Learn to Animate! Complete Guide to Animation Principles | Siobhan Twomey | Skillshare

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Learn to Animate! Complete Guide to Animation Principles

teacher avatar Siobhan Twomey, Artist, Illustrator, Instructor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

23 Lessons (2h 34m)
    • 1. Learn to Animate

    • 2. Software Options for Animation

    • 3. Introduction to Adobe Animate

    • 4. The Timeline

    • 5. Common Keyboard Shortcuts

    • 6. What is a Symbol

    • 7. Frames and Frame Rates

    • 8. Key Frames

    • 9. Breakdowns

    • 10. In-betweens

    • 11. Spacing for Ease Out and Ease In

    • 12. Timing and Spacing

    • 13. Squash and Stretch

    • 14. Anticipation, Overshoot and Settle

    • 15. Bouncing Ball 1

    • 16. Bouncing Ball 2

    • 17. Bouncing Ball 3

    • 18. Character Jump 1

    • 19. Character Jump 2

    • 20. Character Jump 3

    • 21. Character Jump 4

    • 22. Character Jump Fixes

    • 23. How to Export Video from Animate

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About This Class

This is a beginner's guide to animation. You will learn everything you need to know in order to be able to animate objects, text, and even characters.

If you want to learn how to animate from scratch, you can start right here with this course. I've made this course for complete beginners, so if you’ve never heard of a key frame or you don’t know what a timing chart is, then this course is for you.  I also think this course will be great for anyone who has a fair idea of animation, someone who is a beginner animator, and has been using software to make things move around, but who would like to really know the fundamentals and core principles in order to bring their animation to the next level.

These core principles of animation will set you up for life as an animator. You will learn step by step how to create realistic and appealing motion; plus you'll learn why specific animation techniques effectively bring objects to life. And importantly you'll learn when to apply them to your work.

I use Adobe Animate in this course to teach you how to animate. But there are free options that you can use to follow along; and I cover these options in the first part of the course. What you’ll be studying is basic frame by frame hand drawn animation. This is the best way to learn these principles. And don’t worry if you think that you can’t draw, we are working with basic shapes to animate - to literally bring those shapes to life.

What’s covered in this course

Whether you want to ultimately work in 3D, motion graphics or 2D animtion, you will need to know the things like

  • easing in and out of key frames

  • how to create an ease,

  • why you need to do that - and when you should apply it.

You’ll also learn skills that will not only make you an animator, but will make sure you are a really good animator - skills such as

  • timing and spacing

  • squash and stretch

  • working in arcs

  • working with timing charts

  • how to animate with anticipation, overshoot and settle

Meet Your Teacher

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Siobhan Twomey

Artist, Illustrator, Instructor

Top Teacher

Hello, I'm Siobhan :)

My background spans the disciplines of drawing, painting, filmmaking and animation. I studied Film in Dublin, and at the Tisch School of the Arts, at NYU in New York. I later studied drawing and animation. Since 2002, I have worked in studios in Vancouver and Dublin as a professional background artist and environment designer. I've also worked as a storyboard artist, concept artist, and I have directed a number of short animated films.

All in all, I've worked for 20 years as an Artist, Illustrator and Animation Professional. I've provided artwork for studios whose clients include Disney UK, Sony Pictures Animation, HMH Publishing, to name a few. I also have an ongoing drawing and painting practice: I paint portraits on commission, and e... See full profile

