Learn To Fly an Airplane | Howard Forder | Skillshare

Learn To Fly an Airplane

Howard Forder, Technical Trainer

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26 Lessons (5h)
    • 1. Learn To Fly Introduction

    • 2. Module 1: First Flight

    • 3. Module 2: Straight And Level

    • 4. Module 2: Homework

    • 5. Module 3: Introduction

    • 6. Module 3: Lesson 1 - Checklists

    • 7. Module 3: Lesson 2 - Taxiing & Instrument Checks

    • 8. Module 3 Lesson2: Run Up And Taxi Demonstration

    • 9. Module 3: Lesson 3 Takeoff Airspeeds

    • 10. Module 4: Lesson 1 - The Practice Area

    • 11. Module 4: Lesson 2 - Theory of Flight & Airspeeds

    • 12. Module 4: Lesson 3 - Turns

    • 13. Module 4: Lesson 4 - Descending

    • 14. Module 5: Lesson 1 - The Phonetic Alphabet

    • 15. Module 5: Lesson 2 - ATIS & Practice Area Communications

    • 16. Module5: Lesson 3 - Ground Communication & Taxiing

    • 17. Module5: Lesson 4 - Tower Communications in and around the Airport

    • 18. Module 6: Lesson 1 - Map Reading & Heading Home

    • 19. Module 6: Lesson 2 - Landing

    • 20. Module 6: Lesson 2 - Landing Demonstration

    • 21. Module 6: Lesson 3 - After Landing Checklists

    • 22. Module 7: Lesson 1 - The Circuit

    • 23. Module 7: Lesson 2 - Checklists & Touch and Go

    • 24. Module 7: Lesson 3 - Solo Flight - Entry And Exit

    • 25. What's Next and Thank You!

    • 26. FlightSimulatorFirstLook


About This Class

Using Flight Simulator, you will use the same flight lessons that flying students use, on the same runways, same airports and same checklist procedures. Students who learn in this manner end up with an accelerated learning path in real flight lessons. One other reason flying students take this course is that its fun, without the risk of making mistakes in real planes. 

Howard Forder is your instructor and this course was conducted in a flight school for years to prepare pilots for real flight training. Come along and enjoy the thrills and skills that flying offers in this beginner course.


