very that's Yeah, it's working. It's bouncing on very, very good. So I'm happy with that on if you've gotten to the stage, well done, that's fantastic. That's a big achievement. That's actually quite a important project to get done for when you're learning animation. So let me just quickly hop back to our checklist and see see where we're ash. We did all of that perception that is checked off. We made our timing chart, and we've just now created all of the in betweens. The only thing left is to add squash and stretch, and we're done, so I'll show you how how to do that. Now it's literally just adjusting three or four of the drawings. So remember I said, the squash drawing is going to be the contact position, So come down to that drawing and literary Q and your keyboard on. Just squash it down a little bit. But don't forget to also stretch it out at the side so that the volume stays consistent and then go along to the next contact position. Do the same over there, and we can do the same on destroying. Although I would just do it very, very slight squash here because it is such a small banks at this point. Andi, there isn't a lot of gravity exerting honest. So yeah, those bands is look good. That's a nice little squash on those two or three drawings, and already it's starting to look a little bit more interesting. So now all that's left to do is the stretch drawings Now the stress drawings usually are where, as I said, there's momentum or speed. So definitely you would want to stretch this drawing here, this middle one. Now what I'm gonna do is turn back on my guides because first of all, of stretches top to bottom and stretch it in like this. But now we need to turn it so that it actually stays on the arc. It would look a bit weird if I stretched it and it wasn't sort of in the ark. I might just get this an ever so tiny, slight stretch since it's got such a long way to drop the, um, you could indicate a stretch up here. And then this drawing here is also going to get a stretch. That's the one. Words bounced up from the ground and just rotated into place. Thies this drawing is going to get a really small, small, uh, stretch not too much. And then the corresponding drawing as well from the other side will also get this the stretch here And then as the burns gets a bit smaller, As I said, the stretch gets of the forward the stretch get smaller. Okay, that sure do it. Let's have a look at that. See how it plays back. Hi. My guides. I'm thinking I'm actually gonna undo this one because it's looking a bit too loopy for me. A little bit too fluid. Teoh. Undo it. I could try and squash squash it back into its original stage, but it's easier just to clear that key frame all together. Create a new key frame. Andi that ball's duplication itself. So just drag that drawing into place. So that has got rid of that one stretch drawing. Let's see if it looks better now. Makes a bit of a difference. I think I actually think that that's fine. I think I'm very happy with with that bounce. That's a nice bouncing ball with a bit of squash and stretch. So if you've been following along and if you've gotten this far, congratulations, well done. That's awesome. And I love to actually see your work. So do let me know if you can send me a file, or at least you know, give me some feedback as to how you got on, and then when you're ready, let's dive into the next project, which is going to be the character jumping 18. Character Jump 1: Okay. Our final animation project for this course, anyway, is this little character jumping. I've made a checklist for us to follow along so that we can keep track off the things we need to get to. There's just a slight difference between this workflow and the bouncing ball animation I've added in a first step, which is to draw thumbnails. And I've also added in a final step, which is to check for fixes. Now, I'll explain when I get to it exactly what that is. But that was really important to add this in because part of what's gonna make you a good animator is being able to look at your animation spot the frame or frames that aren't working and be able to go back in and adjust it as needed. But for the rest of the war, clothes pretty much straightforward. Well, after we've donor thumbnails, we're gonna create the key poses, Then figure out the timing for the jump. Then just look at creating arcs for our guides and, of course, making a timing chart in order to establish how maney in betweens and where they go and then finally will animate by creation all the in betweens and then go back over and check for fixes. So let's get started. Gonna jump over to animation and create a new document with a frame rate of 24. And the first thing that I want to do is basically some mail out my character jump. So this is gonna happen just on one layer on its very rough sort of sketchy ideas, really, for how for the different poses that I want the character to be in. So I'm going to start out first. We'll just roughly kind of identifying his shape when I try and keep him as much as a little stick character as possible to keep it simple. This is a simple animation, but it's actually quite a lot of complexity involved, especially with all of the moving parts. It's a huge step above just a bouncing ball. So with that in mind, I've kept it quite simple. But yet there are a lot of moving parts, so it's it'll be challenging enough. Okay, so now I will just