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1. Learn to Animate: [MUSIC] Hi there. I'm Siobhan. I'm an artist and an animation professional and this course is part one in a series on learning how to animate. If you want to learn how to animate, then this course is the place to start because it teaches you the absolute basic foundations from scratch. The principles and the techniques that I cover here will literally set you up for life as an animator. I've made this course for complete beginners. So if you've never heard of a keyframe or you don't know what a timing chart is, then this course is for you. I also think that this course will be great for someone who has a fair idea of animation, who has maybe been using software to move stuff around, but who would like a really deeper understanding of the core principles and techniques. [MUSIC] So what you'll be studying in this course is frame by frame hand-drawn animation because I believe that's the best way to learn these principles. Don't worry if you think that you can't draw because we're working with basic shapes and simply focusing on bringing those basic shapes or objects to life. The course starts out teaching how to animate with key frames. Then takes you step by step, right the way through to animating a character jumping. I've structured each lesson so that it's neither confusing nor overwhelming and because I keep the application of the principle very simple, you'll really have a chance to get to grips with all of the ideas that I covered without having to worry about drawing or working with symbols or working with complex rigs. As we build from one stage to the next, you can add layers of polish to your work and eventually progress to animating a fluid and dynamic character action. I really want to ensure that you feel confident animating a complex character with moving parts by the time we get to the final project. Whether you want to work ultimately in 2D or even 3D animation, you'll need to know things like easing and key why you'd use an ease and when you would apply it. Plus, I also wanted to make sure that you know skills that will not just made you an animator, but will make you a good animator. Skills such as squash and stretch, and timing and spacing. Without really knowing about timing and spacing, your animation might look very flash and mechanical. In addition to that, I'm also going to teach you classic animation principles such as squash and stretch, and how to give your character appeal. Once you're enrolled in this course, you've got access to all of the student downloads that I've left in the resource section. You also have access to meet, ask me any questions that you want, or to get feedback on your work because I'm here to help you along the way, and to monitor your progress. I worked in animation since about 2005 or 2006, about ten years ago, I designed and directed a series of three short films. One of them won Best Animation in a film festival and went on to be incorporated into an educational pack for primary schools across Ireland. After that, I went on to work in animation studios in Dublin. I also have worked in atomic cartoons in Vancouver, as well as doing an internship at [inaudible] in Vancouver. All in all, I've got over 15 years experience in the animation industry. Now, I'm really focused on teaching animation and art skills in general. My main aim and goal is to teach you the skills and the techniques that you need to get your own animation career up and running. Thanks for checking this out. I hope you enroll and if you do, I look forward to seeing you in the course. 2. Software Options for Animation: In this video, I'm just going to introduce you to Adobe Animate if you don't know the software already and I'm also going to discuss some alternatives. This course deals with animation principles. So that means that ultimately what I'll be teaching you will be applicable to any software that you want to work in as well as any kind of animation that you end up producing, whether it's 3D, 2D, or even stop motion. I'm using 2D software because it's the simplest setup in order to explain and demonstrate these principles. For me, Adobe Animate is also one of the simplest software options out there. I suppose it's not simple for beginners, but I should say that it's really the most straightforward of tools once you've gotten familiar with all of its [inaudible]. I like it because you can use it in a really direct way. You just draw on the stage and you make key on your timeline. That, to me, is very straightforward and that's why it's such an easy program to learn on if you are starting out. Also Animate is professional-grade software. It's been used in the past to make numerous TV shows with huge production pipelines. Although in recent years Toon Boom Harmony has become more of the industry standard. Animate costs about $19 a month if you sign up for a year subscription or it could run about $29 a month if you're just leasing it month to month. I totally understand that that's not really an accessible option for everyone, especially if you're just starting out. But that's quite a fair price to pay if you're only experimenting and seeing if animation really is for you. So if you are happy enough to work alongside me in this course with Animate, then you can just skip ahead to the next lectures. But if you want to hear about some of the free options that are out there, then keep watching. I made a list of five free animation programs that I think are really the best options to look into. I'll go through them one by one, and then I'll show you the one which I think I would go for if I was picking a free option. The first one is OpenToonz. It's a very popular option. It's open-source. It takes a little bit of time to get used to it. But once you do get used to the workflow inside of it, it's great. There's also tons of new features being added to it all the time. Another one is Synfig. It's also open source. It's got a timeline that looks more like After Effects. It also has a great library of resources and tutorials to help you get started. Pencil2D is also open source. It supports vector and bitmap images and it has a similar timeline to Animate. So it's a very easy to use and very intuitive program. Then there is Animation Paper, which actually is now called Plastic Animation. This is a program based on the old traditional way of animating with x-sheets down the side. Then lastly there's Krita. This is the one that I would go for if I was choosing which software to use for free. It's great because it's very similar to Photoshop. In fact, it is primarily a drawing program. But you can set it up for animation along with a timeline if you go up to this window here and choose the animation layout. So then for the next couple of videos, I'm going to explain Animate CC and how to work with that program specifically. Then we'll get into the rest of the course, which is looking at the principles of animation and starting to animate. 3. Introduction to Adobe Animate: When you first open up Animate, you get this welcome screen and as you can see, there are many different options for creating documents. Up here, you've got different presets. For example, if you were making specific files for social media, for games or for the web. But for now, for our purposes, we're just going to stick with this tab which says character animation. I've just now noticed that the icon for this is the bouncing ball which is interesting since that's going to be one of our course projects. That's a good sign, were off to a good start with that. Just make sure that you're on full HD, that's going to be fine. The only other thing that I want you to change on this page here is that the frame rate, just make sure your frame rate says 24. You can leave this on ActionScript 3.0. Then just click "Create" and if you've never opened Animate before, your interface might look something like this. This is just the default layout and we're actually just going to arrange things to suit our needs. If it's not looking exactly like this, maybe you've got it set on one of these other options. Just come up here and choose essential so you're starting off on the exact same page as me. Like every other Adobe program, you can drag panels around and you can change things up exactly how you wanted and customize your space quite a bit. What I'm going to do is drag the tools over to the left. When I see that blue highlight on the left there, I'm just going to release and that snaps into place over there. I'm going to drag it into the side so that there's just going to be two rows of tools. If I drag it all over to one row of tools, you can see that you lose some of the options, so two rows is fine. These panels, I'm actually going to drag into my right-hand menu like this. They're all one underneath each other. Now that gives me a lot more room, a lot more screen space to work with. This base over here is usually called the stage. You can think of it as the screen that your final movie's going to play out on or you can even think of it as the camera that is capturing the animation or capturing the action. Whichever of those is handiest but just know that anything that's off to the left or outside of this white area is not going to be registered when you export your movie. You can definitely make use of this gray area to have things start off-screen and come into frame so you could definitely animates things that are off this whites space. But once you export your movie, you won't see anything that's over there. You only will see what's on your stage. I'm going to just go up here and save this layout in case anything gets changed down the line and if something does get changed up and I can't find the panels with the tools that I'm looking for, I can always just go back up to this window and find my personalized workspace. For me, I think it's really important to have a very clear visual of the stage and your timeline as well. The timeline is down here underneath the stage because for animation, this is where you want to create the keys or the frames that you're going to be working with. You can zoom into the stage and work on things in detail but what I'm going to do for all of the lessons in this course is I will always just go up here and choose the option to set my stage to fit within this window. That way, if I drive my timeline up and down, the stage would always appear like that. You've got your document set up, you're ready to work. If you do want to save your document, it's like any other program. You can use the five command on a Mac anyways, "Command Shift S" to Save As, or "Control Shift S" on a PC, o r you can come up to "File", "Save As", and save things that way. For this course, we're learning frame-by-frame, hand-drawn, or at least digitally hand-drawn animation. One of the most important tools that we'll be using is the brush tool and that's over here on the left. Like Photoshop, you can hit "B" on your keyboard to bring up the brush tool or just come over here and click on it like that. Once you are in brush mode, you can change the dynamics of the brush by clicking on these icons here, the pen pressure or the pen tilt and that changes it as you can see. But I'm just drawing with the regular brush. Follow along with me like that if you want to as well. We're not getting into any detail drawing at all in this course. We're just using basic hand-drawn stuff. To increase the size of your brush, you can use your square brackets. The open square decreases the size of your brush and the close square increases the size. You can also change the properties. If you come over to the right-hand side and click on the "Properties" tab, if you don't see properties on the right, just go up to Window properties and that'll automatically open it up for you. Just scroll down and here you can actually change the brush shape if you want it. But as I said, I'm just sticking with the default brush size and brush shape. Now because we're in a vector program, I just want to mention that your brush marks are directly editable. Just be aware that if you are trying to select, say, a brush mark that you've made, you might end up doing something like this. Now, this can be very useful in some contexts but if you wanted to simply move your brush stroke around, then just make sure that you've selected the whole thing. Hit "V" on your keyboard, click on it, or click and drag around it. Another easy way to select everything on your stage at once is just to come down to the timeline and click on the keyframe for that drawing. Hitting the keyframe automatically selects everything on the stage that's assigned to that frame. Maybe the only other tool that you might need apart from the brush tool is the eraser if you want to erase things out. That's just E on your keyboard and the eraser works the exact same as the brush. You could increase or decrease the size of the eraser. You could also come over to properties and change the shape. But a handy way to make any changes to your drawings if you wanted to is to select parts because this is vector-based and it's directly editable, you can just select parts of your drawing that you want to delete but I always use the Lasso tool, which is L on your keyboard. That allows you to select even just part of your drawing or select your whole drawing and either erase or redraw with it. Really those are the very, very basics for getting started. That's a quick overview of your workspace and the most important tool that you'll need for this course, which is the brush. In the next video, I'll go over keyboard shortcuts and specifically how they relate to key. If you've got any questions about your workspace or if you're unsure about how to work within the Animate CC interface, send me a message and I will be happy to help you. Otherwise, I'll see you in the next video. 4. The Timeline: So as important as the stage is because this is where we'll be drawing all of our animation, equally important is the timeline down here, because this is where we will be setting the duration and the keyframes for our animation. So the two components really go hand in hand. You can't have one without the other if you want to animate and have stuff move around. All of these small tiny boxes down here are frames. Because we set our document to 24 frames per second, essentially for one second of animation, you'll have 24 of these little boxes or 24 frames. You can see here where it tells you one second, two seconds, three seconds, four seconds. If you want to, you can also scale up this area by using the slider over here makes the frames bigger for you to see or not. I tend to use it just in the default view because I'm used to it, but by all means scale it up if you need to, that's fine. Another way to think of the stage area is to also, I mentioned that you could think of it as a screen or as the camera view that's capturing the action of the animation, but another way to think of it is as sheet of paper. Basically, there's two ways to animate. Let's say you have a drawing on frame 1, if you go along the timeline to this frame and right click, you'll see you've got all these options. You can choose just Insert Frame. What that does is basically hold drawing this on the first frame for the entire duration. So there's no animation because there hasn't been any new drawing. It's just one drawing that's being held for this amount of time. So it's still a drawing on one piece of paper if you like. If you right-click and then choose Insert Keyframe, that's now created two drawings. So you can think of it as second sheet of paper with a second drawing on it. It doesn't look like you've got two drawings because essentially it's the exact same one. This frame is the same as the other one. But I'll show you that it's two separate drawings if I just select it and holding down shift and my right arrow key to move it. If I move back and forth, you can see now that these are two different drawings. So I've got one second of animation with two key frames, but there's actually no animation because there's no change in anything that I've drawn. So I'm going to come back along here to the middle. In this one I can right-click again and this time I'll choose to insert a blank keyframe. Now what I've done here is I've given myself a completely clean stage or you could think of it as a completely clean sheet of paper. Generally, to make an animation, you would have to draw the same stick figure here in a new pose. In animate, what you can do is come up here and there is a small icon here called onion skinning. Turn that on. That shows you a ghosted or faint image of the first drawing. You can also drag these brackets out and it'll show you a ghosted or faint image of the subsequent drawing during the next frame. As I said because my first and last drawing are the same, you don't see any difference. But now what you can do is simply trace that first drawing and then make whatever changes you wanted to that pose in this frame. So let's just say he's waving, his arm is going to be slightly different. Everything else is going to stay the same. Now that's going to read as your basic animation because you've got three different frames and you've got three different drawings. As you can see, there is some movement. Another way to do the exact same thing is to simply, instead of inserting a blank keyframe, at this point you could also right-click and insert keyframe which again as I've explained just duplicates that previous drawing. Now you can just make changes to this one. It just saves you having to redraw the full figure if you just wanted to change his arm. So the other important thing to know about the timeline is that you can work with the timeline in layers. Very similar to Photoshop or any of those other drawing programs, you can use as many layers as you want. You can even group layers into folders. This all becomes very, very handy when you need to add things like guides, which I'm going to show you how to do later on. You could even have a background on one layer and your animation on top. When we get into animating the bouncing ball and our character jumping, we'll be using layers that are lashed to try and build up our animation in stages. So that's the basics of the timeline and keyframes. As we progress throughout the course, you'll be working a lot with everything that I've covered in this video. So practice does make perfect and it's not until you really start working with these ideas that they'll begin to make a lot more sense. In the next video though, I do want to explain a few important points about keyboard shortcuts, especially for animation. Join me there and I'll show you how you can use your keyboard shortcuts to create keyframes on your timeline. 