Learn how to apply philosophy to your life - Introduction | James Sirois | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Learn how to apply philosophy to your life - Introduction

teacher avatar James Sirois, Streamlined Philosophy Lessons

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

7 Lessons (1h 16m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. What is Philosophy?

    • 3. How is Philosophy Done?

    • 4. The Branches of Philosophy

    • 5. Layering the Cake

    • 6. The Structure of a Philosophy

    • 7. Recap & Overview of Next Lecture

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

Hi! My name is James and in this class you will learn what philosophy

is all about, what it is used for and how to create one for yourself.

Philosophy is not just for the academics: we are all creating an understanding

of our own lives in relation to the world around us and the people in it- in this lecture

series I sincerely hope to bring you some valuable insights for your life and career.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

James Sirois

Streamlined Philosophy Lessons


Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
  • Yes
  • Somewhat
  • Not really
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Intro: Hi, my name is James civil law. And in this lesson, I'll be teaching you about philosophy, what it is, where it's come from historically. But we're just going to streamline through it very lightly so that we can move forward into how to use the tools of philosophy. Because the aim of this lesson is not to learn the history per se, but it is to learn how critical thinking sort of works. Not so that you can learn how to, so that you can be inspired into developing those skills on your own. Because that's really how critical thinking works. It's not something that can be learned exactly just by taking your course likeness. However, you can't be pointed in the right direction and then be guided towards it. And yeah, you'll get a bit of a leg up. In this. 2. What is Philosophy?: So as you can see here, the subtitle is The love of wisdom. This is because field loss. And Sophia, or two Greek words. Philos means the love, and sophia means wisdom or knowledge. So it's actually interesting kids, philo also is the word for friend in Greek. So it sort of means like a friend of wisdom or knowledge. You can take it that way. But generally people are accepted to be the love of wisdom. Alright, so what does philosophy and why is it important? So we've covered the origin of it in terms of the word. Now, the next thing is families and Socrates. So here's a bit of an interesting thing. Families of Miletus was a philosopher, or he's considered to be the very first philosopher because he actually demonstrated that utility in philosophy, meaning that there was an actual, real concrete. I just used the word utility, but there was a concrete application to thinking critically. And so it's quite interesting because the story that demonstrates this best is during the seasons here in Greece, he threw us astronomy. This found out that by the way, this is paraphrase. So there's multiple variations of this story. The point is, is that he was able to look at nature and determined that this season for all of growing was going to be very good. So what he did was he went around to all the olive presses in the region and he said, look, let me have exclusive use of your olive presses when the time comes. So I'll pay you a small fee now. And then when the time comes, you can I can use the machines as much as as I like. And of course they they were like, well, yeah, sure, no problem. I make it a little bit of money. Now, you really think this season is going to be better than it's going to be, but we don't believe that. And so when the time came and there was an actual really big harvest, he made a ton of money because he had exclusive rights to those presses, right? And there you go. He sort of proved that through observation of the natural world and rationality, you could sort of put things together and then apply your knowledge in a way that allows you to harness utility in the environment. So very, very interesting cat, failures. And just a side note, people say that address was the first to refer to himself as a philosopher. So, yeah, that might be something that someone brings up in the future, but there you go. And then there's Socrates. Socrates is the one that most people have heard of. And the reason for that was because he actually brought philosophy into the realm of the everyday life and he brought it to the regular person. And that's why we sort of consider philosophy as a schism between two areas. And the first would be the pre-Socratics or before Socrates, if you will, for that very reason. Because before it was. I wouldn't say specialized people, but yes, it was, it was a community of people who were thinking about things. Natural philosophers, which today we call scientists. And Socrates made it a thing of everyone. He said that anybody could, could learn how to philosophize. And he did that through the Socratic method. And there was very, very interesting. So that's the two, there's the two sides of philosophy in that sense right there. That's why I've chosen failures and Socrates, because thalis was pre-Socratic years before Socrates and after Socrates, philosophy became a lot more widespread. And so what has been termed natural philosophy, as I mentioned earlier, is now science. And that's been sciences really usually has a practical application. We don't just do science out of nowhere. At least politically, it's hard to get money for philosophy or learning about the world through science without something at the end of the day, hey, where's it going to bring back to us? But a lot of people who love science say yes, no or just the pure. And it's true the pure knowledge that we gain from understanding our environment does bring something very, very interesting to how we live our lives, how we see ourselves and has a major impact on our culture and so on and in turn, our economy and everything. So that's, that's basically philosophy historically speaking. Now of course there's so much more you can look into. And I haven't really dived into Socrates. But the main thing that Socrates did, if I were to close that loop, was use the Socratic method, what we call that the Socratic method now, and it's just a series of questions. And that can be resumed in his maxim. All I know is that I know nothing which is a paradox in itself, but it serves to point out the fact that, you know, if you admit to your ignorance, then the first thing you're gonna do is ask questions about what you thought you knew. And if you do that, you'll actually come to understand that you didn't actually know what you thought you weren't. You shouldn't be so certain what you thought it wasn't isn't actually the case. And he did this through dielectric, through speaking with people. So very, very interesting. They called them the gadfly of Athens because it's quite an annoying process. It sort of gets at the ego, but the process is worth it. And it's, it's really, it's philosophy. It's the love of wisdom right there. If you love it, you'll let the ego sort of slide and you're just going to humble yourself to try learn more. And yeah, that's one side of philosophy, but in historical context. The second part here, as you can see back in ancient times, it was used to learn how to argue. And it was, it was also used as a education device. You know, it's not like back then they had to conventional schools. We have today going to grade one to 12 and, and, you know, university and so on. So precisely. The philosopher or the Sophists, if you will, where teachers essentially and people could hire them to learn about various things. And one of them was the art of argumentation. How to argue properly. And not necessarily to argue