give myself some space on the time nine so that I can draw a few different frames. This is in no way going to be by final key frames thes air, Just sort of just to give me a rough idea to feel it out. So I'm going to draw a second post after the standing pose. My second post is gonna be my anticipation pose on. That's where he is gonna bend down in order to jump up. So I'm going to draw him like that. I'll be coming back in afterwards and totally cleaning up these drawings once I figured out my thumbnails. So I don't mind how rough a goose they are at this point. This is really just about being able to sort of plot and plan out my animation before I commit to creating key frames. So for the anticipation pose, everything is going to go in the opposite direction. His arms will go back. He'll been down before he jumps up into the next pose. I'm gonna create a blankie from here on. Do a drawing where he's like leaping into the air. Why I'm being a little bit mindful about keeping my volumes consistent, so it's very handy with onion skin you can just traced over a previous drawing. Make sure it's correct before you move into position for where you want it to be. Okay, so he's leaping up, and this is actually the stretch pose. So in the bouncing ball, we actually physically stretched the ball here. I've just drawn him in a very elongated pose like dash and that will read as a stretch, drawing when the animation plays back, gonna insert another blankie frame and I want to draw the contact position now. So after he's jumped, well falls back onto the onto the ground into that overshoot into that overshoot pose. So I could really copy the anticipation post since its very similar. But I want to swing his arms forward so he's gonna land on the ground and his arms will be in front of him this time, right? So there have got pretty much all of my poses. I just have to do my very final last. Or I should move him into position, actually, because he jumps up and then obviously he's gonna be jumping forwards as well into a brand new position. So put him over here on the stage and then go forwards and do my final drawing for the ending pose, which is the pose that he will settle into. And that is very similar to the starting pose. Probably. We traced the starting post if you wanted to, but I think I'll give it just a slightly different look. So have his arms coming down like that. Okay, now grab that drawing on. Drag it over to there. Those are fairly decent thumbnail drawings that will indicate for me exactly how this action is going to play out. I'm now going to redraw them with a bit more of a cleaned up line, so they're not so scratchy and fuzzy looking, so they're not so rough. This icon over here on my layer is actually a really nice want to work with. You can click on this button or this box like dash, and it'll make your drawing become an outline. So for tracing over stuff, that's really handy. My zoom in. Now you can see what I mean. It just basically makes an outline off the marks off. The brush marks off the lower there. And now I'm gonna follow this. Exactly. Just try and make just one straight not or won clean line all the way over. And when it comes to his feet. It's quite an important point. I wanted to start with both feet facing forwards so that when he bends down, I don't have to worry about changing us his fees around. So I'll do that for the rest off my drawings, just tracing over them. I'm following that as a guide. I'm not being very particular about this, you know, I'm not really kind of getting into super details or anything like that. The animation is intended to be quite rough anyway, so it's nice toe have that rough handling look. So I'm just working with it like that. I am drawing over this post, but I wanted to note that this is not going to be one of my final key poses. I'm making this drawing at this stage to make sure that I got enough space. When the character goes from the ground into the jump on, I'll explain what I mean leisure, Um, but just bear in mind that this that stretch pose is not the final key pose for the jump. Okay, on this is his contact position or overshoot pose where he lands on the ground on in swinging his arms. Wars like this as he lands, Okay. And then my final drawing is him standing back to normal. So hopefully everything. The volume has stayed consistent through it all of the frames because I was able to trace over them, so it should be okay. Okay. Andi, that's his final standing pose. Okay, so Yep. Was look pretty okay to me, the timing obviously hasn't been determined yet. It's just more or less reading if the staging works. And if the drawings work and I think they do now, I'm going to go back in, and I'm going to change. Swap this pose for the actual key pose that I want to be in the top of the jump. 19. Character Jump 2: so the first thing I can do is get rid of my rough slayer on. Now. I just have one layer with all of my key drawings, so it's time to swap this guy out. As you remember, I drew him in so that I was able to measure the space that I had from the ground position up into the jump on. Now I'm just going to delete that you can click on the frame itself. Andi hit backspace on your keyboard, and that will delete the drawing completely from your stage, and it leaves you with a blankie prime. So I'll turn on onion skin on, drag it out so I can see both of deposes. Now I'm gonna draw. Now