Learn MikroTik ROUTE with Hands-on LABS from scratch | Maher Haddad | Skillshare

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Learn MikroTik ROUTE with Hands-on LABS from scratch

teacher avatar Maher Haddad, IT Trainer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (1h 32m)
    • 1. Course promo

      1:24
    • 2. 1 Introduction Why we need routing

      0:42
    • 3. 2 Why we need Routing in our network and what is the function of the Router

      10:36
    • 4. 3 Static Route vs Dynamic Route Introduction

      0:42
    • 5. 4 Static Route vs Dynamic Route Explanation

      15:31
    • 6. 5 Configure Static Route and Default Static Route

      19:39
    • 7. 6 Static Floating Route Introduction

      1:13
    • 8. 7 Configure Static Floating Route

      15:15
    • 9. 8 Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) Routing Introduction

      1:13
    • 10. 9 Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) Routing Explanation

      11:27
    • 11. 10 Configure Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) Routing

      14:02
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About This Class

In every network we require to have routing. However, if routing is not configured correctly then we may face a lot of problems. For this reason, I have designed this course to show you how you can configure routing in MikroTik routers to keep your network operational, functional and scalable.

This course is ideal for students & professionals who are interested to learn routing in MikroTik. Part of this course will be dedicated to show how youcan use GNS3 emulator software with CHR image from Mikrotik to be able to design Labs for testing purposes. This solution is the best for those who would like to learn Routing in MikroTik but do not want to invest in buying couple of MikroTik routers to be able to follow this course.

Topics that will be covered in this course are: What is routing, install GNS3 with CHR image, IGP vs EGP, Distance vector vs Link State, Static route, default static route, floating static route for failover, ECMP for load-balancing & RIP Routing Protocol in depth.

This course will contains 30% theoretical part and 70% LABs with real scenarios configuration on MikroTik routers. The labs will be based on step-by-step configuration with a testing part by end of each lab to check if the configuration that we have done is working the way we want. Total number of LABs are 10 in this course, so be ready for a lot of fun with MikroTik Routing.

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Meet Your Teacher

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Maher Haddad

IT Trainer

Teacher

Hello everyone. My name is Maher Haddad with a very long experience in the IT sector. I hold a Bachelor in Computer Communications and a Master in Computer science.

I work as a trainer and I hold the following certificates: CCNA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCDA, CCNP R&S, CCDP, Microsoft MCP, Microsoft MCSA , MikroTik MTCNA & MTCRE, MTCWE, MTCUME, CWTS, GVF Level1, GVF level2, GVF Level3 and much more.....

My experience in IT goes to year 2003 and I have been working all my life for international Internet Service Providers (ISP's) in different countries in the world.

You can visit my Facebook page as well as my Youtube channel where I set a lot of online labs.

I hope you will enjoy watching my courses.