1. Learn To Fly Introduction: learning to fly is the dream of millions of people since long before we started to fly. Then, as we see others become pilots of their own planes or rental planes, it sparks us even more. There's a reason so many people attend air shows. Even the low and the slow planes spark our interest. When we pursue the hobby of flying or the career flying, it's going to cost money, lots of money. That's why most of us cannot afford to learn to fly. Or at least we think we can afford it until the lessons keep going. The funds dry up or other things in life take precedence. This is where I come in. My name is Howard Ford ER, in my lifelong pursuit of piloting an airplane for sheer pleasure, I took the one tool I had been using for years flight simulator and used it alongside the actual lessons of flying from real flight schools. Because Microsoft Flight Simulator is so realistic with accurate runways, actual radio frequencies and photo realistic cockpits, we can practice for free again and again. Over 15 million pilots used flight simulator to practice approaches and hone their skills here in this course, I'll step you through lessons. Demonstrate the skills, share videos of every flight skill for you to download and compare to your progress. You will be learning all the skills and practicing each one as you learn it. For some, learning to fly correctly in flight simulator is all they want to learn and keep using it to fly a variety of planes to countless destinations. But for others, this is the stepping stone to obtaining your pilot's license riel lessons at a local airport flight school coupled with practicing in flight simulator as I did, there are seven major lesson areas in this beginner course, just as there are in a flight school pilot program. Some of the things you will learn and practice our taxing around the airport, handling your airplane before you take to the sky. Correct takeoff procedures, speeds, checks level off procedures straight and level flight standard rate turns, map, minding, climbing and descending correctly. Approach to airspaces, entry and exit. And, of course, the best circuit. How to enter and land all through this radio procedures. Talking with control towers. We'll also taxi to the apron and correct shutdown checklists. There are materials for you to download, such as the area flight map Assessment 1 72 checklist, which I have simplified for flight simulator in this course. Ah, cockpit poster to study and assignments that need to be submitted. When you finish this course, you'll be able to confidently handle an airplane from start up taxi, take off flight maneuvers, returned to airport and land correctly without crashing, all the while listening to and responding to air traffic controllers. This same program has been tested in riel airport schools, where my job was to prepare new pilots first in the simulator before they stepped into real airplanes. You, too can start with this beginner course. Learn the essentials needed no matter what size of airplane you wish to eventually fly, but I do have to mention you will need to acquire a flight stick or a flight yoke rial. Pilots don't fly with the most or a keyboard. The ideal set up for this course is an inexpensive flight yoke, rudder pedals and flight simulator 2000 and four or flight Simulator X from Microsoft. But we can talk about sources and cost in the course. I just don't want you to be surprised to hear this after you buy the course and roll Now in this beginner learned to fly course and start learning Today This can be fun, exhilarating, inexpensive and thrilling Skills and thrills for a lifetime. See you inside. 2. Module 1: First Flight: thank you for enrolling in this beginner learned to fly program. We want to get you in that airplane right from the start, but first you need to collect the necessary equipment in the software to fly properly. You'll need a flight stick, sometimes called a joystick or a flight yoke. I prefer you get a flight yoke the most pop. Their yoke used by flight simmers, is the CH Products flight Sim Yoke se Tick also makes one that is equally is good, although they cost about $130. Knew you could get a used one on the reseller websites, starting from $20. There is really nothing wrong with a used one, as there isn't much to wear down or stop working. But flying without a yoke isn't very intuitive and can be quite frustrating if you opt for a flight stick. Well, they are used in high powered fighter jets or home built airplanes. Because of their simplicity and their quick response, you can snap a joystick over faster than turning a yoke. Also, a flight stick takes up less room in a crowded jet fighter, Koppett for our course, and certainly when you enrolled in flight lessons. In a real airplane, you'll be using a yoke. Once you plug in the USB cable to your computer, it automatically gets used in the flight simulator program. There's nothing to configure or tinker with, and it's what we use in real airplanes as an additional note. If you have rudder pedals or wish to be more realistic in your lessons, you should get rudder pedals. We don't need them until the intermediate course, where we doom or advanced attitudes in flight and to help reduce the cost of starting to learn to fly. We won't use them in the begin, of course, but if you have them or desire to use them, it will make your learning more realistic and similar to rial airplanes. Now for the software we use Microsoft Flight Simulator Ex Throughout this course, there are other flight simulators and many of them geared at gaming. There are also two more realistic simulators that would work, too. There's prepare three D and explain all right, and there are all kinds of forms talking about how this one's better than that one, etcetera, and we get to read that all the time. You can certainly tune into some of those We have to use Microsoft Flight Simulator X or 2000 and four, and they can be bought new for about $30 to $60 or so. So it isn't a huge expense. It has the airports we need. It has the realistic cockpits, the scenery, the accurate runways and the radio frequencies. All of those things. You can buy it on the steam website or used from other Web places. I'm not sure about a use software package, and, if its activation will be tampered with, certainly knew packages have no risks. So no worries about multiple screens or expensive seeming hardware, a flight yoke and a PC or laptop is all you need. All my videos and screen snaps air done with a single screen HP laptop and a flight yoke. Nice and simple. Lesson two started up. So let's go flying. When you start flight simulator, we're faced with a starting screen where we can pick our airport, our runway and our airplane to be able to follow the lessons and use the maps provided we'll be flying out of Toronto City Centre Airport. We'll pick daytime summertime and pick the 71 72 if you have add ons and there is a variety of 1 70 two's pick one that has the color scheme you like. Pick runway 08 to start. This is important for simplicity of our first lesson way won't be doing the whole start up and run up checklists and taxi to the runway will be starting rated runway eight and away we go now save this startup configuration and check the box that says Make this the default flight. Then we don't have to do this. Every time we start, we will make some other flights. Startups later. Now we're ready to fly. Ensure your yoke throttle is pulled towards you or at the zero part and click the fly Now button on your screen. This should position you at the end of the runway with the number 08 beneath your plane. Your engine should be running and the propeller is spinning. We are ready for our first flight. Are you ready? If not caused this lesson? Certainly. And get your airplane ready. Go back and review a bit of this to get it all set up properly. We want to be on runway eight. Ready to go when you are ready to go? The next thing is simply push our throttle forward all the way full to give you full power . Your plane will start to roll down the runway. This is exciting. Before the runway ends, your plane should lift off by itself. Don't panic. Don't pull anything. Don't pull back or forward or anything like that. It should actually take off by itself before we reached the end of the runway. If it doesn't, all right, pull back a little bit, A little bit of pressure on the yoke or stick to pull the nose up a little. At this speed, it should take off on the runway. Don't yank it back. Is that's too abrupt and it will result in a crash. So there you are, lifting off and actually flying wasn't that easy. There were a lot of things done for us to make that so simple. We will learn all of those things, as they do in real playschool. But we have left the ground. We're actually flying now. At any time you can cause the flight. You pause your flight simulator to do analysis or to take a break, you might need the restroom or get another refreshment or you just want to analyze the plane by looking around. All right. We can pause any time by pressing the P key on your keyboard and then pressing P again to keep going. This will be very useful later when analyzing your flight performance. Now keep going on pausing Away we go. Did you notice we haven't touched anything yet? We are flying straight out along the coast of Toronto on Lake Ontario. We will explore more as we learn more. For now, we will reset the flight and try it again. Are you ready? Lets reset it back to our starting point and do it once more. Press the control key plus the semicolon key together, right Control, semi colon or used the file menu if you wish. If your menu bar isn't showing, press the Ault key to show the menu bar. Then select Reset flight which is controlled semi colon. Now do it once more just for practice. In the next lesson, we will learn how to change our views and look out the window. Lesson three, Look out the windows. Okay, we flew once only for a minute, but we flew. Now we get to see around our airplane and out the windows. There are three keys that will be very handy when looking around the plane and the hat switch on the yoke. Let's start with the hat switch. It's the most intuitive and the easiest to use. You can see this handy switch on the yoke under your right thumb. It's that gray circular dome on the right side, part of the yoke. When you click all the sides of the hat switch you see around the plane, try it with your plane at the starting position. Again, Let's use the hat switch while we're sitting at the end of the runway, push it to the left to look left. Then hold the switch and watch it move until you let go. Now try another direction, see what happens. All right, so while you're inside the plane, you can go look around, left, right forward, back. When you're outside the plane, we can do a circular, most in all the way around. It's the most intuitive and easy to use. Let me show you the next mode to D mode And so for this were introducing the S key. Press your s T. You'll press it repeatedly until you get back to the same view. So it toggles through all the views. These are simply different views of your airplane right now, Even while it's moving, this is a handy key to change from the virtual cockpit view. We're looking for two main views that will use a lot the cockpit and the outside view. We keep using the s key to get to these views all the time. The next key on introduce is the A key. While back in the cabin press the A key to see what it does press it again. You'll see something different until you return where you started. What we are after here is the two D cockpit view. This flat view is the default view we will use when flying as it closely resembles the real feeling of learning to fly in a real airplane. We will use the s key now to look outside, then come back to this two d cockpit view. We use this repeatedly throughout the course. Now let's use our new keys while we're moving. Reset your flight if you aren't already there and give your playing full throttle and start down the runway. Here we go. As you start to move, press the S key to get your outside view of the plane so you can use your hat switch to move around. The plane isn't that cool. Now start using your hat switch and look all the way around your plane while it's careening down the runway. Isn't that amazing? This is more useful and more realistic while you are instant replays or watching recordings afterward. But it can help you immensely when determining correct flight attitude. It's also a great way to get awesome screen stocks of scenery and planes in flight. 3. Module 2: Straight And Level: module to lesson one straight and level. The Pilot's Handbook of Theory defines straight and level as a constant altitude and a constant direction. Hence, your wings would have to stay level to achieve that. If we wish to go anywhere and have control of our plane, we need to master this seemingly simple skill. Ah, flying straight and level. Sure, when you fly military jets and acrobatic airplanes, you do anything but straighten levels. But each of those planes had to do a straight and level flight to get to each airshow. So your first flight had you take off from Toronto City Centre Airport and climb. Then we reset the flight and did it again. Well, sooner or later, you need to level off and go somewhere. So here's how it's done level. Let's define that. First, we will use one instrument to help us determine how high we are. Then we can determine when we are approaching the desired height and level off. This height above sea level is called altitude. You will see it written as a SL, or altitude above sea level with hands similar to oclock. It has a big hand for the hundreds of feet and the small and for thousands of feet. Our assessment 1 72 is a piston engine similar to our cars and can only operate up to an altitude of about 15,000 feet. Even that high, we probably cannot breathe as theirs too thin. So we stay generally in the 0 to 10,000 foot range for various reasons. But we also will be practicing our flight maneuvers, but probably in the same range or around 0 to 6000 feet. Is there any reason to go any higher? All right, we'll talk about that later, but the inner practice area up to 6000 feet. So let's see how to get level. If full power keeps us climbing, we could just use our yoke to level off. But then our speed will increase and eventually go beyond the maximum allowed airspeed. So we reduce the throttle, which is the gas appropriately. So to level off the level off procedure is to push forward on the yoke. To achieve a level looking visual of the window, see the altimeter, stop climbing and then wait for the speed of the plane to get to the desired range. Then finally pull back on the throttle or less gas to maintain that speed. Then we will trim it more on that later, we'll talk about trim, but in summary, when leveling off, we use the letters, a P T attitude power and then trim. Let's say I wish to level off a 24 100 feet and that will be needed where we are, and I'll explain that later. But as I'm climbing through 2000 feet and heading towards 2200 feet, I'll start my gentle level off procedure a p T. Push my yoke a bit forward to lower the nose of the plane. So the outside world looks half and half, half sky, half ground. Let the airspeed pick up to about 100 and 10 knots on the airspeed indicator and then trimmed to that attitude. Let's have a look at this in action. Now let's talk about trim. This is a lifesaver. You noticed when you leveled off that you had to push the yoke forward and hold it there. If you were doing a long cross country flight, you would get fatigued so fast we can't possibly expect toe Hold this yoke forward for the whole flight. So we used the trim tab or the trim wheel, the trim wheels. What we control the tab is in the back. We'll show you that later, and that will take the pressure off the yoke and literally fly without pushing or pulling the yolk. When we do our walk around. In a later lesson, we will learn what it looks like on the outside. But for now, let's look at the trim wheel and adjust it. It works similar to the yoke and think of it as attached to the side of the oak. It isn't far off from the oak and the real plane. Spending it upwards is like pushing forward on the airplane, and it'll level it off or even descend. Pulling it backwards or flipping it down backwards will raise the nose, just like pulling the yolk backwards. Does so level off and then take the pressure off the yoke. Just experiment both ways. We need to trim forward until it is stable in level flight. Without us pushing the yolk, you'll notice the pressure. Come off the yoke. You'll notice the plane wolf Stay the attitude that you want when you have trimmed the plane to level flight. Try it past that point, then try trimming it before that point and get a feel for trimming. This is an important part of flying. You could even buy a special Cessna endorsed trim wheel like this one with USB and just plug it in. But for now, just position your mouse cursor over the trim wheel on the dashboard and spin your mouse wheel up and down on your most. Right. Now it's your turn. I want you to try that. Start with your runway zero A default startup adventure, throttle toe full and take off like we did before. Now, as you climb, use your STD and look around is a new skills going right here. As you get closer, come back into the comp it, and then as you get closer to 2400 feet, start your level off. Push the yoke so you see half sky in half ground. Look out the window, watch the speed increase power back with your throttle and then trim it for hands off level flight. That's a lot of stuff at one time. Now do it one more time, then save your flight after your stable at 2400 you can use this saved flight in the next lesson. Straight flight straight flight simply means keeping the plane going in the same direction, using the magnetic compass as our guide. Now the compass is good but only good at level flight or else it bounces around and it's hard to read, so we use a useful instrument called the directional Indicator. You'll see in brackets D I. You'll hear people saying, Check your D I. It's the directional indicator. It uses a vacuum driven gyro, which is a spinning ball about the size of a plum. As the plane changes direction, it's indicated on the dial. This is very accurate in any attitude of flight, and it can also tell us a lot about the direction we wish to go by simply looking at the dial and heading in that direction. In pilot school, you have to understand this instrument in more detail, but in this course, just understand that it's more accurate than the compass. In real life, the directional indicator has to be set to the compass every time you're on straight and level. If you change your attitude we usually check it, then you can rely on it for accurate direction, any time in any flight attitude. So let's look at that instrument while we are turning. This is the important part, and we'll do this check while we're on the ground doing taxing, too. So while we're up in the air, there are no roads and nor road signs, so we use the magnetic points of the compass. We say that we're turning 30 degrees to the left, or we say that we are turning to 340 degrees, which means our directional indicators should show 340 degrees once were straightened level . We simply turn the wheel of the yoke, left or right and glance of the directional indicator to ensure we're heading toward our destination. Heading It's almost like driving a car, isn't it? When we do that, we might lose some altitude hopes That's different than a car. So we compensate a little more power, or we compensate by simply just pull back a little on the on the yoke while returning. You lose some speed while pulling back, but you'll regain it on the straight and level on the new course. So let me demonstrate this turning to a new heading in our flight that took us to straighten level. We ended up over the water of Lake Ontario heading out to see We want to come back, whether some references, because once you get further up to see, we've got a blue sky and a blue water. It's a lot harder to learn flight. And in fact, in beginner flight school, they don't want you going over water. And they don't want you without a horizon. Even on hazy days, they won't want you to go flying because you can't see that horizon out the window. All right, so we want to turn toward the coast and follow it or head inbound. Oh, about 30 degrees or more to the left will probably go north, just north rate inland. All right, so let's try that. Turn the yoke to the left, just like a car. See the view out the window as we bank to the left. Now try to keep the same altitude by pulling back a little. Just a bit of pressure. Pull back. You notice that once we set that shallow bank to turn and We don't have to go abrupt everybody. We're not in fighter jets. So once we get that, ain't that bank angle going? We don't have to keep the yolk there. We get the yoke to get it going, and then we bring the yolk back to center and you'll see the plane slowly. Start to come back to center. It'll right itself. It's designed to do that. We'll keep that angle for a while by itself. But the planes designed to eventually end up level again, so we nudged the yolk a bit more to keep that angle and keep it back at center way. Don't hold it. Laughter. It'll just keep going, left further and further to steeper and steeper angles. All right, get to feel for that as we get within 10 degrees or so of our desired new heading. Start leveling the wings by using opposite yoke. This will be more accurate as we study bank angles while turning for now, we just want to round out at our desired heading and then ensure were at the same altitude . Watch this. - Now it's your turn, a left turn for 80 degrees to the heading of zero or 3 60 which is north. Try it one more time. Try to look out the window as much as possible to get that sky and ground line. Get a feel for where that is. All right to help us looking out the window instead of the instruments, we're introducing a new key to use the W key. The W key is used to reduce the dashboard of the plane and focus on the look out the window , the equivalent of sticking your head out the window, which we do a lot in VFR flight rial flight schools stress this visual VFR flight rules visual flight rules. You only rely on instruments alone when you are rated for I afar instrument flight rules and you're flying through the clouds or through fog. So I want you to think about our flight maneuvers by looking out the window. We also have to look for other traffic since they're looking out the window to Well, they're computer generated in our simulator world. But there is other traffic and we're gonna make more traffic to as we go along through this course, we only glance at our instruments for quick checks, just like in a car. We can't focus on the speedometer or the gas gauge of the car for fear of crashing. So while you're simulators paused, press the w key until you are back where you started. Now, press it again until you reach what I call the minimized Instruments screen. All right, take a look at this video. All right, so here we are, flying eastbound. And if you take a look where we are, where we've passed our turn point there it is, right there. We're just about there. So we have to do a nice sharp turn to get there. So we're gonna turn toward the land and we'll do it in inside the cockpit, and we'll start from here and use our w key. All right, So here's our first press of w second press, third press, and there's where we want to be and we'll talk about those different screens in a second. Let's do a turn towards the land. Let's get to where we need to be. So we can be comfortably over the land in VFR flight rules. We have to fly within gliding distance of the land. All right? We don't have life jackets and we don't have a life boat, and we don't have anything else on the plane. So we got to stay near the land so we can at least glide, even in an engine failure. All right, so we're heading back to the land and will do all our practice is to the north. There's a clear mount practice area to the north where we'll be heading for all of our practices. So here I am, flying now. Is that straightened level? I don't know. It looks like it out the window. And if I let go because it was trimmed for straightened level, it should actually settle in. Now. It won't be exactly half in half because we don't have the cockpit in the way. Now out the windscreen. It was half in half at the top of the screen up here, and this is actually 1/2 and half screen. And if you notice over here, we're pretty much and it's now settling. But we're pretty much keeping that altitude. All right, so this is what's going to look like a normal straight and level, and you can just glance of the instruments and look back at your screen and we'll fly out here all the time. Same with your heading. I glanced over here and back to here. As you saw in a previous exercise. We wanted to head north. So now that we're over the land, I'm gonna head north. Look at that visual of the window. I can tell. It's a nice, gentle turn, and I can tell it's pretty much straight and level. And once I get to the north, you can see I can round out here on my north heading. And now I'm heading north to the practice area. Now there is one mawr setting you could use, and that's hitting the W key once more. And when you hit it once more, it clears all instruments. Now you're flying completely visual as if you stuck your head of the window and you aren't even looking in the cockpit. This can get a little disorienting. Some people actually find they get vertical doing this. So be careful. You might have to have some kind of reference for that, but it is great for taking screen snaps and recording your flight from this view, which will talk about soon in this module, all right. So the w key and summary I'm gonna hit it once more to get back into the cockpit. There's my half and half of the windshield. Do you notice, though, that I can just press w key from here first? I just want to point out See the full panel here with the switches at the bottom. So I pressed the w key once more. Zooms right in. As if I knew. I want to look great in something really detailed and do something important with it, All right? And so you know so well. I mean, here, I didn't even realize I was climbing, and so I had to quickly adjust for that, but, uh, I pressed the w key once more. You'll notice this bottom panel will disappear. All these switches will disappear. All right. And it will actually get your head right in the panel. Right like that. Now, I have still a visual outside. None of those switches on the bottom. Some people prefer this view because once the switches air set, they don't need to switch to turn anything on or off anymore. Maybe for the longer flight, you might want to have this is your default you because you don't have to play with switches forever in the circuit. We have to do lots of things, so you'll figure out which of you is best for you when you're flying. Now press the W Q once more and get my familiar minimized instruments of you. 4. Module 2: Homework: me. By now you've been flying left and right and trying to stay at altitude at 24 under feet. You noticed that you could use the s key to look around your plane while it's flying, but you can't see your instruments to tell if you're straighten level. So let's introduce a cool feature of flight simulator, and this is something that you just can't do in a real plane. Were just really cool about it. We're going to do what's called an instant replay. We all know what an instant replay is from all the sports center on TV. We can see as far back in any flight by using the instant replay function activated at any time using your flight simulator menu. If your menu isn't visible at the top of your screen, press your ult key. It should pop up now select the options menu item and you'll notice instant replay. When you select it, it gives you a standard 60 seconds, meaning it will show you the last 60 seconds. Up to now, you can select farther back if you wish. So let's select 1 20 120 seconds just for demo purposes. While it's playing back the replay. We can select any view we want. We can look around our plane. We can step outside and see how it's doing while we're flying it. This is one of the coolest features and one of the most valuable in assessing your own performance. It's what I'll do also when I look at your files that you send me. So take a look at this and instant replay and how we can move around all the different views. One more thing. To be able to record your flight at any time and for any length. I used two tools that are free and you can add them to your flight simulator. Those two tools air called frappes an F s recorder. Now frappes is used to record anything that's happening on your screen. So if you select outside view and move around, then inside view and look left and right, it records exactly what you just did. It records what you had on your screen. You can't go back to the video and select a different view, so it's highly recommended and necessary for you to send me your flights for review. So we're going to use fs recorder, instant replay and frappes. There is how we're gonna make it happen on alternative and probably an additional software tool you might want to install is at fest recorder This free tools useful for recording your flight than playing it back in flight simulator. And the advantage of it is that you can look around, try different views. It isn't a recorded video of the screen. It's a recorded video of your whole airplane where it's going so you can keep playing it back and try different views when you get what you want, then you can turn on frappes and record what you're saying, and that's really cool. So we take the saved FS recorder file of your flight, and we can now include it as another plane in the sky while you continue on flying your plane. So you now see another Cessna 1 72 flying in your area, and it was actually you recording the path and the characteristics of that plane's flight so you can add your own aircraft traffic doing exactly what you did when you flew and recorded it very handy. We will use this feature when we learned the circuit and fly around the airport. There's usually lots of other planes to worry about when we're in the circuit around the airport, and so we will add them. Using this tool will record our circuit, and then we'll play it back and we'll fly around those same airplanes in the circuit. Once you install it, you'll notice a new menu and flight simulator called FS recorder. Okay, once you get the feel for it and are ready to record your flight, send me a flight simulator recorder file or a frappes recorded video. I can comment on your performance and help if you wish. I won't be supercritical. We were learning this. It's brand new stuff, but just want to see if you are getting it or if I have to teach it another way or help you with. So this becomes homework assignment. Do you believe that? A homework assignment So you're going to record your takeoff and level off as a separate video and turns as a video? I mean, probably two of those. All right, so maybe two videos and you'll see the details on where to send those so you can send them to my public drive 5. Module 3: Introduction: by now, you should have downloaded the