I'm going to draw this little guy in the top of his ark. Basically, if you remember the bouncing ball, that's the pose that we need to get to so the top of the bones as it relates to bouncing ball. So again I can just trace over one of my initial drawings, which is a very handy tip to do, because, especially for the head, you don't want the head to start to lose. It's volume at all because that will really read little jump out in your animation of your heads, get smaller and smaller or bigger and bigger. So in the jump position, the jump at the window, Guy joked. When this character jumps to the top of the Ark, that's actually really depth. That is actually the squashed pose. If you think about squash and stretch, so his body is going to actually be a little bit, um, squashed up and his arms are gonna be up in the air like this. I'm going to draw his legs also sort of in the air like that. So it's nice to actually put them at a different kind of different angle to each other that well, read very well now for turn off onion skinning, and we can just have a quick look and see if that's working. I need to select him and drag him into place like that, so his jump is gonna be quite high up there. It's decent jump, and there you go. So, turning on onion skin, I can see all of my drawings on it looks to me like the last two drawings or not far out enough so I'll just select them by clicking on the keep room in the timeline and nudging them along. And now this is an important point to note your last frame or you're lost two friends from the key frames from the contact position to the settle pose. You really need to be careful that the feet lineup cause that's often where your animations look really wrong is if the feet starts sliding around. So I'm going to make some adjustments here to make sure that in both of these poses both of these key frames, the feet actually completely lineup. It'll just make that adjustment there. And now player back. You should see that he really definitely lands his feet planted down on the ground. They don't move at all. Okay, so now I'm gonna ship my key frames over and just get the timing right from my starting pose into the anticipation. I just want a couple of in betweens from the anticipation up to the jump. I think about three in between should do it because I want to want to read like he hangs in the air there a little bit. So yeah, those that timing seems to be working for those three. So I think I've got three in betweens from that pose to that pose. So make sure I've got the same on the other side into that overshoot pose. There we go on, then going into the settle pose again. I just need to in between at the most, I think that should work. So now I'm gonna press enter, and that's should be. Should be fairly decent. Very good. Good enough timing. Actually, there might be a couple of things at fault with the pose. I think this pose here needs to be adjusted, its not reading properly at all. I will click on the key from the timeline and just pick you on my keyboard Andi rotation of it because I could also just skewered or squash it down even further. Now let's see. Yeah, that pose reads a lot better on the timing is working. Think I'm happy enough with dash, so now create a new layer on top of that dragon underneath. On for on this layer, I'm going to draw in the ground because that's obviously very important for the animation. Juri Dai Qi is landing on solid ground So just put some grass there like that, make it a bit different than just plain old straight line. I just thought it might be nice, actually, Toe have something here to indicate that he's jumping over something. So I'm gonna put like, a box, maybe your some kind of little tiny, little small obstacle here that he actually has to jump over. You could put a like a puddle of water. Or maybe he's jumping over a a hole in the ground. It's it's up to you. But I'm just gonna leave it at that for now. Okay, So I'm gonna name this layer ground on, then luck that sort of drawn it again create a new layer on on this layer I'm gonna draw in my arcs. So obviously his arc is very straightforward for the jump. I mean, I don't I don't really need to stress, Dash, he just is gonna be following that are more or less from the starting position. But I'm very aware that I need to have a decent enough arc to follow for his arms. So if you look at his hand, his hand positions sort of swing up like that into the jump, and then they're going to swing in front of him down into the standing pose. So I want to draw that. They're just so that I know about something to refer once I get into animation. Okay, let's take a quick look at our checklist, see where we're at. So we drew our some nails on, we clean them up and created key poses out of them. Now, we've just determined the timing on. We've also created arcs. So we're about actually halfway through. The next thing we need to do is just make a timing chart. Then we can start in between ing on, Then go back over and check for any fixes. Okay? On a new layer. I'm gonna do my timing chart. Um, and I think of determined that I've got five key frames to work with, so I will indicate them with the's circles. 