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Transcripts

1. Course promo: Hi there, My name is smart, her dad and I'm going to be the trainer of discourse. Routing is a very important topic that you as a network engineer should know. That's the reason why I have made this course to show you the most essential things that you need to know about rhotic. Now let me give you a brief idea about myself. I work as a trainer and a whole certificates from different vendors. And I do have a lot of online courses, mainly focusing on my colleagues, but also I do courses for other vendors as well. So in this course we are going to speak about rubbing on my critique. So what is routing? Why we need to have routing and our network? Then I'm going to show you the difference between the static route and the default route and also what is the dynamic routes? So we have to understand that and I'm going to start doing labs about the static route and the default route. I'm going to do lab about the floating static route. I'm going to do lab about the ECMP. This course will be on the router OS version 7. So I think that I'm the first one doing a course using the router OS version seven because that's the upcoming version for rapid or S. And it's very important that the lab is based on the router OS version 7. This course is ideal for anyone who really want to understand how would the routing works and why we need to have routing and to have the essential things to make routing configuration on any micro environment. 2. 1 Introduction Why we need routing: Hi there that this might have that here again, we have to start now speaking about the routing. So I'm going to explain to you why we need routing in our network. And then what is the real function of the router? And then I'm going to start them doing labs and I'm going to extend to you about the static route, the static default route, and the floating route. And I'm going to do labs to show you how you can configure those routes and what is demand function of those routes. So this one's not going to do in this section. If you're ready, let's go directly to the first lecture of this section to speak about the why we need to have routing and the network and what is the main function of the router. So see you in the upcoming election. 3. 2 Why we need Routing in our network and what is the function of the Router: Are there that this might have that here again. So in this lecture I have to explain to you why it's important to have routing and our network. And when I say Rabin, that means we need to have a router because thereafter can do the routing. So let's imagine that we have this network. We have two switches connected to each other. And each of the switches, they have over here, a network, the distiller. All right, so now if we think of it like in case we have the computers here with his computer a and computer B. Alright, so in case they want to reach to each other and it's no problem. The China he strophic to this switch over here and this switch opened is MAC address table. It has the port and he has the MAC address. And then he can send it to here. And it comes to be saying do if you want sent from B to a, also this switch open his Mac address table. Yes, the port and the MAC address. And this is decided like this, and it reached to the a. So in this case, we shouldn't really care too much about the routing. All right, because we have only one computer over there. But what if we do have, for example, 500 computers here and here also fired a 100. So let me is that those switches, they need to have 50, a 100 entries inside of them to be able to make the resolving from the port to the MAC address. What if we have, for example, the internet? You have to think of it like all the Internet is now connected via switching layer two because they're on there to watch the MAC address. So then in this case, the switches they should have and their MAC address table. The MAC addresses of all the devices which are on the Internet, which is impossible because the switch is not having the capability to do that. Also, the switch is not having the capability to do that, or any other switches as well. So, and that's one of the thing that you don't have enough resources on the switch to be able to handle all the MAC addresses, to be able to see all the MAC addresses of all the devices in the world. So this is one of the problem that in case you only have switching, then you may encounter let me clear it here so I can just put the information so we can put here one, the MAC address table. So the MAC address table is not enough for that. All right, so that's one problem, problem number 2. Let's imagine again that we have this network. And also we can think that you are connected to the Internet and engage one of the devices over here, make a broadcast. Broadcast can happen, right? So once the broadcast is coming to the switch, then the switch will send it to here because it will be flooded to all its board and come here. And this will receive the broadcast and then it has to flow into all its port which are Connect. So let's imagine that this which have many pulse connected to too many switches and it will go and go and go and go and go to broadcast without stopping. So when we have a broadcast, then in this case, remember, when it is broadcast, then we have the network is down. That's also another problem that in case we only have switches, that we have problem when a broadcast day happened and the broadcast will happen in the network. So let me use all the networks. And if you have the internet all connected to the switching, then all the network would be down. And that's also something we can't have it because in case this happens, then we don't have internet connected anymore. And that's something who would say that we can't really have only switches engaged. We want to have the Internet or it gets we have a big network. So that's another problem that can happen, that which can not stop the broadcasting. Remember that, that the switch can not stop the broadcast. And in case a broadcast will happen, then all the network will be done. So that's another problem that in case we don't have router, because the router, we know that he can illuminate the broadcast, it can stop it, and it will not forward it to the other pores. Then it gets, we don't have router that this will happen. The other problem that may encounter is that let's imagine that this switch can handle a lot of MacArthur's. Let's just imagine that. So then let's forget about the