checklist. Pdf the parts of the airplane and the dashboard or the panel for all the dials and switches that you'll find in an airplane, no one can know how to set them all. Or in what order out of personal memory, we have to follow checklists in every phase of our flight. From start up to shut down in this module, we will be introduced to our checklist card. It has everything that we need to check in every phase of our flight. All pilots use checklists all the time. Some have thicker checklist than we do. That way, they don't forget an important setting. Once we get the hang of using our checklist for start up, we will get her airplane to the active runway by driving along the ground called taxing. This can be harder than you think. So please refer to your own downloaded checklist. There's two parts to it. I've got mine printed on both sides, and I also want you to have the parts of the plane document because we're gonna be talking about some of those things like flaps. Your hands position will always be the left hand on the yoke, except when starting the engine and the right hand to manage the switches and the engine controls. Just as you would learn proper position for a musical instrument. This is crucial for flying during our taxi are actual movement across the ground and our 1st 500 feet of takeoff. We keep our right hand on the throttle the whole time, and during landing we do the same. We fly with our left hand and we do everything else with our right hand. You are sitting in the pilot seat, the left hand seat. Your instructor sits in the right seat. So when you look over at your instructor, it's this view here. So they have to learn to use both hands for demonstrations. There, left hand is on. The throttle of their right hand is on the uke. 6. Module 3: Lesson 1 - Checklists: module, three checklists and taxing to the active runway. By now, you should have downloaded the checklist. Pdf the parts of the airplane and the dashboard or the panel for all the dials and switches that you'll find in an airplane, no one can know how to set them all. Or in what order out of personal memory, we have to follow checklists in every phase of our flight. From start up to shut down in this module, we will be introduced to our checklist card. It has everything that we need to check in every phase of our flight. All pilots use checklists all the time. Some have thicker checklist than we do. That way, they don't forget an important setting. Once we get the hang of using our checklist for start up, we will get her airplane to the active runway by driving along the ground called taxing. This can be harder than you think. So please refer to your own downloaded checklist. There's two parts to it. I've got mine printed on both sides, and I also want you to have the parts of the plane document because we're gonna be talking about some of those things like flaps. Your hands position will always be the left hand on the yoke, except when starting the engine and the right hand to manage the switches and the engine controls. Just as you would learn proper position for a musical instrument. This is crucial for flying during our taxi are actual movement across the ground and our 1st 500 feet of takeoff. We keep our right hand on the throttle the whole time and during landing we do the same. We fly with our left hand and we do everything else with our right hand. You are sitting in the pilot seat, the left hand seat. Your instructor sits in the right seat. So when you look over at your instructor, it's this view here. So they have to learn to use both hands for demonstrations. There, left hand is on the throttle of their right hand is on the uke lesson one checklists. Well, let me introduce you to my simplified checklist for the Cessna 1 72 This is a scaled down version of the real thing, as we don't need to check as many things in the simulator and I've got a printed for both sides. As I mentioned, I've added some more things to, but you can use a real checklist if you wish, but you'll find many of those items you might not understand yet, so I made a simpler one in this big intercourse. A good example of riel Checklists are checking the oil dip stick and physically stepping up on the wing strip toe. Look in the fuel tanks, also checking the quality of the fuel with a tester and a sample of fuel from three different places. We certainly can't do that in the simulator, all right, so there's some differences there isn't there? This checklist card should be downloaded, printed and even laminated as we use it every time we fly. And if it's no, it's only paper, so it'll get frayed and torn. So hold it in your left hand as you manage your switches and controls, and you're right head and ah, maybe even keep a thumb on a checklist area or near the section that you're on, And that way you won't forget where you are. All right. Start by looking at the picture of the Toronto City Centre Airport or the airport diagram. It has the convenient radio talking frequencies that will need to use. But, you know, we're not yet. We're not going to do the frequencies yet. We'll have a whole lesson on radio work and how to manage it. But you'll notice the E LV 251 at the top of your airport diagram. That is the elevation of the airport, as we learned earlier. That means when we touched down later, upon landing are altimeter will be indicating 251 feet on the ground. Same is at the start. So start your flight simulator with your plane on the tarmac now. Ah, parking spot. All right. Instead of the active runway as we would in real flight training, if your engines running turned the mag switch or the the on off, switch the left right switch, Turn it to the off position. All right, We are now ready to approach our airplane as we would in a real flight school. Let's look at the pre start section. We simply performed the checks as they're listed. We're going to do everything on this first page before we're ready for takeoff, and it gets easier after a while. Planes have to be safe and we have to know that they will perform before we get up in the air. So we start with what's called the external check to see that under pre start external check, we actually do a walk around on the outside of the airplane. This is harder to do in the simulator. Certainly we can use external views and our hat switch to look around the plane. But we know in our heads that it's fine in the simulator. So many students feel this is a waste of time. It is essential on a real plane. So the first thing we do is open the left door reaching and turn on the master switch. We're not going to get in the plane. We just reach in. We turn on the master switch and we lower the flaps all the way down. Then we turn off the master switch and we stepped back out to look around the plane. So with the flaps lowered, weaken visually, inspect the hinge joints and the linkage during our external check were actually checking everything. We're looking around the whole plane and we have a sequence of proper sequence writing the pilot operating handbook that tells us what to do. So we're checking the gas, the oil, the propeller, the cargo doors closed the rivets and the screws are secure. We don't want anything coming loose from vibration while we're flying and we can't get out and check that gas cap while we're flying. For now, lower those flaps for the walk around the flaps Switch is a handy flap looking switch. If you had retractable wheels, that switch would have around wheel on it. So this looks like a flap. We push our flaps, which all the way down and you will see the flaps move all the way down with an electric motor. Sound that move them. Now, use your s key to get that outside view and use your hat switch toe Look all the way around the plane. Just holding in one position and let it circle as if we're doing a walk around. You notice while you're doing that. Walk around that your flaps air all the way down there noticeable their barn doors hanging off both wings. That's what they're. And this will help slow us down later. We'll see how to use that in slow flight and other things. All right, so now we'll get back into the plane, use your s key, get back inside. The next section that we're going to look at is called flight controls free. All right, so that's how far we are. I know it's taking me a while to get there, but this is important stuff. You guys, we simply used the eight count while removing the control surfaces with the yolk. All right, well, just do 12345678 All right. And we do this for every surface that has to move. We're making sure they all move the way they're supposed to. It's crucial once we're flying, Of course. Right. So take a look at this video while I describe it. We look out the left window and we watched the surface of the wing while we turned the yolk full left, then full right. 12 All right. The left aileron should move up and down. Then we look out the right window and watch the surface of the wing. Well, we turned the oak again. The same thing again. Full left, full, right. 34 The right aileron should move up and down. Now we look back over our shoulder at the elevator, which is the small wing there in the back, all right, and we'll pull the yolk all the way into our chest and all the way back out as we count. 56 is like an exercise video, isn't it? The elevator should move up and then down. That's the small horizontal weighing at the tail of the plane. Right, So and then finally we test the rudder or the big vertical thin behind you while we're still looking back, all right, and we press our left foot to the floor than a right foot to the floor and we watch that rudder move back and forth. If we have pedals, of course, right. And we would say 78 Now, in this big intercourse, it isn't compulsory toe have rudder pedals, but if you have them, you'll see the effect. If you don't have them, would just push are left foot to the floor and a right foot for practice. 78 All right, so you'll need you'll need pedals in the intermediate course, and the habit should start now, so you might need to unlinked the rudder from the ailerons in the Settings page. If you have the rudder pedals, all right, so let's take a look. So that is, our flight controls free check. This is to ensure there are no seized cables or no surface locks in place. Surface locks. Air used on some airplanes to keep them secure. Let's look at the next item Trim. Check for take off the trim wheel, as you've noticed already in the last module, is important to reduce the fatigue of holding your yolk in or out for long periods of time . We trim for every flight attitude change. Then we can fly hands free with only slight pressure on the yoke to correct drifting. You can fly with a couple fingers, so we used the expression trim. A note are simply later. Yoke has springs in it to give us the pressure and tries to centre itself when we let go in an actual plane, there are no visible springs, but the air movement around the control surfaces gives us the pressure. So by trimming it, we're moving another control surface to counter act the air pressure on the elevator while flying this enables us to trim it out and maintain the altitude and the speed that we desire. In this case, we're not flying yet, but we will be taking off. So we trim it for take off the takeoff position. This enables us to literally leave the runway once we're fast enough. The last pilot might have left it all the way up here, all the way down. And you don't want that surprise as you're trying to lift off the runway before you visit the lake up ahead. Remember, we're flying out of Drano Island Airport with water all around. Right? So position your most cursor, the arrow over the trim wheel on your dashboard, and use your most well to move it up and down. We've done this already before, all right. In this case, the tick marks will line up for Teal. Take off. I could have introduced you to trim for takeoff in your first fight, but it would have ended another complexity toe A fast, easy first flight. Let's look at the avionics switch off. All right. Off. This is to ensure a jolt of start up electricity and doesn't mess up with the electron ICS . When you start the engine, we'll turn it back on after the engines running, We want the engine purring, the alternator, supplying a steady voltage and current before we turn on the avionics. Which again, that's further down in our checklist. Fuel selector on both. This is a check to ensure we have the safety of both wing tanks for fuel during takeoff. There's field in both of those tanks, gravity fed, and if there were a malfunction in one of them, we would still have fuel from the other. That's the idea behind it. The next check list item record. Hobbes Time. This is how flight schools get paid. It is also necessary for building your flight hours. Actual recording of the Hobbs Meter. You notice it's on the tachometer. It's measured intense of the hour and starts running the second the engine is running. It is based on oil pressure, but it records how long the engine was running. Even if sitting on the ground, we need to record Hobbes time for the mechanics of the plane so they can do planned and scheduled maintenance based on the usage time. So record it now and again when we finish every flight. You will need this for your logbook later. As you should record every flight to build your hours. Now we're ready to start. The engine isn't. It's exciting. You getting excited about this Engine starts section. All right, if you take a look at the engine start section, the very first thing is throttle open 1/4 inch. Now, the throttle on assessment 1 72 is a push pull black knob rate on the panel, just like in the picture of it on your simulator. And we pull it all the way out for Idol and pushed all the way in for full throttle. So we pull it all the way out, and then we push it in just 1/4 inch. Sometimes we use their finger to figure that out, and we give the engines some gas to get started, all right? And then we'll be we'll have her hand on it while we started and will be adjusting it on the CHT. Open throttle is all the way back toward you for idle and all the way forward for full throttle. So we bring it back and then forward just a bit when we do start the engine? Not yet, but when we do started, it will be our left hand on the key switch and our right hand on the throttle for immediate adjustment. All right. Next check list item mixture. Rich, the red knob on a real panel or on the outside knob on the CH products. Yoke is for fuel mixture so that we don't starve the engine for fuel during startup. We put it in the rich position. This means the engine will get all the fuel that it needs until we find tuning this knob on the far end over here. Put it full forward for rich. So it will be moved. Half a niche for taxing and at higher altitudes will lean it to the mixture. You know will lean the mixture to be more efficient. Push this lever all the way to the dashboard for rich and on. Our yoke will push the outside lever all the way away from you. Okay, the next check list item breaks on. Okay. Well, amaze will hold on to this yoke for a second. Now we can use the control period keys, control and period keys. We can use our toe breaks if we have pedals or the emergency brake, which is the control period key. All right, on breaks when you're landing and when you're needing to stop what you're taxing, we can use the red button right here on the yoke. Writes on her left hand, hidden behind here. That's a breaks button by default, All right. And we can use that to slow down while we're taxing, too. All right, but control period will put on the parking brake, and then we're free to use their hands for other things as we go along. All right, the next checklist item. All right. You know, we put the brakes on so that it will keep us from moving after we start the engine. So now we're ready to start the engine. So now we're going to call prop clear or some people just call clear with your own voice out of an open window. It's true. We still do this. And even in winter time, in an open window, we open the window of the plane, we yell clear, and we shut the window of the plane, and then we start the engine. Others nearby will know that we're spinning our propellers and there'll be some wind generated. All right, in our simulator, we don't have to yell, but, you know, say it out loud for practice. All right, clear. We say this just before we start the engine and start that propeller spinning. Alright, master, switch on. Here we go. Now. This is the master switch. This isn't the start Key. This is the master switch. This will power up the panel and supply power for starting the engine similar to a car. We're just turning on the batteries. What we're doing. So there's a bat switch and in all switch, just turn both on and a real plane. We do an alternator checking by turning the old switch on after we see the ultralight check . No worries here in the beginning of similiar, but our our alternators just fine. If the alternators run by the engine and it charges are battery while supplying power to everything else, just like in a car. Auxiliary fuel pump switch on maximum three seconds. All right, Now, this is the fuel pump that's used in the newer planes. All right? And what they're doing there is supplying some fuel with an actual pump to the engine to get it ready to go. In the older planes, which are the most of the ones that I fly and the older planes, we have a primer pump and it just says prime on it and that is used to pump three times and then we lock it in place. All right, on the older planes, both methods put enough gas into the engine to get it started. And now we get to the point ignition switch start. This is fun. It is. I know it's a bit drawn out you guys, but you'll get the hang of it. It'll go a lot faster. We're just going through it one by one right now. All right, When you turn that ignition switch to the start position, the propeller should rotate once or twice and then start right up. That's why you keep your hand on the throttle, because now, as soon as it starts, we want to adjust that throttle to no more than 1000 to start within that this thing warm up. Most planes will settle in at a nice 600 rpm, but adjust with your right hand to 1000 on the tachometer. This will help keep oil pressure and vacuum in the green after engine start 7. Module 3: Lesson 2 - Taxiing & Instrument Checks: now that the engine's running, we've got it adjusted to 1000 after engine starts section in your book Oil pressure green. So we look at the old pressure gauge. There is a green section, and the needle should be pointing at it. This insurers. There's enough oil pressure to keep the engine running in a car. It's a simple oil light or even a simpler check engine light in a plane. While it's more crucial, as you can't just stop in, open the hood. So in the walk around, we would physically check the oil level with a dipstick. This pressure check is to ensure that its delivering enough pressure of the oil to lubricate the engine. I mean, it's very important. So that's what we're checking for. A quick check. Make sure it's in the green. The next check list item Avionics power switch on. Remember, we had it made sure it was awful. We turned the engine off, so it's usually a white switch. You see it on your panel. We can now safely power on the electron ICS. Let's also set some other switches now that we have power. The 1st 1 is the flashing beacon make sure it's on. This is a red light at the very top of your vertical fin. The rudder stabilizer. From an external view, you would see it flashing red on and off. Some planes also have one on their belly, visible in flight from other planes below. Next check, list item. Knave lights on, just like in boat. Agreement On the wing tip on the right side, starboard side and a red light on the wing tip on the left side. Deport side thes lights aid others to determine which way you're traveling and help with visibility in day or night. So I leave them on for visibility in these crowded airports that we train in because, well, we want to be seen many checklists A to use them only at night. But with these newer led lights, they never burn out. And they sit very little power. We just leave them on. I want to be seeing if you switch to the external, view the s key and use your hat switch to look around. You'll see the beacon and the knave lights are already running. All right, so flaps Now. Here we go. We haven't learned the theory about them yet, but the flaps, we extended them down. Now we're going to retract them up so that they're streamlined with the wing. We look at the parts of the airplane to see what these look like. They're on the left and the right wing closest to the cabin, and they hang down dramatically or they're in the up position and they're streamlined with the wings. When they're up, they're not noticeable. But when they're down, you comptel way. Want them full up for a normal takeoff? So we'll use flaps when landing slow flight and performance. Take off such a short field or saw field. Take off center intermediate course. Next check list. Item eight is copy and check the altimeter. All right, so we tune our communications radio or what we call our com Radio Teoh here. Ah, constant announcement of the airport conditions. This isn't a weather report. It's an airport. Conditions report. Many things, air said here, and we will listen and write them down on a note pad. Usually it's on your knee or it's on your thigh. You have a note pad. You can write on it anytime. The two main things were listening for are the active runway in the altimeter. Barometric pressure setting here in the simulator. In this easy setting, the barometric pressure is always the same at 29.95 But I want us to get in the habit of touching the altimeter set knob every time we hear it. All right, so let's set the radio frequency to the APIs. Now. The eight assists stands for automatic terminal information system and the frequency is noted on your checklist card for this airport. Look at the airport diagram. You'll see the eighties has listed there 1 33.6 So we will also be listening to this report when we are returning to the airport to get up to date information. Probably 10 or 15 miles out will listen to the eighties before we call the tower and we'll let the tower. No, we have the eighties information. Let me demonstrate how to set it. Let your important for me one more ability greater than 20 miles. Look, I 5500 one point coming finer Finer Iowa waiting, landing and departing runway. Our aircraft correct. On that point. Aircraft back. Hold on. Controller on a contact. You have Toronto Island Airport in for me. One more ability. Greater than 20 miles guy way. We know where we're going. The active runway means in the runway where we have to position ourselves at Idol ready for take off before we call the tower. The information letter pronounced with the phonetic alphabet lets the controller No, we have the latest eighties. As I mentioned, it changes every hour. So you know, we will change the frequency in a minute so we don't have to listen to this again and again . But we've got to let them know we have the latest. That's the idea behind it Way don't have to keep hearing the looping, continuous a disinformation recording, so we usually change it to another frequency. So in the simulator, they also show a ticker tape across the bar at the top of the screen. It depends which simulator you're running to do that. But not in real planes. We don't have a ticker tape. All right, so the next part in here is the heading indicator set and the bug set. Now, on a heading indicator, we turn the knob until it's the same heading as our compass. Remember that. So we have to set this anytime. We're in straight and level. And certainly the first time while we're on the ground. The bug said is optional, but it helps us to remember the heading were flying in the moment. This can be useful later. Toe. Have your autopilot fly. Specific hitting. He will follow the boat. Alright. Sent ground frequency or GMD, and obtained taxi clearance. Now we change the radio to the ground frequency. This is to talk to the tower and obtain taxi clearance. Well, the tower. You know, there are two frequencies the ground and the tower. But both radios are physically in the tower so they can see everything that's happening. The movement in and around the airport. The ground frequency is used to get permission to move your airplane to the active runway or to move airport vehicles around the airport. On the ground, the tower frequency you'll contact when you're ready for takeoff or return to the airport. So for now we'll set the ground frequency. And when we're ready, we will ask for taxi clearance to the active. All right? That's what they mean by that we're going to leave this part for a whole lesson on itself. Called radio communications. There is so much to learn here that we're going to assume we have clearance and just get the act, get to the active runway. Just get there. All right. So, typically, we would say this is Cessna 1 72 Golf Bravo, Foxtrot, Alfa Mike, Taxi to the active or request taxi to the active. Right? We would ask. That's how we ask for it. And they would say to actually do the active and they would tell us how. And I'm going to tell you in a second here. So the taxi section. Okay, we have the clearance. Teoh, give it the gas and roll to the active runway so that we could be ready for takeoff. So while we're taxiing or while we're moving, we can check a few more things to ensure they work before flying. First thing we check is the brakes. Check this simple check. Really? We released our brakes, give it some gas by pushing a little bit and start the plane moving and immediately step on both breaks either both toe breaks or the period key and stop the plane. This insurance. We have brakes when we need him. We need to stop with the active runway. We might need them on landings. Once we stop, we can now continue on, give it some more throttle and move again and continue on our checklist. Now, this is a tricky part. Moving the airplane on the ground. I have people that actually have some trouble with this, so it's going to take some practice and I need you to be patient with this. A shot of gas to get it started, pulled back, some to keep going. And you'll notice that even when you pull back the throttle toe idol, you keep moving. You might need the brakes to slow you down. Not too fast. Will. Taxing your plane could actually tip on a tip over or or even worse yet, it could start flying without a runway. It has happened, right? So in our simulator classrooms, we've had people actually taking off from the tarmac rate across the grass and just starting to get airborne. By the time they hit the water, we've also had some taxi straight into the lake. As we have water all around the airport. So that's the fun thing about a simulator. We can have them do all of that. So now, while we're taxing at a running pace that the maximum is if you were running across the tarmac. All right, we're gonna do an instruments check while turning while we're moving. We can check some instruments, see what they're doing before we get up into the air. All right. Better to check them on the ground before we get into the air. So as we turn left and right to get to the active runway, we glance at a few instruments. For instance, the heading indicator should rotate right or left, depending on the direction of our turn are altimeter should stay steady. We're not going up or down. Right? So should are artificial horizon, which we haven't taken yet, but we'll have a quick check of that. So we use a quick check method by saying this out loud. Left, right, steady, decreasing. If we're doing a left turn four. Right, left, steady. Increasing. All right. They sound a bit similar, don't they? But we'll see that as we go running, running as we co taxing down there. Down the tarmac. So we're referring to the little airplane instrument called the turn and bank indicator. All right, we didn't introduce this instrument earlier in some classes. They introduced this in the straightened level, which it can be used later in straitened level. But I didnt want introduce too many instruments all at once. It really turns people off. So the turning bank indicator Now we can learn a bit more about it, and then later, when we start doing turns out in the practice area, will learn even more about it. But the turning bank indicator or the tea and be needle and the T and B ball on a left turn , the left airplane wing on the instrument should drop, and the ball should go to the right. So that's why we say the expression left right. We're seeing the left wing drop in the instrument hammer, seeing the ball slide to the right. When we do a turn, the ball is like a steel ball inside of fluid, and it's like a centrifugal force. It wants to go wherever the plane was supposed to be going. All right, so we say, left right. The steady refers to the artificial horizon bar in the middle. Of course, it should be steady. We're not banking the plane. We're not changing our nose attitude up or down, so but this is a check. I mean, we're making sure that as she shows steady right, the final increasing or decreasing refers to the heading indicator down. Let me demonstrate this. - Now it's your turn. Positive section saved this flight and start taxing. I just want you to taxi around the tarmac before we get clearance. And let's talk about how to get to the active. We have this whole pavement area to practice in and no planes around us, which is great. Do left turns, then right turns. Watch your speed user breaks. If you need to throttle back, use your brakes. Once you're ready, will tax you toward the active runway. No. Okay. Lets taxi toward the active runway on the way. We're going to stop and do one last check the run up airport time. Different rules on where to do this. As you're pushing a lot of air behind you, and you could be blocking other aircraft from getting to the active runway. So, you know, I could talk about back in the nineties we used. We used to do a run up just before we took to the active runway. So many airports don't like that now. There's just too many airplanes for that, and we're trying to get around each other while someone's doing a run up. So many airports do this check before the obtained taxi clearance before we even start moving toward the active will do this, and we'll perform this on the tarmac, facing the wind not far off from where you were parking. So refer to the run up section in your book. Let's take a look at the run up section. This is the final check before taking off the engine check under load. This means that we check the engine well on higher rpm without moving the plane. So we set the parking brake or use the rudder pedal toe breaks and we spin the propeller faster and check a few things. This is called the run up, and all planes do it. Airliners even do it. Sometimes they do the run up after their pushback. Sometimes they do while they're taxiing. So let's do it here on the tarmac So we're blocking other planes on the taxiways, turn your airplane into the wind and in this case we turn it to 80 degrees on are heading indicator because that's the active runway. If the active runway is 08 and it's probably facing the wind, all right, so we always take off into wind to help with lift and to help with engine cooling. All right, so once we're positioned into 80 degrees, just