1234 on one more five. So those my key poses This is my starting position or my idol pose. The next one is the anticipation pose, which is that one. Then you've got the action pose, which is the jump breeze in the air on then the overshoot where he lands on the final pose , which is the settle. So on my time nine I've got let's a let's see 22 poses to in between. Sort of going into the anticipation on that will be a slow in because he's slowing into the anticipation and then he's going to spring out of it and go into the jumps of the jump will be a slow into the jump pose. There'll be a slowing out from that jump pose as he hangs in the air, prove it's lands on the ground, and from the overshoot into the settle, there's two in betweens on that will be a slow into the settle. So, so far, very straightforward. And pretty much everything we've done has been along the lines off the bouncing ball and previous animations that we worked on. Going into the next phase of this project, it's gonna be in between ing. I'm going to take a lot longer to animate this up because, as I say, even though this is a very simple stick figure character, there is a quite a lot of complexity involved. If you think about it, we're gonna have to in between his arms and legs, the hands on also the body and the head. So a lot of moving parts, but we'll take it one step at a time, and I've broken the in between ing part open to two separate videos. So we'll take 1/2 and half when you're ready. Join me in the next video on, we'll start animating. 20. Character Jump 3: okay, if you've got this far with me, well done. This is a huge chunk of work. In fact, an amazing I always think the most amount of work that goes into animating is in the planning, and it's really, really important to get the planning. Don't write. It will make all of your animation go much smoother. So let's move over. Move ahead on get into in between it. The last thing that I want to do in my preparation stage before I dive into in between ing is to do mark out my keys on my timing chart. So if I just named a sous chart and said it to guide like it down, I'll create a new layer both dash and here I'm gonna just with a another color red just market where Mikey Poses are so that when I am an amazing and I need to refer to my timing chart, I out a glance. Comptel. Exactly which key frame I'm on in relation to the timing charts. Surging a blankie frame and just drawing a red dot like that really, really helps me. Anyway, you don't have to do this step by any means. You can skip it always. You've worked at your timing chart and you're happy enough with that and you know you can refer to it. You don't have to do this step. So lastly, I'll just make a folder so I can drag all of my guides into the folder and close it down, and they are out of the way. Now, I've just got my ground plane on my animation there. Okay, So the first section I'm going to do is this one between the start and the anticipation and it's only two in betweens. So what I'll do is so it's a slow into the anticipation. So I'll come along to my first in between on my timeline create a blankie frame, and then I can draw my new pose exactly halfway between my first pose on my last pot's. So first of all of just trace over the head to make sure that I'm keeping volumes consistent. Then I'm gonna grab that que on my keyboard, tilt his head down slightly and place it more or less halfway between those two. My first in between drawing for this slow end to the anticipation pose so that you do it on now I'm gonna draw the body bending down over into that pose. And what I'm doing is I'm essentially of referencing. The purple drawing is my first pose on the green. Drawing on this onion skin is the 2nd 1 I'm trying to draw all of the elements of this character in between those two. So, for example, with the leg, I've got to make sure that the leg is halfway between the purple and the green. So handy way to do it is just to find where the nears. So where the knee is bending, I can just draw halfway between those two points Similarly, with the arms, I'm gonna find a hand first with the hand halfway, Then find the elbow, get the elbow halfway between the green and the purple one, and then I can join them up. That's a lot easier than just trying to draw the whole arm and figure out where the whole arm goes halfway. Pick up a few points like the elbow or the knee or the hand. Okay, let's do the next in between on and sort of blankie frame. Andi, I'm gonna trays over this drawing first, make sure it's the same. Okay like that. Select it tilted. So it's not completely the same on and dragged out halfway between the previous head on the 3rd 1 I know to draw the body and the arms and legs again, trying to reference the shape. The shape is obviously changing, but within that change of trying to draw halfway between previous one on the subsequent one . And I have to make sure that defeat stay exactly the same. I don't want them to move around at all. Withdraw my hand first for the halfway point, Didn't find the elbow and draw the Albert to the hand. And then it's easy enough to find the halfway point for where the arm joins up to the body . Okay, that looks OK. Think I could put his his other arm moving behind his body into that pose? I need to just indicate that it's coming out here, so just draw the on. First I draw the arm, sort of like that. So we're only just about seeing it in this pose and then in the next post received clear. Okay, that's that section done. Now I'm gonna animate from the anticipation into that jump. And again, it's a slow into that pose. So I'm going