5. Common Keyboard Shortcuts: I've already mentioned some keyboard shortcuts, such as B for the brush tool, or V to select something, or L to use the lasso tool. But in this video, I want to explain some of the shortcuts that you can use for the timeline. When you're animating your creation frames, and keyframes, and blank keyframes, and it's not really ideal to have to right-click every single time to access those options and then choose the one that you want, there's a much easier and faster way, but it does depend on how you have your keyboard setup, specifically, how you have your function keys set. For me, for example, my function keys at the top of my keyboard actually don't work, so if I wanted to press F6 or F7, that's actually my brightness, and my F9 and F10 is my volume. What I've got to do is go into System Preferences, then click on keyboard, and here I can check the box that says use F1, 2 etc. keys as standard function keys. With that switched on, I can now go back into Animate and then if I use F6, I can simply create keyframes just with that click of the button. Similarly, F5 is for a regular frame so that words just it extends to keep the timeline out a bit. If you wanted to extend your timeline out a lot, what you can do is click and drag over a whole bunch of frames like that. If you hit F5 now, that amount of frames that were highlighted, will be duplicated or will be added on to your timeline. Then F7 is to insert a blank keyframe. F6 is for a keyframe, F7 for a blank keyframe, and F5, just to fill out the timeline to add frames. That's very useful and very handy for your workflow. But now I just wanted to take a moment to talk about the actual terminology for animation. In animation, the terminology is that a keyframe is your main drawing or your main pose within your animation. It's the most important one that you've got. Let's say for now, you could think of it as say, it's the starting and the ending pose. I will explain in a lot more detail of what keyframes are and how to use them to animate. But for now, I wanted to highlight the fact that animators tend to talk about keyframes as being poses or drawings that determine the animation. Just to make things confusing, Animate, the software, calls everything that has a drawing a keyframe. Basically in animation, you've got two keyframes that are filled out by in-between drawings. In Animate CC, you could have two keyframes that are filled out with other keyframes. Basically anything that has a drawing on it, Animate is going to call it a keyframe. What I want to teach you in this course is how to animate frame by frame animations. Basically, how to animate your keyframes and your in-betweens. But because of the software, every time that I'm going to add a new drawing into my animation, I'm going to have to choose insert keyframe in order to make that drawing. Just be aware that even though Animate likes to call everything a keyframe, the thing to bear in mind is that a key pose is the main drawing in your animation. This is going to make much more sense when you actually start animation, but for now, I just wanted you to be aware of the common naming conventions that apply to keyframes and in-betweens. 6. What is a Symbol: In this video, I'm going to explain a feature of Adobe Animate that's important for you to understand, although it's not necessary to work with in this course. That's the whole side of symbols. Just to be clear, for this course, we are learning frame-by-frame animation, so I'm not working with symbols at all. But maybe you know what symbols are or you're curious about how they work, so I just wanted to have one video that covers that. This course is the first in a series of courses on animation, and in the next course you will learn how to create a character from scratch using symbols that will animate based on the principles that you learn in this course. Before I get into explaining symbols, I do want to point out these drawing tools here. You've got the line, the square, the oval and this guy here, which is the poly star. All of these basic shapes can be used to create very complex drawings. Each of the shapes is made up of an outline as you can see and an inside fill color. The main difference between a line and a fill in Animate, is that the line is made up of vector points, which are the points that make up the object, and those vector points only exist within the width of the line. Whereas a fill is made up of vector points around its boundaries. You can actually pull and push these points or these lines to manipulate the shape into whatever way you want. That's a quick overview of the shape tools. If you've never come across symbols before, then the main thing to know about symbols is that they're just drawings. I can make a drawing, but then I can right-click and convert it to a symbol. Now, for animation I always choose "Graphic" in this box here. Don't ever worry about advanced settings. I can also change the anchor point or let's say the registration of the anchor point to if I want it to be in the center, that's really useful if you want to rotate an object, it would rotate around the central anchor point. If you wanted to rotate it around the top left, you could set your anchor point there or anywhere else within this box. Once you've converted a drawing to a symbol, this now acts in a very different way than if it was just a regular drawing. Because the software has now categorized this drawing as a symbol. For example, a symbol can be twinned for motion between one point and another, and a symbol can also be duplicated as many times as you like without the software having to duplicate the information. In other words, you can have a load of these all over the stage, then if you click into this one and change the color here, you'll see it changes in every other instance of that drawing. Now animation with symbols, as I said, is a whole other world of processes, and that is all going to be covered in the next course. But it's important that you're aware of the side of Animate. I'm very excited that you get to learn the principles of animation frame-by-frame in this course and then apply it to complex character animation later on. Up next, let's just cover one last video relating to technical stuff before we dive into learning how to animate. 7. Frames and Frame Rates: This video is a quick video on frames and frame rates because it's a really important part of animation. But it's also an area that can be a bit confusing. A frame rate is really the frequency or the rate at which consecutive images or frames appear on the screen. Nowadays, everything is all about a higher frame rate. You've 4K at 60 frames per second and 4K at a 120 frames per second. Essentially, a higher frame rate means smoother motion and a higher resolution means more detail within the image. You've heard me talk all along about 24 frames per second. That might sound a bit boring when technically 60 or a 120 frames per second makes everything look smoother. You might be wondering, why are we working at 24 frames? Well, 60 frames per second or a 120 frames per second is generally used for high action film or gaming. A lot of the way that we animate for cartoons or TV shows is done in 24 frames per second, not in 60 or 120. For the most part, this is a standard frame rate and it's been standard since really the beginning of film. When we were shooting film on celluloid, you'd have 24 little frames per one second of film strip. It was decided upon 24 frames per second because that's what the eye can easily read to recognize motion. Now, the point that I want you to be really clear about is that not only is 24 frames per second the standard across the industry but, and this is very important, 24 frames per second is the easiest frame rate to work in if you want to animate on twos. Animating on twos means that you'll only ever need to place a drawing every second frame. Animating on ones means that you animate or you draw a picture or make a drawing on every single frame in between zero and 24. By making a drawing on every second frame, it works because even though there's just 12 drawings, we still read the motion exactly the same and therefore, as animators, that gives us the opportunity to cut our workload in half. That becomes crucial when you're working in the industry, on a TV show and you're trying to put out an episode a week. To be able to cut your work time down by half is quite a big deal. Working in any other frame rate will really start to make animating on twos very complicated and a bit messy. You wind up having to animate on ones for a lot of it. As you're learning animation and getting to know all about the principles that I'm going to teach you in this course. I highly recommend that you work in 24 frames per second. Later on when you're using twos and you're making complex character animation and you're comfortable with the principles, then I encourage you to experiment and try working in a different frame rate. But for now, that's the logics anyway and that's how we'll work as we move forward through the course. 8. Key Frames: Keyframe and animation represents the main action or pose within a given movement. A very simple example is the animation of this ball moving. It moves from A to B. These two poses here represents the keyframes within the entire animation. In order to get an object moving, you have to at least establish the first key pose or the starting position, and then the next key frame or position. In character animation, a key pose is sometimes is called an extreme. This is because these drawings represent the most extreme point or the most extreme place for that action. For example, in this ball going from A to B, this here is the most extreme position on the left of the action, and this position here is the most extreme that the ball gets to on the right-hand side. If the same ball traveled, for example, in a zigzag motion like this, then you could also call these drawings keyframes. Again, these are the extreme points of each path that the ball travels. You can think of keys as being drawings that show any change in movement or direction. Now the whole point of keyframes, along with the fact that they represent the main action, is that they also indicate the timing. They show how long it takes, for example, this ball to get from A to B. The first key frame is at frame 1, and the ball starts to move and it takes one second to reach this keyframe. That's because I set the second keyframe at frame 24, or in this case 25, and there are 24 frames in one second. That's why it takes one second. Let's see how you would go about creating this simple setup. First of all, make a new document in animate, and then go down and make sure that you set your frame rate to 24. Click Create, then go down here to your timeline and you'll see there's a frame already with the blank circle on it. That's your blank keyframe. You're ready to go, if you click into there and if you draw on the stage, that will record your first keyframe, you just draw a simple circle. You can move ahead in the timeline to frame number 24. Then either hit F6 or right-click and create new keyframe. Now what's happened is that, animate has recorded the position of this existing drawing in a new keyframe. You're just going to drag it across. Hit V on your keyboard, and click and drag, I'm holding down Shift to ensure that I get a straight line, and drag into position that you want. Let's undo that quickly. Another thing that you could do is go over to your first key frame. Go to the next frame and insert a blank keyframe by right-clicking or hitting F7 on your keyboard. When you do that, you can just do your drawing where you want it to be on the stage. I'm going to turn on onion skinning so I can reference my first drawing. Now you've got the position of your second drawing, and you just need to click and drag that keyframe over to where you want it to be in the timeline. But obviously, now this animation is not really an animation. Just really jumps from one frame to the next. There's no movement here. Well, that's because we haven't put in any inbetweens. Inbetweens are the drawings that literally fill out the motion and allow our eye to see progressive drawings as movement. I'm going to go over inbetweens in detail in the next couple of videos. But before we get into that, I do want to show you how your software can alternate your inbetweens for you. I'm going to show you obviously in animate, but this is common to any program that has a timeline like Adobe After Effects or Premiere or anything like that, you will always have the option to have the software automate your inbetweens. In this case, what you do is you come down to your timeline and just choose anywhere in-between these two key frames, right-click, and then select and choose, Create Classic Tween. It's going to show you this message which basically says that it wants to convert your drawings to symbols, and can say, Okay for now. Then when you hit "Enter", you got a perfectly smooth motion created between your two key drawings. That's great. However, there are a few issues with this. One is that you still have no idea really how to inbetween yourself and if you're interested in animation, you do need to know how to draw your own inbetweens. Secondly, as you saw in the earlier error message that we got, tweens in animated way really only work with symbols. In this course, I really want to teach you how to master frame-by-frame animation, and how to use like even the most basic drawing skills to create believable and realistic motion. For that reason, I'm not going to really deal with tweens too much in this course, at least not for now. That's material for the next course that I'm going to do. I'm just going to delete this and go back to normal. If you do feel the need to have more of a discussion about tweens, you can let me know, just send me a quick message and I'll go through things with you. But for this course, let's focus on getting our skills up and running in just like digitally hand-on frame-by-frame animation. Have a goal at creating your keyframes and get comfortable working with spacing out your drawings and choosing your timing, and see how it goes if you choose less than 24 frames or more. Then when you're ready, join me in the next video, I'm going to talk all about breakdowns and then move on to inbetweening. 