not far from where we were parked, we put on the brakes and we hold them during this procedure. Or we could use the control period keys toe, hold them on or both toe breaks on the rudder pedals for more realism. Checklist item Idol to 1000 rpm's All right, so ensure your throttle is pulled back and then inch it forward. To ensure 1000 rpm, we will return to this rpm setting. Once we're done, feel quantity and select around. Both. Look at the fuel gauge is on the left side of your panel in this easy setting. There, always full during your walk around, you would have physically looked into each wing tank and even used a fuel dipstick like this one the gauges air confirming what you saw during the walk around. The selector switch on the floor is set to both when you take a look at that during all my flights, I kept it on both. But many checklists have you checked left and then right. See if the engine's still runs. We would just glance at them, make sure they're on both. All right, elevator trim. Check set for takeoff off. It's a second check. We've done it already, so we know what it's supposed to be. What we're double checking before we take off. There have been planes that couldn't lift off the ground because of this setting. All right, they had to struggle with the yoke to get off the ground. This is a safety check. Look at your trim wheel and to ensure that it's in the PTO position of the takeoff position and use your most well positioned over the trim dial to change it or your trim. Well, if you have to have one now, we're going to throttle up to 1700 rpm's. Now we're gonna put the engine under load and check. A few things will watch our tack ometer gently pushed the throttle in toward the panel. Pull and push until you get it right. Whatever it takes. Once stable at around 1700 we can manage our magneto check because this course didn't drag you through 40 hours of ground school, you might not have heard about the engine safety mechanisms built in. One of those is to spark plugs on each piston. Our cars have one spark plug on each piston, this idea of to spark plugs and to Magneto's, which will spark them. It's a safety initiative. If one fails, the other keeps sparking, and we keep flying. So so we need to check both spark plugs, and we do this by using the start switch and change it to left back to both right back to both. We're watching the tachometer while we do this to ensure the rpm's don't drop more than 50 between settings, we will see our simulator is very reliable and stable, but it's still a good check. You should try. All right, let's take a look. Now the next checklist item suction gauge. Check green. This is important for some of your instruments that need air vacuum from the engine such as you're heading indicator and your attitude indicator Engine instruments in the green. Check the small gauges on your left the temperature, which is called temp. The AMP, which is actually a battery check, and the fuel flow are in the green. Just make sure their own agree, and they will be in this easy mode simulator. I don't back down to 1000 rpm's. Now we're ready to go. We're gonna set our radios and our avionics at this point and then weaken taxi to the active with a radio set for the ground frequency we would normally call to achieve. Our clearance, as I mentioned, will assume clearance and proceed to the active for the avionics set part on a cross country. We would set some other radio positioning instruments, our GPS or something like that while we're still on the ground. This would be the time to do it. Once we get to the active runway, we have to watch for incoming traffic and wait to hear our clearance. When they use their call sign. We can't be busy with their head in the instruments trying to do other checklists at this time. All right, so Let's do it now before we get there. Now, during our taxi clearance, we would be instructed to hold short runway 08 or hold short of the active. This means we stop before the yellow lines at the threshold of the runway. We actually position are playing facing the incoming traffic until we're ready to call the tower. We're going to be watching for traffic, like right out the window. Visual rules. And then? And then we call the tower for clearance to take off. So let's taxi to the active. If you look at the airport diagram on your checklist card, you will notice where Runway eight is over there on the fire. Left side were somewhere on the tarmac before the tower on the right side. That's where you parked. I mean, I'm not sure exactly where you parked, but we're over there somewhere. Taxiways are labelled using letters of the alphabet. When we learned, radios will also learn the fanatic alphabet. There's a document for you to download if you haven't downloaded it yet. Ground radio will tell us to taxi Alfa and hold short runway 08 This means we use the taxi . Right? Alfa or the A taxiway. Remember their alphabetical right? Notice this on your diagram. This is the easy one, as I intended it for now. Simple taxiway. A all the way to runway eight and stop before the two lines. Lots of left and right turns checker instruments. Wait! Don't go near the water. Let me demonstrate. 8. Module 3 Lesson2: Run Up And Taxi Demonstration: ground radio will tell us to taxi Alfa and hold short runway 08 This means we use the taxi, right Alfa or the a taxiway. Remember their alphabetical right? Notice this on your diagram. This is the easy one. As I intended it, they could have said Taxi. Bravo 15 Hold short. 08 We would have a shorter takeoff runway, but it could work, But we're actually going to turn left on runway 15 and use it as a taxiway. Interesting, isn't it? And if that happens, it really does happen. It could work, right? They could have also said Taxi! Bravo 15 hold short. 06 Wow! And finally they could have said Taxi, Charlie Delta, hold short 24 or hold short. 26. All right, We're gonna do a lot of that too. All right, So we'll cover more of that later and use those runways and future lessons. But for now, a simple taxiway a all the way to runway eight and stop before the to yell alliance. Lots of left and right turns to check our instruments along the way. Don't go near the water. Let me demonstrate. Now it's your turn. Positives lesson and take your time. Get to the active. Don't worry if it isn't smoother. If you forgot something, you might even run over the grass. No worries. Take your time. This will get better. Then you get better at this. Even with practice, I mean just takes practice. You can even use the outside view to get practice. Some people do that. The U Z s key. They get outside the position themselves behind the plane, as you see here, but eventually get back inside and do it from the pilot's seat. Right? To get a real good, a real good feel for how its happens from the planet seat. All right, now you've taxi to the active. You want to say that right there, in case you want to start from there, you notice that we're watching for traffic and we get our clearance. And now we 9. Module 3: Lesson 3 Takeoff Airspeeds: Lesson three detailed takeoff speeds. How do we lift off what makes us fly? One is the best way to leave the runway. All these questions will be answered in this lesson. Let's start with the simple theory of flight to produce lift. Our plane has to travel fast enough to produce enough lift. This theory of flight is used in many things. Our propeller uses the same theory it produces Lift horizontally called thrust. Sailboats used the same theory. Helicopters used the same theory to produce lift straight up. Even our household fan uses the same theory, although it doesn't have wheels, so it stays there. It doesn't have wings, either. So the theory of flight You can find a ton of information about this topic and lots of mathematics since the Wright Brothers first took flight. But let's keep it simple here in this beginner's course, so a plane doesn't actually lift off the runway until it's accelerated until the airflow over and under the wings act with enough force to lift the airplane. This is accomplished by the angle of the wing and the shape of the wing. As you can see by the diagram, the top of the wing has more of a curved in the bottom. This curve causes the airflow to accelerate more above the wing than the airflow below the wing. This results in a large decrease in pressure above the wing and a difference in pressure between the upper and lower part of the wing producing left. The more you accelerate, the more lift is generated. As you accelerate down, the runway lift eventually overcomes the weight of the airplane. The wing also contributes to the lift by deflecting the air downward, just as you do when you hold your hand out the car and experiment with angles. As you can see by the diagram, the relative airflow will act differently if you change the angle of the wing or change the shape of the wing. Airplane designers know all the math and the reasons. Now here's the most important part for you and I. We need to accelerate the airplane to become airborne before we went on a runway and then stay above the minimum speed to keep the airplane flying. It's sort of like a gamble we expect to be airborne by the time we reach the end of the runway. Have you ever flown a commercial flight out of New York's LaGuardia with water all around barreling down the runway at 150 knots? How about MiGs Airport in Chicago? Well before the mayor shut it down water all around, just like Trona, while in a report, makes for exciting stories, don't you think? If the airspeed is allowed to drop too low, the airflow over the wings won't be enough to sustain flight, and the wing is said to have stalled. This stall is not the same as a car engine stall. When it wing stalls, the airplane will begin to think very fast, maybe even like a rock. And we will have to do something to correct it. More power, nose down or both. This is why we want to get as much height above the ground after takeoff as possible. If we ever had a stall, we could lower the nose and gain more speed. If we have enough altitude to do that, we will perform this in the practice area and learn to recover from it simply to recognize it and handle it. If it ever happens during normal flights way up high, where it's safe to practice now. I'd like to talk about airspeed indicator and V speeds. This is our most important instrument. As you learned in an earlier lesson, every airplane has its own green arc for the exact speed extremes. The green arc is the area of Safelite. The stall is when the needle is below the green arc. Depending on the model of the Cessna 1 72 we will use 51 knots. This stall speed is denoted as V s. Think of the s meaning Stall V s equals 51 knots. Now the V speeds should be committed to memory and an easy way to remember them is that the could stand for velocity Although it comes from a French word will use it for the word velocity. We will learn on Lee a few more V speeds. This is the beginner course. We never want to get to that the V a speed or the of the stall speed unless we have flaps or were touching down on the runway and we need to bleed off the speed So this speed is important to know and it's important to avoid unless we're actually touching down on the runway. With flaps down, we can go as slow as the lower end of the white arc called the VSO of 41 knots. The S o think of VSO is stalled with flaps out s and O, the slower we touched down, the less runway we need and the easier it is to stop. Oh, not to mention the less wear and tear on the airplane. So we will practice landing with full flaps and partial slabs. In the intermediate course, we handle performance maneuvers and a no flap landing will be covered there because we have rudder pedals to assist in slipping to the runway. So on our take off run, we start at the numbers and we have 4000 feet of runway on 08 or 26. That is plenty for our little plane. But during our first flight, some of you needed the whole runway and jumped off the runway at the last minute before the water. That's because we hoped that it would fly itself off the runway with enough speed. Now we will learn when it's time to rotate and what speed we should climb at. Let's start with rotate speed VR 55 knots. This will help get you off the runway correctly and on time. Rotate speed or VR for the 1 72 It's 55 knots. Again, it will depend on the model of the 1 72 the older ones, the newer ones. The speeds are different, and as they build their airplanes better and smoother and more efficiently, numbers will change. But we're going to use 55 knots as our rotate speed. Did you notice this speed is above the stall speed of 51 nuts? Also, this makes the nose wheel lift off the ground but doesn't lift the whole plane, so you don't jerk the yolk back. Rather, you pull gently to rotate as you pick up more speed. The plane will eventually fly itself off the runway. They call it rotation because your airplane is rotating with the nose rising and the tail falling. It is rotating around the wheels until it is flying. Let me show you an example. Here's an airplane will say it's on the runway right now. There's the runway. We're gonna push the tail down to make the nose go up. Look, the wheels are still on the runway. All right, so the nose is rising, the tail is falling. We're actually pushing the tail down with our yoke. It's rotating around the wheels until it is flying. When you pull the old back a little, you're pushing the tail down. So the nose of the plane has arise. The main wheels air still on the ground, the nose wheel has lifted. This also helps reduce the wear and tear on the nose wheel. It's more delicate than the main wheels. So once we start to fly, let's talk about the best rate of climb. Now. The best rate of climb is V. Why, and it's 75 knots. The best rate of climb is what we call our normal climb. The aircraft should normally be configured for best rate of climb. When we set the takeoff trim, it sent for best rate, and this will provide the best climb for the maximum gain in the altitude in the shortest time possible. You will get your selected cruising altitude in the shortest time possible, so after takeoff you want to gain the maximum height above the ground as fast as possible in the big intercourse our checklist says between 70 and 80. Okay, stay in that range. We don't have to be precise yet. We get more precise with practice, and we get more precise in the next course. This also helps cool the engine while under full throttle and helps your passengers as you climbed gracefully. That's important if you happen to have passengers in the simulator. Of course, we're just practicing. Best angle of climb is next. What's that all about? Vieques. 60 knots. Occasionally, it may be necessary to gain the maximum altitude possible over the shortest distance on the ground. Okay, it won't be that fast. To achieve this, the pilot would use the best angle of climb or VX, meaning we're going to go steeper to get up faster. This would be applicable if you needed to clear an obstacle or an obstruction on the ground shortly after take off like a tree at the end of the runway, as there are in a lot of the smaller airstrips that I've flown into. A note of. The pilot would configure the aircraft for the best angle of climb to gain the maximum altitude possible before reaching that obstacle. More like a tree trees and I'm gonna move. Then they could drop the nose a little and establish V Y normal rate of climb and normal engine cooling and a more comfortable climb. You should warn your passengers, as some will find it uncomfortable. When you go up that fast, their ears will pop and they might find it a little discerning. It also isn't the best speed for cooling the engine, so it's good for obstacle clearance. Okay, so that's a lot of these. In one lesson, commit to memory. Here's the summary. As we accelerate down the runway, we need to be above the stall speed, just a lift off above 51 knots. As the airspeed indicator approaches 55 knots, we offer the nose to the wind by gently pulling back and see the view of the window change As we rotate. Now, we will see more of a climbing attitude. As we accelerate some more through 72 knots or so, we pull back a little more, some say back pressure to let the airplane fly off the ground. We adjust our nose attitude or our climb attitude to show 75 knots. Remember our trim wheel was set for takeoff, so it might not need touching. Then we trim for that climate, and after 500 feet high, we can take her hands off the throttle and then take her hand off the yoke. If it's trimmed properly, you can actually fly hands off without touching anything. We're heading for our 2500 feet and level off. Remember a P T. But for now we get out of the air space control zone and then we Then we level off and take it from there. But now it's your turn. Let's work on the three areas that you need to work on. We'll make it nice. Summary here. Accelerate. Rotate best rate. Don't forget to reset and try again. This takes practice. 10. Module 4: Lesson 1 - The Practice Area: lesson one. Climbing and getting to the practice area. Changing your altitude by climbing can't be done By pointing straight up and hoping to get there soon, we have to be mindful of the engines ability to pull all the weight straight up without the benefit of lift Onley. Overpowered military jets can do this and at the cost of expensive engines that produce a lot of thrust. Military jets air really just flying rockets. They can fly slower with wings, but they don't have to. So we have to learn the maximum angle of climb and the recommended angle to climb, knowing we can get there without slowing down to a stall speed and also knowing that engine cooling is still adequate. We use the airspeed indicator to determine this. You already learned best angle and best rate speeds. We were used those same speeds if we have to, and we can also use what's called a cruise climb and cruise descent. Cruz Climb means we take our time with no noticeable change in altitude by our passengers. So it is a shallow climb. You can control this and I'll show you how. But for now, let's use the engine optimum best rate to climb to a higher altitude. We have been flying at 2400 feet and no higher so far. That's because the Toronto Island airspace control zone, which caps us at 2500 so we stay 100 below just for safety. Now that we're out of that airspace, we can go higher, say to 3500 for now to work in the practice area. We would normally do what's called a hazel check before we initiate anything for this routine climb. We will simply look up before we climb, and we should still look left and right out the windows for oncoming traffic before initiating the climb. But we will learn hazel check soon to climb to a higher altitude. We used the variation of the letters a p T. You learn this same sequence when leveling off. Only this time the power part means to give it full power. Instead of pulling back, we gently pull the nose up to a nose high altitude. Our air speed will drop when it gets to best rate. Around 79 75 we pushed the throttle to full power trim for best rate and as you approach your destination altitude, a PT again level attitude. Wait for speed to increase power back trim. Try it starts simulator. Load your saved flight that was facing north after we turned away from the water. Remember that one. Or you could do a normal take off and head out there. Once we get close to 3500 feet and straightened level, start another climb to 4500 feet and level out. If you're climbing more than 500 feet any time, it's customary to lower the nose every 500 feet to see if any aircraft in the area you notice when you were in a clime attitude. You don't see anything but sky above and your panel, and you could stick your head out the window as far as you can or closer to the windscreen and try to look around. But it's best to just lower the nose and do what's called a clearing check. There's no traffic and then go back to your normal. You don't have to trim level, but you just have to push the yoke to get level. Then you have to look around. Nothing. No traffic coming were good and then pulled back to your normal best rate again. Your trim should already be there, right? So it's simple is that now I want to introduce a new instrument while you do this. Have you noticed I don't throw all the instruments value at once, as many courses do in ground school. You studied them all, and many times it's It's before you actually sit in the plane, so you learn them all inside out. Theory, theory and more theory. Now a cruise climb might be a faster speed and therefore shallow climb. It's always the relation of speed versus distance or speed versus height, that sort of idea. So Cruz climb is a faster speed because you're not pulling the nose up and slowing down, all right, so it's there for a shallow climb and faster, perfectly fine. A gradual climb toe a new altitude without your passengers even knowing it. Mule experiment. You'll figure it out. But to help us and to glance once in a while, we use the vertical speed indicator. This is a nifty instrument. Can I say nifty? It's very sensitive, and it shows us are climbing or are descending rate some pilots will tell you you should always strive for a maximum of 500 feet per minute to be comfortable for your passengers. I have to agree. You always want to think about your passengers, but it isn't an instrument you should chase or focus on. And what I mean by that is as it shows an up indicator as it shows, you are climbing. You shouldn't try to chase it back down again and try to make it go down and then make it go up. And then you're just doing this all the way through this guy, All right? That's what I mean by chasing the instruments. Your air speed is the most important, but this instrument can give you an indication that you are climbing or descending, or neither. When you straighten level, it's right in the middle of zero. All right, which is perfect. When this needle is at the nine oclock position, you are neither climbing or descending. That's what I mean by in the middle. It is more sensitive than your altimeter. So you will see an indication on this instrument before you see a reaction on your altimeter. 11. Module 4: Lesson 2 - Theory of Flight & Airspeeds: Lesson two stole and air speeds. The last time we practiced, we climbed to 3500 feet or even 4500 feet heading north. Now we need to get to the practice area so we can try upper level air work. This is common with every single lesson from day one in most training programs. But you'll notice that we fly out from Toronto Airport. We head east towards a bluffer s park and then we head north towards a practice area. All that time in the airplane is costing us money just to get to the practice area. Some of you may want to just take off from the runway and head out over the water and start practicing in real life. We don't do that because what if you have troubles and you need to do a forced landing? And now we're landing in water or were landing where there's people so we get out of the area, all right. In the smaller airstrips, they might have a local farmer's field nearby very quickly, very quick to get there, and so that would be a better way to do it. So we want to be in an area that's not over built up areas, and we want to be in a high enough area so that we have a safeguard altitude. If we have troubles at higher altitudes, we could see a better picture below of the landmarks to help with navigation. We're looking for a town called Claremont. See it here on my map. You should have downloaded this map already and can refer to it. This is simple politician via far where we use the expression map to ground toe watch, and we use other variations of that. But meaning that we look at the map to find landmarks such as lakes and railroad tracks. Then we look out the window to see if we can locate those landmarks. Then we look at our watch. Well, we could tell by how long it's taken, and we can start predicting how long will take to get there right. So we'll use that later in checking and predicting Arne ta. But for now, so let me demonstrate flying north and finding Claire amount. This is a designated practice area for pilots for upper level air work. There are four quadrants centered around Clermont. We pick a quadrant where there are no planes and will practice there because we're going to be a different altitudes. We usually listen and call toe, announce our intentions. We'll learn more about that in the radio module. Let's pick the upper right quadrant, and we should be there at 4500 feet when we get there. All right, so we complain for that. Once we arrive, we need to check the area to ensure there are no other planes nearby. And we are high enough from the ground while we're training. We call this sequence of checks Hazel H. A S E L height area security engine, and look out. You'll memorize this. You'll do this every time. When you're practicing height. Ensure were high enough to recover from any altitude loss while learning we can also establish with your instructor and ground zero altitude. Many of us use 2000 feet will pretend that's the ground. That means if your altimeter falls below 2000 feet, you have crashed. It's a safe way to practice. We can climb to any altitude, but let's pick 1 55 100 feet to start with a 2000 foot on ground zero all right, So our heights taking care of area are we over cities, towns or villages? What we shouldn't be. It's scary for people to watch us, do stalls and spins, and they'll call the police even. And if we have serious troubles, we won't hurt anybody else. But that won't happen. Well, for safety's sake, we practice over country fields. If anything happens to our plane, we can glide it down to the field and land there, and we will practice that in the intermediate class. Emergency landings and farmers fields, security, secure people and objects in the comp it. Your instructor will reach for your own seat belt to ensure it's good and move any loose objects like flight bags, first aid kits, etcetera. We're going to stall our plane and do drastic recoveries. We can't have things moving around inside the cockpit. The next one in the hazel check is the E for engine. Look at your engine instruments to ensure they're all in the green. Also, check your fuel quantity and check that they're on. Both fuel tanks. Ensure your mixture is rich. We're not trying to conserve fuel here. We want to keep that engine running. Look out! Now we execute a 3 60 degree turn. Are we? Do you know, we could even turn to the left for 90 degrees and turned to the right for 90 degrees. This will get better with the next lesson. But so it just so for now, a gentle turn. I mean, we haven't learned turns well enough yet. So do a gentle turn and look left and right with your hat switch. One views the sky, the other views the ground. We want to ensure there's no other traffic. All right, Okay. Now we're ready to understand their speeds. We've done our hazel check. We've already learned that if we point the nose up from level, the air speed will drop. If not corrected at some point, it will drop below the stall speed and the plane will stop flying as a simple demonstration of this, we would just simply use the model plane again. We could point it straight up, but eventually that engine just can't keep pulling it. And guess what? It mush is down to the ground. And eventually that then knows will fall. So if it's not corrected, it will drop below the stall speed and the plane will stop flying. But it's all or nothing. We have a slower speed for a moment that isn't controlling our speed. To control our speed, we simply pull back on the throttle, Then use the yoke to maintain our altitude. All right, to make a slower speed. I want to reiterate that because that's an important part to make a slower speed. We pulled back the power, but we also try to maintain the altitude. Alright, again, that's an interesting point, because once you control that you really have better control of the airplane. So if you just pull back on power alone, your plane will just start descending. You've got less speed, less lift, and you just sort of descending. We're gonna learn how to do that properly. All right, But if you pull back power and adjust the yolk, you can still fly. As long as you've got enough power to maintain your altitude. Now we're slower for sure. All right, so slower speeds pull back the throttle, but still maintain the altitude. That's an important part. So in summary, to control our speed, we simply pull back on the throttle and then use the yoke to maintain our altitude so we don't drop at 5500 feet. When I pull back on the throttle just a little, the no starts to drop and then loose a multitude. So I compensate by pulling back on a little bit on the yoke. Once they have maintained 5500 I can trim it like that. Do you notice we're flying slower, but at the same altitude. Now reduce another 100 or 200 rpm's. You can experiment with this one of the time. Correct with the yolk maintained 5500 feet. Now trim it. Look how easy that is. You can even hands free trim it, and there you aren't slower speeds. Be careful, though we can get so slow that we can stop flying. We know what that speed is Also noticed that the controls are mushy, meaning less airflow takes greater movements of the yoke with more realistic flight. In the next course, we have to give more power and use extra rudder to keep straight, because that more power makes the trip. The plane want to yaw, so we'll talk more about that as we get into more advanced conversations for now. Give it full power and nose down to correct 5500 feet. All right, so now we're gonna level at full power and nose down to give us 5500 feet. And guess what happens. Our speed increases. All right, you see that? So we've slowed down by using the throttle, but you have to adjust something, all right, To maintain altitude. As you speed up, you give it more power. But you have to also do something to maintain altitude. All right, so we're gonna try both. Now, a practical application of this, you may have to slow down in the circuit so that you don't fly too fast into another plane , and you will definitely have to slow down when you approach to land. Oh, it's a matter of fact. You have to slow down while you are descending. So descending alone will make you speed up. So we need to learn more about this. Descending alone will make you speed up faster. So we have to be able to descend and slow down or interesting seeing. We're going to be doing that when we get to our landing module. All right, so Now it's your turn. Same procedure. First pullback, some throttle and noticed the altitude drops. Then climbed back up to 5500 and start again. Only this time don't let a drop when you pull back power just a bit. Anticipate the drop and be ready to maintain 5500. Try different speeds, but don't go below 55 mounts for now. All right, Stalls We learned in theory, a flight that a stall is when the relative airflow isn't fast enough to sustain left. And we follow this guy. We're going to do that now. Isn't this exciting? Are you crazy? Howard, we're going to do this and we do this in flight training all the time. Well, we're not completely follow this guy, but we'll learn how to recover from a stall without being anywhere near the ground. We need to practice this so we know how to recognize it and act on it for recovery. The most commonplace this could happen is during takeoff