to start in my first in between. On my timeline, I'm gonna insert a blank key frame there, and now I'm gonna draw. Oppose. That's exactly half way between these two. But now, don't forget this pose is where he is. He's just jumped off from the ground. So it's going to be that eat engaged stretch pose that we saw earlier on. Just check that my arcs where my arcs are going. So yeah, looks OK. And so from this anticipation pose, he's really sort of spring. He's going to spring up, so I want the I want his body position to be really long, really even engage did. And it will also be at an angle. So his tragic trajectory is going up at an angle like that. So and his legs going to will be completely straight. At this point on, I'm gonna draw his feet pointing downwards. So there it's almost like if you can imagine the toes or the last point of contact, the last things to leave and they're being dragged behind him. Then his arms are probably going to swing forwards in front of him to help him with that momentum off, like springing up into the air. Okay, so let's see if that reads, Um, I think I think that could work. We'll have to put the other in betweens in first and see, But I might just a just a just the tilt or the angle, Uh, position and more or less. There. Okay, so that looks OK. Yeah. Think that'll work. So, moving ahead. I've got two more in betweens left into the jump. Move ahead in the timeline created new blank key frame. I'm gonna be careful to trace the head from this this pose. So that matches what? See? Select the whole thing. Drag it to the halfway position on the the body shape has to change from that very easy elongated pose into a bit more of a squashed pose. So in this drawing on the next one, I'm gonna have to make sure that it incrementally starts to match the pose where he's in the jump, and then his legs are also going to start to change and shift into position. So I want to start to bend them a slightly in this key frame or in this frame, the fees are still gonna be dragging behind him a little bit when we draw the hand first to make sure them in half way on join the elbow. And now this is the pose where it's very close to the jump position. So again, the idea if you remember in the bouncing ball this is all about giving it that sense of hang time in the air. So the momentum has slowed down by the time he reaches the top position, and it will stay a little bit slow before he falls out of it into the landing position. So spacing the drawings close together like that, like this is really gonna give that effect on the body shape now is starting to move into that more squashed position. Look, squashed look. Okay. And now his feet are also starting to catch up, and they are starting to point upwards. Now sleep his arms, be fully out in front of him at the stage. I'm gonna draw from the hand to the elbow, making sure that I got the halfway point between the purple in the green elbows. Andrew, the other hand, first get that halfway points between the green and the purple. I'm not to do it. I'll just make a site, change their think that arms a bit too. Too long. Okay, so just editing that and then I'm gonna hit cute, just rotated down. So it's in position. Property? That's a lot better. So I've animated exactly half of my timeline on. I just have half more to go and I'll be finished in the next video. We're gonna do the final remaining two key poses and the in betweens. 21. Character Jump 4: So from the jump pose in the air into that contact position off the overshoot there is a slow out. So I'm gonna go to my last in between on my timeline and sort of blankie for him there. And I'm going to start an amazing backwards into that jump position. So my drawing is gonna be exactly halfway between these two drawings. Gonna reference my head to that drawing there, selected dragon into position on, then just using cue to rotate it back around so similarly to the first half of the arc. This drawing here is a stretch drawing. So I want to make sure that his body is gonna be stretching down into that landing position we could really stretch, stretch the body shape down on, keep the legs completely straight and have the feet pointing upwards. You can land on his heels. That'll reinforce that that sense of impact when he does land now, his arms, which were in front of them in the jump in the high high point of the jump position, are gonna be swinging down, swinging down into the landing pose. So his ends are gonna be coming down now. Okay, let's see how that looks. Yep. That's fine. Moving back. One in sort of blankie frame. Gonna make a drawing in between. Well, just in between the drag in between the jump on that stretched pose. So about halfway, I know the body shape as to sort of come out of that squashed looking pose, and it's starts to engage into that stretch pose. It's not fully stretched yet either, just but that should do it. The legs are gonna be coming from bent position into the straightened out pose, so could be slightly bent in this drawing on his arm. Positions are coming down again in front of him. Okay. And then moving back, one inserting a blankie frames. This is gonna be my last in between for the section. Pretty much nearly done. I'm gonna reference my the head from that pose. Maybe in this one, he's just slightly starting to look downwards to where he's gonna land and what is shaped. Starting to move slightly towards