because you're right there because there's truth, but how to argue with linguistic devices? How do you use fallacies and other things that allows you to win an argument? So sophistry didn't in a word. And today, how do you, how does philosophy translate into today and how do we use it? Well, It's, it's technically at the forefront of everything. When it comes to science, politics, law, and various other fields. Philosophy is required at the very forefront of how, you know, if there's a structure in any given domain, there isn't really that big of a need for philosophy. But if the structure needs to evolve, if he needs to make progress at all, if it needs to change, keep up at the time, which is everything that's life. You know, we see an evolution in everything. Then you need philosophy and philosophy is at the forefront of that. And so in physics, for example, there's physicists to try to find out solutions to different problems and everything. Theoretical physicists, in a sense, and we call them theoretical because they may think about things that don't really exist or that hasn't really been set down on paper as physical laws that we've already come to understand. They, they theorize new laws that could exist or new ideas. And that's philosophy right there. So it's used in these big domains, sure, but it can be used by the regular individual, individual. And that's why basically been making this course so that people can sort of use critical thinking or at least be more aware of critical thought as a tool that not only allows you to explore the world around you and understand things and harnessed utility for yourself. But to look inside, to look inward, to question yourself. You know, the process of philosophy works that way to understand everything you sort of need to understand yourself in turn, me as well or a human understand yourself internally. Then what happens is you're able to see the world a little bit more clearly in a sense that you have a frame of mind that allows you to be open-minded. So philosophy is very important. And why is it important? And I've just describe that. But these are other things here that I've added that is a little bit more relevant to who we are today. In terms of our era, which you could say, is it technocratic era? Or in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Some people say, which is the commodification of people or the information revolution, the Internet and that sort of thing, communications. That's our era. So wise philosophy important to us within that context. So good question to ask, and it's important. So technology's exponential. What does that mean? Well, it means that if things happen at a certain speed, exponential reality means that the speed is itself multiplied. And so it's, you know, it becomes faster and faster, right? So if you're at a speed five, or you can multiply that five twofold. And then once you're at ten and it's twofold and it keeps going and going and going on. So not twofold every time, but double the, the initial speed or increasing by exponential thing. So I'm not a mathematician, but Iraqi probably come up with a better definition. But you should probably hit up Google because I'm not an expert. You see, there's an important demonstration of philosophy is you have to understand where it is that you know, one is you don't know. I can't describe exponential speed very well. So the second one's political, cultural, and historical. So that is basically everything that sort of derives from technology. And it wasn't always that way. You know, hundreds of years ago, up to about a 100 years ago as well. You can look at history, you could look at the present political climate and the structure of politics and everything. And you could understand what it is that needs to be done to move forward either as a ruler or as a person who was looking to enter the market as a crafts craftsman or someone who's trying to create a new business or whatever it is. Today, it's not that way. You don't have to know what's going on with him. Different various kings and how the politics are happening. In order to make a way for yourself, you need to follow technology, whereas technology going because that's what's changing everything the most. Whereas before, technology wasn't advancing very, very quickly. And a part of that was because we didn't, we didn't have science, we didn't have philosophy in the sense that we use it for utility. And there you go. So that's a bit of, again, very streamlines explanation. There's a lot more depth, fair wiki go in. But that is something that's important to look in for ourselves. And technically, it's something that we're always aware of because there's these new things introducing themselves, whether we like it or not, and we have to learn. And so in turn, we need philosophy and religion as a remedy for these changes in the sense that we can explore ourselves as human beings, not just as our societies. You know, on that scale, there is a need to philosophize and to connect with, I would say, community, ritual. These sort of things that we normally do in religion. And even people who consider themselves atheists, they might not define it that way. But there is a lot of ritual and what they do in their everyday lives, you know, yoga is a very sort of ritualistic thing. People are really crazy, crazy about yoga today. Or maybe it's protesting, right? Veganism, that sort of thing. People build these little rituals around different, various interests of their communities and build community around those things. And so philosophy can help us understand how rebuilding those communities and those rituals, if they're connected to anything deep and true. And these things are very important to us. And so this is what philosophy is being used for in the modern context. 3. How is Philosophy Done?: Alright, building philosophical ability. This is the meat and the bones. This is how we can start to look at how we go about using philosophy for our own utility and for our own well-being. The first one here that I've written down is semantics and syntax. Semantics and syntax. I don't want to dive too deep into the complexity of these sort of words. Again, I encourage people to look into these things themselves. If you're already here listening to this, then you should be pausing it sometimes, hey, what is that word? What is he using? Their I don't understand it. I'm not going to describe every word here for that reason and curiosity isn't necessarily, excuse me, it's a necessary ingredients in philosophy. You need to be curious. And so I can't tell you how to stimulate your curiosity. All I can say is if you're curious enough to be watching this, hopefully you're curious enough to go and understand things and you don't understand at the same time. So semantics, as an overview, the, the meaning of words and syntax is the meaning of sentences. But don't look the definition up for yourself anyway. But that's the very, very light overview of what those two things are. So how sentences are built is very important. That changes the meaning of things. And so, you know, vocabulary as a, an army meant as a sort of background is important. You need a lot of words to begin with. But then those words need to be defined properly. Especially in philosophy, because an apple is something we don't need to define very often because we've all sort of accepted what an apple is. Usually it's a red or green or yellow. Sometimes, you know, it has a certain taste, texture comes from certain tree. And so we've, we've agreed on what the definition is for an apple. But when you're talking about philosophical words like truth and perhaps the soul, if you're talking about the soul, consciousness, these sort of things where you need to define these things very, very clearly because we haven't completely accepted a definition for these things. And even if certain areas of our