or landing when our speed is low and we're close to the ground with undesirable results. Luckily, our plane is equipped with a built in wind instrument that warns us when a stall is about to occur. It's called the stall warning horn. That's right on the 1 72 it's located on the left wing on the leading edge. If you ever played a flute, it is exactly the same. When the wind passes over it slow enough and at the right angle it will sound and we will hear it. Most wing designs stalling about 17 degrees and the stall warning sounds at about 15 or 16 . As we don't have an angle of attack indicator, we rely on the airspeed indicator and the symptoms of a stall, so a decrease in the effectiveness of the controls, loss of height despite pulling back on the yoke buffeting because the airflow is not smooth anymore. These are all symptoms of a stall coming, and we got to recognize it. The stall warning sound is telling us it's about to happen. We will conduct two types of stalls. Power off stalls and power on stalls. We need to know how to recover from both. Let's start with power off stalls, entry and recovery. So the objective is not how to stall a plane. The objective isn't to learn how to stall a plane, but to recognize the onset of a stall and take prompt corrective action before the stall occurs. So let's get the entry set up. And typically the instructor would do this for you, and then you have to recover. All right, So stall entry, start from straight and level flight. Pull the throttle all the way back to idle. If you have runner pedals, control the yacht because you will. Actually, ya little more in the next course, of course. Right. So try to hold the aircraft in level flight with the yoke by continued back pressure. By the time you hear the stall warning horn, you should have the yolk all the way back to your chest, recovering from the stall. It is relatively easy. We need to increase the airflow over the wings again. As you stall, you'll lose some altitude. But it's usually not much, so we stay up high, so we don't worry about that right now. We simply pushed the nose forward, which immediately reduces the angle of attack at the same time. Pushed the throttle in all the way. Apply full power promptly and smoothly. We don't want the engine to Concho such a crucial moment. So we don't just slap the throttle in there in desperation, especially for lower to the ground. We don't want that engine to Concho, so reestablish straight and level at cruise speed and then trim it. Well, it might already be the correct trim from the very start. All right, power on stalls, power on stalls, entry and recovery. Because of the additional thrust by cruise power, we need to raise the no smoothly toe a nose up attitude and hold it there with continued after movement of the yoke to make the stall happen. Remember, our engine can't pull us straight up Anyway, it's gonna stall at some point again. When the stall occurs. The yolk is probably all the way back toward your chest. The stall will be more abrupt because of the power on entry. We might drop drastically, but it's okay. We have lots of room below us, but we must act promptly, especially when we're nearer to the ground. We might also notice one wing drop before the other in a power on stall. Correct this with rudder if you have it, or try to keep level with the yolk. We're not covering spins in this big intercourse, so stall entry with cruise speed smoothie, cruise speed or full speed smoothly raise the nose of the airplane. Use continued back pressure on the yoke to keep this nose up. Attitude. As you approach the stall, the yolk is all the way back. You can't pull back anymore, and the airspeed is at stall speed. As the plane stalls, you'll hear the horn full application of any remaining powers important as the nose already dropped, the air flows increasing and you can control level flight again. Accelerate to your desired cruise speed. Trim it for level flight again. As you see, the stall is very similar in power off or power on. But the increased thrust in power on is a more abrupt drop, similar to those who are landing and finding themselves too low. So they give lots of power to try and power into the airport or Scud running well. They have landing gear owed and flaps out there asking for trouble. What if they stalled before they go to the runway and it does happen? So now it's your turn savior flight over Claire amount so that you can try it again and again. Or you can simply recover from a stall into another one. Recover from stall. Do another one. When you ready, use Fs recorder to save the foul. You can send me for homework listed later on. Lesson two. Practice and homework. Right in summary Hazel check and level of 5500 feet over Claremont Practice area. Initiate and recover from a power off stall. Initiate recover from a power on stone record one of your sessions. 12. Module 4: Lesson 3 - Turns: Lesson three turns turns on an airplane can be described as three main topics. Gentle turns, medium turns and steep turns. Some training lessons don't have. Students do steep turns right away well as it's too complex and could discourage continue lessons. We will do steep turns in this lesson in case you ever have to do one for collision Avoidance Canyon turns in sudden fog or simply to confidently handle such a maneuver if you ever find yourself in a steep turn. This is also the module where we will head back out to the training area or the area where we were headed north. I hope you saved it. We could take off again from scratch if he didn't say that. You can take off. Follow the coast head north when you get to the small group of islands on the lake called Bluff Er's Park or Buffers Part Basin. Then you turn north. This is a good checkpoint for the radio calls, as you'll learn in the next module, but once we're in the training area, we will practice all three types of turns. We won't mix the descending or the climbing aspect with the turns yet Let's make sure we can do turns first. Before we execute any turns, we need to check the area to ensure there are no other planes nearby. And And that were high enough from the ground. You know, things like that. Um, during our training session, we don't worry about those areas. So we look at them ahead of time and figure out where we are. Just like our previous lesson will call the sequence of checks. Hazel, do you remember what each one stands for? Height area security engine. Look out. Once you're done, you're Hazel. Check. We can proceed. This will be for anything in the practice area. We should be doing our hazel check. Let's start hope with gentle turns. Now, this is exactly what you did in that second lesson. Way back, I had you turn away from the lake and inbound toe a north heading relatively north. That was a gentle turn. All turns are measured in degrees of bank. A shallow turn is a correction turn or even a cruise turn when you aren't in a hurry to get to the new heading. It's the mildest on your passengers and therefore the safest to a gentle turn is angles of bank up to 15 degrees in addition to level turns. Climbing turns are also in this gentle range, but in a level gentle turn, the position of the nose in relation to the horizon, which is the visual reference for pitch attitude, will remain the same as in straight and level flight. Once you increase the bank angle beyond 15 degrees, the nose attitude must be altered to increase our lift by backward pressure on the control column to add more lift. What you mean by that when we take a look at turns as we go into steeper turns in a gentle turn, you might not notice any loss of lift. A gentle turn doesn't take much more to stay flying in the steeper turns. You noticed the wings can't really keep us up, so we lose altitude, so we have to compensate somehow to keep that altitude. So let's talk about medium turns. This will get clearer as we go along. A medium term is angles of bank. Between 15 and 30 degrees are standard rate turn falls in this category. This is the normal rate. Turn more back. Pressure is needed toe. Add additional lift at thes bank angles. You'll recognize this angle out your window and recognize it again and again until it becomes second nature. We can also glance at her attitude indicator to see the 30 degree markings in either direction. In the intermediate course, we'll be using rudders toe help coordinate the turn, but for now, concentrate on keeping the same altitude for all our turns, Now the most drastic one of them all is steep turns, sometimes called canyon turns. To get out of a dead and canyon, we need to do Ah, 180 degree turn. In a short space, a steep turn is defined as bank angles over 30 degrees. State turns are avoidance turns when you need to turn now and as quickly as possible. This certainly isn't good for your passengers. Can you imagine, but sometimes needed, and you should practice it in case you ever do. The challenge here is that as you bank the plane mawr, you lose lift Altitude could drop if unchecked and you could enter a tight spiral, which is very undesirable. It used to be in the training syllabus to do spiral training, but too many accidents and, well, it was removed from the curriculum in the nineties. I did spin spiral training and assessment 1 52 It was scary and awesome at the same time. I'm glad to hear it isn't needed to get your license now. Acrobatic pilots certainly would do that all the time, so let's do a steep turn and practice the angle of the window. If it gets out of hand or it starts to feel uncomfortable, level it back to a more gentle turn. But we have to do a lot of corrections as necessary, so we'll figure out a simpler way to enter and exit from a steep turn. So we're gonna practice by looking out the window, making sure we can still see some ground and some sky. And we'll also glance at the attitude indicator and our altitude and correct as necessary. So this takes a lot more attention to make this happen. And for many pilots in riel planes, it feels a little uncomfortable because you're at such a steep angle and the horizon doesn't look quite right, and there's something that's a little uncomfortable about that. It will require considerable power and yolk back pressure to maintain altitude. That's the challenge, and it will take quite a while to master it. Eventually do a steep turn, say, 45 degrees all the way around the compass and back where you started and roll out at half your bank angle. Right? That's the general rule, right? And see if the alternative is the same. You might have lost hundreds of feet. You might have lost thousands of feet if it does happen. So that's how it goes. And so don't worry about it. At first we got lots of space to worry about. All right, lots of altitude, a below US steep turns. Air started the same way as gentle or medium turns. Then Kate banking past 30 with more power and more back pressure. This is a hard one to master. I remember spending more than one lesson at 3500 feet, practicing this one, so less than three practice in homework practice. General turns to any direction. Try to roll out at your desired heading. Use the rule of rollout at half the bank angle. If you bank 15 degrees, start your rollout seven degrees before the desired heading just as a general rule practice medium turns same rules is above. Try in both directions. Keep looking out the window and recognized the angle in the windscreen. Nudges on the yoke to maintain the angle and power as necessary to stay in altitude. Practice steep turns. Don't get frustrated. This is hard power and yoke To maintain altitude nudges with the yolk to keep the angle. Remember, your plane is designed to eventually role level again, so you have to nudge it over to keep the angle. It wants to go level, save one of each three turns with Fs recorder and send them to me. They don't have to be perfect. I need to see that you're getting it and canc element to help you achieve this. I mean, I could make suggestions if you're having troubles. All right, I can't sit in the right seat, but I could be as close as possible without fest recorder 13. Module 4: Lesson 4 - Descending: lesson for descending. So we saved the easy part for the last. It's easy to descend. Gravity is our friend, but let's try to do this in a controlled state and predictable fashion, this sense can be power off Descents or power on Descents. Power on Descents, air used when precise control of the rate of descent and the distance attained is desired. Most routine dissents and landings are power assisted for passenger comfort and to meet the speed and spacing demands of the airport circuit. Power off dissents are for the usually reserved for emergency landings or what is called forced approaches. Isn't that a nice word to say emergency landing. We cover precautionary landings and emergency landing forced approaches with power off in the next course. But we will practice power off two cents here at altitude. So power off dissents. Well, we'll go high enough. So we have lots of space below us, right? Simply put, we have ah loss of engine power or, well, you know, simulated by putting the engine down toe idol. So we practice it by taking the engine toe idol manually. And for any dissent, we reduced power first, then adjust the nose down attitude. If you're believe full power and just point the nose down, you're doing a power on dive. You're gonna accelerate past the point where you should and very uncontrollable the engine , the airframe. Everything will be in trouble. So we pull back power first and then point the nose down. All right, so for any dissent, we reduce power first. Then adjust the nose down attitude for the desired descent. Speed on. Then we'll adjust in trim. We use the letters p a. T. This time. Power attitude trim. A good way to remember this is a pat down when security at the airport has you step aside for a pat down when you are descending power attitude trim pat. The procedure for power off dissent is as follows Power reduced the throttle toe idol. Well, we never turned the engine off. Hold the attitude level until the desired airspeed is reached. All right, we're really just slowing the plane down to the descent speed. Once the desired airspeed is reached, gently push the nose down to the desired descent angle to achieve the same airspeed and simply trim for when it's done right. It's never a dive in a panic In the Cessna 1 72 the desired power off dissent is called the glide speed. Think about it. Power off as if you didn't have an engine. We have a glide, speed, weaken, glide to the ground and lead. Believe it or not, we can see it listed on our checklist card, as it may be needed in an emergency. We can practice it so much that it should be in memory for the 1 70 to glide. Speed is 65 knots. Again. It could vary by model, but that's the general. If you really did have an engine failure, we would immediately trim for 65 knots and then check caller switches and engine controls and then look for a suitable landing area. Really, really. But we established the glide first of 65 knots. P. A. T. Power attitude and then trim. Now it's your turn. Triet P. A. T. C. See if you can trim it and simply keep descending at 65 knots, hands free when you are comfortable with it. Okay, send me another FS recorder file as a reminder. Put your name in the file name and in the procedure that you're submitting an example of my file that you can load into your own flight simulator is Howard Ford er power off descent as the file name. Let me demonstrate power on dissent the's air not for emergencies but instead are common cruise Descents. While you're flying, we climb and therefore we must descend. At some point, what goes up must come down. Airliners don't just point the nose and dive simply for the comfort of the passengers, but also for the airframe Weaken on Lee tell their descending by the announcement, or when our ears pop. If it's done well and gently, we might not notice it all. Hey, there's the airport! So we call this a cruise descent. This means we maintain the same speed we have been traveling, but we are descending to do that. We also use the letters p 80 pat down to descend him. The procedure for a power off dissent is as follows Reduce power less than Cruz power pointed nose to the desired nose down attitude and trim. All right, so power on dissent. Same thing. We're going to reduce power, not take it off completely. So we're going to experiment with power as the most crucial element here. If we simply point the nose, we will increase our speed drastically. All right, so we don't point the nose. First we power back. First, we can descend with power alone. This is what I want you to experiment. This is important when we're landing as well as we'll be using power to control our descent , not the yolk. So here's the procedure to practice with when we're experimenting with slower speeds, we reduced power. But we use back pressure on the yoke to maintain altitude. You remember that Now let's reduce some power and do nothing. Note the nose. Drop a little note. The vertical speed indicator shows a descending rate of speed. No, your altimeter is showing a descent. We've done nothing else. We just pulled back power. Just reducing power by 100 rpm allows us to descend without pushing or pulling. This will be important when landing. We might find ourselves too high or we simply reduce power. Right. We might find ourselves too low, so we increased power will be heading to the runway without touching the yolk. And when diffusing power to control our descent. Power controls climbing descent When descending, we might want to achieve a specific speed. We adjust the nose of the aircraft to achieve our desired speed venues. Power to adjust the descent rate. Remember the power off 65 knots. Glide speed. Try that one again. Trim it for power off 65 knots. Now add some power notice. We're still it's 65 nuts, but the vertical speed indicator will show less descent. Interesting and some more power. Noticed the devious I shows even less descent. Now give it full power Notice. It actually shows a climb all by power alone. This is an important lesson. Now, when we're landing, we try to control our descent Also with flaps flaps Are those two big barn doors hanging down from both wings when you lower them? These air used to slow your plane down and to allow a slower approach to land without stalling. To be able to descend with flaps, we need to slow the plane down below the white arc Setting. This means we need to use their new skills to slow the plane down first while maintaining altitude. We call this bleeding off the speed by maintaining altitude and reducing power. We actually slow down. Once we are slow enough below the top end of the white arc, we can lower the flaps. Where is that? Somewhere on 85 notes. This is because the higher speeds could damage those flaps and your airplane. So we slow to 85 knots and then lowered the flaps one notch or 10 degrees. This is slightly lowered configuration. It made your nose point downward a bit. You notice it changed your attitude and the plane slowed even more. Now we introduce another notch on the flaps. We'll use the flaps switch and take it to 20 degrees. This is the normal flap setting for landing. Did you notice it slowed even more. We have introduced more drag and change the attitude to more of a nose down attitude. This gives you the ability to point downward more without an increase in speed essential for a landing. This is the secret to a slow and controlled landing. We will be covering this in our landing module, but you're getting the hang of it already. Here it altitude. And this is a good place to practice it. Let me demonstrate this lesson for practice and homework. Slow your plane to 85 knots. You might need to reference your speed notes dropped 10 degrees of flap. Note the change in attitude and speed. Drop another 10 degrees of flat to 20. This is our landing attitude. We will use. Pitch our nose up or nose down for speed and power to control dissent. Speed as an experiment dropped the flaps, which all the way down. Now we're really hanging out and making us go slower. It also changes our nose down attitude even more drastic. Be careful at this setting as it It's harder to recover. If you stall or you need to recover quickly, record your dissents and send them to me. I'd love to see them. 14. Module 5: Lesson 1 - The Phonetic Alphabet: Lesson one. The phonetic alphabet. Alfa Charlie Foxtrot Foxtrot Taxi. Bravo 15 and hold short. 06 Charlie Foxtrot Foxtrot. Taxi. Bravo 15 Hold short. 06 This is a normal communication between ground radio and you. They don't slow down either. Did you get all that? They're giving us a clearance to proceed to the active runway. He cannot just go there until they are aware and they give us permission with all clearances. We have to repeat them back. So they know. We understand. Once we call the tower or the ground and tell them who we are, we can continue with fewer letters of our airplane too. So did you notice? They called us using four letters Alfa Charlie Foxtrot, Foxtrot. And we reply, using three of them. Charlie Foxtrot Funk strong. This is normal procedure. We're trying not to clog the radio frequency with unnecessary talk. As other pilots might be waiting for their clearance. The phonetic alphabet is used so we don't confuse letters over a scratchy radio. The D and the e sound the same. A might be confused with Canadian lingo. A. So we use phonetic letters to make it clear to memorize and practice the phonetic alphabet . Simply look at every single sign and word wherever you are. The first time I learned it was in ground school when I got into my car. Afterwards, I looked at the fuel gauge and I immediately started reciting Foxtrot uniform. Echo Lima again. 15. Module 5: Lesson 2 - ATIS & Practice Area Communications: Lesson two a Tous info and practice area. Communication. Our first taste of phonetic alphabet was a tous repeating radio information for the airport . It told us on initial contact, you have information Foxtrot. It is simply recycling the letters of the alphabet every time there's an update to the airport conditions, active runways could change. Winds could change, visibility could change. So when we contact ground or the tower, we tell them we have information Foxtrot or the current information letter. They understand now that we have tuned into a tous and they don't have to tell us all that information. We will do the same thing when we come back from the practice area, tune into the eight hours before we call the tower inbound. In a previous lesson, we tuned in to get the basic information such as the active runway, the altimeter setting and the information letter. We got three things out of that, right? So let's listen again to the eighties information radio and learn more about what they said reporting for me. One more. His ability greater than 20 miles. Look, I by 500 one point by coming finer finer Iowa waiting, landing in the party. Run! Waking? Yeah, Our aircraft collection Point All aircraft back. Hold on. Controller on contact. Toronto Island Airport in for me extra went more ability. Greater than 20 miles. Okay, you So the airport is Toronto Island Airport. This is information Foxtrot. The time is 14. 36 Zulu. We'll talk about that later about how to figure that out. The wind conditions are calm. Visibility greater than 20 miles. I'm gonna talk about each of these things. The sky condition, a few clouds at 50. 500. And I'm reciting this in case you didn't hear it over the flight simulator radio. All right. Temperature is 15 You notice they don't say 15 cause it sounds like 50. So they say 15 Do point temperature is five. The altimeter, which is our barometric pressure setting, is 29.92 The I. L s runway is eight. I'll talk about that in a second, and the landing and departing runway is eight. The last thing they tell us is VFR aircraft. Say direction of flight. All aircraft redback hold short instructions and advised the controller. You have information, Foxtrot. That's important, right? So Let's break apart the areas we haven't talked about yet. First, which airport it is. It is spoken to start the broadcast. Toronto Island Airport. If you tuned a different airport by mistake, you'd know by that first line. Remember, though, that it keeps looping so you might tune in halfway through information. Foxtrot. This could be any letter of the alphabet and then they start over again. You will need to recite this on initial contact with ground or tower. The time of this observance in Zulu time the wind, the visibility and the sky conditions. Very important things that we need. These three paint the picture. We need the winds to hear the strength and the direction. They will say the direction of the wind, where it's coming from so you can match the runway. Heading the strength makes a difference if it's from a direction across the runway called the cross wind, every airplane has a maximum cross when they can handle on landing and takeoff. Otherwise you can't proceed. Visibility for VFR flight. We need three miles or more. Visual is everything and we need to see is far ahead is possible for collision avoidance and for navigation. It also makes a difference. When you start getting higher and higher, can you see the ground sky conditions? Where are the clouds and how thick are they? This also relates to the temperature and the dew point temperature. If you have the dew point temperature, the same as the temperature, you have fog or cloud When they say few and the altitude, there was a chart to help us with that few broken overcast. That just gives you an idea of some of the words that they'll use now. We could hear them say few at 5500 and overcast at 8500. That's hard to see or estimate from the ground so you can plan your cross country flight and you can determine if you can legally go or not. The lower you have to fly, the harder and riskier the flight and navigation. We need to stay 500 feet below the clouds, and we need to stay at least 1000 feet above the land. I once flew a cross country flight to get home with 2400 overcast. It wasn't fun at all. I even missed a checkpoint, an actual airport that I was supposed to see along the way. I was too low and too risky. I called them on the radio, but I couldn't find them. I was too low and too risky. This is an important piece of information during a tous. This will help determine what cruising altitude you'll pick when traveling the altar. Minner is are setting in the little window in the altimeter. We know about this now. When set, it should read the airport elevation as a quick trick. You could simply set the airport elevation and then read the altimeter setting just to check the eyeless instrument landing system is for I a fire flight instrument Flight rules . This is what commercial aircraft would use. This is landing by use of instruments to guide us through the fog and close to the runway threshold. It uses radio frequencies, engages in the cockpit to guide us down. We will do this in the advanced course where we learn basic. I afar landing and departing runway eight. It just happens to be the same runway for vfr as I a fire. So now we know where we're taxing to the active runway 08 then they say VFR aircraft say direction of flight. All aircraft Redback, hold short instructions. Advice Controller. You have information? Foxtrot. When we asked a taxi to the active, we should also say our intentions. Request taxi to the active with information Foxtrot to the east practice area. All aircraft redback hold short. Destructions. This is a lot We have to acknowledge. Hold short instructions. If they don't know if we heard them, you could tax year right through the runway and an approaching aircraft could hit you. They want to be reassured. You heard them correctly. And we'll hold short of that runway. Advice controller. You have information. Foxtrot. You should be jotting these things down on a knee pad. No pet. There are special ones made for pilots. They have Velcro to strapped to your leg and they also hold your pencil. That's not an option you have to pay for. They usually do. Hold your pencil. Also thes air handy for Johnny Down information as you here in both you know both during a Tous enduring the practice area maneuvers. You'll also use it to record the Habs time and the air time before and after flights eso. It's good to have one. So now that we know how and what to do with eight is information, don't forget to do this any time you intend to take off, and also when you intend to arrive and land, we will always practice this for every flight. The practice area communication. There really isn't enough to fill a whole lesson about the practice area were simply calling a common radio frequency that all airplanes in the area can hear. That way we don't get in each other's way. Then we proceed to that area. In practice, we announced, We're leaving the area. We announce when we're getting to that area. So we keep a communication going with other airplanes. Even if there's none around. Someone heard us. If there's anyone around, they'll hear us now. You could practice flying almost anywhere but in the busy airspace like the Toronto area or any busy airspace, there could be a designated practice area and a common frequency for safety. Ours is the Claremont practice area. It is right here on our map. Do you see it? Remember our last flight over water and a gentle turn to the north over the land were heading to the practice area. We will pick up where we left off in Module six and do some work in the practice area. Communication needs to be done when entering the area when exiting, and when any new plane enters the area so they'll know who's in it. There are four quadrants that you'll notice on your map, all centered around the town of Claremont, so we call it the Claremont Practice Area. The idea is to simply communicate to other potential and other practicing planes in the area. We first tuned the frequency 1 22.90 after leaving the Toronto Island tower frequency. We want to listen to the channel before we get there to get an idea who's there. So we tune in the practice area while we're still to the south, and we listen until we arrive. It will help us determine which quadrant to practice in once we hear from the other planes . Once we determine which quadrant we can fly in, we make the call as we transit the area and we head to our designated quadrant. Let's say we determine the northeast quadrant is our destination. Here's how it sounds. Claremont Traffic This assessment. 