broadcast problem known as imagined that he can have the older MAX others. And this switch is connected to, for example, they are connected to the Internet to all switches, we don't have it others. So every switch has this MAC address table, all those MAC addresses. Let's imagine it's possible that he can handle it, but in fact, it's not possible, but just to imagine that it's possible. So in this case, this which would have all the entries in his Mac address table, and this which also will have all the entries in his MAC address table. So every time any PC want to send something to the Internet, then this which has to make a lookup to check all the MAC addresses, which are millions and billions and billions of devices which are on the internet, has to check every time all those MAC addresses to reach to the destination that this EPC want to send it, then that's also not possible because the in this case, you will have a lot of delay on the Internet because the switch has two. Check every time for all the MAC addresses to reach to the MAC address dead bc over here, want to send it to the destination. So that's another also problem here, which is we can call it, for example, MAC address look up. So it has to look for the others to where it needs to send it. And this takes a lot of time to happen, which is impossible. So those are the three problems that we will have in case we only have switching and our network, which are the MAC address table, which becomes very big and there is no resources for districts to be able to handle all the entries and the MAC address table, the broadcast and the MAC address lookup. So now how can we solve this problem? To solve this problem, we require to have a router in between the switching network. So we have, here are two networks. For example, here is a network and here is an X-ray. Let's imagine that this network has an IP address shear of 192 dot 16, eight dot one dot 0 slash 24. And this one is having an 18 to 16 8 dot to dot 0 slash 24. Alright? So now what's going to happen is that this router over here, because it's directly connected to the switch, to add the switch one that he knows about those two networks. So those two networks, the routers knows them and he put them in something we call it the routing table. Routing table. You have to think of it as like the MAC address table on the switch, but this is based on the IP address on. You can see we have IPC OR and NOT MAC address. And he will say that. All right, why do I say that to the 0 is connected to this port. And he will say what I do. I say that 1, 2, 0 is connected to this port. Alright, so now what's going to happen? That let's imagine we have a 100 devices have here, we have 100 devices. So any traffic comes from here to the router, going two to the 0, then it's not anymore looking to the MAC address table, but it will check to the IP, okay, that is coming from one activity. What's he said that 0100, what is going lower two to the 0. So we check as its routing table. Oh, I know about to the 0. It has to go from this interface, which is this one. Then he will forward it to here, and then the switch will resolve it on the Mac others and he will send it to here to the destination. So this is what the router can do. We do the routing and at its base on layer 3, you can see based on the IP others. So what you would do is just have the IP others and the resulting table. And as you knows about the, the destination and then he can forward it to that. Now, one it is connected like this because this network is directly connected. So you can see that is directly connected to here, and it is directly connected to you. When it is connected, the router can resolve it directly. You can see it, It's connected to him. But some networks that are not connected directly to the router. In this case, we have to do some routing protocol. We have to use whether the static route or weather the dynamic routes. Okay? So something like this. If we have this router connected to another router and this router over here has a switch. And this switch has a network here. So this is router, one router to switch, router to knows about this network because it's connected to him directly. But router one doesn't know about the standard, let's say that this network a, so in this case we are required to do some configuration. So then at the end router, one knows also about this method. So in case he has a network connected to him, and this is a PC here, let's say Hold here is B and he wants to go to a. Then this router, router one will know and has routing table how to reach to the network a. And here we have to do the configuration ourselves, whether we would do with statically or we can do with using some dynamic routing protocol. Alright, so that's said to explain to you why we need to have routing. So we understand now why we need to have routers. Because if we don't have a router, which works on layer three, we cannot have routing. And if we don't have routing, we will fall onto the problems that I have showed you a few minutes ago in this section. And then we have a problem. So we require to have the router, because the router worse on layer three, the switch works on the layer two, which is the MAC address of the router. We can do routing for the pockets. So that is what I wanted to show you in this lecture, why we need to have the router at. I have explained to you if we don't have the router, what problem can happen if you only have switches? So I hope that this lecture was informative for you and the upcoming lecture, I have to start doing the routing protocol, which is the static one, starting first with the static and the default route. So I hope that this lecture was informative for you and I'll see you in the upcoming election. 4. 3 Static Route vs Dynamic Route Introduction: Hi there that this might have that year ago. And this section I have to start speaking about the difference between the static route and the dynamic RAM. So by end of this section, you will understand what is demand difference between those two types of routings. And I'm going to say to you in detail where you can use the static route and where you can use the dynamic route. And after that, I'm going to make a lab to show you where you can configure the static routes. So I'm going to configure the static route and the default static route. And I'm going to show you where you can configure it. So this is what we're going to do in this section. If you're ready, let's go first to the first texture to explain to you the difference between the static route and the dynamic route. Then we'll do the lab. 5. 