culture or society have within philosophy, this is never settled. These words are always important to define. So it's kind of like a key in a lock. If you don't define or if you don't have the key, you can't open the door. And what I mean by door is under the door of understanding between people. So if you're philosophizing with someone else and you haven't defined a certain keyword while you're just going to go around in circles and there won't be any understanding. So very, very important to build philosophical ability is to be aware of our definition and then our facts and information. This is about data and distinguishing between facts and interpretation. So that's sort of relevant to what I was saying about semantics and syntax. But whether a fact is a fact or not is something that can be debated as well to a certain degree. You know, you can always question things, but there's a healthy skepticism in theirs and not so healthy one. So we tend to have accepted the scientific method as a viable way to establish a fact. In media. We've, you know, we sometimes use institutions, we say, OK, The New York Times or the scientific journals. So and so this is a viable option. This is something we can all agree on, comes out with facts. So this is important, obviously, because if you don't have any sort of consensus as to what are factors, then you could always be skeptical and you could always say, Well, you know, I don't think that's a fact because I have my own evidence. Well, is there evidence using the scientific method or is it using the laws of rationality? If it's outside of that scope and you're using simply your opinion or your belief for your faith. It's a little hard. Now it's not to say that people can't experience things and use their faith between them and come to a consensus that way. We do it in religion all the time. So as long as it's done within a context is what I'm trying to say. It's important. So that's facts and information becomes important through consensus. And you have to distinguish between those systems is a faith basis, it's scientific based. You know, those distinctions are important to make. And then you have wisdom and rationality. So in all rattle them off here we have logic, consistency, objectivity, emotional temperance, and understanding. These things stem from wisdom and rationality. Wisdom, if I'm going to define it properly here, is usually something that is learned over time. That's one way you could define it, right? You have to have experience, you have wisdom, and you know how something is gonna happen because you've tested it, tried and true. Rationality is making judgments based on several facts and base often different information. And using the rules of logic to put it together and say, OK, rationally speaking, I can come to an answer because I've used those, those things together, but we'll look into that a little bit later. And so these things are something you can work on, right? You can work on through having conversations, through thinking, through externalizing your thoughts. That's a very important part. Writing, writing your ideas down. Having other people look at your ideas, discussing them, these things, or how you practice rationality. Otherwise, if you're just thinking in your head, well, how do you know whether you're making sense to other people or not, right? Big part of being human is communicating with other people. It's a major partners. And so it all rests on language to a degree. But what are you gonna do with that language while you're going to have to use wisdom, rationality, facts, information, and semantics and so on. So that you can communicate properly with other people and understand the world around you and yourself. In order to do that, in practice, these things, it's important to externalize them. Making your ideas tangible, Right? So that's an overview of what is importance when you're looking at trying to build philosophical ability. I'm more clear, visual way of understanding that would be the process and then the result. So you go out into the world and you have experiences, experiences almost like a scientific tests. Lab test. Through experience you to experience something is to go out and have things happen to you, right? But if the only things that are happening to you are that you're feeling good or feeling bad. Like, you know, you don't want to go eat a hotdog that feels good and it's a new hotdog stand, whatever. Sure, that experiences brought me a good feeling, but has it brought you any adversity? Adversity is the next piece of the puzzle here. Meaning, has it brought you a challenge in some way? Has it brought new confusion as it brought you negative emotions that you can, or new emotions you haven't felt before. These experiences that you'd go for, they shouldn't always just be perfect in the sense that you've already experienced them and nothing new will come from it other than just a good feeling. And so adversity is necessary for growth. Which is the next piece of the puzzle. Growth or why grow? You know, that's something I think you guys can answer for yourself. But if you want to grow, the ultimate thing you have to be willing to do is fail. And I know it's a bit of a tired out cliche at this point. We've heard it a lot with our sharing of the memes on social media with the sort of motivational quotes. But it's true you have to be willing to fail. And philosophy is a process of failure. You have to go out and create imperfect ideas. And at the end of day, you might realize that it's not necessarily about succeeding in terms of having an idea be perfect or truthful. It's more about the understanding or the capability to understand from different perspective that you're trying to build. And ultimately one of the things about philosophy and a lot of people don't know, is useful and can be something that's gained. I have a model that I go by. It's an answer is just another question waiting to be asked, right? So if you come up with an answer, even if it's right, it opens up a whole new world of questions. And then you can go down tangents and so on. And that's a good thing, not necessarily a bad thing. But you'll realize it's not about the answer at the end of the day. So all of that rests on curiosity. You need to be curious. You need to sort of have some kind of inspiration or motivation to learn. And to do all of this, and I wouldn't say, hey, inspire yourself or motivate yourself. It doesn't mean that you have to do that in order to go out and learn. No, I think we are naturally curious human beings. Everything that we do, even if you're obsessed by only doing one thing, you just play tennis. Well, if you love tennis, it's pretty easy to make the step of, well, let's say your reason for loving tennis is because you're getting healthy. Well, how is it making you healthy? Right? Is it the speed at which you have to play or is it the flexibility you have to have? Maybe it's a mental thing. You know, the idea of winning the game or being competitive, that brings you some sort of mental health benefit. And then you can go deeper and ask, well, how, how is it asking are helping me with my health? If that's indeed is the reason you love tennis. Maybe you can start with the question, why do I love tennis? Maybe it's not the health, maybe it's simply the connections that you're making with other people when you play you, you feel like I get to know who this person is on some level, but I can't by just having a conversation with them just to see how they play. And then, you know, I mean, so these questions, no matter what it is, is philosophizing and it's something that you're naturally curious of. Whatever it is that you love. That to me is the source of your curiosity and your inspiration. So that's all you have to do. You don't have to go and look for inspiration or anything like that. So the result afterwards, power, yeah, you get