1 72 Gulf Gulf November Juliet arriving from the South and proceeding to do upper level air work in the Northeast Quadrant. Conflicting traffic Please reply. Golf. Golf November Juliet and that's it. Sounds like a lot, right? Let's break it down. But at this point, when you know now we wait to hear any replies. You're listening for your call sign. All of a sudden, someone crackles on the radio. Golf Golf November Mike this is Skyhawk Fox X Ray Lima in the Northwest Quadrant for upper level air work. Fox X Ray Lima. This isn't a conflicting thing, but it's nice for them to say hi and let us know where they are. We also here Golf Golf. November might. This is a Cessna 1 52 Fox Lima Foxtrot in the Southeast Quadrant for air work over now, they should repeat their call sign to signify their done transmitting and to remind us who they are. We should be writing down these planes to help reply when we're leaving, saying over is an old radio method to say I'm finished transmitting if you need to talk now . But it doesn't remind us who just called us. I have missed the call sign because of this. So you could say this is golf November Juliet, please say again and maybe they will retransmit. But once you asked to please say again, acknowledge you heard them after they transmit. So they transmit again and you say golf. November, Mike acknowledged Golf November Julia. So you can even reply to these planes if you wish when they give us their position. But it's not necessary. We're just hearing where they are. We're good. We don't have to reply and say Got you All right. Remember to keep the radio chatter to a minimum unless mandatory, or it helps clarify something. You should also repeat your intentions any time you hear a new plane arrive. They weren't on the frequency 1/2 hour ago. That's it. When you leave the practice area, be mindful if you have to cross a quadrant where you know there's another plane and get a visual. Also make your intention known. Claremont Radio. This is Gulf Gulf November Mike leaving the practice area to the south and heading to Toronto City Centre Golf November Mike. I finished with my call sign. Now you don't have to say where you're going, but if someone else is going there to, they can look up for you. Ensure that you're not above or below you. Once clear to the South, you can switch to the eighties to get the airport information before you make the call to the tower. 16. Module5: Lesson 3 - Ground Communication & Taxiing: Lesson three. Ground communication and taxiing ground communication happens any time you're on the ground at the airport and you wish to move somewhere else. To most common scenarios is moving from the apron to the active runway or moving from the active runway to the apron. You know the ash fault the big parking area. When communicating any time using radios, the controller wants to know three main things. Who you are, where you are and what are your intentions. Simply put, who you are is your airplane call sign. It's printed on your plane and on your dashboard somewhere. You might also include what you are meaning what type of plane your and then where you are . It's self explanatory. I'm on taxiway Bravo. I'm on the apron. It's efficient. What are your intentions? Well, that's easy enough. What is it you wish to do? Well, I wish to tax you to the active. You don't have to make a long sentence. Maybe taxi to the apron or a taxi to the gas pump or taxi to the hangar Many times when calling round. With your request, you mentioned you have the latest Aidas information and you quote the letter. So knowing these basic concepts, you can construct your first communication with the ground controller. City Ground, this is Gulf Alfa Bravo, Mike, The reply Alfa Bravo, Mike City. Meaning we hear you. And what do you want? So you reply with Alfa Bravo. Mike is a Cessna 1 72 on the apron, requesting taxi to the active with Fox trot. So because the controller only used my last three letters, it's OK to continue to use three letters. Now I've told them what I am where I am and what my intentions are in one simple sentence there Reply Alfa Bravo, like Taxi Alfa and hold short 08 You taxi! Alfa, hold short 08 Alfa Bravo, Mike, I'm reading back the clearance. This is illegal compliance. We have to do this. So the controller knows we understand the instruction or the clearance. Using my call sign at the end is confirmation. The right person is acknowledging the clearance and then you promptly proceed to taxi on Alfa and hold short 08 So once you're there holding short on 08 then you can change to the tower frequency and listen for other traffic in the air, and this also AIDS and understanding who is already in the circuit or who was about to land while you're facing that traffic, When there's a silence on the radio, you can call the tower in the next lesson. 17. Module5: Lesson 4 - Tower Communications in and around the Airport: Lesson four Tower communication in and around the airport. There are two main reasons to call the airport tower frequency first to request take off when you're holding short at the runway and you wish to leave second when you're 10 miles out and you wish landing instructions In both cases, you should already have the A disinformation. So you'll know the active runway and you'll know the airport conditions and you tell the tower this on initial contact requesting takeoff clearance. So, while you're holding of the active runway, you turned it to face the traffic and you switch to the tower frequency found on your checklist card. You wait until there's no landing traffic and there's a break in the radio chatter. Now is your moment. Then you make your call. They already see your flashing red beacon light at the hold short. So they expect your call. They know someone's there. They're gonna call any minute they get it. City tower, this is Alfa Bravo, Mike Ready for takeoff. Plain and simple. You can use the last three letters instead of all four because you established radio contact to ground already and they were talking back to you with three. Three requires could come. So three replies will come from the tower now Alsa gravel Mike, hold short. Aircraft landing. We shouldn't have called what? We see a plane on short final approach. We need to read back. It was just It's another instruction holding short Alfa Bravo, Mike. And you're acknowledging that you understand that the less traffic talk a busy airport, the better. So if an approaching aircraft is only on basically, you know what you learned about in March of seven or it's on a long final. It's way out there. The tower might say Alfa Bravo, Mike cleared for immediate takeoff without delay. This means there fitting you in for a take off before the incoming plane is too close. You need to move and get out of there and actually take off without stopping. We don't have a rear view mirror. We have no idea how close there. We need to acknowledge the clearance while we're doing all this Alfa Bravo, mike or cleared for immediate Alfa Bravo, Mike, The third response that you might get from the airport is the most common one. Of course, Alfa Bravo, Mike cleared for takeoff a standard clearance. While you're increasing your throttle and starting to move into position, you should be acknowledging the clearance cleared for takeoff. Alfa problem. Mike, you stop in position, ready to push full throttle. You do your normal takeoff and climb out and establish your climbing trim. If you're leaving the airport, you would keep climbing. If you're doing circuits, they already know your intentions because you've told them. When you reach five miles out of the airport, though, you should call the tower and ask for release from the frequency. Although you can stay on the frequency longer, you're officially asking for release or at least letting them know where you are. All right, can you might want us down and hear about other traffic. As you're getting closer in this area, I recommend you stay on the tower frequency until it bluff er's park to the east, 10 miles out City tower, Alfa Bravo. Mike has cleared the zone to the east or clear to the north of cleared it. The reply is Alfa Bravo Might Good day. This releases you from the frequency and you can switch to another frequency If you wish. Now, they could say good day. They could just say good. A. They could say so long they could say good luck. Well, you shouldn't say good luck. And this is a skill. They could say anything but were cleared to these. Do they understand that we're going to switch the frequency? That's our official notice that we can And you could stay on if you want is imagine. All right, so this releases you from the frequency and you can switch to another one if you wish. When we get to the practice area, we'll switch to that frequency. Now let's refine this a little more. When you first contacted the tower, you told them you had information. Foxtrot. They may ask you, Where you going? What are your intentions? As they said, standard replies are local East practice area according to flight plan, Local flight toe Hashoah. You could say anything like that, make a short and sweet. So when you request taxi to the active with information foxtrot to the Claremont practice area, you've just said it all. Everyone knows what's happening. Who's listening on the radio. They smile and give you taxi clearance. There's nothing more to ask. Incoming traffic. Now we need to make initial contact with the tower while we're inbound from the practice area. We do this from a checkpoint 10 miles O called Buffers Park. It's over there to the east or from the intersection of highway for one and 44 to the north . Any prominent landmark will do as long as the controller would know what you're talking about. And some of these air marked on our map. But can you imagine saying city tower this assessment 1 70 to 2000 feet over 1 36 and Jane Osler Boulevard requesting landing instructions. The controller has no clue where that is, unless while unless it's an emergency. And maybe they would Google maps it, you know. So first we listen to a Tissa 12 miles out in preparation for the initial tower contact at 10 miles up. Officially, you have to call them by five miles O. But you should give them some morning. It's been a while since you left, so you need to listen for changes in Aidas and the new call sign and the new information for the airport, and then contact the tower with your intentions. Now we had one more thing differently from the ground. Call Altitude City Tower, This is Gulf Alfa Bravo, Mike Reply Alfa Bravo. Like city tower. Meaning? I hear you. And what your intentions. City Tower, Alfa Bravo. Mike is a Cessna 1 72 at 2000 feet over Buffers Park inbound for landing. Request landing instructions with information. Echo. Reply. Alfa Bravo, Mike. Right down one Runway eight, City tower Right down 108 Alfa Bravo, Mike. Now, because we haven't done the circuit yet. Let's say the tower clear doing for a straight in 26. The reply from them Alfa Bravo, Mike. Proceed straight in Runway 26 straight in Runway 26 Alfa Bravo, Mike. So you proceed the eight miles or so a 2000 feet knowing you'll be entering the control zone with the intention to land on Runway 26 on a straight in approach. That's what we'll be doing in Module six as an easier way to land before we learn the circuit. This is also the way that most commercial aircraft would do it at this airport. There actually dash eight aircraft, another aircraft, but the Dash eight aircraft from Porter Airlines landed City Centre report. I've been on hundreds of those flights and it's truly majestic. A straight into 26 at night, with the blanket of city beneath and to your right, gliding quietly until touchdown and breaks. Oh, did I mention that the buffeting and the snow and the freezing temperatures as you cross the five mile controls own mark on your way in and they see you visually, they'll usually come on the radio and say, Alfa, Bravo, Mike, cleared to land. You need that clearance? Your reply. The same thing. Right. Clear to land. Alfa Bravo, Mike. If they don't clear you to land, you have to ask for it. If you're on short final, you cannot touch the runway without a clear without clearance. You would have to do a go around what you learned about while you're in the circuit in module seven City Tower, Alfa Bravo, Mike Short final. I'm telling the Tower I haven't got clearance to land yet and I'm very close to touching down. They should promptly reply with Alfa problem. I cleared the land for which you reply saying were to land. So you know I've thrown in the odd. Thank you. For what? You don't have to. But that was grateful. Like it landed first. Now, to practice this, we don't actually have to fly at first. You know, we're trying to get used to the lingo on listening and all of that. But we can dream up scenarios, call up our intentions and expect the reply as we proceed through on the course. From now on, we will practice radio work all the way through, just as you would or your instructor would from your very first flight. We will certainly do lots of landings and touch and goes in this course and in the next course. But to practice the radio part, dream up scenarios and asked the tower for instructions after your initial call to say who you are. City Tower This is Gulf November Juliet with information. Foxtrot, cower Reply. Gulf November Juliet Tower Golf November Julia is a Cessna 1 70 to 2000 feet over Buffers Park inbound for circuits with information. Foxtrot Golf. November Julia is a Cessna 1 70 to 2000 feet over Buffers park inbound to land or transiting your airport. You get the idea. What would their replies be in the next module. We're gonna find our way home, return to the airport and do our first. 18. Module 6: Lesson 1 - Map Reading & Heading Home: Lesson one the map reading in, heading home. At this point, we could have flown anywhere, and now we have to find our way home. You could have been on a cross country flight and returning from any direction at this point all assume we're in the clear amount practice area to the east and the bit of a bit to the north. And we have we have exited the area to the South, announced our intentions and will switch frequency to the city tower in preparation to go home. But not yet. Before we talk to the tower, we have to get the A disinformation, and we have to learn how to read our map to get home. In the intermediate course, we go in great detail about your map and all its symbols, and we even draw lines on it for cross country flights. But here basic recognition of landmarks on the ground and relate to them on the map. No lines and no calculations. Just recognize where you are now. You could use your GPS and just find the lake head there and then find the airport head there. It's too easy. If in real flight lessons you don't use GPS until a cross country flights, and then you use them for backup to confirm you are where you think you are. Anything with portable batteries could concho when you need them most, you need to learn piloted and dead reckoning for basic knowledge of how to fly. And this is part of the challenge and the fund of flying. Look at your map along the coastline and find Bluffer s park. This is a collection of landmasses on the water along the coastline of Lake Ontario. We passed it a few times in our previous lessons. This is a major landmark. Call a point when communicating with the tower. Now look north of that to the town called Claremont. It's a very prominent little town with offset roads in a train track running through it. There's a bigger town called stove Ill up to the left or to the west, and still those another major. Call it point when talking on the radio and some of these things they're denoted on your map. You can see a little symbol with a flag. If you look south or slightly southwest to the lake, you'll see Buffers Park with a flag on. It also has another call a point. That's where we're headed. But we will turn at highway to just before the coastline and follow that into the airport. Do you notice the dotted line heading both ways? Want to follow highway to into the airport and the other to follow the coastline over the water to the east, where you'll find our show airport? There can be lots of traffic sometimes between these two areas, so we separated into two one way streams. Now we want to be 2000 feet over Highway two near Buffers Park. When we called the tower, they expect that next we follow highway to in toward the airport and we would have clearance to enter the airspace. You can see a dotted line near the airspace, which is the Toronto City Centre control zone. You cannot enter control zone without a clearance or well or after declaring an emergency. Presuming we have been cleared to land, we will be proceeding to within a visibility of the runway for a straight in approach, the way to land without using the circuit. We will learn about the circuit in the next module we are in the control zone of our home airport savior flight. So you can reset to this point for practicing. We're gonna keep practicing approaches and land until we're good at it. All right. Once in the control zone, we need to do our pre landing check checklist or even just outside it before we start our descent. All right. This is to ensure all switches engages are what they should be before we get busy with the landing. Let's understand how to land, because we're gonna be visually looking out the window. So we said everything first, and then we can concentrate on the window. 19. Module 6: Lesson 2 - Landing: I'd have to say it's the hardest thing that you'll do. Descend from 2000 feet and gently touched the wheels down on the runway. Well, it doesn't have to be hard. One fellow student, back when I was learning, spent 16 lessons. 16 lessons in the plane trying to do smooth landings. He couldn't get it. You would never be signed off for your first solo flight unless you can land properly. He spent the money to go up in a rented plane with an instructor 16 times. Now that's a waste of money. The simulator would have been useful to practice the skill of it, the procedure of the checklist of it and the numbers and make sure things are right and the rial plane to confirm the practice. Some students have quit flying lessons at this stage for cost time and frustration reasons it doesn't have to be that way. We have already learned to slower plane down. When we practice different air speeds, we also learn to control our descent to a lower altitude. This was on purpose, knowing we will need both skills to land our airplane, so this shouldn't be hard and we're not stressing that we might hit the runway. We're in a simulator. We have the added benefit of saving our flight before we start the descent, Then we can reset it again and again and again to practice the descent and landing until we grease it. Have you ever heard that term This term means we slide onto the runway with no big bump when we touched down? Passengers love this and they'll judge a pilot on their ability to grease the landing. So we need to get from here to there. That slow is possible without stalling. Right? Remember, we're gonna goes real slow and descend. This is the tricky part. Too many people point the nose to the runway and are surprised when the speed increases way too much. Then they pulled up at the runway and they balloon way him and the lift from that speed. Then they point the nose to the runway to get down quick and they bounce again. And then they Oh, my gosh, Let's do this. Controlled and slow. Now our normal speed range has a V s with flaps up and power off of 51. Not that's our stall Speed remember 51 knots, although we need to learn to land without flaps in the event that they're not working. But you need rudder pedals to do that, so we'll cover that in an intermediate course. So where we learned performance landings and takeoffs, including a flap lis approach and land and cross wind landings. And I will do all of that initial meeting Corso. So So we'll be using flaps here, which is a normal approach for all landings as it affords us a slower approach. Speed Ah, controlled descent speed and a better visibility of the runway as we go in the VSO, or stall speed with flaps lowered is 47 knots even lower, so we can go slower and have a good visibility of the runway. Each model of the 1 72 could be different, so we never want to get within a few knots of this. But in real flying, it is common to hear the stall horn for the whole roll out on the runway. So you're close to stalling but touching down and rolling out. I've even seen a demonstration of how to keep the stall horn sounding the whole landing. That's dangerous this close to the ground. No room for air that was just showing off to show they know how to use the plane properly. So we'll keep the speed up above the stall speed and keep a constant. Although there are many trains of thought about this, it's common to control speed with the nose of the airplane, which is pitch and then control the descent speed with power. This means how fast or slow you descend. But we will visually use the runway to judge this and adjust. If you use this plan, you will have perfect landings every time. Well, near perfect. I still have to adjust. All right. Pitch controls, speed, power controls, descent. The first action to take to know when to initiate the descent were flying at 2000 feet, and we will start our descent once we passed the smokestack. That smoke stack is called the Hearn Stack. It's ah, it's no, it's not used anymore. But it's a coal generating, hydro generating plant and, you know, generate electricity and they haven't fired that up in years. You know, the black sort of coal, that smokestack is still there, and it's a landmark so we'll pass the smokestack at 2000 feet and we'll have our runway in sight, although it's quite far away. Still, we still have over a mile tow line up with the runway and fine tune. Our descent were headed for Runway 26 up there on that thin stripper runway. If we wait too long, the runway will be way down there and we can't get there without diving straight down. We don't want to do that. If we're impatient and we descend too soon, the runway is hard to see and it's way up there, so we have to power up and fly to the runway. This isn't healthy as you could lose power. Or you could have lots of turbulence or even obstacles in the way they called this, powering to the airport at low altitude, they call this Scud running. When you stay under the radar and power through at low altitude, it's not healthy at all. The distance estimate to know when to descend will be a visual one, as you have seen, but it's also a mathematical one that this applies to the circuit to in the next module in thin the circuit at 1/2 mile from the runway. We should be at 500 feet above the airport altitude, so we should be at 750 feet because the altitude of the runways to 50 you get it. So one mile from the runway, we should be at 1000 feet above the airport elevation or 12 50 feet on the altimeter. So the correct angle to descend is when you're one mile out and 12 50 feet high. Well, we can't measure one mile out. So exact. Is that so? We use the visual up the window to see how the runway looks. Then we adjust to get the right Look, as in the second visual here, before we can pitch the nose down and aim at the runway, we need to slow down and apply flaps. Do you remember how to slow down? We reduced the engine rpm, but keep the pressure on the yoke to maintain the altitude. So we do this ahead of the spot where we wish to descend. We bleed off our speed. So we need some time to slow the plane down, apply the flaps and establish the descent speed. So we throttle back to a lower PM, Let's say 1500 for now. Eventually, you could even be a title. In older planes, we have to apply carb heat. And we haven't talked about that because we have the newer planes here. We could even throttle back to idle and establish everything. Then add some power if needed. So you know it's variable here, but we're doing it, you know. Well, Wolf throttle back some. The nose will want to drop from this reduced rpm. Hold the yolk and correct for this and keep the nose level to lose some speed. You should notice the airspeed indicator slowing to within the white range. Once you're in the white range, lower 10 degrees of flap. That's the first notch. This will pitch the nose down a little, but hold back to slow even more now. Lower to 20 degrees. One more, not to the flaps. This is the second stop on the flaps, which this is the normal flaps setting for landing. We want a slower playing to 65 to 70 knots. This is well above stall speed, but slow enough to roll out when we land as you refine your landings, you can experiment with your landing speed, so you adjusted the pitch with the yolk and the nose of the plane to establish your speed, probably with your left hand. While you do throttle with your right, we should be pointing down toward the airport. Now we have to get airplane lined up with the runway now like this. Now we line up with the runway. Imagine the red line. Let's draw a red line. They're running from the far end of the runway through your airplane. Is the line off to the right? Is it off to the left? You have to correct with the yolk or the pedals, and minor corrections will use the yolk in the big intercourse to get you lined up way actually will bank the plane. You'll see Plane to do this once were lined up. Let's focus back on our descent speed. Is it still the same? Here's the secret to landings. We will put that runway threshold or the starting point of that runway with the numbers in the lower center part of our windscreen like this all the way down to the runway, we will keep it on our windscreen in this position, making corrections for our direction and also making sure our descent speed stays the same . Our descent speed was established with our yoke once we pitched the plane to the right speed. We don't have to do that part. We just have to correct for alignment and user throttle to correct for descent. Speed. All right, so what do we do now? How do we make corrections? How does this lineup? All right, so we're going to keep that runway on our windscreen in that same position, just over that dashboard. We're going to keep it there. How do we do that? Well, that's the challenge, right? So if the runway seems to move up the screen, you're gonna fall short of the runway. You're going to land where you're looking. If that runway is moving up the screen, don't you see water? You're gonna land in that water? All right. You'll fall short of the runway. If the runway seems to move down and even out of you you will lend long or further down the runway or even on the other side of the airport. You will land where you look. How do you control this movement of the runway up or down power. Remember that increased power is increased lift, and as the plane lifts, the runway will fall back down to the lower part of the screen. Now reduce the power to just above what you have it to try and keep that runway there. Keep your hand on the throttle for the descent all the way down in case you have to abort and give a full power. We also keep our hand on the throttle to make the minor adjustments to power for keeping the runway in sight. You'll hear it when you do commercial, Lang's told. Listen, the engines going up, it's coming back of it. Resist the urge to use your yoke to pull up or pushing out. You will only increase your air speed and bounce or decrease your airspeed and stall Onley . Use your yoke toe, adjust airspeed. If it isn't right or your bank left a rightto lineup, that's all we're doing with it. At this point, it should be minor adjustments in any area. If you reduce power even by ah, 100 rpm, you'll notice the nose drop of it less left and the runway comes back into view now, try to maintain that look. With power alone once trimmed to keep that descent speed and you have adjusted power to keep the runway numbers not moving on your windscreen, you should be able to descend all the way down to the runway threshold without touching anything or very minor adjustments. That's the challenge now. What if it all goes wrong? It's going to happen, especially the first few times. So if at any time it's going all wrong, as it may, the first few times give it full power, pull back a little bit. Don't yank it all the way back. You could stall right here, so you're already going slow. All right, so give it full power. Pull back a little bit to establish straightened level. Raised the flaps one notch at a time. Raise it 10 degrees. Make sure it's, um, positive climb. Raise it 10 degrees. Make sure it's positive. Climb as the plane accelerates and establishes a climb indication. Raise the next notch of flaps until you're finally clean, meaning you have raised the flaps and full power and you're climbing. This is called pulling up and going around now we don't know the circuit yet. So once you establish your positive climb, reset the flight back to the control zone approach and try again. All right. It's a taste of what you would do if things go wrong. All right, You and I can simply go back and reset the flight and start again. Let's do it right. You know, start again and do it as many times as you need for free. So let's say it zee going all wrong and you don't need to execute a missed approach will say we do that. So let's land as we get closer to the runway, as I mentioned before. All right, So we're gonna continue on now and let's land as we get closer. So I mentioned before will land where you're looking. As you stare at those threshold numbers and aim for them. We have to eventually change something so we don't crash. I'm heading towards. The numbers are getting bigger, bigger, bigger. What time do I pull? Right. That's the thing that we have to figure out now in a real plane. There's a lot of clues both visual and in your senses. You're feeling the sinking feeling you're getting a peripheral out the windows. You're actually seeing that you're sinking to the ground and you will pull up all right. We have to use pretty much and especially in this course, we have a single screen in front of us, and we've got to use that to figure out when to do the flare, when to pull up so we don't hit the ground, all right, and that's a hard thing to do in the simulator. We don't have all the senses to work with. So when we get so close that the numbers fall under the nose of the plane, the secret is to simply look up to the horizon at the far end of the runway. Don't look up a few feet. Don't look up halfway down the runway. Look to the horizon. That's the secret. And that was the final secret that finally broke it for the person trying 16 times. They finally looked to the horizon, not to the runway. All right, so you look up to the horizon at the far end of the runway and we pull back on the yoke to level off the plane to a level attitude or even a bit nose high. As you know from air speed practice, when you try to establish straight flight with no power, your descent rate will increase, your speed will drop and you'll stall the plane. Well, we're trying to stall the plane on touchdown were flaring a few feet or even 20 feet above the runway. Those who Greece their landings, or even less so you look ahead at the horizon, bring the nose there, and you will eventually touch your heels on the runway. Your plane will eventually touch just from your descent. Keep holding. Keep that nose well off the runway while traveling. As your speed leads off and you slow down, your nose wheel will settle onto the pavement, and this time you could scare it off exiting the runway. So this should be exciting at this part. I mean, your first landing and you didn't crash, or this is your first successful landing. After many attempts. As your speed continues to diminish, you will turn to your right onto the taxiway on good landings. You're slow enough to exit on taxiway foxtrot, but if you're still too fast, apply brakes and slow enough to exit on 15 or even exited the end of the runway on taxiway . Offer Porter Airlines Dash eight Taxi off Alfa as they need the whole 4000 feet to slow enough to exit. They could do a short field landing and try for sooner, but it makes passengers a little uncomfortable as you exit onto the taxiway. You some trouble if you have to, but go slow. You will stop after the holding short line clear of the runway and do your clear of active runway checklist. This is a legal requirement. We got to get past that line. If you don't cross the lines before you stop, you are legally still on the runway and the tower can't clear others to take off or land. Now the landing runway would always be into wind, although we took off on 08 and eventually landed on 26 This is probably something that wouldn't be done unless there's no wind or the wind changed. Maybe a just told us that the wind changed. It could happen. We do it here for simplicity to focus on landing without the details of the circuit. It's very overwhelming for a lot of people toe learn, toe land and the circuit lots to do in the circuit. So let's get this straight in. Approach mastered. There will be times they give us a straight in clearance and we'll handle it well. Lesson two. Summary in homework pitch controls Speed, power controls descent. Always use flaps to keep air speed low. Get that perfect runway visual out your windscreen flair before you hit the runway and lead off. Clear the runway before stopping. 