9. Breakdowns: The breakdown drawing in animation is really important because it actually determines the path of action between two key frames. It's not a key frame, but it's not really irregular in between either. The breakdown drawing is created after the key poses and before the in-betweens. That's basically the hierarchy of the drawings that you need to know when you're animating stuff. It's generally the order of how things get animated when you're working pose to pose. Pose to pose animation really means that you've got one key pose and a second key pose plus the breakdown already established, and you work out your in-betweens progressively. The other way of animation is called straight ahead animation, where you just have one key pose and you sort stylish into your second key pose. You don't really have a second key to reference or to know where you're going. This is very often used in stop motion animation. But for now, we'll work pose to pose. If you had these two key poses, well, you could assume that you were animation or your in-betweens are just going to join up in a straight line and create a smooth, straight animation from one key to the other. But if you were actually given the same two key poses plus this breakdown drawing, then your animation becomes very different. You know my in-betweens actually have to actually come down and then up again. Now, this also brings me to the very important principle in animation of arcs. I'm just going to take a moment to explain the idea of arcs. In animation, arcs are the most commonly used types of trajectories or paths of action. What that means is that even if a character lifts his hand up to point, that's going to be charted or tracked in an arc. His arm moving from this pose to this pose will actually travel in an arc. If you think about it, arcs are present everywhere. When you're walking next time, notice how your arms swing in an arc. When you're running, your feet tend to make small little arcs as you run along. Everything really naturally moves in an arc instead of a straight line. Things that move in a straight line from one point to another often feel very mechanical. In animation, this is actually really handy because it just means that you can do something like create a new layer above your keys and draw an arc to use as a guide. You can actually come over to your layer, right-click and choose guide. That will ensure that that layer doesn't export out in your final animation when you're finally find. I'm going to use this arc as a guide for where I'm going to place my in-betweens, then it becomes much easier. As you can see, that's ends up being quite a smooth and even natural looking movement. Just to recap, your breakdown drawing is the most important in-between, which tells you where the path of action goes. Then your arc will ensure that you've got a nice smooth and even motion when you do go to in-between. Let's look at in-betweens then in the next video. 10. In-betweens: In the old days of animation, when everything was hand-drawn, there was more or less a division of labor between the animator and the inbetweener. The animator will generally draw all the keyframes and the break-down drawings and hand those over to the assistant who would then do all the inbetweening. Well, nowadays, obviously, we've got digital animation and you can do the inbetweening and the keyframing yourself. In this video, we're going to take a close look at what in-betweens are and how to work with them. As you saw in the previous video, in-betweens are literally the drawings that come between the key drawings or the key poses. They're are those drawings or frames that really fill out the motion and create the sense of motion. This ball isn't actually moving, but each in-between is placed in such a way or it's positioned in such a way that the eye can read it progressively and think that it's moving. As I showed you already, you can very easily automate the motion between two keyframes if you want just a very straightforward constant speed from one key pose to the other. But as an animator, you'll always want to be able to control the motion and also control where you place them relative to your keyframes. That will really determine how the animation will look. The two questions really are, how many in-betweens do you use and where do you place them? If you've already determined from your keys that it will take one second, for example, for a ball to go from A to B, then that already tells you how many in-betweens you need because you'll either need 24 or 12. Remember, we're animating on 2's, so we are just making a drawing on every second frame. The eye will still read this as progressive motion. Then as to the question, where do you put your in-betweens, that's determined by whether or not you want a fast or slow speed. In this sense, really there's two things to know. Drawings that are spaced close together will actually slow down the motion or the action, and drawings that are spaced far apart will appear to speed up the action or the motion. This example is of two balls going from one side to the other at different speeds. They both have the same starting and ending position. But this one is fast and it just has a few frames, and this one is slower and it has way more frames. You can see here on the timeline that the slow ball takes twice as long to get to the same position and that's its timing. The timing is slower than the first ball. That one takes about half a second and the slow ball takes a full second. But you can have the same timing and still affect the appearance of speed simply by adjusting the spacing of your in-betweens. Take a look at this example. This is four separate animations of a ball going from left to right. When I play it, it really looks like they're moving at different speeds, doesn't it? In a sense they are, but yet they all have the exact same timing. It actually takes one second for all of them to get from A to B. But because of the spacing of the in-betweens in each one, they've got different variations of speed. This one here is just constant even speed and this one here starts off slow and speeds up into the end pose. This one speeds out of the first pose and then really slows down into the end. This animation here has what's called a slow out and a slow in. It slows out at the beginning, speeds up here, and then it slows in to that last key pose. That's essentially how you can add contrasting motion between two keyframes in your animation. Now let's break it down. I want to show you how to go about applying that to your inbetweening. There's basically two systems of inbetweening that I want to show you. In this video, I'll show you how to space out your in-betweens for normal constant speed, and then I'll show you how to work with varying your speeds and how to do an ease out and an ease in in the next video. I'm going to create a new document. I'm going to set my frame rate to 24. Then I'm just going to make my first drawing in this frame here on the left-hand side. Then I'll move forwards in the timeline and create another keyframe, and then drag that drawing over to the right. Now I've got my two poses, my starting pose and my ending pose. I'm going to turn on the onion skinning and drag it back so I can see both drawings at the same time. Right in the middle, so on my timeline I'm going to be at frame nine, I'll create another keyframe there, and drag that going right into the very center. I can see where my two key poses are and that is essentially a breakdown drawing that's in the very middle. Now, all I need to do is break up this left-hand side of my timeline into halves and this right-hand side into halves. What I'm going to do is step backwards towards my first key pose and create another keyframe like that. Drag this into the middle, this drawing, step back one more, create a keyframe, and drag this drawing into the very middle between those two. All that's left now is just to do that drawing between those two keyframes, and drag that drawing as carefully as I can to the middle. I've completed one-half my timeline. I'm going to do the exact same on the other side. Between my breakdown drawing and my very last key pose, I'll create a new keyframe and drag that drawing across. Then step forward one, create a keyframe and drag my drawing to the middle and finish that out with the very last drawing, make a keyframe there and drag it in to the middle. Now if I turn off onion skinning, go back to frame 1 and hit 'Enter". That's very even constant speed. Turn on onion skinning again, and you can see how evenly spaced out all those drawings are. I didn't really have to force too much about finding each of the middle points. Once you make your first halfway point and work backwards in halves and then work forwards in halves, breaking up the space in that way, it's very easy, it's very straightforward to do. I want you to practice this for a while if you can. Just get comfortable making in-betweens and get comfortable spacing them up for really even constant speed. When you feel okay with doing that, and it all make sense to you and you can see how you can apply it, then come and meet me in the next video, where we'll start to apply easing out of keyframes and easing in to keyframes. 11. Spacing for Ease Out and Ease In: Remember earlier when we animated the ball moving in an arc like this. Well, when you have emotion like this that's at a constant even speed, it's a little bit boring and it lacks any character. People often say that to make the motion look more natural, you need to add what's called a slow out of the keyframe or a slow into a keyframe. Let's take a look at the same example of this ball moving in an arc and this one has an ease in and an ease out applied to it. You can see that it does actually look a lot more natural. Looks a bit like a pendulum swinging from one side to the other. What's happening here is that this ball leaves this keyframe and it slows out of this keyframe. The drawings are spaced closer together. Remember as I showed you, drawings their are spaced closer together will appear to slow things down. Then it speeds up because there are fewer drawings in this section, and then it starts to slow down into the final pose. That's essentially what an ease in or ease out is. I'm going to explain each part of this pendulum separately. As you saw in the last video, when you do in-between for constant speed and even motion, you use that method of halves that I showed you. You break your timeline down into half and work back towards the first keyframe and move forwards towards the last keyframe. It's pretty much the same for ease in and out, but you assign your drawings to your frames a little bit differently. I'll show you what I mean by that. Let's look at an ease out a keyframe first. What you'll do is you'll determine the halfway point between your two key drawings, but then you give that drawing to your last in-between on your timeline. That halfway point drawing actually goes at the very end of the in-betweens, close to the second key. Now, with onion skin turned on, you can see that I've got my first drawing and my last drawing. Then my middle point drawing is in-between these two drawings, but it's actually assigned to this very last in-between down here on my timeline. Then I'm going to step back one and create a new keyframe. Drag my drawing to the halfway position there between those two drawings. Now, I step back a frame, create a new keyframe, and assign that to the halfway point between those two drawings. As you can see, I'm working backwards. For an ease out of key pose, you can in-between by working backwards. It'll all make sense in a minute. I'm just going to finish filling in these drawings. I'm just basically stepping back one, creating a keyframe and dragging the drawing into the halfway point. You will see that the spacing becomes incrementally smaller and smaller, right up until the very last keyframe. Then when I hit play, turn off onion skinning, you can see how it slows out of that first key frame and then speeds up into the very last keyframe. That's your easing out of a key. Let's do an easing in to a key. It is the same process except going the other way. We will now work forwards instead of working backwards. We want to create a new layer and hide this one, and start over again, just to make sure that you can see the process. In my first keyframe, I'll make my starting drawing, my last keyframe, drag that in. Oops. Drag that into position. Now, this is an ease in, so I want my drawings to slow down and ease into this keyframe. I'm going to go to my start and step two frames ahead and create a new keyframe there. Turn on onion skinning and drag it out, so I can see my starting and ending position. Then drag that drawing to the halfway point. So halfway between those two. Now, step ahead one, create a new keyframe, drag my drawing to the halfway point between those two frames. Step ahead, create a keyframe, drag my drawing across. Then I'm just going to continue the process. It's very evenly spaced. But again, as you will notice, the space itself is becoming incrementally smaller and smaller as I get closer to the final key. Got to be careful to really find that halfway mark. It's much easier obviously with a circle because you can see it's very easy to spot the halfway point between the two drawings. For the very last two in-betweens, I'm actually just going to use my arrow keys to nudge the drawing into place. Those are those on my keyboard, the bottom right. The right arrow nudges it forward just slightly. Then I'll turn off onion skinning, and if you hit "Enter", you'll notice how it shoots out of that first frame and slows into the last. That's a slow into a key pose. I hope that makes sense. Just to recap, normal constant speed between two points can look a little bit boring. To make your motion look more natural, you can use an easing out of a key pose or an easing in. Now, I'm going to tell you why. It's basically all got to do with a law of physics called inertia. Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion, including changes to its speed and direction. The easiest way to understand this is to think of a car. A car takes a long time to get up to speed, it can't go really from zero to 60 instantly. It has to take a while to build up to get to that speed. Similarly, when it wants to stop, or similarly, when it comes to a stop, it has to slow down before it stops. It can't just stop immediately. Now, cars have to do with gears and engines and all of that, but it's just to get that visual in your mind just to understand the principle of inertia. Inertia is just a principle that holds true for most physical things when they're moving. It simply takes awhile for a body at rest to get moving, and once it is moving, it takes a while for it to slow down and stop. That's why easing in and out is so crucial to animation because it reflects a natural state of motion. It'll make things look more alive, more believable, rather than just having them look mechanical and with constant even speed. Now, the last thing that I want to tell you about inbetweening is when to use it. For character animations, very important for you to act out really the action that you want to animate and use your acting to determine whether or not something is going to have slow or a fast speed. But if you're working with something like motion graphics, there's a really handy guide to help you determine whether you want to use slow in and slow out. No point just stopping and slow in and out on everything that you animation. Let's say you have an object that moves on-screen from here to here. The motion happens on-screen, we see the object starting and stopping. Then you would use a slow in and slow out, much like that pendulum that I showed you. If you have an object that starts off-screen, travels across the screen and goes off-screen again, then you would use a constant even speed because we don't see the start and stop positions. If you've got an object that's starts moving on-screen and moves off and then travels off-screen completely, I would use a slow out of that first pose and then just let it travel off-screen. Similarly, if something starts off-screen and comes in and stops, then I would use a slow in to that final key pose. Now, we've covered keyframes, we've covered breakdown drawings and in-betweens, and we've also covered ease in and out of keyframes. So I'm going to leave an assignment for you now where you're going to try and put some of these principles to work in a very simple animation. Then afterwards, when you're ready, you can join me for the next couple of videos which will talk about timing and spacing, and things like squash and stretch, and anticipation. When you're ready, join me in the next video for a little recap about timing and spacing. 