4 Static Route vs Dynamic Route Explanation: Hi there that this might have that here again. So in this lecture I have to explain to you the difference between the static and the dynamic route. Now, before we start speaking about the difference between the static and dynamic routes, let me just explain to you that on the static route you have two type of routes. So if we were right here, static. So inside the static route, you have the static route and you have the default static route. All right, default static route. So where do you normally see them? Let's say that we have this scenario. I do have here one router, which is connected to another router. And we have here a network, and we have here in Africa, let's say that this router one, router two. And here we have the network a, and here we have the network B. Now router or one in case, for example, any computer which is inside the network, a one to reach to any computer of the network B, then Router one who will not know how to reach to that network. Because Router one knows if we look what route and one knows he knows about this network. He knows about this network because they are directly connected to him. But he doesn't know about this network which is connected to router two. Same for Router 2. If you want to know about the natural world, Cordillera, BCA is connected or the network a is connected, then he doesn't know how to reach it. Why? Because rather to knows about this network and he knows about this network, but he doesn't know about that network. So for this reason, we need to create what we call the static route. A static route is nothing more than you create it manually yourself as a network administrator, you say, you say for Router 1, for example, if you want to go to the network, which is he'll be then send everything to your next hop, which is in this case the router to interface, which is over here. So once you say that the TOR router want to send everything to this next job, then he sent all his packets to router to router to check, oh, he wants to go to the network B. I know botnet with me because it's directly connected to me, then he can send it to him. You understand what I'm saying now? And they're also on the other side, router two, if you want to reach to the network a, then also router to hash to say that if I want to reach to the network a, then I have to send all my traffic to my next hop IP address, which is in this case this interface which is on Router 1. So then he will send it to you than the other one, a, C, O, you want to go through the network a, then he will send it to network a. So by doing that in this case, then we have to do what? To static route one like this way. And the second one is from this way. In this case, the network. So a and B they can reach to each other. So that is what is called the static route. Now, we know how to do the static route. Let's see about the default static routes. So let's say that we have to do some thing on our network, which is not what we have here. So let's take this network out. Alright, so let's imagine that router one is now connected to the Internet. All right, So on the Internet that are different networks, that are the network for Google, there's the network for Facebook, there's the network for Twitter. There are billions of network. Now those people who are sitting inside the network B. And I want to go to the Internet. Now, if they say, okay, someone on the network be right, www.google.com. This comes to router. To router to say, Oh, he wants to go to www.google.com, which has the iPad of, let's say, whatever the IP address of that server is, that he would look at its routing table. He said, Oh, I don't know how about this network, then what he would do, he would just drop the packet. So instead of doing that, what we can do, we can create a default route. So what does it mean default route? That means that if you want to go to anywhere, so anywhere, then sent your packet to your next hop, which is Router 1. So that's what is the default route? The default route, it's just good to know because we can not say to go to Google, go from here to go to Facebook, go to here to go. We cannot put all the networks was shot on the Internet. So what we can do with just make a default route to go to anywhere, go to Router 1. And of course router one should also have a default route as well to go to anywhere, go to that from here too. In this case, he should have the ISP router IP address. So that's what is the default route. Both of them, the static route and the default static route both they have to be done manually so we have to write down. All right, Now the problem with the d, Let's think about this one, the static route. If we have big network, something like we have those routers and they are all connected to each other in a way and everyone has a network on, on it. So then in this case, if we want to make static route, we have to really work a lot. We have to say for disruptor, if you want to go to this network, go from here. If I want to go to this network, go from here, this one we have saved, you want to go through this network, go from here and so forth. So you can see we have to write a lot of static routes, will have to write them one by one because remember static route as money. So do we have a better option than that? Then the answer is yes, we do have. We have the dynamic crowd. So I'm going to explain to you directly right now what is the dynamic graph? So before we dig into the dynamic route, I just want to extend to you that the routing we do have two types of graphs. We have something, we call it the IGP. And we have something which is called the EGP. Igp me internal the Gateway Protocol, UDP is external gateway protocol. What does it mean? I should be nice. The routing protocol that you put them inside your network. So if you have a company, you have a restaurant, you have a hospital, whatever. So all of those routings that you want to create, there are going to be IGP running to a protocol, some routing protocol for IGP, our rib for example, which we are going to explain it in this course. We have OSPF, those are open standard. That means you can find them on all different platforms. You have the ERP, for example, that's for Cisco. So you only see them on a Cisco product. What else we have also the intermediate system. Intermediate system. So that's also an IGP routing protocol. So those are, of course there were the old one which