power. It's not to say that power is everything that you need or that it's bad. And a lot of people think, you know, power, I'm not interested in its evil thing. Nano Power is a natural thing in reality, we need to use it and it's not necessarily power over other people, is it? Its power in your own life, its power over your own mind. So it brings you power on several levels. Something that we tend to discover as we philosophize responsibility. That's a major thing. If you are aware of certain things and you become educated on certain topics, then you necessarily put yourself in a position of responsibility. If you're the only person in the room, it knows there's a fire. While it's your responsibility to wake everybody up and say, hey, we gotta get outta here. It's the same thing with philosophy. Really discover things. You really think that you are starting to come upon some new information or some new perspectives that can be helpful in certain ways. Well, there's a responsibility there that you can own up, that you can own and and that's a good thing. You know, I'm not saying it's a something that you're you have Lake. What's the word? Responsibility is is like a ball and chain, you know, needs overbearing. But I mean, it's a good thing if it's a responsibility in the sense that you can complete and fulfill your life. You know, we want responsibility that's ultimately part of being human as well. And then there's passion, right? You become passionate because you have been learning about these things more and you have clarity and because it has given you responsibility and you've seen the results of that responsibility, which is you've helped people or you've helped yourself. It makes you a passionate person. So philosophy is exponential in how you philosophers, I think the more you philosophize there, the more you become interested in your, your process. And ultimately you can just say you're living, right? That's how I sort of equivocating philosophy. I say that it's technically a living as well. 4. The Branches of Philosophy : Alright, so the branches of philosophy, why is this important? Why, why would you want to know about the various types? Well, it sort of goes hand in hand with the curiosity thing. Maybe within, by learning what exists out there in terms of settled branches of philosophy, you can always create your own. There's always new possibilities. But can give you a bit of a head start or, you know, ground off of which you can maybe you launch yourself into a direction and go down the rabbit hole of you're curious. You're curious. Marya, passionate, I should say. So. Here are the first one. We have epistomology and logic. This is the first one for a very special reason. Epistemology is the study of knowledge itself. So how do you, how do you define knowledge? What is it? Is it something that you, that you can have? Is it, is it composed of other things like memory and thoughts, emotions, or do they play a part? You know, these questions, understanding, knowledge itself is very, very important. Some people consider it the most importance in the philosophical realm. Because again, it's concerned with the, the need for defining things. If you've defined what knowledge is, then after that, it really sets the game for defining and for setting rules for everything else that you're going to. To philosophize about rice, where you're talking about ethics and morality and these kinds of things. While if you have an epistemologically sound structure underneath or you have one to begin with. It's going to change. How are you, how are you philosophize about those things, right? If you understand knowledge to be something, let's just call it a rather than B. That's very important. And then you have animalistic or sorry, analytic and linguistic. So this is sort of self-evidence, right? It has to do with language itself, how it works, how we perceive reality through language, and how it impacts us. So analyzing language itself and how it plays a part in everything else that we do with our philosophies or with and culture and so on, languages and a very, very basic level of human activity. And you can philosophize about what it means and how it works as well. And there's axiology. Geology is the umbrella term for ethics and morality. And the philosophy of arts or what people call aesthetics and value theory. I sort of said that kind of fast. So basically, aesthetics is the philosophy of art. And. Beauty, you know, how do we define what beauty is? And give you a bit of a window into what that world looks like. What you're talking about the physical senses and you're talking about perception, right? So the link between the two is a size, shape, texture, color, whether the sound of it, these sort of things. There are specific dimensions that will determine whether we can serve something beautiful and ugly. And you have to deal with the complexities of, hey, maybe these people consider this to be ugly and less to be beautiful. And for us it's the opposite. So what's going on there, right? You can ask many, many questions about aesthetics. And this is important because it influences how we view ourselves and how we live in life. Art is an incredibly important thing, which is why people study it, which is why society is willing to pay so much money for us to understand how we perceive beauty and so on. So it's not something extreme IAS and not that important or as cheap as the idea that it's purely for entertainment so we don't get bored. You know, even if you were to look at it that way, think about that. I mean, it's been said that, you know, utility and work, everything that we do to survive. Well, the reason for why we do those things is for art and beauty are gives us a reason to survive until it starts. It's technically an important. Now technically it is an important thing. And you can dive into that whole world of understanding where it's all about more detail. It's what I love about philosophy. And then value theory is sort of the same thing. What we value tends to be relevant to aesthetics. Because you could say that we value things based on beauty. Sometimes we value things based on unwired. Well, that's the question. Read, we base it on intrinsic value, or do we based it on? Its kinda hard how you base, how do you value something? Why do you evaluate? And these are very existential questions. You could say, well, God created us, and so we're valuable because we are God's creation. Or you can say, consciousness is the only thing that we see in the universe that has any kind of ability to suffer and to feel emotion and so on. So it's inherently valuable, whereas everything else is unfeeling. So there are different ways that you could look at value and ethics and morality. Well, I'm not going to dive into that too much because I think you have an idea of what it is, but I will give you a distinction between what ethics and morality are. A lot of people use that arbitrarily. You know, it's just, you could use one or the other will. In fact, ethics is a system of morality. Is it's sort of like the rules, the framework, and the morals are the actions that you take within that framework, within one ethical system. But say, slapping someone in the face could be moral and in another ethical system that can be immoral, right? So these just very Quick way to explain the difference between ethics and morality. And ethics, think of it more as a framework and morality as the actual actions. Then there's existential and essential and metaphysics. So on. The essentialists and the existentialists wrote, this is a really, really big, it's a big sort of world. So again, I'm going to go into it very, very lightly. The existentialists are typically people who have or are preoccupied with being an existence in itself. So the material that we experience and the experiences that we have that we feel as real reality in itself. That's why we call