12. Timing and Spacing: I keep emphasizing the fact that timing and spacing represent the most important principle of animation. In this video, I'm going to recap those principles, but I'm also going to show you a really handy way to plan out your animations so that you do have timing and spacing. It's called the timing chart, and it's really like the guide for the arcs. It's a really essential tool when you're planning your animation. Again, timing means the rhythm of your animation. It refers to the timing of your key drawings and how long it takes for those keys to be played out. You should be able to look at a set of keys and know if it feels right. In other words, if you want a fast movement, then you need fewer frames of animation. If you want a slow movement, you need more frames. So that's your timing. It's based on the rhythm of the key frames and the number of frames. Spacing is where you place your object or you're drawing in each of those frames. Now, if you have an object moving from A to B, that means it takes the object one second to reach from A to B. If you've used an ease in or ease out, that will determine or affect the way it gets from A to B. Here's a good way to ensure that you can plan out your timing and spacing, and make sure that it's going to work well before you start drawing all your in-betweens and then you play them back. It looks terrible and you don't know why. It's the timing chart. I'm going to go back to this very simple animation of the pendulum. We're going to make a timing chart with this or I'm going to at least show you how the timing chart would work. I'm going to make a new layer and up here, I will draw my chart. I'm going to hit, "B" on my keyboard. The timing chart comes from the olden days of animation when things were hand-drawn, animations used to indicate a key with a circle and an in-between with a line. If we had two key frames like that and 24 in-betweens or 12 in-betweens. Your timing chart would look like dash, but what we're going to do is make a timing chart for the pendulum which has a slow in, and a slow out. That's my first key, represented by this circle here. I'm going to draw a line, it's a random length of line, but it's just going to represent the timeline down here. My last key frame is a circle like that. This animation has both a slow out of the first key frame and a slow in to the last key frame, if you remember. I'm going to turn out onion skinning quickly and let's just see that. Basically on my timing chart, the breakdown drawing would be here to indicate this drawing. Then if you remember, the slow-add of the first key frame was all about working backwards. We find the halfway point between that breakdown and the first key and draw a line like that. Find the halfway point between that and the first one, draw a line there. Then the halfway point again, let's see, one, two, three, four. There's my four in-betweens represented on my timing chart, and that's those four frames down here. Then going forwards for a slow into a key pose, you work progressively forwards. That's pretty much the same thing. You find the halfway point, draw a line there for that in-between. Find the halfway point for there, draw that line, halfway again, that line. The timing chart is really just a diagram to help you plan out and build your animation. I work my timing charts in the vertical diagram, you could also draw your timing chart on a horizontal line if that helps you visualize things a bit better. Either way, as long as you can have something to refer to when you are starting to animate, then it's just a really helpful guide, a really helpful tool to use. When you're animation starts to get a little bit more complex, it can get confusing, if you don't have a guide like this to help you along. That's the basis of a timing chart. I'm going to be working with this timing chart over the next few videos, so you'll see how easy it is to apply it. I'll see you in the next video. I'm going to cover another principle which relates to character animation, the principle of squash and stretch. 13. Squash and Stretch: The next important principle that we're going to look at is squash and stretch. This is an aspect of your drawing to make your character look like it has life, or look like it's got a degree of flexibility, or like a cartoony or appealing look. Let's pop over to my document in animation here. What I've got here is an animation of a bouncing ball. Now, you can see I've used arts to help me guide the ball bouncing. I've also used my timing chart to figure out the spacing of my in-betweens. If I played over, you should be able to tell that there's a bit of a slowing down when the ball's reaching the peak of the arc, fast into the bones and slowing down at the peak again. You could think that's quite a successful looking animation. It looks very good. But I want to show you the exact same animation with squash and stretch applied. If I turn that off, turn on my other one, you can instantly see that this ball has a lot more life, a lot more character cartoony. The other animation looks a little bit like it's a table tennis ball. Its just doesn't have the same interest or appeal as this animation. Squash is when you literally squash your drawings down to emphasize gravity or contact position. Stretch is when you elongate your drawing to emphasize speed or momentum. Here's another example of a ball just dropping down. That's just plain old straightforward animation without squash and stretch. Then here's the same animation with a bit of squash and stretch added. I'm going to show you how you would do this. I'm going to draw my first frame over here. Then come along to the end to draw of my last frame, which is going to be a ball on the ground. I'm just giving it one bounce. Going to move back in time to about here. Make another keyframe. That's where the ball bounces in the air before it lands. That's obviously going to have a contact position. This is where it hits the ground, then it bounces up, and then it comes back down. When you play your keys, play it back, that should make sense. Now, it's just all about filling in these drawings. I'm going to do my timing chart very quickly. I've got one key there, another key where it makes contact with the ground, another key where it bonces up, and a keyframe where it settles back down again. Since this is an animation of a ball just dropping, it's going to go slower from its starting position to hitting the ground. Then it's going to slow into this position here, or hits the bounce, and then slow out and come back to rest in its final position. I'm going to make my in-betweens like this. Then from the contact position to the bounce, it's going to slow into that position. That's, I've got two in-betweens there, so I'm going to space them very close to the top of the bounce. I'm going to put one in between there and One there, means I hit the balls in the bounce, and it's going to slow out and settle into this pose. That's 1, 2, 3 will be a slow out like that. Now, I'm just going to place my drawings where I need to. Create "Frame" there and drag that to the halfway point. This one before that, half and drag it to the halfway point. Then moving ahead to this section where it's good to ease or it's going to slow into that frame. I'm going to click there and drag this up. Then create another frame and drag that into position like that. Then as it comes out of that bounce, it slows out. I'm going to make a different there and just slow them out. Drag that down, and then another one, drag it down. Now, I'm going to turn off onion skinning. There we've got a decent enough animation of a ball just dropping to the ground and bouncing. Now, I'm going to add the squash and stretch. If I find the contact position, the contact position is this frame here. That's usually where you would put your squash, because squash emphasizes gravity or contact. All I'm going to do is select that frame by clicking on the frame in the timeline. Going to hit "Q" on my keyboard to bring up the transform box. If I own a Mac, hold down Shift and Alt. I can constrain the proportion somewhat so I can just squash it down from the top. But now I have to be very careful because I've taken the ball and squashed it down top to bottom, I need to be also aware that I need to change it on the sides as well. If I were to just squash it down from top to bottom, the volume of the object would be different. With squash and stretch, it's really important to make sure your volume stay consistent. Whenever I squash it down from top to bottom, I just nudge it out on the sides as well. Let's see. That's going from its normal state to its squashed state. The stretch drawing is going to emphasize the speed. That's obviously going to be where gravity is pulling the object down very fast. That's going to be at the drop. I think the ball starts magically in the air from this position and then it will pick up speed as it gets down. Maybe around here, I'm going to stretch this drawing out. I'm going to click on the frame in my timeline, hit "Q", and holding down Shift and Alt to constrain the proportions. I'll just drag it down at the bottom and then squash it in at the sides. I might do that for this drawing as well. Then after it's hit the ground when it bounces up, that's also another area where speed comes into play. This drawing here might just get a tiny bit of a stretch. Not too much because it actually just, in this drawing, it's not traveling that far, it just has a small bounce. I'm going to go back to square one and let's see how that looks. That does have a lot more appeal, a lot more flexibility, and character in it. That's how you add squash and stretch. When we get to animation the bouncing ball in our final project, you'll be using this principle a lot as the ball bounces. We'll work through it step-by-step. But if you did want to have a go at practicing some squash and stretch now, maybe pause the videos and go and try this out yourself. Then when you're ready, meet me in the next video where I'm going to talk about how to really give your character animation a lot of life and a lot of appeal using anticipation, overshoot, and settle. 14. Anticipation, Overshoot and Settle: We've gone through keyframes, we've gone through breakdown drawings and in-betweens. I've also covered how to add contrast to your motion using easing out of frames and easing in. I've also covered adding squash and stretch to your animation. In this video, this is the last principle that I'm going to cover before we move into our animation projects, and this is the principle of anticipation. Really, it's anticipation, overshoot, and settle. What does that mean? It means that to give a character or even an object a sense of believability or life almost, these three poses of anticipation, overshoot, and settle will add a layer of polish to your animation and give things a much more natural feel. Let's set aside the bouncing ball for a while and look at an actual character animation. This is just a very simple animation of a character turning his head. I've put all of the drawings onto one layer here so you can see the whole animation. If I just show you my key poses first though, I started with this pose. This is the character looking over here. He anticipates forward, he turns, he overshoots his ending position, and he comes in to the final settle pose over here. Essentially you go from a idle pose through the action of turning to the settle pose, which is the last pose. The anticipation and the overshoot are what gives it a fluid motion. The reason for that is, if you think about it, much like the principle of inertia. An object or a character, if a character's going to do a motion going in one way, he or she will generally anticipate in the opposite direction first. Similarly, if somebody wants to get up out of a chair, they will generally anticipate first and then stand up. In one sense, anticipation is pretty much like the law of inertia. It's a given, it happens all the time, even if we don't realize that we're doing it. But in animation there's another reason why you use it, and that's very often to indicate to the audience that an action is going to happen. It can be very cleverly used if you had a character who was taking something out of his pocket, for example, that action is quite small, the audience might not even read it. If you anticipate and take something out of your pocket, then the audience will be cued up to know that something's going to happen, and their eyes won't miss it, when it actually comes to it. A good rule of thumb is that whatever the direction of the action is, your anticipation is the opposite direction. Then once the action has taken place, the overshoot is like the anticipation, but in the opposite way. The overshoot is when the character or the object hits a pose that is just slightly beyond that final settled pose. The character will often pass through the final pose into the overshoot and then settle back. Just to be clear, you have your first pose and your end pose, so before the character moves into the action, they've got the anticipation. Once they've cleared through the action, they hit what's called an overshoot and then settle back into that final pose. Let's look at another example. This one is a very simple animation of a sack of flour jumping from A to B. I know it's crazy, but stay with me. Just stick with it. It's a sack of flour jumping from A to B. I've drawn in his arc, so that's the arc that he travels. This is his timing chart and his key poses and in-betweens. As you can see, it's very normal. He slows into this pose up here, but at the top of the arc, he slows out into his final pose down here. Now, again, very boring and mundane and uninteresting animation, it's just a very flat 2D looking sack of flour jumping from one to the other. Here's the exact same animation with anticipation, overshoot, and settle plus a little bit of squash and stretch, and it's much more interesting. It's almost life-like, you actually really start to believe that this is a character, who has appeal and interest, and it's all down to the anticipation, overshoot, and settle plus the squash and stretch. Let me break it down for you. These are my key drawings from the starting position. This is the anticipation. This is the action where he's jumping. This is the overshoot pose, and that's a settle. On the right here, I've got my timing chart, so I've got the starting pose, I've indicated two in-betweens into the anticipation, which is there. Then I've got two in-betweens, which is a slow in to the action pose there, a slow out of that action pose into the overshoot, which is that pose, and then there's a slow in to in-betweens into the settle pose. Here it is, with all of those in-betweens drawn in. I'll turn on the onion skinning now so you can see all of those drawings. There's my slow in to the anticipation, he leaps out, and there's that stretched pose, comes into the action and has a bit of a stretched pose into the overshoot, which is a squashed pose, and then a very slow in to that last settle. In the next two sections, we're going to start animating our projects for this course. The first one is going to be the bouncing ball, and that's like a standard project that you'll do in any animation school that you go to, it's always going to be your first animation project. It puts to use all of the principles of keys, in-betweening, and breakdown drawings plus you also get to play with squash and stretch and easing in and out. Then the second project, which is going to be the character jumping, you're going to really get to grips with not only squash and stretch, but timing and spacing, and this whole idea of anticipation, overshoot, and settle. Let's dive into these projects, put all of this information to use, and apply everything that we've covered so far in the course in some decent, proper animation. 