is I GRP, which is also Cisco appropriately, but it's not anymore used. So those are the most IGP raw think that the coal, which means that they can implement them inside your network. And those are all of them. There are dynamic routing protocol. All right, now on EGB, you have only one routing protocol, which is called BGP, EP, nice external gateway protocol. That means, oh, you have to configure it between autonomous system, let's say that between your company and your ISP, or if you have a partnership with another company, do it between your company and the other company. So your company, it's for you and the other company, you don't have access to their network, then you have to create the BGP. Bgp is called the routing protocol of the Internet. So all our internet, all our ISPs are connected to each other via the BGP routing protocols. So it's very important to remember you have IGP and you have EGP on ECP, there is only one routing protocol which is called the B, G, B. Alright, now, let's speak a little bit now about the dynamic routing, which are most of the time now, we have to see the internal one because BGP is an external one. Now of course, BGP also is a dynamic routing for the code, but it's for external. We don't see them on this course. I do have other courses speaking about Teddy BGP on microwave. But for this course, we don't spill. See that I'm going to speak now about the dynamic growth in general, but once we have to implement them inside our network, so let's say again that we have this network. We have one router, 23 For, let's say we have only four routers which are connecting like this to each other. And each of the router has a network. Correct? Now, if I want to say they say that is the router one, router to router three, the disruptor for, if I want to say for Router want to reach to network to router for, then if I want to use the static route, then I have to say, if you want to reach to this network router for, then send all your traffic to this next hop or maybe to that next obvious wanted to do some load balancing. All right, Now Router 2 also is have to say if we want to reach to do unethical farther forward and stand your traffic to here, this one also to here. That's why we are doing only between Router 1 and the outer four if wanted to do from router to router three and so forth. So you see, we are going to do a lot of configuration just to make the static route and it is really, it's not very scalable. All right, so instead of doing that, what we can do, we can choose one dynamic routing protocol. In this course, we are going to speak about trip. So our TA, the example of RIP, which is in dynamic routing protocol, which is internal. So what I can do, I can just enable rip here. I can enable rip on this router. I can enable rip on this router and rip on this router own rib, I advertise the connected network sides that ties this network and this network. For router one, router two, I advertise this and this. For Router three, either touch this and this, and for router, for advertise this and this, and that's it. That's what I need to do. And now magically, because RIP has an algorithm, the routers will teach each other and then Router 1. Then he will know about all the natural showing side has routing table. We will see that he would know about the network to about network three and about network for so he knows how to reach them, he knows what is the next hop. You don't need anymore to write yourself to do. Go to that network, go from here to go to that network, go from here. All you need to do is just enabled rip and that's works. Same happens on router to manage routing table. Here we see the network of the router one, router three, and the network of Rutherford and so forth for the router 34. So by doing that, you have much faster conversions on your network. And so you don't have to make the configuration manually on other others until you were able to for this to work. But not only that, let's say that, for example, router one for a reason, he decided to go to the network of router for for a reason he decided to go from your rules. Speak about rib. What are the criterias that he takes to choose which passed? Because you see you can go from here and he can go also to router for from here, right? But let's say that he has taken this is the best route to reach the router for network. Now, in case, for example, this links go down. That means overhearing cannot reach anymore to the network of four from this route. Then by itself will directly make a failover. And then he was star now to reach to the network forego from that side. While on this static route, that's not possible that it happens to do dynamically the failover. So you need to go to the router, right, the static route again to say that, okay, Now this link is down. Then I want to go from the other side, which takes a lot of resources and a lot of work from us as network engineers. So by doing a dynamic routing protocol, you see our life will become much easier. Now. When shall we use the static route? One, shall we use the dynamic route? I would say if you have two or three routers, the static route is okay. It's manageable that you can use them. But anything over three daughters, I will definitely say don't use static route anymore, go for dynamic routing protocol. Of course, rep is not the best option because you see later when we speak about their discourse about rib, you see that it has some limitation. The best one would be maybe all OSPF. And this is really the best their routing protocol to use it internal and it is also open standards. It works on all vendors, including microti care, others. But for this course I'm going only to speak about their RIP. Ospf would be taken in another course. So this is what I wanted to show you about the difference between the static route and the dynamic graft. Remember on static route we have the static Robin normal one and you have the default route. And I have explained to you the difference between both, but both of them, they should be configured manually. Now, difference between the static and dynamic routes is that on the dynamic route, it just enabled the routing protocol. And then the eight will learn by itself, the router would teach each other about their networks. And then in this case, you don't have to do any configuration anymore. This routers will discover all the routes by themselves and also was there is any link which is going down, then it can do the failover very fast. So if you want to make it as a