it existentialism. And that's not to say that exist. Existence is just concerned with the material world. Although typically people who are existentialists end up being what we call material reductionist, or people who don't believe in a metaphysical world or something goes beyond the physical world like god or the soul, these sort of things. But there are, there are existentialists who do believe that the soul can exist in whose metaphysical sort of transcended world and everything. So it's not necessary to say, but they can't. And essentialists are typically people who understand the world as there being an essence to things, meaning it's not just reducible to something physical. You know, you can go down the rabbit hole and say, well, what are things? Where does matter composed of? And you see, okay, molecules and what are molecules composed of? Qi Adams were Adams composed of particles. And what are these particles? Okay, well their frequencies and all a cancer. At the boundary of what we've understood matter to be, you can ask the question, Is there something that goes beyond that, that we can't test? It's not part of the physical reality. And at that boundary, the existentialists versus the essentialist, the typical debate or the question that contextualizes their existence. Vis-a-vis each other Is basically does existence precedes essence, or does essence precede existence? Because the way the existentialists look at it is, well, SInce exists, but it's something that we create out of, out of our own actions and our own being, being as we exists. If I work and I build my home with my own hands, balance your hands. That the feeling that arises out of that home, there's an essence and our acids arises by the actions that I've taken with my bare hands. You can see that as the explanation that the existentialists used for absence. And the essentialists say no, in fact we have a soul. There's something way deeper that exists that's already there. That imbues the world with that feeling that we can't describe. Love, for example, is an important one. Essentialists see as something that exists that is nonphysical, non-material. You know, all of these things as well. You know, people could very easily, this is a bit of a disclaimer or a caveat. The things that you're going to learn, not just through here, but through books and everything. And when you start to talk about what you're learning, you can have other philosophers and other people say no, no, no, you don't have that, right. This is not how you understand that. And that's because they're basically telling you their perspective. So yes, what I'm saying when I'm describing all of these branches, the whole point is that, is that people can always debate what these branches are about in, in themselves. What's, what's true, what's not true, and so on. Sorry, there's always gonna be a debate at the crossroads of these things. Then we look at metaphysics. That's personally one of my favorites. Metaphysics is also concerns. It's sort of very similar to what I've been explaining. It's concerned with ontology, which basically means the study of what exists, what, what is the being itself. So you're really looking at the boundary between existence and non-existence there. And so there's a lot more to it. I invite you to look into it a little bit more. Then there's Theology. Theology is almost like the philosophizing of religion. Theologians tend to analyze texts a lot. The analyze the very logic behind some of the rituals and some of the laws and the history of their own religions and tried to derive understanding, rational understanding of these things. And so that would be the quick overview of what theology is phenomenology. Well, phenomenology is one that I don't currently understand that well myself and I need a lot more work on that. So as far as I understand it, it's, it has to do with how we experience things. The phenomenon of experience itself. Come up with a concrete example. You know, CDO masochism For example. Let's say for the first time in your life, you know, some pain that you've felt makes you feel sexually aroused. That phenomenon, right? Is a very, very cheap way of explaining phenomenology because it goes a lot deeper and more complex than that. And it's not necessarily just relevant to human beings. But let's say that you've felt that for the first time, that phenomenon, it's, it's relevant to, to philosophy. Alright, then we have philosophy of science, a very important one. So how do we know that the scientific method itself and how does it work? Is it right to the wrong? Yeah, I mean, it's very important to question the rules themselves. Alright, and Karl Popper does that. And to be honest, I question my own rules, for example, but phenomenology thing. Should I have talked about it whatsoever? If I didn't know if I didn't know exactly what it was, perhaps not right. Maybe when it gets my rules, but I was tentative in explaining what it is. And at the same time, I admit that I am ignorance to a large degree of, of how it works and that's, and that's what's important. So the philosophy of science sort of does that. Ray, it sort of goes back to what it is that we've been doing with science. And we've sort of say, okay, well let's correct ourselves from now on. If there's a rule that we've been working by and respecting, but that rule is flight. How do we fix that? You know, that, that's something that a lot of people do within science today. But Karl Popper, the guy who sort of started the whole shebang. He looked at the philosophy of, or he looked at science from the philosophical lens in the sense that he was trying to understand what is sites, right? There are always things that you can derive like different methods within science that work and don't work in lives that are good, in law, that are bad and so on. But what is science itself? And so he really, really brought that out into the world and that was very, very interesting. And I can give you a quick overview, but something we'll cover in the course at some point. He's the one who made the distinction between science and pseudoscience. Or people use that term, meaning it's not science and pseudoscience, but pseudoscience is very closely linked, decides for there's a crucial difference that makes it something that is very fallible or it's flawed in many ways. And so. But the process of pseudoscience is quite similar as the process of science itself anyway. So Karl Popper saw that he saw there's a difference. This is why, you know, he actually, freud is a good example for it is considered to have done a lot of pseudoscience. And the reason for this is one of the crucial differences, is you start with your conclusion and then you look for evidence to support that conclusion. Rather than trying to looking for that, rather than trying to look for evidence that will falsify that conclusion, they'll say, OK, well it's not true. Sorry, a very interesting guy. Then there's economic philosophy. We have guys like Karl Marx, big-name that's thrown out there within economic philosophy. Then we have atoms as well. Adams are doing that's escaping me. John Adams, I believe. Adam Smith. I always get these two things wrong. Let's see. Let's look it up. Yes, Adam Smith, There we go. Adam Smith, definitely an important guy in our culture in North America. Because he is, I guess he's sort of considered to be the father of capitalism in many ways. And Karl Marx was against capitalism. He, he, he's the one who was sort of responsible for our communism and socialism as well as stems a lot from, from Karl Marx. So it speaks for itself, right? Whether, whether certain economic systems work for our benefits. Because it takes into question not just whether we're able to produce and survive the things that we need for survival. But it also goes into whether it's good for our societies, whether it's good for us, for our mental