15. Bouncing Ball 1: For this bouncing ball animation, what we're going to do is work in three phases. The first phase is going to be the preparation phase, and that's basically these three sections here. We're going to draw arcs for guides, we'll create key poses, and we'll determine our timing. The second phase we're going to make a timing chart. Then in the third phase we'll create the in-betweens and then add squash and stretch. So to start off with a blank document, the first thing I'm going to do is draw a line for the ground and I will then on a new layer, vaguely indicate my guides for my arcs for where the ball will be traveling throughout the animation. These don't have to be perfect. I'm just trying to figure it out for composition. That looks about right to me. So I'm going to lock that layer or create a new one. Now, I'm going to switch over to the Pen tool, and I'm just going to click and drag out the anchor points like this to create a curve. Click down here at the bottom. Then I'm going to switch over to Command or Control and click and drag the anchor points to get them exactly where I want. So for the second bounce, I'll do the same just with the Pen tool click and drag them out. I'm basically using this Pen tool just to make sure that my arcs are nice and smooth because I can't really hand-draw very perfect arcs, but with the Pen tool it's a lot easier to control. So I'll just finish this off. This is the last one. This is just the small, tiny bounce at the end. Okay. So now, for high-RAF layer, I could even delete it actually. So just click on the layer and click on the trashcan that's it gone then. So that's my ground layer and this is my layer with my arcs. So at this point, I'll probably make some tweaks and probably go back in and try and change them up because that one's a bit wonky. So if you click and hold on the Pen icon, you can see that there's an option convert anchor point tool and that will help you a great deal. You can just click on the anchor points there and directly edit them. So once you're happy enough with your arcs and you think they look okay, then will move on to the next phase. I think mine are pretty much as close as I want them to be. It doesn't have to be completely perfect. But I just wanna make sure that they're nice and smooth and even. New layer. I'm just going to draw a round circle for my bowl. What I want to do now is just check that it matches, that's going to look the same. I'm just basically checking to see that it's going to read as a ball across these arcs and it's not too small or it's not too big. Okay. I think that looks just right actually. So I'm going to go with that shape. Now, the next thing is to just drag out my timeline down here with some frames. So I'm going to guesstimate at this point that around 45 frame mark will be how long it takes for this ball because I'm thinking it will take at least two or two and a half seconds to bounce across the screen. So yeah, that feels right that timing, but I mean, I'm going to change it once I've placed my keys, but for now, just to give myself some room in terms of frames, I'll do that. So what I did there was I just inserted frames. I didn't make any keyframes yet. So I'm at frame one now, I am going to place the ball into frame 1. Come along forwards in time to about say frame 11 or 10. Create a new keyframe there and drag the ball to the first contact point. Then go ahead to let say frame 24 that'll be my second contact point. The third contact point will be around this frame. I think it's frame 33. Create a keyframe, drag it into position. Then the last contact point. I don't know what that is. Then the very last frame at frame 45. So those are my contact positions where the ball hits the ground. Now, I'm going to go back in and place the keyframes for where the balls in the air in bounce. So as you can see, the bounces are getting progressively shorter and in terms of time. So it doesn't take as long to travel on the smaller bounces. That timing looks okay to me. I'm not totally happy about that. I think the first section here could be tightened up a bit. It's taking a bit too long to reach the first bounce. So I'm going to just click and drag that keyframe back. That first bounce looks better. The second bounce obviously needs also to be adjusted. So I'll drag that keyframe back to about frame 15. So it's all about just playing back the keyframes and feeling out that timing and seeing if it makes sense. Seeing it there's enough of a gap and time between each of the keys. This is where you get really good at it with practice. You'll really be able to recognize if something feels right or there feels like there's too much of a lag. After much moving around and timing it out and filling it all out, my final keyframes are at keyframe number 1, number 9, number 17, 25, 31, 37, 41, 45, 51. I'm just going to drag that last frame, the end frame, into my stage a bit like that. If you're following along with me, then double-check your frames, your keyframe are the same as mine. But if you've got different timing totally and you think it works, then that's great. Keep working with that. But just so that we're on the same page at this stage, you should have your ground plane drawn in your arcs as your guides and you should have your keyframes for your contact positions and your bounces. So in the next video, we will create our timing chart. 16. Bouncing Ball 2: Let's see where we are on our checklist. So far we've done arcs for our guides, we've created the key poses, and we've also determined the timing. We're doing pretty good. We've just got to make a timing chart and then create the in-betweens and add squash and stretch. Let's go over the timing chart to make sure that we know exactly where we're going to be able to place our in-betweens when it comes to it. This layer has our key frames. I'm going to create a new layer above that and in that frame there, I'll just draw the timing chart. Essentially, I think I've counted out that we've got nine key frames in total, including the contact positions and the bounces. I'm going to go up here and I'll just pretty much draw in nine of these circles to represent the key frames. I'm holding down Alt as I click and drag to duplicate them. I'll just move these ones along. Oops, I've duplicated them, so undo. I just want to move them in so I've got enough space. That is, I think I've six. I just need three more. Click and drag, hold down Alt, and now I've got all of my key frames represented by these circles. I'll just join them up with the line, and now I'm going to determine the in-betweens, but specifically, I want to determine which of these key pause is going to have an ease in or an ease out. This first key pause that bounces into frame will have an ease out because it's obviously in an arc already. It hits the ground and then it bounces up into this key frame, and this will have an ease in to that position, so halfway, and halfway, and halfway. That contact position, that will be an ease out into that contact. Again, easing into the bounce, from here to the bounce. I've got two frames there, two in-betweens, and I think I've got two in-betweens on the other side as well, so an ease out to that pause into this contact position. Now, between that and the last bounce, there's only one in-between. So what I'm going to do, it's called favoring. I'm going to favor that in-between, I won't draw it directly, and the same on the other side I won't draw it directly in the halfway mark, I'll favor the bounce key. The very next thing that I want to do is just to make sure that when I glance up at my timing chart, I know where I am in relation to the keys on my timeline, I'm going to just indicate each of these that correspond to the key frame. I'm going to make a new layer, and with just a red dot, I'm just going to indicate which of these relates to which key frames. I'm going along the timeline, inserting a blank key frame, and just drawing a dot to correspond. Blank key frame, draw on there, insert a blank key frame, draw on there, blank key frame. What this does is, when I play it back, you'll see it's very useful. I can just instantly tell where I am in my timing chart no matter what key frame I'm on in the timeline. I'll go back to my first frame and play at the keys. There you can see that the red dot is really useful, it shows you exactly where the ball is at all times. Now I'm just going to consolidate my layers, I'm going to call that keys, I'm going to call this my chart, and I will make both of these layers into guides. Then I'll drag them down below this layer, and this is the layer that's going to actually have my animation on it, so I'm going to name this Bouncing_Ball. Now I can just come down one layer and create a folder, and then grab all of these guides and drag them into the folder, close that up, rename as GUIDES. Now that's completely hidden away and it's not going to interfere or look confusing when I glance down at the timeline, I'll just see my ground layer and my animation layer. 17. Bouncing Ball 3: Believe it or not, all of the hard work is done. The next part is really easy. It's so straight forward and simple but it wouldn't be if we hadn't have done all of that planning and all of that groundwork in the last two videos. Making your guides and spending time making your timing chart is so important if you want to get good at animation. It's really the thing that will make your animation really good. Let's forge forward, so let's finish this bouncing ball. Now, I'm just going to start putting in my in-betweens and I'm just going to follow that timing chart up there. This first session is a slow out of my first frame, so I go to the last in-between between those two keys and we just turn on onion skin so you can see. I drag that drawing to the halfway point, around about there. Then step back to the previous frame, make a key frame and drag that drawing down, and do the same with the last in-between for that section. Then moving ahead between the contact and the bounce. Got to slow in. I'll drag my onion skinning out. I can just about see that bounce frame. It's a slow in. My first drawing is on my first in-between frame. Then I'll make another one and drag the drawing halfway between their step ahead, make another frame and drag that drawing there. Now, I need the slow out from the bounce position to the next contact position. Again, a slow out. I'm going to work backwards so I'll go to the last in-between between those two keys and drag my drawing to the halfway point. Then stepping back one, make another frame and drag that drawing to the halfway point. Step back one, and drag that drawing into place. Following my guide, so it's making it very easy. Following my timing chart, which makes it so simple. From my second contact position to that second bounce, there's just two in-betweens. I've put that one on the wrong frame of my timeline. That's okay. I'm just going to click and drag it down one so it's in position. There we go. Then make it my second one, drag the drawing into place. There we go. Drag the drawing into place and then I slow out into the second last contact. Again two in-betweens here. Drag that one to the halfway point and drag this one just out there like that. Then between these two keyframes or between these two drawings, there is actually just one in-between and as I mentioned earlier, I'm favoring the bounce. Even when I'm just putting one keyframe, I'm just going to drag this drawing closer to the bounce drawing. The drawing itself is not exactly halfway, and the same on the other side. I'll make a position for it, but I'll drag that drawing just slightly out so it's favoring the bounce. Then my last set of in-betweens, or it's more or less straightforward in-betweening, I have got three in-betweens to put in, so I'll drag them out like this. I've just noticed that for the last section here, I might need to add in another frame. I think I've actually got three in-betweens in my timing. What I'm going to do is just basically insert a couple more frames just to space it out because I've only got room on my timeline for two in-betweens, but I think I want to have three. It's very easily done. All I'm going to do is right-click and insert frame. I'll do that twice because we're animating on two's, and then I have space to add in a third drawing. Now that I've done that, I will add a couple of frames down below on the ground layer just to make sure that the ground plane continues out to the very end of the animation. Now I'm ready. Go back to frame 1, hit "Enter", hide my guides and we've got a bouncing ball. After all that, the animation is actually working quite seamlessly actually, it's working. It's bouncing very good. I'm happy with that. If you've got into this stage, well done. That's fantastic. That's a big achievement. That's actually quite an important project to get done for when you're learning animation. Let me just quickly hop back to our checklist and see where we're at. We did all of that first section, that is checked off. We made our timing chart and we've just now created all of the in-betweens. The only thing left is to add squash and stretch, and we're done. I'll show you how to do that now. It's literally just adjusting three or four of the drawings. Remember I said the squash drawing is going to be the contact position. Come down to that drawing and literary hit "Q" on your keyboard and just squash it down a little bit but don't forget to also stretch it out at the sides so that the volume stays consistent. Then go along to the next contact position. Do the same over there. We can do the same on this drawing, although I would just do a very slight squash here because it is such a small bounce at this point and there isn't a lot of gravity exerting on it. Those bounces look good. That's a nice little squash on those two or three drawings. Already it's starting to look a little bit more interesting. Now all that's left to do is the stretch drawings. Now the stretch drawings usually are where as I said, there's momentum or speed. Definitely, you would want to stretch this drawing here, this middle one. Now what I'm going to do is turn back on my guides because first of all, I'll stretch it top to bottom and stretch it in like this, but now I need to turn it so that it actually stays on the arc. It would look a bit weird if I stretched it and it wasn't in the arc. I might just give this an ever so tiny slight stretch, since it's got such a long way to drop, you could indicate a stretch up here. Then this drawing here is also going to get a stretch. That's the one where it's bounced up from the ground and just rotate it into place. This drawing is going to get a really small stretch, not too much and then the corresponding drawing as well from the other side will also get this stretch here. As the bounce gets a bit smaller, as I said, the stretch gets smaller. That should do it. Let's have a look at that, see how it plays back. Hide my guides. I'm thinking I'm actually going to undo this one because it's looking a bit too loopy for me and a little bit too fluid. To undo it, I could try and squash it back into its original state. But it's easier just to clear that key altogether, create a new keyframe, and that ball's duplicated itself, so just drag that drawing into place. That has got rid of that one stretch drawing. Let's see if it looks better now. Makes a bit of a difference, I think. Actually, I think that that's fine. I think I'm very happy with that bounce. That's a nice bouncing ball with a bit of squash and stretch. If you've been following along and if you've gotten this far, congratulations, well done. That's awesome. I'd love to actually see your work. So do let me know if you can send me a file or at least give me some feedback as to how you got on. Then when you're ready, let's dive into the next project, which is going to be the character jumping. 