20. Module 6: Lesson 2 - Landing Demonstration: here is my landing with commentary. As you can see by the frozen screen we have here. Let's start from there's the Hearn stack. We are approximately 1900 to 2000 feet over the stack, and that's the herd stack right there. I just want to show you where we came from. Were inbound for landing. Let me just get you around their first. And I'm in a pause on a saved flight, inbound for landing. You can see there's the airport up ahead and I have no flaps on, and I'm gonna have to slow down. I just passed the stack, so I'm at the stage of decision point. Got to slow down. Gotta loosen altitude. Got to get down to that runway. All right, so you can see where I am. If you look behind me, you'll notice way back there. Well, actually, there's a smaller stack over there, too. Over there behind me. And that's that. Ash Bridges Bay. That's the Ash Bridges Bay Yacht Club, by the way. But behind there. And this is actually the beaches. Have you ever heard of the Toronto beaches? But you probably haven't. Over here is the Scarborough Bluffs. area. This patch of land. That's where we called up to say that were coming in for a landing. All right, now, I haven't played with the wind or anything. I'm just going in for a 26 straight in. All right, so I'm gonna unp awes and pick up throttle or whatever I have to do to stabilize. My first job is to get this stabilized and on a descent path. All right, let's go inside the plane to see what's happening from inside to three. There we are. And I've got it set for for a wide view, which isn't so bad, but I think we better do this properly as if we were in the panel, all right, where we can see flaps and everything. This is important because in a real plane you would have the panel in front of you. You could stick your head way out there if you want, but you probably wouldn't here. It also helps us to keep that threshold rate on the dashboard. And as you can see right now, if you put a line through there were not lined up that goes right through down toward the flap switch if you put a line through that runway, so unp ause Let's see what we need to do. We're going to throttle back, get to the white dark and apply, um, and apply flaps and start our descent all the way down. Let's see how it goes and I'll talk you through it as we go along. So on pause, pull back some trouble, you can see my throttle pulled back here. Now it should go to probably 1500 or so. Try to keep the altitude and you notice that I am getting closer very fast, that's for sure. But as you can see, I'm just going to try to pull back a bit on the oak. You can see the yolk right now. There it is, almost touching the way dark on time for flaps. There we go. Flap switch on 10 degrees and I'm gonna touch one more. And now I got to set up my approach. You see, I'm actually aligning to I'm gonna just move over a little bit to the right. Try to get that center line to come down as I get toward the 70 mark on my air speed. I'm going to leave my yoke pointing the way it is and then just control with power. All right, There it is. A 68 even on that. All right, I'm gonna give it a bit more power. Try to keep that on the numbers. Still not lined up, but I'm just turning tow line up all the time trying to keep that 70 on the yoke. And as I get closer to lining up, return it. You notice? Trying to keep the numbers on the dashboard. That's it. Like that dashboard. You see, my speed to increase shouldn't be. Shouldn't be throttle back. I'm not just a bit 26 on right. 26. As soon as the 26 disappears. Best landing. You guys mentioned it doesn't always perfect in a simulator. Now I see I'm gonna get better. Pull going back a little, going back a little. Probably too high, because right now, let's just pause. This is the beautiful thing. I'm gonna 234 hopes. Not even close to alignment on the runway. Look how high up I am from the runway. That's hard to tell from here, but ah, the runway thresholds back here so you can see, There's the numbers I was pointing out. I'm already flaring, and I'm still 20 feet above the ground. This isn't the best. The best landing. You can see the Hearn stack straight back, though. I mean, that's where I turned to turn to the runway. All right, let's continue on. Let's see what happens with it. I mean, every landing that lands safely is a good landing. Uh, so you could see them heading down the runway. Not exactly a line. Look at that. So I've got a you know, I got 100 50 feet to play with, but I'm certainly not going to run out of space if I do get down soon. All right? So let's continue on from inside and finish the roller. And it jumped fast cause there wasn't holding you, and it says it wasn't clear I should do that properly. I'm actually gonna go back and do that again. It wasn't the best thing putting out some breaks here, heading towards Foxtrot. Over here. It's 33 actually. That's how long was this is actually Runway 15. We left right here. And then I'm gonna I'm actually exiting 15. That's long for assessment. That's crazy. So I just flirt way too. Okay, second attempt. And this is exactly what you're gonna do to I should go back over that hold, short line, but I'm just gonna stop it. 21. Module 6: Lesson 3 - After Landing Checklists: Lesson three taxiing to the hangar. So you've practiced some landings and it's time to put the plane to bed. At this point, you would have landed and slowed to a running pace, then exited on taxiway foxtrot or something. In fact, the tower would have advised that as you touched down, you hear them say Golf November Julia, Taxi Foxtrot 1 to 17 off. Wait a second. Say that a little slower, but they do say it fast, even faster than that. So they said my call sign told me which taxiway to get off on. And then the actual frequency of the ground isn't that cool? All in one Quick sentence. Golf. November Juliet Taxi foxtrot 1 to 17 off meaning toe exit on taxiway foxtrot. Change your radio frequency to the ground controller on 1 to 1.7. If you are slow enough on your approach and you landed on the numbers meaning right on or near the runway numbers, then you would be slow enough even give some power to tax you up to Fox Trump. If you came in too fast and too high but eventually landed, you might not make foxtrot to exit, and you have to break hard and keep from falling off the other end of the runway. This has happened. Take a look at this now. This isn't our airport, but it's similar with water. After the runways, this plane was not only fast but had wind behind them, and the airport workers knew it. The fact is, at at what point did the pilot make the mistake? Not calling it is to get the active runway using instrument approach when the wind was clearly behind him. So let's keep it slow and controlled and always into a wind. We want to fly another day. You can see the whole YouTube video by searching for this euro. So there you are, sitting on taxiway Foxtrot with the engine idling, and you are stopped. Let's execute our clear of active runway checklist. You can see what they're doing in the checklist, cleaning up the airplane, raising the flaps to the normal position, turning your landing light off and even turning your taxi late on. If you're a night setting your radio to the ground frequency and letting it chatter while you do the rest of your checklist, you will get a feel for the conversations before you jump in with your request to taxi back . The ground controller knows you are there and is expecting your call any second. Also note your time down on your knee pad. You know where you noted the time off. You need this for your logbook, and I hope you're keeping a lot of book as we go along. Now make your call to the ground controller. City Ground This is Gulf November Juliet Taxi to Hangar. Their reply should be golf November Juliet, Taxi to Hangar and you acknowledge was simply Gulf November Juliet. They might give you specific taxiways to use, but we're on Fox Trump. We can actually go straight in its one of the reasons they designed this taxiway right in the middle, heading straight for the apron. It's a taxi to the apron or taxi to the hangar. All right, this isn't a clearance to land or take off, so you don't have to repeat it back. But if it's a complicated taxi or it's not very clear, repeated back on acknowledgement or, you know, just you could even say Please say again, City ground, This is Gulf November. Juliet, please say again or even. Ah, please speak slower if need be that sometimes it just rattle it right through. Once you're cleared, time to move. They want that taxiway for the next landing aircraft. Follow the yellow taxi lines if you can, but it's not compulsory. Airliners have to follow them. Larger planes have to follow him to keep their wheels and their wings to the taxiway. We have lots of leeway with their 1 72 Once you arrive where you'll turn off the plane, it's time to execute the shutdown checklist. You'll notice the purpose is to get the engine turned off and record the Habs time near where you recorded it before. You know you're gonna record it where you at first recorded it during engine start. But there are other checks you need to do before walking away from the airplane. You notice that there's the E. L. T. Check 1215 Your emergency locator transmitter has an automatic switch that would activate on impact in case of a crash landing. This emits an emergency signal that SAR search and rescue can use to find you. They're simply checking that your last hard landing didn't trigger it. You're making sure that your e lt isn't transmitting. That's all you're doing. So you're doing a check for your e lt On 1 21 5 If you hear something, you got to report it. Well, I would turn around and turn it off and then maybe reported, but believe it or not, and in student classes, your last hard landing might have triggered it. It might have thought it was a crash. We've seen a few of those lightnings and students. If we hear nothing on this frequency, we're good. If we do hear something, we need to call the tower and tell them and then trying to earn enough. So this is serious stuff, and it could scramble the search and rescue operation. So? So let's just check the frequency. And then we can hit the avionics power switch off and focus on the engine. Next, throttle toe Idol pulled the mixture knob all the way out. This will lean the engine gas and actually deprived the engine of any gas so that it quits . This is a normal way to stop the engine. This is also a simpler checklist. It's also safer as we learn later in the intermediate course, we do a mag check, but not till then. All right, so the mixture knob is the outside knob on the ch Oke, and you pull it towards your chest. When the checklist says out, it means out from the panel wall. Now that the engine has stopped and the avionics are off, we can turn the master and Ault switches off. Finally, now we can turn the key like a car to the off position and remove the keys. Finally, we record the Habs time, as I mentioned already. If you record your Hobbes time above the starting Hobbes time, you could do a simple math calculation to determine the time. Remember, it's intense of a second, which makes it easy for calculations. This meter is on the tachometer, remember? And it starts when the engine starts. So we take her keys and their flight bag and go into the flight school to pay for her flight. The plane is ready for the next student pilot to approach for their lesson. All right, 22. Module 7: Lesson 1 - The Circuit: module seven The circuit. We're gonna break this down into three lessons. First, the circuit. The orderly fashion that we used to keep the movement of airplanes separated and moving. Second, the go around. What could go wrong in our landing, and the final lesson will help you understand entry and exit from the control zone. Lesson one The circuit. All airports have what is called the circuit to allow aircraft to enter and exit the control zone without conflicts. The main reason for an airport circuit. ISS safety Basically a circuit is a one way rectangle, with inbound traffic arriving at one end of the runway and departing traffic leaving from the opposite end of the same runway. Both ends air connected by a specific path that all aircraft should fly at 1000 feet above the airport. This serves many purposes first. Both landing and departing aircraft are facing into wind, so that will aid in generating lift, and it helps keep the engines cool. Second, if the wind were behind them, the take off roll would be longer, and that could be dangerous. Additionally, both inbound and outbound aircraft are in motion in the same direction, keeping conflicts to a minimum in your lessons. Up to now, we have been making it simple for you by taking off from Runway eight. So you have a straight Oh climb towards Scarborough Bluffs toward the Buffers park. And then we had you land straight into Runway 26 to make it easy for your landing. This wouldn't normally be done as departing traffic would conflict with inbound traffic, so we need to take off from the same runway that we will return to. That means we need to follow a pre designed rectangular shape to keep aircraft moving in a one way direction without conflicts. This is called the circuit or the pattern. This is determined by the direction of the wind, and controllers will decide which runway best faces toe wind. If the wind changes direction, as it surely does it Toronto Island Airport. The controllers will announce which runway is the active runway, and we can determine the circuit from that, all runways are left hand circuits unless otherwise stated in some type of flight supplement. Usually you would encounter a right hand circuit on Lee to keep this circling airplanes away from houses and office buildings For example, Toronto City Centre Airport has Runway 26 is a normal left 10 circuit, but runway 08 the opposite. As a right hand circuit, this capes aircraft over the islands instead of over the city buildings, regardless of the wind direction and the active runway. The plan view of the circuit shows that it is a rectangular shape with a label attached to each side or leg. Let's take a look at each of these legs, the takeoff leg, the cross, one leg, the downwind leg, the base leg and the final approach. These five areas and we'll talk about each in more detail and will learn to do each of these areas unless otherwise stated. In the airport diagram, all circuits are left hand turns to each leg, and the normal circuit heights are 1000 feet above the airport elevation. Toronto City Centre Airport has an elevation of to 51 so circuit height is, well, just 12 50. All right, so 1000 plus the 2 50 So our circuit height is 12 50 after takeoff, there will be a straight climb into wind, so a height of 500 feet, then a 90 degree, left hand turn to cross wind. So you're going to see this during climb out and you'll see this enduring dissent. Our first turn is at 500 feet. That's what we judge. We want the height. We don't necessarily care how far out you are. If you're doing a proper climate, well, 500 feet gets you high enough and turned you at the right distance from the airport. All of our turns in the circuit. We want to be close to the airport in case we have troubles, and we can just glide in. I will talk about that in a minute. But in our first leg rate, after take off to be a straight climb into wind toe, a height of 500 feet above the ground and then a 90 degree left hand turn to what is called cross wind. Just as the name suggests, the wind is now on your right side and is not behind you or in front of you. So it's cross wind. You're traveling across the wind. The cross one leg is a continuous climb. We still climbing to circuit height where the aircraft is level off, which is it's really another 500 feet. Then a 90 degree turn is made to the downwind leg. The down wind leg is flown so as to track parallel with the intended landing path. You'll be looking out your left window to see the runway aligned with your plane, and you'll also see the runway. It happens to cut rate through the wing strut of, AH, high wing airplane like the Cessna, so you can tell that you are at proper circuit height and distance. It's a good cute during down wind. Your down wind checks are made. Now you're going really fast. The wind is behind you, whatever. When there is, it's behind you. So we do our down wind checks while we're straighten level while we're doing our down wind before turning to what's called the base leg. Now when you pass the threshold of the runway that you'll land on, so I'm looking out my left window and I see the runway I'm going to land on. That's our cue to reduce our rpm's and slow the AARP playing down in preparation for a left turn. All right, and then we're gonna make another left turn to the base lay as it's called. This is a crucial turned for you and hard to know when I've seen a lot of students struggle with this one. When do I turn? When do I turn their bit anxious? I better turn. I don't get too far away from the airport. When do I turn? So here's a helping hint. When you look out your left back quarter view using your hat switch or your keyboard views The airport threshold where you're going to touch down should be at your 45 degree mark. So I'm looking out my far left 45 degree and there's my threshold. Time to turn. All right, You see this when you see this Q, turn to your base leg. Now you're on your base leg, and you're gonna start your descent toe 500 feet above the ground. In other words, 500 feet less than you are Now see how easy it is. We start on the ground 500 feet, 1000 feet, 500 feet back to the ground. Okay, it's that simple. All right. So you'll announce your on your base leg to the tower and say your intentions touch and go or full stop on base, you slow even more and apply flaps while descending to 500 feet above the airport, at which time you make your last left turn to the final approach leg. This final approach should be where you accept landing clearance and you line up the aircraft with the runway, centerline and land, just as you did with a straight in approach. Let me demonstrate. - As you can see, this is an orderly way toe. Have airplanes circle The airport allows the additional safety of keeping all aircraft moving in the same direction and allows you to glide to the airport if you have engine trouble so you keep your circuits tight. As they say, Don't go too far out. Could you glide to the airport? So when you're this low to the ground, it's a good practice to be able to glide if you have to, without the help of your engine, just in case you'll spend a lot of your time perfecting your circuit procedures to save time and money. When you're renting airplanes and instructors, we execute what are called touch and goes touch and go landings. This is a smooth transition from the landing. Roll out and take off all in one smooth procedure and you're back up for another circuit. You will continually do this to practice both takeoffs and landings. Rial pilots have to adjust for many factors, such as the strength of the wind, the direction of the wind. But we won't have to on our simulators for this big intercourse. We have perfect weather for practicing touch and goes. No wind is the ideal to execute a touch and go first, make your intention clear. When calling the tower on your base leg, you're heading in for a landing, so in your base leg you'd make your intention clear. Then, when you touch down on the runway, don't apply brakes. Keep aligned with the runway centerline, but immediately raise your flaps and apply full power to start your takeoff roll. So you're landing roll. Takeoff roll is one smooth movement. Keep aligned with the runway and, at 55 knots, rotate to raise the nose during this whole procedure. Keep the nose up as the aircraft is in motion, and that's hard on the nose wheel when moving fast. I know you're not worried about that in the simulator, but it's a good practice. The whole time when you're doing your landing before that front wheel comes down, you're still holding back a bit. You're trying to make sure that you're not pushing all the weight of the airplane onto the nose wheel. So remember our normal climb speed was 73 75 not somewhere around there. And this is how we do touch and go's Let's have a look. 23. Module 7: Lesson 2 - Checklists & Touch and Go: listen to the go around. The decision toe overshoot or go around is made by the pilot because of a poor approach or poor landing, but maybe requested by the tower if an obstacle is still on the runway. If the pilot is simply going around, do toe a bad landing approach. You immediately apply full power, maintain level flight and slightly positive climb while retracting your flaps 10 degrees at a time. You also move off the center line and climb out to the right of the runway so you can look out your closest window to see the other aircraft or runway obstructions. If the tower requested the go around, you should execute immediately and then ask why later they see the whole runway and have control over their airport control zone. Execute your go around procedure as described, and these over to the right of the runway, so you have a clear view of the whole runway, and if any plane is taking off, they will not climb up into you. I had to do this once on a lonely airport in Markham. We'll be using that airport in our intermediate course. When a farmer's tractor started to cross the runway at the other end. While I was on short final, I immediately executed to go around, eased over to the right and waved at him as I went by. I guess he didn't want anyone to land right now, but it was instinctive and smooth from all my practice. What could go wrong in the circuit? Well, in real flying, it's much easier to judge distances. And there's a sinking feeling that you don't get with the simulator. You'll have to watch your instruments and use your outside views to judge when to turn to final all other turns air done when you reach a certain altitude. So it's it's difficult in the simulator to judge when to turn to final. As you can see from the side view that the runway threshold is approaching and to a gentle turn to final, you're going low and slow, gentle turns air necessary. I could do an exact turn every time in a real plane, but I have a lot of difficulty in this simulator. You will have to practice to decide when to turn final. One method is to do a gentle turn and then correct when you see how you line up the next touch and go, you simply turn sooner or later, depending on the last one. With practice, you'll be greasing those landings every time and turning at the right time. Finally, the worst thing that could go wrong in the circuit is an engine failure, and you only have 1000 feet to glide to the runway. If you're taking off, you don't have enough height to turn around and land again. So we would glide straight out and land in a farmer's field or in the water. That is the worst case scenario. All other legs air easy to get back to the runway, including the last turn to final approach. You should be able to glide in without engine power if needed. That's what we practise in Rio planes. The instructor reaches over and cuts the engine toe idol. They never really cut the engine right. That's not safe. But they cut it toe idol and say that we've had an engine failure without warning. We set up immediately for 65 knots. Glide and fly the plane to the runway or the grass. If you can't get to the runway not much time for anything else. Let me demonstrate this from the down one leg and another one from the base. All right. 24. Module 7: Lesson 3 - Solo Flight - Entry And Exit: Lesson three entry and exit from a control zone. So let's start with entering the control zone and joining the circuit. It's pretty easy when a controller tells you where to join the circuit like we're going to do. In our lessons, we simply follow the directions given by the controller. If we intend to land at an airport that doesn't have a controller. Well, now we need to make an intelligent decision on the safest way to do this without conflicts . We don't want other aircraft deciding to land this way when we want to land that way, the secret to joining any circuit is to find out ahead of time. What is the active runway a controller could tell you? Or you could find out by a weather report from a weather report, determined the winds and figure out the runway that best the lines. Once you know that, simply superimpose your heading indicator onto the runway and visualize the four parts of the circuit. Also, find out if it's a left hand or right hand circuit. Well, your instructor will show you two ways to find this. But a solo left hand, as it is the most common. The right hand circuits are the exception. Now, looking at this diagram, decide if your approach will leave you on the upwind side, down one side or base side. Depending on which direction you're coming from, you can see that the normal cross wind side is not a good place to join. As traffic is climbing out from the airport, the downwind and base legs are straight forward to figure out. Traffic is already at the same altitude, and you can see each other as you join. The mid up win side is simple. Also, simply descend to circuit height on the mid upper inside and then cross over at circuit height to join the downward late again, you see each other all at the same altitude. You probably want to do your down wind checks and during the crossover or after you join the down wind, always keep a lookout for down one traffic. When crossing over an airport, we will be visiting uncontrolled airports in the intermediate and the advanced courses, along with a cross country flights. We have to go to other airports, let me demonstrate, approaching from the upwind side or mid upper inside and crossing over to join the down wind, - leaving the control zone. When you leave the airport, you don't have to keep flying at circuit height. As a matter of safety, continue climbing to your desired height to get out of the way of landing and touch and go aircraft. You may still need to execute part of the circuit when departing. Let's take Runway 26. If we wish to depart to the West, we would request a straight oh departure, and the controller would clear us for that. If we wanted an eastbound departure. As we've been doing, we would follow the normal cross wind and down one legs. But keep climbing until we reached 2400 feet and level off. Remember, that's the ceiling inside this control zone, leaving the zone to the east and make our call once we leave the control zone. If we wish to take a passenger on a sight seeing tour around the CN Tower and then the Don Valley Parkway to the north, we would request a right turn out and get clearance for that. Remember, it's Runway 26 facing west, and we would do a right turn out toward the city when we have clearance for that or not, depending on the controller, the conditions, the weather, etcetera, the controller would ask, what are intended? Altitude would be as we circle the CN Tower as it's still in their control zone and they have control of it. And then we would advise when we're heading up the parkway so that they know we're not circling the tower anymore. That CN Tower is a tourist attraction, and I've even taken the press and people who are taking video for the press and for documentaries. I've taken them up and show them the simulator and real planes around the CN Tower. And as we circle the CN tower, we wave to the people. We can barely see the kids pressed up against the glass and we wave to them. That's a good thing, for our lessons in this beginner course were always heading to the east for practice. It's at the big intercourse. Flights in further courses have us leaving in all directions, so we need to make that intention known to the controller on initial contact. 