health, for our communities, and so on. So economic philosophy is extremely interlinked with morality and politics of course, and all that. So it's, it's sort of can I explain it? It's very much the, the working parts of society. The thing that kind of, you know, if you look at a car, for example, I guess the wheels are what makes the car role. Well, economic philosophy is sort of like the wheels on a car. That kind of wheels you have, it will determine how well your car rolls. And let's just say in the winter you don't wanna be caught with all seasons or some retires. So, yeah, economic philosophy, very interlinked with political philosophy. Political philosophy has to do with how we regulate ourselves, the kinds of laws that we, that we set down, how those laws come to be. So Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for example, wrote a book called The Social Contract, in which he tried to understand how do we come to even cooperate and create Lars and out of politics arise and all this kind of stuff. And, and so you can look at political philosophy from different angles, not just, okay, we use this political system than Howard. How does that work? Or you can say, Well, how did politics work altogether, right? That's the nice thing about philosophy is you can look at it from multiple layers of perspectives. And then you have natural philosophy. That's what I had mentioned in the first, the first part is basically the sciences looking at the world through our empirical senses and trying to understand them with rationality makes, makes sense of the things that we, we understand with our senses. Empiricism is itself a major part of philosophy and I would pretty much throw it under the umbrella of natural philosophy personally, guys like David Hume who said things like, you know, you can't derive an ought from an is, meaning. There's nothing about understanding the world and how it works. That'll tell you how it should work or how we should behave with, with each other, with that information. So it's, it's kind of relevant. Empiricism, which is just a word that means missense is empiric empirical senses, how we sense things, how we collected information with our bodies and our minds. So there you go. When you have the philosophy of psychology on how the mind works, does the mind arise from the brain? And if it does arise from a brain, does mind itself, can it impacts the brain back didn't get to have an effect on the brain itself. Or it doesn't maybe. And those kinds of questions, then you are looking into neuroscience as well, which are some of the fundamental building blocks of how our brains work. Are we computational devices is they're all it is, is just a binary system of neurons going yes or not like firing or not firing, that sort of thing. That's at the root of what philosophy of psychology can be and what it is today. And then of course, everything derives after, which is behavioral psychology, how people behave and why psychology groups, group psychology, right? How, how the dynamics of groups, in what situations you know, you as a human being, sitting around with your family and how you're going to behave is different than if you're at a protest or at a riot or something like that. So the very, very interesting, you can always philosophize and ask questions about psychology because a psychology revolves around the question of consciousness a lot as well. And that is a very, very major on philosophy called The big problem. So I wouldn't say it was a problem and it's a big major components of Psychology. So those are the branches. And you know, maybe there are other branches or sub-branches. And I haven't mentioned, but there's, that's the beauty of philosophy and it never ends. You can always create a new idea, ask you another question and go forward with more information. So this is a good overview of how philosophy sort of relates to all these different domains is basically a good way to understand what it is that these things are about. 5. Layering the Cake: Alright, welcome to layering the cake. This is sort of instruments in my own devising or it kind of created this idea to explain what philosophy, sort of now what it does, but what's important to do when you create certain ideas are one of the techniques that you can use to create an idea. And the first one here, we have theoretical physics and physics. Then we have chemistry, biology, psychology, sociology, history, culture, politics. Okay, so why do I have them in this specific order is very, very important. And that's why I call it layering the cake. Because I see this as the biggest frame that you can take, this biggest picture that you can understand of reality. And if, if you see at the very basis of reality is physics. Like I said earlier, we were looking at particles and Adams, if that's the fundamental building blocks, then you could say that this is basically the technique you would have is at the bottom right, it's the bottom layer by supporting everything else underneath. But I've done it this way because it seems to be more intuitive to understand. So out of physics and how atoms and molecules come together and everything you have, chemistry. Chemistry is the understanding of molecules and how they bond to each other and so on, and how they react with each other. And out of chemistry arises biology, how cells form and the chemical processes within those cells, and how those cells bind with other cells to create tissues and those tissues creating organs and so on. And that's all part of biology, biology and also looks at the evolution of biological systems like animals and plants and so on. Then you have psychology and sociology. So the very organs like the brain, like I was talking about. Well, it has to do with behavior. We have behaved, we're looking at it from a wider lens. How do people work? Our biological systems work in one way, but we can understand it in terms of our behavior. You could say that the biology and the chemistry of our bodies is what impacts behavior, right? And that's why a psychologies sort of comes after Biology. Then you have history and culture. You can look at how we behaved in the past and how that's how cultures come to exist, how they change and so on. And then you have the politics of things. How did, did culture and psychology and so on, of individuals and societies? How would that influence, influence the politics that we have today? So if you have an idea, that idea sort of filters through all of these layers and you can have sublayers and so on. But this is a very general idea of the cake of reality that I sort of created here. And it's important that your ideas, if you're going to create an idea from a psychological perspective, well, you know, you want to look on either side of it sometimes and sometimes you want to include the whole cake to support your, your idea within the psychological realm. If it's in the chemistry ROM and you would want to do the same thing, right, just to support your argument a little bit better. So that's how that works. Philosophy takes you to different, takes you to different layers. And the more layers you include them more sophisticated your idea, your idea becomes. So. Yeah, that would be one of the very first things that people should be aware of when they, when they start to create theories and so on. 6. The Structure of a Philosophy: So philosophers, tasks and challenges. Now that we know a little bit about how philosophy works and what you do with philosophy and so on. Let's look at the responsibilities or the challenges that we have as philosophers. The first one here, as you can see, balancing the opposing forces between utility and affects. So what that essentially means is you can philosophize and you can say, okay, well, here's the utility that I can harvest from this idea. If we start to live by this idea, it allows me to do such and such a thing. But