18. Character Jump 1: Our final animation project for this course anyway is this little character jumping. I've made a checklist for us to follow along so that we can keep track of the things we need to get to. There's just a slight difference between this workflow and the bouncing ball animation. I've added in a first step, which is to draw thumbnails. I've also added in a final step which is to check for fixes. Now, I'll explain when I get to it, exactly what that is. But it's always really important to add this in because part of what's going to make you a good animator is being able to look at your animation's botch the frame or frames that aren't working, and be able to go back in and adjust them as needed. But for the rest of the workloads pretty much straight forward. After we've done our thumbnails, we're going to create the key poses, then figure out the timing for the jump. Then just look at creating arcs for our guides and of course, making a timing chart in order to establish how many in-betweens and where they go. Then finally, we'll animate by creating all the in-betweens and then go back over and check for fixes. So let's get started. I'm going to jump over to animation and create a new document with a frame rate of 24. The first thing that I want to do is basically thumbnail out my character jump. This is going to happen just on one layer and it's very rough, sketchy ideas really for the different poses that I want the character to be in. I'm going to start out, first of all just roughly identifying his shape. I'm going to try and keep him as much as a little stick character as possible to keep it simple. This is a simple animation, but there's actually quite a lot of complexity involved, especially with all of the moving parts. It's a huge step above just a bouncing ball. With that in mind, I've kept it quite simple, but yet there are a lot of moving parts, so it'll be challenging enough. Now I'll just give myself some space on the timeline so that I can draw a few different frames. This is in no way going to be my final key frames. These are just to give me a rough idea to feed it out. I'm going to draw a second pose after the standing pose. My second pose is going to be my anticipation pose. That's where he is going to bend down in order to jump up. I'm going to draw him like that. I'll be coming back in afterwards and totally cleaning up these drawings once I've figured out my thumbnails. I don't mind how rough adduced they are at this point. This is really just about being able to plot and plan out my animation before I commit to creating key frames. For the anticipation pose, everything is going to go in the opposite direction. His arms will go back, he'll bend down before he jumps up into the next pose. I'm going to create a blank key frame here and do a drawing where he's leaping into the air. I'm being a little bit mindful about keeping my volumes consistent. It's very handy with onion skin. You can just trace over a previous drawing, make sure it's correct before you move it into position for where you want it to be. He's leaping up, and this is actually the stretch pose. In the bouncing ball, we actually physically stretched the ball. Here, I've just drawn him in a very elongated pose like that. That will read as a stretch drawing when the animation plays back. I'm going to insert another blank key frame and I want to draw the contact position now. After he's jumped, he falls back onto the ground into that overshoot pose. I could really copy the anticipation pose since it's very similar, but I want to swing his arms forward. So he's going to land on the ground and his arms will be in front of him this time. There I've got pretty much all of my poses. I just have to do my very final last. I should move him into position actually, because he jumps up and then obviously he's going to be jumping forward as well into a brand new position. I put him over here on the stage, and then go forward and do my final drawing for the ending pose, which is the pose that he will settle into. That is very similar to the starting pose. You could probably retrace the starting pose if you wanted to, but I think I'll give it just a slightly different look. So I'll have his arms coming down like that. Now I'll grab that drawing and drag it over to there. Those are fairly decent thumbnail drawings that will indicate for me exactly how this action is going to play out. I'm now going to redraw them with a bit more of a cleaned up line so they're not so scratchy and fuzzy looking, and so they're not so rough. This icon over here on my layer is actually a really nice one to work with. You can click on this button or this box like that, and it'll make your drawing become an outline. For tracing over stuff, that's really handy. If I zoom in now, you can see what I mean. It just basically makes an outline of the brush marks of the lower layer. Now I'm going to follow this exactly and just try and make just one clean line all the way over. When it comes to his feet, it's quite an important point, I want him to start with both feet facing forwards. So that when he bends down, I don't have to worry about changing his feet around. I'll do that for the rest of my drawings. Just tracing over them, and following them as a guide. I'm not being very particular about this. I'm not really getting into super details or anything like that. The animation is intended to be quite rough anyway, so it's nice to have that rough hand-drawn look, so I'm just working with it like that. I am drawing over this pose, but I wanted to note that this is not going to be one of my final key poses. I'm making this drawing at this stage to make sure that I've got enough space when the character goes from the ground into the jump. I'll explain what I mean later. But just bear in mind that that stretch pose is not the final key pose for the jump. This is his contact position or overshoot pose, where he lands on the ground and then swinging his arms for he's like this as he lands. Then my final drawing is him standing back to normal. Hopefully, everything the volume will stay consistent throughout all of the frames because I was able to trace over them. So it should be okay. That's his final standing pose. Those look pretty okay to me, the timing obviously hasn't been determined yet. It's just more or less reading if the staging works and if the drawings work, and I think they do. Now I'm going to go back in and I'm going to change, swap out this pose for the actual key pose that I want to be in the top of the jump. 19. Character Jump 2: The first thing I can do is get rid of my roughs layer, and now I just have one layer with all of my key drawings. It's time to swap this guy out. As you remember, I drew him in so that I was able to measure the space that I had from the ground position up and to the jump, and now I'm just going to delete that. You can click on the frame itself and hit "Backspace" on your keyboard and that will delete the drawing completely from your stage, and it leaves you with a blank keyframe. So I will turn on onion skin and drag it out so I can see both of the poses. Now I'm going to draw this little guy in the top of his arc, basically. If you remember the bouncing ball, that's the pose that we need to get to. The top of the bands as it relates to bouncing ball. Again, I can just trace over one of my initial drawings which is a very handy tip to do because especially for the head, you don't want the head to start to lose its volume at all because that'll jump out in your animation if your heads gets smaller and smaller or bigger and bigger. In the jump position, when this character jumps to the top of the arc, that is actually the squashed pose. If you think about squash and stretch. His body is going to actually be a little bit squashed up and his arms are going to be up in the air like this, and I'm going to draw his legs also up in the air like that. It's nice to actually put them at a different angle to each other. That will read very well. Now if I turn off onion skinning, and we can just have a quick look and see if that's working. I need to select them and drag them into place like that. His jump is going to be quite high up. It's decent jump and there you go. Turning on onion skin, I can see all of my drawings and it looks to me like the last two drawings are not for out enough. I'll just select them by clicking on the keyframe in the timeline and nudging them along. Now this is an important point to note. Your last frame or you're asked two frames from the keyframes, from the contact position to the settled pose, you really need to be careful that the feet line up because that's often where your animations look really wrong is if the feet starts sliding around. I'm going to make some adjustments here to make sure that in both of these poses, both of these keyframes, the feet actually completely line up. So I'll just make that adjustment there. Now if I play it back, you should see that he really definitely lands his feet planted down on the ground, they don't move at all. Okay, so now I'm going to shift my keyframes over and just get the timing right. From my starting pose into the anticipation, I just want a couple of in-betweens. From the anticipation up to the jump, I think about three in-betweens should do it cause I want to read like he hangs in the air there a little bit. That timing seems to be working for those three. I think I've got three in-betweens from that pose to that pose. So I'll make sure I've got the same on the other side into that overshoot pose. There we go. Then going into the settled pose, again, I just need two in-betweens at the most. I think that should work. Now I'm going to press ''Enter.'' That's should be fairly decent, fairly good enough timing actually. There might be a couple of things at fault with the pose. I think this pose here needs to be adjusted. Its not reading properly at all. I will click on the keyframe in the timeline, and just hit ''Key'' on my keyboard and rotation a bit because I can also just skew it or squash it down even further. Now let's see. That pose breeds a lot better, and the timing is working. I think I'm happy enough with that. Now create a new layer on top of that. Drag it underneath, and on this layer, I'm going to draw in the ground because that's obviously very important for the animation to read that key is landing on solid ground. Just put some grass there like that, make it a bit different than just plano straight line. I just thought it might be nice actually to have something here to indicate that he's jumping over something. I'm going to put a box maybe or some little, tiny, little small obstacle here that he actually has to jump over. You could put a puddle of water or maybe he's jumping over a hole in the ground. It's up to you, but I'm just going to leave it at that for now. Okay, so I'm going to name this layer ground and then lock that so you don't draw on it again, create a new layer. On this layer, I'm going to draw in my arcs. So obviously his arc is fairly straightforward for the jump. I mean, I don't really need to stress that. He just is going to be following that arc more or less from the starting position. But I'm very aware that I need to have a decent enough arc to follow for his arms. If you look at his hands, his hand positions sort up like that into the jump, and then they're going to swing in front form down into the standing pose. I want to draw that they're just so that I know I've got something to refer once I get into animation. Let's take a quick look at our checklist, see where we're at. We drew our thumbnails and we clean them up and created key poses out of them. Now we've just determined the timing and we've also created arcs, so we're about actually halfway through. The next thing we need to do is just make a timing chart. Then we can start in-betweening and then go back over and check for any fixes. Okay, on a new layer, I'm going to do my timing chart. I think I've determined that I've got five keyframes to work with, so I will indicate them with these circles. One, two, three, four, and one more five. Those are my key poses. This is my starting position or my idle pose. The next one is the anticipation pose, which is that one. Then you've got the action pose, which is the jump, where he is in the air. Then the overshoot where he lands, and the final pose, which is the settle. On my timeline, I've got let's say two poses, two in-between that are going into the anticipation. That will be a slow-in, because he's slowing into anticipation and then he's going to spring out of it and go into the jumps. So the jump will be slow-in to the jump pose. There'll be a slow-in out from that jump pose as he hangs in the air for a bit, lands on the ground, and from the overshoot into the settled, there's two in-betweens and that will be a slow-in to the settle. So far, very straightforward and pretty much everything we've done has been along the lines of the bouncing ball and previous animations that we worked on. Going into the next phase of this project, it's going to be in-betweening. I'm going to take a lot longer to animate this app because as I say, even though this is a very simple stick figure character, there's a quite a lot of complexity involved. If you think about it, we're going to have to in-between his arms, his legs, the hands, and also the body and the head. A lot of moving parts, but we'll take it one step at a time. I've broken the in-betweening part up into two separate videos. We'll take a half and half. When you're ready, join me in the next video and we'll start animating. 20. Character Jump 3: If you've got this far with me, well done. This is a huge chunk of work. In fact, animating, I always think, the most amount of work that goes into animation is in the planning. It's really, really important to get the planning done right, it'll make all of your animation go much smoother. Let's move ahead and get into in-betweening. The last thing that I want to do in my preparation stage before I dive into in-betweening, is to markup my keys on my timing chart. If I just name this as chart and set it to guide, and I get down, I'll create a new layer above that. Here I'm going to adjust with another color like red, just mark up where my key poses are, so that when I am animating and I need to refer to my timing chart, [inaudible] can tell exactly which keyframe I'm on in relation to the timing chart. Inserting a blank keyframe and just drawing a red dot like that really, really helps me anyway. You don't have to do this step, by any means you can skip this. As long as you've worked out your timing chart and you're happy enough with that, and you know you can refer to it, you don't have to do this step. Lastly, I'll just make a folder so I can drag all of my guides into the folder, and close it down, and they are out of the way. Now I've just got my ground plane and my animation layer. The first section I'm going to do is this one between the start and the anticipation, and it's only two in-betweens. What I'll do is, to slow into the anticipation, so I'll come along to my first in-between on my timeline, create a blank keyframe, and then I can draw my new pose exactly halfway between my first pose and my last pose. First of all, I'll just trace over the head to make sure that I'm keeping volumes consistent. Then I'm going to grab that. Get Q on my keyboard, tilt this head down slightly, and place it more or less halfway between those two. It's my first in-between drawing for the slow end to the anticipation pose. That should do it. Now, I'm going to draw the body bending down over into that pose. What I'm doing is, I'm essentially referencing the purple drawing is my first pose, and the green drawing on this onion skin is the second one. I'm trying to draw all of the elements of this character in-between those two. For example, the leg, I've going to make sure that the leg is halfway between the purple and the green. A handy way to do it is just to find where the knee is. Where the knee is bending, I can just draw halfway between those two points. Similarly with the arms, I'm going to find the hand first to the hand halfway. Then find the elbow. Get the elbow halfway between the green and the purple one, and then