a stretch position and the legs are curled up or bends up in front underneath him like this. And now they can start to stretch out as he moves towards his landing position that's looking quite good. Now. I've got literally two drawings left to do for this character. Jump on those of the last to pose from the overshoot pose, which was him landing on the ground into the standing up. So that's a slow out or no sorry. A slow into the settle. Just have a quick check of my arc. Safety arcs of working the hand seemed to be following that are just fine on the jump is following the purple arc. Okay, so we could move ahead and insert a blankie frame for the slow in. So that's my first in between On the timeline on my drawing will be exactly halfway between these two drawings, so he's going from a real bent bent over position into standing up. His body shape doesn't necessarily change. There's no squash or stretch here. It's just literally the position that has changed on his legs. Start to straighten out. So making sure make sure that I get that the feet correct, and you know that they're not moving at all on the ground. Find the halfway point between the knees on the hips on the same with the arms, placing the hands first in the halfway point on drawing the arms to the out elbows wherever there they are bent. That's going to show me where the halfway point is. But on the very last drawing now, almost there. So tracing, I'm gonna trace us head because this is the drawing that he's actually going settling into were easing into. So it's good to take my cue or my reference from there. Here we go now his legs are almost completely straight. Feet are in the exact same position. The line just come zones right in between there, All right, so now we'll zoom back out and play this through on. There's a character jumping and it's works fine. It's great. I'm happy enough with that. I don't know if you've been following along with me and you've been done amazing at the same speed as me, or at least an amazing every step of the way with me. I hope you have. And if you have, I hope you've gotten this far and achieve this result. Got life. It's got movement, it reads. Find nothing is jumping out as not working. The only thing that I'm going to do is in the next video. I want to show you how you would make some fixes if there is anything wrong. So in my animation, when I play it back, something that's jumping out at me is his arms. Arms aren't in the right position, and I think that could be improved upon. So join me in the next video. No show you very quickly and easily how Teoh make adjustments and change your animation. 22. Character Jump Fixes: So the main thing that I noticed for me in my animation is from the anticipation pose into the stretched pose. The arms aren't really in the right position for me. There's Jew, much of a gap or difference between them. So I'm going to go back into this pose here and literally a race size or delete the arms. Andi, come and try and come back in with my brush tool and redraw them so I don't have to change the whole drawing at all or don't have to take any key for him out. I'm just gonna raise at the parts that aren't working. So for me, those arms are really jumping out as being not smooth, not consistent. So in a sense, when you have a character with moving parts like this, some of the parts will move at different rates on. It's a bit of an advanced concept in animation or in advance principle, but it's essentially things like arms will and feet were dragged behind a character like this in a jump. So I think that's gonna work a lot better if I just make that adjustment and put those arms sort of taking a lot longer to catch up to the rest of the pose. A few nota mean so in this drawing. Similarly, I'm gonna make the arms just lag behind. Slightly toe haven't quite caught up to that position in front of the body. They're still making their way up slower than the rest of the body at this stage. So arms, legs and feet, anything that will drag behind the main book off the object. So just select this arm and move it down. And in fact, this arms Probably because this arm is coming from behind him at this pose. I don't even need to see that a proportion of the arm, it's just the section could dragged up over there on the upper part of the arm is literally behind his body at the state, if that makes sense. So that's a much better pose, I think. Yeah, I can. I can instantly instantly see that I hope you can too. The I reads that action a lot smoother. I'm also seeing some issues with this pose here where the arms are not in a great position on. I'm gonna change these. So this arm here needs to be much lower on the other one. Because if you concede the purple arm is way down there on the green arm is up there because this arm ist sort of lagging behind somewhat in order to catch up. I think it's better if I position it here. That should be okay. Now we'll play the animation back on That reads a lot better. I know. Get a much better sense of this character using his arms to swing himself up as he goes into that jump. I hope that makes sense to you. Hope you can see that. Let me know if you've got any questions whatsoever on. I really hope that you've gotten through this project with me or on your own. And if you have, please send it to me. Or at least please get in touch on. Give me some feedback. Andi, Let me know how you got on