then you can ask yourself, are the things that I'm going to be doing as a result of this idea is going to be ethical. Because it create an ethical structure that allows me to be moral. And step through that morality I can coexist with other people and, and be a good person. This is very difficult because a lot of the things that we wanna do, that or we consider moral, goes against what we need to do for our utility, for having the ability to survive and so on and vice versa. Lot of utility we need to create and to use. Well, it causes ethical problems. So balancing those two is a major responsibility of philosophy. If you're going to start to look at ideas within the moral and ethical around. See if you're preoccupied with understanding what consciousness is then. From there, you don't have to necessarily derive an ethical system or balanced utility and ethics, but you have to be aware that the way that you define consciousness will impact the balance of utility and ethics. So let's say you're a famous philosopher and you've contributed a really major idea, a new discovery than, let's say. Then the wave you've interpreted that idea might be used by other people. Or other people will interpret your ideas in certain ways that might either create better balance or not so good. So Nietzsche and marks are pretty good ideas. You know, Marx didn't set out for the Communists. Sort of genocides that have been raging since the early 20th century. But that's what happened with his ideas. So they were flight in certain ways. And so that's part of the risks that we take with our ideas. And then they say the pen is mightier than the sword for a reason. So there you go. Then you have combining purpose and meaning. So defining what purpose is and also creating an idea that allows for something to even be purpose to say, okay, well this is what is purposeful. And this has an all-purpose. Well, that has to go hand in hand with meaning, right? I mean, let's see. I can grab rocks and bring them to the summit of the mountain. And the purpose, I'll just say of doing that is so that the rocks end up there rather than stay down here. What is that purpose? And bring me any meaning. You know, you can say that it does if you're building a house at the top of the hill that those rocks, or if you've taken the rocks away from pasture land that will allow someone to garden or farm some vegetables on or something like that. So your purpose and meaning, you have to combine those two and how they work in order to create well-being. And it's something that philosophy tends to have power. And then you have creating a hierarchy. So hierarchies. And this is debatable of course. But hierarchy exists. Fundamentally. It's in the nature of reality. Something has to come before something else. It's just, you know, just the way it works. Otherwise, how do you organize anything? So there's a hierarchy calls, called Maslow's pyramid. And it's probably one of the most famous ones that people have sort of seen. If you haven't seen it. This is a very simplified version. There's more layers to it usually, and there's various different interpretations what those layers mean and so on. But at the very base of the pyramid, we have survival. That's the very first thing we seem to have, like need, make sure that I have shelter, food, water because without water food all die pretty soon and the rest of the pyramid doesn't exist, does it? After you've taken care of your needs, your survival needs, then you have integration. Integration is sort of lumps a lot of things together, but, you know, you need community, you need a sense of security and love. Purpose, meaning sort of. And you know, something to do every day. You don't want to be bored and so on. So you need to integrate with society and so on, integrate yourself as a human being. But then that starts to look into self-actualization. So, you know, becoming a moral person, developing virtues, having a good grasp as to what life is, who you are in. This reality. Feeling fulfilled. However you do that, it could be through career, through philosophy, and naturally, it could be through religion and so on. And that sense of fulfillment, Aristotle called eudaimonia, right? So it's, it's, it goes beyond just feeling as if though you're happy today, like that kind of the, you know, when you're happy you get that excitement here in the chest. You have, you know, maybe your cheeks blush. You get that warm, fuzzy feeling. And that's not really what Aristotle saw as being happy in life. Even if you're having a horrible day. He saw fulfillment as that ultimate happiness that's having been self actualized on the highest of levels. Entails feeling fulfilled, not feeling happy or sad or whatever. So Yeah, creating a hierarchy is something that a lot of philosophers basically do. When you erect a philosophy, when you create one, you're essentially erecting a system that allows you to build up to self-actualization, to fulfillment. So wherever you determined we should survive, you know, how do you negotiate with your neighbors? Is it okay to take land or an IOT or so on to do what you gotta do. But in all of this kind of stuff, you can borrow philosophy to how do you live then in a society, and how do you organize it and then how do you reach self-actualization in terms of what rituals are going to choose, what moral systems are going to create and so on. It's what a philosophy is. You're creating a philosophy when you do all that. So here's a bigger progress. Maslow's pyramid. It's a bigger pyramid that sort of visually gives you a bit more understanding. You have the basic needs down here, and psychological needs is another way to look at it. And lumped these as, as integration. Because again, you if intimate relationships, friends, feeling of accomplishment, that sort of thing is integrating within a society. And then self-fulfillment or needs is achieving ones full potential, including creative, creative activities. Now, I see that as I was explaining, will feel fulfilled. I think he agrees that you agree that it's not the best definition of what self-actualization is, but it's part of it to achieve their full potential. But ultimately, what are you achieving your full potential for all your, you're achieving it to feel fulfilled. And so that's why I've been that way. So this pyramid relates to the spiritual at the very top, right? And you know, you don't have to be someone who believed in spirituality. You can be an atheist to understand this word because I'm using it in the context that it has nothing to do with your survival. Basically, it's the highest form of human needs. You know, like there's a monkey really feel like it needs to come up with an ethical system that they can live with and they feel I'm a good person, not really. They just sort of live more instinctually. So I use spiritual in that context and the context of our human highest human abstractions and the needs that we need to fulfill those highest levels. So that highest is eudaimonia explained. And you can look at it here a little bit more from, from other lenses. So if you're looking at it from the biological and psychological lens, I see, I see here balanced and then stability. You need balance in the sense that you have to have, excuse me, a good amount of food. We also have to have a love and a certain amount of sense of security and safety and so on. But at the same time you need some adversity, some danger to help you make, make you strong. You don't want to be too safe. Making you too safe makes you weak. Making you too at risk, makes you weak as well, alright? And vulnerable. So you need a balance between the two. And a lot of that has to do with your biological needs and your psychological needs. And that's what allows you to have stability. So that's right here is at the bottom of the hierarchy. Then you look at the psychological needs a little bit in greater