I can join them up. That's a lot easier than just trying to draw the whole arm and figure out where the whole arm goes halfway. Pick up a few points like the elbow or the knee or the hand. Let's do the next in-between. I'm going to insert a blank keyframe, and I'm going to trace over this drawing first. Make sure it's the same. Like that. Select it tilt it so it's not completely the same. I'm going to just drag that halfway between the previous head and the third one. Now to draw the body and the arms and legs, again, trying to reference the shape. The shape is obviously changing, but within that change, I'm trying to draw it halfway between the previous one and the subsequent one. I have to make sure that the feet stay exactly the same. I don't want them to move around at all. Will draw my hand first for the halfway point, then find the elbow, and draw the elbow to the hand, and then it's easy enough to find the halfway point for where the arm joins up to the body. That looks okay. I think I could put his other arm moving behind his body into that pose, I need to just indicate that it's coming out here. Just draw the hand first, and draw the arm. Sort we're only justified seeing it in this pose. Then in the next pose we see it clear. That's section done. Now I'm going to animate from the anticipation into that jump. Again, it's a slow into that pose. I'm going to start in my first in-between on my timeline, I'm going to insert a blank keyframe there. Now I'm going to draw a pose that's exactly halfway between these two. But now don't forget, this pose is where he's just jumped off from the ground, so it's going to be that elongated stretched pose that we saw earlier. I'll just check where my arc are going. Looks okay. From this anticipation pose, he's going to spring up. I want his body position to be really long, really elongated. It will also be at an angle. His trajectory is going up at an angle like that. His legs are going to be completely straight at this point, and I'm going to draw his feet pointing downwards. It's almost like if you can imagine the toes or the last points of contact, the last things to leave, and they're being dragged behind him. His arms are probably going to swing forward in front of him to help him with that momentum of springing up into the air. Let's see if that reads. I think that could work. We'll have to put the other in-between in first and see. But I'm going to just adjust the tilt or the angle and position, and more or less there. That looks okay. I think that'll work. Moving ahead, I've got two more in-betweens left into the jump. Move the head in the timeline created new blank keyframe. I'm going to be careful to trace the head from this pose so that matches. I hope you see, select everything, drag it to the halfway position. Now the body shape has to change from that very elongated pose into a bit more of a squashed pose. In this drawing and the next one, I'm going to have to make sure that it incrementally starts to match the pose where he's in the jump. Then his legs are also going to start to change and shift into position. I want to start to bend them as slightly in this keyframe or in this frame. The feet are still going to be dragging behind him a little bit. I'm going to draw the hand first to make sure they're in the halfway, and join the elbow up. Now, this is the pose where it's very close to the jump position. Again, the idea, if you remember in the bouncing ball, this is all about giving it that sense of hang time in the air. The momentum has slowed down by the time he reaches the top position, and it'll stay a little bit slower before he falls out of it into the landing position. Spacing the drawings close together like this is really going to give that effect. The body shape now is starting to move into that more squashed look. Now his feet are also starting to catch up and they are starting to point upwards. Lastly, his arms are going to be fully out in front of them at this stage. I'm going to draw from the hand to the elbow, making sure that I've got the halfway point between the purple and the green elbows. Draw the other hand first, get that halfway point between the green and the purple, and let you do it. I'll just make a slight change there, get the arms a bit too long. Just editing that, and then I'm going to hit Q just to rotate it down. It's in position property. That's a lot better. I've animated exactly half of my timeline, and I just have half more to go, and I'll be finished. In the next video, we're going to do the final remaining two key poses and their in-betweens. 21. Character Jump 4: From the jump pose in the air into that contact position of the overshoot, there is a slow out. I'm going to go to my last in-between on my timeline and blank keyframe there and I'm going to start animating backwards into that jump position. So my drawing is going to be exactly halfway between these two drawings. Going to reference my head to that drawing there. Select it, drag it into position, and then just using Q to rotate it back around. Similarly to the first half of the arc, this drawing here is a stretch drawing. I want to make sure that his body is going to be stretching down into that landing position. So I can really stretch the body shape down and keep the legs completely straight and have the feet pointing upwards. So he can land on his heels. That'll reinforce that sense of impact when he does land. Now, his arms which were in front of him in the jump, in the high point of the jump position are going to be swinging down into the landing pose. His hands are going to be coming down now. Let's see how that looks. That's fine. Moving back one, insert blank keyframe. Going to make a drawing just in-between the drag, in-between the jump and that stretched pose, so about halfway. Now, the body shape has to come out of that squashed looking pose and it starts to elongate into that stretch pose. It's not fully stretched yet either but that should do it. The legs are going to be coming from a bent position into the straightened out pose. So they're going to be slightly bent in this drawing. His arm positions are coming down again in front of him. Then moving back one, inserting a blank keyframe. This is going to be my last in-between for this section. I'm pretty much nearly done. I'm going to reference the head from that pose. Maybe in this one, he's just slightly starting to look downwards to where he's going to land and his body shape is starting to move slightly towards the stretch position. The legs are curled up or bent up and from underneath him like this and now they can start to stretch out as he moves towards his landing position. That's looking quite good now. I've got literary two drawings left to do for this character jump, and those are the last two pose from the overshoot pose, which is him landing on the ground into the standing up. That's a slow into the settle. Just have a quick check on my arc see if the arcs are working, the hand seem to be following that arc just fine and the jump is following the purple arc. We can move ahead and insert a blind keyframe for the slow end. That's my first in-between on the timeline and my drawing will be exactly halfway between these two drawings. He's going from a real bent over position into standing up. His body shape doesn't necessarily change. There's no squash or stretch here. It's just literally the position that has changed and his legs start to straighten out. I make sure that I get the feet correct and that they're not moving at all on the ground and find the halfway point between the knees and the hips. The same with the arms, placing the hands first in the halfway point and drawing the arm sweep out, elbows wherever they are bent, that's going to show me where the halfway point is. The very last drawing now, we're almost there. I'm going to trace his head because this is the drawing that he's actually settling into or easing into. So it's good to take my cue or my reference from there. Here we go. Now his legs are almost completely straight. Feet are in the exact same position, the line just comes down right in between there. Now, let's zoom back out and play this through and there's a character jumping and it works fine. It's great. I'm happy enough with that. I don't know if you've been following along with me and you've been animating at the same speed as me, or at least animating every step of the way with me. I hope you have and if you have, I hope you've gotten this far and achieve this result. It got life, it's got movement. It reads fine, nothing is jumping out as not working. The only thing that I'm going to do is in the next video, I want to show you how you would make some fixes if there is anything wrong. In my animation when I play it back, something that's jumping out at me is his arms. His arms aren't in the right position and I think that could be improved upon. So join me in the next video and I'll show you very quickly and easily how to make adjustments and change your animation. 22. Character Jump Fixes: The main thing that I noticed for me in my animation is from the anticipation pose into the stretched pose, the arms aren't really in the right position for me, there's too much of a gap or a difference between them. I'm going to go back into this pose here and literally erase out or delete the arms, and come and try and come back in with my brush tool and redraw them. I don't have to change the whole drawing at all or I don't have to take any keyframe out. I'm just going to erase out the parts that aren't working. For me, those arms were really jumping out as being not smooth, not consistent. In a sense, when you have a character with moving parts like this, some of the parts will move at different rates. It's a bit of an advanced concept in animation or an advanced principle, but it's essentially things like arms and feet would drag behind a character like this in a jump. I think that's going to work a lot better if I just make that adjustment and put those arms taking a lot longer to catch up to the rest of the pose, if you know what I mean. In this drawing similarly, I'm going to make the arms just lag behind slightly. They haven't quite caught up to that physician in front of the body. They're still making their way up slower than the rest of the body at this stage. So arms, legs, and feet, anything that would drag behind the main bulk of the object. I'll just select this arm and move it down. In fact because this arm is coming from behind him, at this pose I don't even need to see the upper portion of the arm, it's just this section. I can drag that to over there and the upper part of the arm is literally behind his body at this stage, if that makes sense. That's a much better pose I think. I can instantly see that, I hope you can to. The eye reads that action a lot smoother. I'm also seeing some issues with this pose here where the arms are not in a great position and I'm going to change these. This arm here needs to be much lower than the other one. Because if you can see the purple arm is way down there and the green arm is up there, and because this arm is sort behind somewhat in order to catch up, I think it's better if I position it here. That should be okay. Now I'll play the animation back and that reads a lot better. I now get a much better sense of this character using his arms to swing himself up as he goes into that jump. I hope that makes sense to you, I hope you can see that. Let me know if you've got any questions whatsoever. I really hope that you've gotten through this project with me or on your own. If you have, please send it to me or at least please get in touch and give me some feedback, and let me know how you got on. 23. How to Export Video from Animate: In this last video, I'm go to show you how you can export or save virtual animations or if you wanted to create a video file and send it out into the world. First of all, this whole sort looks slightly different to the previous videos, and that's because I have updated my Animate to the latest version and they've slightly changed the layout and the look of things. You'll notice there's a couple of differences, but essentially exporting your animation is going to be the same even if you've got an older version of Adobe Animate. I'll walk you through in this video and so that you know exactly what your options are. Normally if you want to export your animation as a video or movie to share, you would probably think to go to export and export movie. That's not a great option to choose because it only really allows you to export SWF or shockwave files, JPEG sequence, PNG sequence, things like that, and while they do have their relevance in certain settings, for example, a PNG sequence or a JPEG sequence is great if you want to edit your animation in another software such as Adobe After Effects or Premiere Pro that actually exports out as each individual frame. But for our purposes, for just saving out a movie or a video file, that's not really going to be the best option. You don't want to do that, what you want to do is choose file, export, video/slash media. That's going to be the one you want to choose, and when you do that, you will get a whole different set of export and render options. Before I go into that though, I am going to point out something important, and that is that you need to make sure your animation doesn't have any hidden layers or masks. Now we didn't work with any masks in this course, so that's not going to be a huge problem, but these layers down here will render out with the final video file if I leave them in and I don't want that. As you can see there in my arcs, I'm going to just select the whole folder and delete it. Just make sure I've only got my character, my animation there and my background or ground layer. Now I'm set to go, so I'm going to back up to file, export and choose video media. Now, you probably have the exact same default settings as me. These first few, you don't really have to change, unless you wanted your video file to have a transparent background, then you would check that box. But I don't think you do, I think you want to have the white background or whatever background you've got, so don't check that, leave it unchecked. Scene 1 is fine. This is the important one, make sure that you're on H.264 as your format because that will render out a nice video file. Then for your presets, it depends which output you're choosing, they tend to all lump them into social categories now, so I'm just going with YouTube 720, or you could do 1080, that's also fine, and then of course choose where you want to save your file to. Now this box, I'm going to uncheck it. If you check it, it say start Adobe Media Encoder, they start the render queue immediately. But I want to just show you what happens when Adobe Media Encoder pops up, so I'll leave it unchecked and I'm going to click "Export". Essentially, Animate is going to send the file over to Media Encoder for it to render. It's like a little render machine that comes along, you don't have to download this piece of software, this automatically comes with Animate and it'll show you, there it is, don't worry about that one, I'm not sure what that is. But here's the file that I just sent to export, and it says it's ready, so then I go up here to the screen icon and I'll just click "Start". It done it, so that's been created, I'll click "Okay" and then pop over to my folder and there it is. So there's my animation file and there's my video file. At the perfect timing, everything is working exactly how it is in the file. So that's really it. If you want to export a video, just go to file, export, video media, Check that box. Let's just call this a second, I'll just call this too so you can see what happens if it's checked off. So you don't have to see that render queue and then click export. Wait a couple of seconds and it'll show you that it has exported successfully, and there's my second one. So that's how you would export your video if you wanted to share it with the world and publish it on YouTube and show it to your friends and family. If you do export it, please let me know, I'd love to see your animation. It's very hard to send me how to make files or final rendered files, so if you do post it on YouTube, please let me know. Hope this was helpful and let me know if you've got any questions.