13 Melanie Greater than 20 miles, 1 700 scattered sitting around Charlie Golf Golf November Juliet went off. Request taxi for takeoff. Departure Barely. Remember, hold short of runway contact. Our on 11 Niner 110.1. Ready. Taxi. Old short runway November Sitting around moaning November Hectoring uniform Bringing Conte high apartment alone. Mama Hotel November. Okay, Number for your account. Why runway heading your pregnancy And 133 points or zero November due to victory. Uniforms cleared a load off hotel November airport as filed by runway heading climate maintain six Mark your on 133.7305 Money uniform back. Contact around on 11 point. Ready to attack around 11 or each know everyone 1 47 Airport city. Our Charlie Golf November Juliet Ready for departure. Runway two. Early November Killing cleared for takeoff. Runway approved for takeoff. Runway two. That's off. November Juliet, - our colleague Victor one bound visual runway. Charlie Sector. Our traded. Now. - Wait , Wait 25. What's Next and Thank You!: Well, there you have it. The whole beginner course on Learned to fly. I have covered a lot of material and demonstrated a lot of new skills. I hope that this insight into the world of managing an airplane in free flight has been enlightening. For some of you, this has been exactly what you were looking for. For others, this is a surprise. Many people think we jump into airliners or jets and just turn the key and go like we do in performance cars or in Hollywood. All pilots started out with these skills and the planes that fly low and slow. Once you master these basic but necessary skills, you can certainly move up to other aircraft. But you realize now that you simply have to know the V speeds of the aircraft you wish to fly. You need to know the takeoff speeds, the crew speeds, the landing speeds and all the rest for each and every aircraft. In riel flight, you would have a check out ride with an examiner to be able to be certified to fly each type of aircraft. Typically, you would buy or download the Pilots Operating Handbook or the P wage for each aircraft you wish to fly. You would study and memorize the V speeds, emergency procedures, etcetera for each aircraft for the simulator. Just learned the speeds and procedures somehow and comfortably fly the plane you desire. This is fun and can give you a whole new perspective. And I encourage it from here. You need to practice everything we've covered. Take off and leave the airport to the east and practice in the clear amount practice area, return to airport and land, then do touch and goes until it almost gets boring. But flying in any configuration isn't boring, were flying. But honestly, if you send me your fs recorder file of your circuit and you're touching goes for two circuits and land, I can assess an issue Your solo flight certificate. Now, this is just the forger Learned to fly solo endorsed certificate for simulator flight. But it is something that shows you have mastered the skills with your certificate and a photo of you. Besides your plane, which I can superimpose for you. You can frame it and put it up on your wall where you have your similar. This is common after a solo flight in real planes. So why not? After we master those skills in the simulator, I look forward to seeing your final circuits and your touch and goes, Go for it Next steps hungry for more. Once you're comfortable with the skills here, you might consider taking the intermediate learned to fly with me. Now we're going somewhere. Some of the things will cover our cross country flights actually planning the fly, then flying the plan. Ah, final flight will be to Niagara Falls and back using correct maps, correct procedures, radio practice. This is exciting emergencies, precautionary landings and emergency landings. How to execute them properly, complete with radio communications, performance flying short field and soft field takeoff and landings these air needed on grass strips, snow or ice and even money runways. We will visit some of the smaller airstrips at uncontrolled airports. They have very short runways. These new skills will require rudder pedals. You've heard about this all along. In this course, you can't do slips and skids without them. You can't do a flap lis landing without the use of a rudder. Realistically, you taxi using rudder pedals which are also connected to the nose wheel for steering. We used the yoke on Lee to manage the wind around us while we taxi, we go. We want to learn the correct way to do this radio work, using the transponder in emergencies, enduring normal flight using what are called viewers and de me's well on cross country flights. These air special radios that determine where we are and how far we are to destinations, radio communications during our emergencies and uncontrolled airport procedures. There are other details, but I leave the decision up to you. I hope you'll join me and continue your discovery of flight and how to confidently handle an airplane and go anywhere. I'm wishing you fair weather and years of enjoyment in your flights in I'm how imported. 26. FlightSimulatorFirstLook: And here we are cold and dark. Now what I wanna do is just give you an idea here, your typical yoke controls for looking around. Here's my left, which is great. You always need a left and a right look. And then it has a couple of nice views in here. There's a look over the hood, which is really nice for landing. You get to see the hood over here, right here, and then come back to normal. Most people call this the normal view and step back some more so or sorry, go in more so you can see the panel and even more so you can see backup instruments. Now, apart from all of that, you can move around using the right click on the mouse and do more things. I want to look down and make sure my shields on both. I'm sure Mike, for takeoff. I might want to look at some switches. So let's get started. I'm gonna just get rolling here and let you see some scenery as I fly. It's not all about the scenery, but that's the wild part. That's the part that it's so realistic now that I've actually flown over and see my house that way, you can actually do that. Now when you get right down to ground level, it's all generated. It's AI artificial intelligence generated by the algorithms that they use on the data stored. It's being data stored in Azure servers. Now if that whole sentence doesn't mean anything, don't worry about it. But the point is that it's sitting in the cloud, tons and tons of satellite data. And it constructs things as you fly near them. Alright, so some things from the air are actually flat on the ground, but from the air they look 3D. As you get down closer, you realize they're flat. Other things are actually built up in 3D, so we'll see that as we go along. So let's put let's just go put some fuel in first. I'm gonna put to feel pop on over here, flip the fuel pump on. I'm going to just give it a better turn, some get some power going here so that we can see what's going on. Before I actually did the field public should do that because now I can see my fuel flow with my mixture. Anyway, we'll, we'll get into more of that later. I can go into more details on checklists, but I feel it's good now I'm ready to roll mixtures in. Eighth inch on the throttle. Beacons on. I'm going to come back to this view. I'm going to look left first. Nobody there that would either toss system test. Okay. Alright, prompt clear. Good. Beeping noise is, is alternators going on at low voltage. That should help you go. Henry avionics now will propose on that should give us our CO2. And looks good. And again, I say it looks good. You can go in like this and have a real good look at it. For those you haven't used a G1 1000. I've got a whole seminar on that, brief Essentials on that so you can get comfortable in it. And then a whole course, I've actually finished the whole course yet, where you go a lot more detailed into it. But the main things we're looking for here is we're just all be careful right now is what are the frequencies of our Coleman and her come to our main flying instruments? Here's our artificial horizon or decrease of bank. Here's our directional gyro. It's not actually a gyro, you guys anymore. But there is a backup for that. Of course there's a backup altimeter, a backup HI, and a backup air speed indicator, right. And you have to have those backups in case things happening in here, the inset one. Now I've, I've actually got a semiotic real one in front of me so I can push the buttons. But how would normally come down your push that button and just say inset is off. I don't mean that map because it's going to be over here. But we're not going to do a whole lesson on that. She went 1000, but it certainly is easy. And this is the built-in assessment, 172 that's in the new flight singular, and this one's the built-in. You actually have to have the premium or deluxe stucco get the conventional gauges, went, believe it or not. Usually you think could be the other way around, but All right, so from here, what do I need to do? Well, this is my air speed indicator, this is my altimeter. This is my barometric pressure and says my artificial horizon. What else do we need right now typically, I mean, what I'm going to do and in a lot of the courses that you guys have followed were just flying via far anyway where glancing and instruments and make sure things are fine. We're looking at air speeds for proper takeoffs, et cetera. So we'll come back out here now. I just want to step outside the plane for a second just to show you what's happening. In fact, I'm going to get rid of all of these labels. I don't really need all that mess and all those people that are flying. So I'm just gonna go to escape. I'm going to go to General and I'm going to go to traffic. And I'm just going to go into the traffic, show the name plates off for traffic, for aircraft traffic type. Let's put some AI offline. In other words, they'll throw some in there so you will see some traffic now and then AI airliners. So, alright, oh, general aviation, I've got it up. Full airliners actually, we shouldn't be seen those at all at this airport, so they'll still throw them in. And if this were live with people like you and I flying, yo see them all coming in and doing all kinds of stuff here. So that's crazy. Alright, so that's what we'll do. We'll save that escape out of here, escaped out of there, and we're good. You'll notice the skies are clear now there is some kind of traffic there, but it gets harder to see traffic now, doesn't it? Now that's an AI traffic. Alright? And then as you look around the airplane, you'll see there's one on the ground to all right. There's one taking off, so these are all AI generated now. And the runway 26 as a current runway. Now, what I'll do first is hit my scroll lock for my ATC. Tune in the weather first, let's see how that goes. Should come through on the radio. Seven trouble coming through on the radio. But anyway, we can see here which to A123, which is negligible. I'm visibility nine Scott condition, clear. Temperature 14, Good point. And altimeter to nine or nine or two. Now typically be looking at your playing when this was happening. They'll just come back here like this. To nine or nine or two is what we actually have. And the runway is 26202 and you change that appear with the parametric coder down. Alright, so we've got everything we need, all we need to do now, let's tune the traffic now in line 229. Looks like it's not yeah, it says not in US tower that is the normal tower frequency. They want us to tune traffic on 1229, which is like a mandatory frequency. So it's like there's nobody there. So I'll just announce taxi and head over. And you can see in here now, I have had it coming through on the radio and you just have a quick look here to change it over to column 22. Yeah, I'm trying to tune when 229 don't seem to like buy com reuse and others to try to announce tax, but let's see if that works. Tax into runway. Now they're actually saying runway here, so we'll do a shirt that must be the tax your way now. I'm just going to collapse that lets go. Take off my parking brake. Now it could have been pushed me back just for effect. It's a nice effect, but I'm just gonna leave that for now. And you guys runway towards your left, but tickers kinda blocked over there. So I'm just kind of go here. Now when you're taxing certainly with a single screen, you've got to look around, make sure you're not hitting editing, crashing, crashes are detected by default unless you turn them off. So I could crash into anything. That's realistic. Alright, so here we are. 26 is over and the last, hey, there's somebody taken off. And eight is over here on the right. Now you notice everybody's doing 26. So you know what, just so there's no confusion. Even though they said I'm supposed to go to eight. It's obvious that even a i traffic Sunni 2686. But that's the problem right now with the AI stuff. If there were I was on earlier today and there was a traffic controller telling us which runway to go on, but lots of people were ignoring. But again, you turn off all the live traffic of those who are just here to have fun. And you would turn it on for serious traffic or the rest of us, and then things get normal. There's someone taken off. Now I'm just I'm still not going onto the runway. I'm just kinda go over here, it down to the start of 26. And a lot of people will start raid at the runway. And I'm urging you not to do that in flight simulator. They start on the runway ready to roll. Fine on an airport where there isn't anybody, but if you've got anyone at all that's coming in joining you, there's just nothing realistic above the plane sitting on top of each other. Alright? Alright, so I'm using my 2-breaks looking for traffic. As you know, there's this guy over here that's getting ready to take off. There's 172 and then there was another one there, two there. And then again, you can also jump out. There's someone that just spawned in front of us. They weren't there before. And he said, yeah, you're too slow. He's kind of a taxi. Okay. And there's assessments TO sitting on the runway but made easily. So even though they're AI traffic and we can just ignore them and run them over whatever I still prefer to just delete and hopefully they'll move. Yep. And now you can see there is actually a couple of them there. They just ended up coming apart. And so what happens when you start there? Here's someone landing. Yeah. I think they might be learning on 240 and that's what we're gonna do. We're gonna land on 24, just so that you realize that the traffic and 26 was crazy. All right, so let's just do that and so you can see what that's all about. Select a runner, I'm going to select 24. I'm going to have my own traffic patterns so that I'm not in their way and I'm going to remain in the pattern. So that's sort of would say taxing to runaway 24, left touch and go. Yeah. That's what it is. All right. And so I'd better get moving once I've made that announcement. And I gotta jump back inside someone doing. So now 24, instead of following the circle all the way around here, where it is going to cut across to 2040. This is where we're going to be landing to. For those of you who have looked at this before on this airport, there's 24 right there. And you can confirm that by looking at your I'll just get out of the way for those of the lining on 26. And typically we would want to kinda position ourselves so we can see the runway numbers. Yeah, there's 24 up ahead of us and just stop there because it is a short runway. And I look at my heading indicator right here and we just have a closer look here. And you can see it is 24, so we're confirmed there too. And what I didn't do was the run-up and I should do that right now and try to keep the video from being like a half-hour video, you guys. So let's do that anyway, just so you can see that in action, hey, someone saw me on the runway and said, I think I'll just go around. Okay. So I'll just put the parking brake on. Let's do a run up real quick here. I'm surprised my other garment isn't on. It is here in front of me, but it isn't over there. That is strange. I don't know why. But anyway, that's fine. But just come down here. Look at our RPMs now. You can't see the RPMs and it's crazy. It's normally over here. And if this one is turned off, then it's over here. So I think for the sake of let's just try. This. Should come back to here, okay, So this way you can see it. Let's use this for an algorithm not sure why that's inoperative. So here you can see I'm up to 17, maybe 1800 for this test. You guys just bear with me. We'll just do a quick magneto test. Now I know in a simulator it's going to be fine. You can set failures, but typically they're fine. So I'm sitting at 1800. I'm now going to take the magneto. Some of you don't know how to do this or you haven't seen it. We're testing the engine under stress as what we're really doing. We're also checking that where everything's in the green, so we're looking at all pressures and the green, the fuel flow is normal, the vacuum is there when the vacuum for the old gauges. But what we're gonna do is use the start button here to go to the left or the right, and then back to both. Now you gotta go back to both both times. He don'ts. Now I happen to have my panel here in front of me. I'm going to go over to right. I'm looking at that RPMs and I see it drop to 1720. So I lost 80, right? Maybe even 90. Back to both. There's two spark plugs in every cylinder, so that's what we're testing. And now I'm gonna go to right, and just see it shouldn't be much different than about 50 rpms between them and a 150 total. So here we only ate dropping about 80 and then back to both. So we're good. We also take it back to idle, make sure it allowable without stalling. We typically put carb he'd on if it's an old corroborated engine so we can make sure that that works too. And here we see it's idling just fine. We also want to check the let me just go down here for a second. You guys, you typically wanna check also that your riches working. I have a vernier rich, so I can just turn it. As I turn it, it'll come out a little. And your RPMs that it mean for this to be a whole lesson, you guys, I'm sorry. Let's just do a quick one here. The RPMs as you turn it out will change. If you're looking up here, you guys he does. Hmm, it's 650, so it dropped. So I'm going to just take it back in a bit. It should jump up to 6060. Here we go. So that's the proper setting now for takeoff, I'll do full rich, but that was a good test. Sometimes you also test by just pulling it back till it drops off. Yes, drop enough. Okay. So we're good. Alright, we're good. You guys, thanks for hanging in there. Let's go fly, hey, a biplane doing some tricks. Nice. Alright, let's just jump over real quick. Let's go sign up while we're here. Whereas he, he's gone. Alright. Jump back in. Let's go, let's go fly. Were there alright, parking brakes off, transponder. And just want to put this on while I'm there, you guys gotta do it properly or also bugs me. Transponders on Sydney Tower, Gulf Labor, Juliet's on 24. Taken off. I'm going to leave it on a single a single display here so that you can see the RPMs. I don't know what's happening with the other one. Just so happens that when you record, all of a sudden, they're so we're on full pulling back a little bit of pressure to take it off the nose wheel, tried to align ourselves with rudder. We've got air speeds alive here it is, 34 here. And let me just show you that on this view, their speeds alive or good, somewhere around 55. I offer the nose at 60 or so it starts to lift off or good. Just like normal flying you guys. And and then you'll notice that we're probably going to settle in somewhere around 74. So I'll just take it back here. At this end, my trim probably in a div and check my trend, but let's just make sure we wanna settle in at 74. So 7576 maybe and already. Okay. It'll come back. Alright, and I'm off my target, so let's just come back to here. And while I'm doing this, let's have a look around them. Look. Let's look in print. There's Ontario Place ball over there. It's pretty good. We're going to see some more of that once we get up there. Over here. Water. Yeah. In fact, there's the island. Thank you. Back there. Okay. So let us do a quick look like this. Look back. We're leaving from CMI alignments, horrible because I'm talking and playing. But these are the kind of views you can do it. Let's just do our circuit while we're here. We're plenty high enough to do her left earn were too far out really for a glide. If we're an engine failure now we wouldn't make the airport, but that's fine. We'll give back somehow. Yep. So that flashing is The altimeter setting. I got it set for 1200. And that's where I want to pretty much be on my circuit. It's a 1250 circuit and here, I'll just take some of that off this come back here so I get a good idea of how this looks. And now let's just have a quick look out here. I mean, this is gorgeous stuff there isn't city will show you another one as we get closer, but just a gorgeous thing. And don't pay attention to much about the accuracy of my flying. If I'm trying to show things, then it's hard to concentrate on flight characteristics and pretty much doing a circuit. I am too high. And there's crank Adley pulled back some rpms here on the level flight. And we'll try and get this thing leveled up. So you can see that for a runway 24 circuit, I am too high right now and it's going to push down with it, trim it, and pull back a bit more. I don't want to be about maybe 2200 RPMs. All right, so while we're here, let's have a quick look here. And this is gorgeous stuff. There's tunnel islands. And I've actually sailed in these areas right here and anchored. Alright, but over here is our runway 24 here. Runway 26, the longer one. Yacht clubs here, here's the Royal Yacht Club here, CN Tower, sky dome, and the city skyscraper. This really is full of trees you guys at really as accurate. And as I'm doing that, I kinda went off course. But that's alright. Now over here on the left is what's called the Eastern gap. So right about there, it's coming into view. That's the eastern gap and for traffic reasons and noise reasons, that's where they want us to go through. So you don't do a normal, you don't do a normal rectangle through here. You actually go up to the gap like this is called the Eastern gap. There's a Western one over beside the airport. And this is where we're doing our turn. City Tower, this gulf November, Julia left base for 24 touch and go. And so I'm just saying that out loud right now you guys just for effect, but typically, let me just get up here where too far from the runway yet. I'm bringing it back to about 17. Bleed off. You can see you now get into the white area from my flaps. I'm gonna give it one flat. That'll take me down to about 80 knots. And a second flap will take me probably the 70. And I'll trim that out. Now because it's runway 24, you can't call rate over the city and then come back into land. So you gotta stay over the water, these all these skyscrapers and things. And you gotta kinda just slide in like this. Now I'm out of the way of traffic for 26. But keep in mind, I'll be crossing over runway 26. Here's my 500 foot range. Remember the elevation is 250 psalms actually taking off on 24 in my direction, runway six. That's what it looks like. This. So there's lots of activity going on. Someone's code up, a great big ones coming up on a, so there's still lots of traffic going on in this run, this airport. That's for sure. But anyway, while we're doing this and while I'm lining up there, here's the city look, really, it's gorgeous, unbelievable. So I'm not here just to show off the scenery, but certainly that's an important part. So what do we add here? Okay, let me just pull back some power. That's just trim that out a bit. I want to be somewhere around 70 on touchdown, maybe 68. So here we are. For now you can see someone's pulling out under 26. So I'm going to give it more flap. I'm gonna stay up. We've gotta be careful now and I'm going to be installed almost all range. I'm staying above that plane. But if I get too far down like that, here, I went over the plane good. And then now we'll come down. And that was a very rough landing, but that was because a plane was in my way. Now, let me just show you guys what we can do from here. I'm going to turn off let's just turn off two here. So I'm not in the way for anybody to show you what was in my way. Well, I guess he's kinda always tell there. So I mean, yeah. So it just gives you an idea. Now there's city scale. I know what know what you saw me do earlier. Let me just put my flaps up and clean up. Your flaps are up. Let me just take the altimeter. Sorry, the let's take the transponder back to standby. Back. And normally you'd not time down and all the rest. But let me just say this now there, now there's a mode here that's beautiful. You saw some of the camera modes here at left and right and all that normal stuff. You saw me step outside and look around the plane. And you also saw me use my mouse, my right-click on my mouse to do things like I commended for land. And let's watch that. Lots of speed camera. Now what you can do here's the next part you guys, I want you to see this is going to be the most awesome thing, not just the answer key. And now I'm using an Xbox controller to step outside the plane and go walking. Now, I can also, It's a drone really. I, so look, I can look up here. I mean, this is this is so it is can't do this at an airport. You don't I mean, you can't fly a drone live in airport without clearance from the tower. Of course. You can say something that my compared traffic, some see it, engineer it. So we're going to get the edge of the re-lend anyway. So the things that you can do here is now I want to move over here, maybe come down to his level. Let's follow this case. He takes off looks like a barren desert. So want to follow somebody who actually goes takes off in full. And also, just generally the killer's name was chasing withdrawn. Here's salmon. They're gonna come in at the public, gets 200 flyby attacking Mamma Mia, something you'd never see a trauma there? I almost fall on them. And then again, this oriented. Yeah. So this is, I hope this has given you an idea of scenery, of giving you an idea of what's gone. I mean, things that can be a pretty hairy and that's Fisher. There's that visited DA was that the diamond? Ta 40 W And then she goes back to the lecture. Following that, I'll be able to keep out the empathy. I mean, we didn't have this capability that's organized. I mean, talk about learning. I mean, if everybody's doing things right, you can learn a lot here. And there we are sitting down on the grass. And here goes this guy. He's leaving, he must have been doing some checks, some rather genetics. So just to give you an idea, you guys, I could sit here with the drone camera, but that's not really what I like doing. I like actually flying and that's really what we wanna do. The Toronto skyline, I know the city well, of course it's my hometown and I'll get this traffic going on here. The next thing I'll do in another video, I mean, there's gonna be a whole bunch more videos come out. First, I have to refresh a lot of the courses that I made because now I have more realistic scenery for the afar navigation and GPS. Angie went 1000 and there's lots of things that I still need to redo. But additionally, just, just the fact that there's water here. If we want to start using some of the water planes to and do some water landings, which going to be about back out into terminal in and area. Oops, oops, oops, oops, oops, oops, oops. Yet and he disappeared because this is wing touch the water. Anyway. Hope that's a good insight for you. Let me just press Insert and come back into the plane. And let's just tax it, the thing back over and park it closer down. If you want to see that part happened. A couple of bike lanes, look what's going on 24 over there on the right and another one's going on 26 on the left here. Nice. That's us. I'm sure that stop that's built him. So is this one and this is stock built into standard. This one I'm using the version I'm using right now is the Deluxe. I wanted to try everything and I will be trying everything as we go along. Let me just get over to a tax your way here alone. Yeah. This is something that you'd never have to do in normal life. Is that watch o for oncoming planes. Now you can certainly turn off AI traffic. And just as simulator typically is, with no traffic going on, in x plane, I've got global traffic in fs x. I've got some other kind of traffic tick to make traffic happen. Here. I'll just make sure that make sure I'm rich. Each parent meetings could hear taxi latent, landing lights off. Just to add a few checks here, you guys. And then maybe I can maybe they'll give me the option to tax tax here. Nobody's doing anything. Okay. To figure that out later too, this is still new to you guys. It's first-stage released, so I'm just playing. I'm gonna go back over to where I was part of left and right are good. The fast snore down. That was a taste anyway. Yeah, there is pushback, by the way. One of you did ask me that and just give me an idea right here. So let's say I can't go. Typically you can't because there's planes over on the left here. It's almost like a closed loop, right? So they won't push it with a propeller running, but certainly we can just, let me just do a quick checker. Magneto xs are good mixture there goes, I'll leave the battery on when a request to the push back here. So with the propeller off and this is something that you know, some people think you can do it well, it's own. Note when you gotta prop anyway, Shift P, any should. Look, he just looked around behind him. He says, oh, you want me? So let's just go outside the plane. Hey buddy, he can't fit in there. See this guy in actually pretty well being. And that's it. Easy to yeah, that fellow just landed and then turned off. You have to go for dinner or something. So that's pretty cool. I mean, we've seen that with add-ons to you guys in this default outside screen is really good when you're flying too, because it gives you all your vitals and a lot of people do fly like this. They fly from behind the plane with all of the vitals and trundling. Take us either engine. They can see the air speed, they can see the altitude. So you know, this is a lot of flakes, simmers will use this kind of screen. Now, I mentioned before, helps you better tell him to stop at some point. I think he can push one or two to go left or right. Now, have to look that up. Or maybe it's the cursor keys. Hold it. Hold it. No, that didn't work. Anyway. Better shift to P. Every go and away he goes. Thanks buddy. And then we can start up an early bill. By the way, they're kinda disappeared. It was because it was so close but he was still there. That's what they would do if they overlap lovers sort of ghost out. Hey, that's all I'm going to show you for the moment. I wanted to just give you an idea of what it's like. I need to learn a lot more about outside views. Inside views, I need to learn more about, you know, apart from the flying stuff, how to get around and look at this, the thing least I figured out some of these things. And they, these views I'm showing you are coming from my alpha yolk. They were just built-in mappings from my yoke. But what I did have to do was go into controls is annoying, is you'd think that would just take data off to don't have to keep hearing that, but just looking at the controls just real quickly here before we finish here, looking at the controls is an important part because each of your peripherals you've used before. It might not mapped them. For instance, over here, my alpha flight controls mapped everything beautifully. Alright, and that's what I'm using for even for the camera stuff too, right? And then you can see in here what it will do. But so that was a blessing because I didn't have to do anything. My trim wheel, it didn't really know what to do with it. My my full flight velocity term, we'll this is really just two buttons, but this is the one that it didn't have a clue and I had to set it up manually. Alright. And this one has this is the red bird alloy TH1 has a flap switch and it has a mixture and a throttle. It didn't know anything. So I couldn't fly at all when I first started. And I had to just go in here and it's not hard to do. I mean, you click on it to change it like this. You can clear it like this, cancel it. And what is this decreased flaps. Alright, so, oops, not clear. Clear current input. So now what we can do is just simply this is decrease flaps, so it's flaps up. I just push my Up button and away it goes on my flaps. So that's how easy it can be. You can make it, you can make it see what you have. And then say that. Say that. So once that was set up, I was fine. These two things had to pay attention to. The Xbox controller for the drone camera, I just plugged into USB and it just worked. And you press the insert key for that. So, so these things you have to learn. I mean, I learned a lot from beta and alpha testers who were playing around. And they, they taught a lot for all of us who tuned into that stuff. They taught us a lot back then. All right, that's it. You guys. Let's go let's finish off with a little bit of airport watching. There's 2426. Sure. Let's watch simply. And we'll finish off with It's almost like a fisheye camera. And by that looks at that senior and look at the scenery tilting as we move through them all lined up. This is nice to see. Now. With live traffic, it's nice to C2 with other people who are actually here. You don't think about it when you're in the older simulators, emulators, and don't know how many people are actually here. Pretty cool stuff. Alright. Thanks everybody. We'll see you again.