detail, which is at the middle of this hierarchy here. And that's due with belief a lot because, you know, what you believe as an accomplishment is technically more important than what Theresa society believes is an accomplishment. And that's your belief is tied into what everybody else believes. So belief in itself is a very interesting part of the psychological psyche in general. And it directly relates to the middle of that hierarchy. The needs sort of rests on belief itself. What you believe is valuable, what you believe is belongingness and an intimate relationship, what a friend is, all that sort of stuff. It's important to understand. And then you have the feedback loop here. I'm not going to dive into that too much, but having a positive feedback loop is kind of like, well, I'll give you the physical example. I think most people have experienced having a microphone too close to the speaker, but the microphone is amplifying sound, so the sound is coming from the speaker that you've amplified, comes back into the microphone and then it creates a feedback loop and it gets stronger and stronger. Very, very interesting effects of physics. But that seems to apply to human beings in how we live. In a more abstract manner. Feedback loops exist. So creating positive feedback loops, you can have positive ones and you can have negative ones. So a negative, positive feedback loop. Like for example, the belief that your fat, even though they're not, and let's say you're a twig and you're starving to death. That belief is usually rested or that there's a positive feedback loop. A lot of the time that exist there because you might feel guilty that you're starving yourself to death because your families unhappy, but that's causing you stress. And that stress is not allowing you to build an appetite. So you start yourself even more that right, there would be a feedback loop in the psychological realm. So definitely an important one to look at as a site. As a psychologist, yes, but as a philosopher, you can look at humans, human beings through that dimension and take that into account to create a good hierarchy. Good philosophy, in other words, that allows you to create good feedback loops. Then you have the biological. So that's at a deeper level, like we had said, the limbic system and the neocortex. These are two things that you could understand the human being to be. If you take that into account, it'll allow you to create your philosophy around those ideas so that you can take them into account and do something that makes sense. And the limbic system is, you know, the, I guess the reptilian brain or the, Now the simple, simplistic part of us, our primordial urges, you know, the need for food and sex. And when we are aggressive, we get angry and just wanting the very things that we desire through pure, not greed, but through pure instinct, we just want sugar. Sugar is very important for us, right? Fats and sugar and insects and so on. The limbic system seems to control us. It's, it's what, it's what sort of guides or directs our more sophisticated thinking selves, which is the neocortex. This neocortex is that part of ourselves that we've developed that distinguishes us from other primates, animals who themselves have intelligence, yes, but our neocortex gives us that extra, that ability to have abstraction in language and so on. And, and we, we like to think that our more sophisticated solves our rational selves that allows us to be mature. And everything. And logical is what is in control. But even the most rational of US and logical of us are technically just being controlled by the Olympic system. So you have to take into account, even if you can create a philosophy just for people who are being run by the limbic system a little more. They don't have a good balance there. They don't have the maturity developed. You can create a philosophy that's more for rational people who have mastered the limbic system a little bit more. They have a good balance, their lives there. Or you can try to create a philosophy. It applies to people in a sense that if they follow your philosophy, it'll help them balance those two. So it's another way to look at philosophy in terms of a practical application. How do you create one? Well, you want to look at the hierarchy of needs in these manners. And he's, and he's ways. 7. Recap & Overview of Next Lecture: So welcome to the recap. We can have a little bit of an overview of everything, but then there's an assignments that you can go off and do for yourself. So the first one is explain what you thought philosophy was before this class and how it's changed now. And I truly mean explain it. I mean, the way the economists, the Feynman technique, which is to basically teach what you've learned and that helps you understand it even more. And so when I say explain it, I say, find an opportunity to talk to someone about what you've learned and then explain it to them. Excuse me. But explain to them what you thought, what you thought you about philosophy before you sort of saw this lesson and what you think about it now. And maybe what do you think it could be in your life? If you don't want to do that, you can always write it down on a piece of paper and go back to it later after you've made it clear that philosophy into the future, you can look back and making them remember that first day. Here's what I had written and you might not agree, maybe you'll agree. Refer with yourself. As you can see here, say for next week. Research Socrates and write one page detailing who he was and what his principles are. Typo there. So it's sort of to give you, I say next week because you need a deadline. People tend to be more motivated when there's a deadline, but make sure for next week if you're taking this lesson and we're saying k will continue with the next lesson. Next week. You'll have that done by next week before you go to the other, other lesson videos. But it's important just researching who he was because he isn't interesting character. There's a lot of good ideas there. And it gives you somewhere to start. I don't know where to start. And then you have the tools and methods and the terminology that is really starting to look into the meat and bones of philosophy. How to understand arguments, how do you create arguments? How to know what the terminology is? Because a lot of the academic terminologies scary to people really all this sounds complicated, but in actuality, it's just a word that describes a whole sentence or a whole paragraph worth of thoughts and so on are very complicated. Not complicated, but just intense and heavy sort of material. So if you have the terms, if you understand what those terms mean, that you can start to use them and then you have building blocks. So if you're building a house but your bricks or you know, two inches wide, you're going to need a lot of bricks to build their house. But if you have bigger bricks, then you won't need so many and you'll be able to build the house faster with less energy and effort into it. And that's why learning the terminology is important. And then you want to learn fallacies as well, which is basically the weak weaknesses of logical reasoning. Or you can say strength. Again, if you want to win an argument, you can use fallacies. They are not logically consistent. A lot of them, they don't. It's probably all of them. But learning to point them out in someone else and learning to use them if you want to win an argument, if you're in a debate team or something. But these things are things you can do. And that's, that's really the, the mean. The mean sort of course. And that's what we're going to learn next in the next lesson. So I hope you've enjoyed this. And yeah, I'd love some feedback as well. Send me some feedback. And if there's anything you suggests, then I'll definitely be glad to employ it in the next class is that I'm willing to make.