summary, if I want to write here static, and I write here dynamic, so we just make like a small table. So then to see the difference, right here, static, it's a simple because you just set it to go from ego from there. The dynamic is a bit complex because you need to understand how the routing protocol works to be able to configure it correctly, then the simple does not require knowledge. So it's because it's simple. So no knowledge required. Know IT. Knowledge is required. The anyone who has just his logic, you can use it. What I'm dynamically it required the knowledge. So knowledge is required, so knowledge required. And then over here, there is no failover. There is no failover. Once a link go down, then you have to go yourself and configured wired here. If there is redundancy, then it will search for another link and then there is a failover. All right, That said the main things that you have to think of. And yeah, that's what I wanted to do in a table just to give you a better idea about the difference between the static route and the dynamic route. So I hope that this lecture was informative for you and I'll see you in the upcoming election. 6. 5 Configure Static Route and Default Static Route: Other than that, this man had that here again. In this lecture, I'm going to do the lab. And in this lab is going to be about how to configure the static route and the static default route. So this is our first lab that we do in this course. Now I'm very excited to do this lab because I'm going to use the version seven on router OS. So this version, which is up to the time that I'm recording this video is on beta version. And it's really going to be later the stable version to be used. So we have been in the last, I think, three to four years on Version 6. Now, the microwave are moving to version seven and this course will be based on the version seven. As you can see here, we have a lab of six points. Before I start doing those bonds, I would like to go to the lab scenario to show you what is our scenario. Then I will come back to the pons and start doing them. So this is my scenario. I do have two, micro, the crowd or router one and router to the art, both connected to each other on the interfaces Ethernet 1, as you can see. And we have to put, of course, the IP address over here. We put 12, I say don't want to do one and here 1 to the 2. So I put here 12 because it is router one, router two to make it easy. Now, after that, we have to consider that router one has a land connected to it and Router 2 has also another lab connected to it. Right now. Those interfaces that are going to be the lander on each of the routers are going to be bridged interfaces. So we just say that, okay, that is a virtual interface, but it is like a network which is connected to that router. Now the idea is that at the end, I want that from this network prompt then the jewel that 0 dot something. So in this case we are going to put that one is able to reach to that network. And of course, this network is able to reach to this network. So by default, if we don't put any configuration like static route or the default route that are going to do, then this network would never reach to that network and vice versa. Why? Because let's think of it. Let's say we have a computer here which is ten to the 0, that 0 dot one. Excited that, okay, I want to reach to this computer which is over here, 172 that 1600 No.1. So he will send his requests to his gateway router one and it will say, Hey, Router 1, please. Can you take me to 172 That 1600, the one or two, the network 17 to the 1600 than 0. Then Router 1 would open his routing table. And it will say, oh, I know about 192, I say dot 12, that's 0 because it's connected directly to me. I know about 1000 that 0, that 0 because it's directly connected to me. But yeah, I don't know about this network. So it's not inside my routing table. So what the router one would do, it would just drop his request. Alright? And that means the packet would be completely dropped and it will not be able to reach to that network. So what we need to do is to make a route, to say to router one that if you want to reach to this network, which is 172, that 1600 the 0, then you have to send everything to your gateway, which is the IP on the router to this 11 i 2 and say those one to two. All right, so that's what we have to do, but it is not enough because then router one knows how to send to that network and we send everything to router, to router two as this network connected to him directly. So you know how to send it to here. But now if this computer over, you want to answer back to that computer, let's imagine that the are doing pink. So this one is doing pink. So ping you have pink, echo request and echo reply. So this is the requests coming to you. It has reached to here. But then this computer a want to answer back. Then he will say, all right, I want now to answer two. Then the 0, the 0, that's one. So it will send this request to this router, which is his Gateway. We take another color. So you send this request to this route or he would tell him, Hey, Router 2, please send it to the 00, 00, 00, 00 network. Then the router 2 will open again his routing table. They will see, I know about one semi to the 16, that 0, that 0 because it's directly connected to me. I know about 192, 168 dot 10 to the 0 because it's directly connected to me. But I don't know anything about 10 000 000. So what is going to happen? It's going to be dropped again. So even if this computer is able to reach to hear, but the answer would not come back, then you will not see any communication happening. So what we need to do, then we need to do also a route back from Router 2 to say to reach to 1000 the GIL is 0 networks and everything. Do your next hop, which is this router and this IP on this router, which is one at usaid, that one to one. All right, Then in this case we do have two ways of communication. So this can reach to that. Let me make it a bit bigger. So this can reach to that network, and this one can reach to that network. And then in this case, they're able to send to each other. So that is what the static route right? Now what I'm going to do, I'm going to do one way, static and the other way, the default route, which both They can work without any problem. So that is the whole idea. Offer this lab if you're ready, let's go now to the points and start doing them. But number one, put IP addresses on router one and router two as shown on the graph. So as I said, I don't have any configuration. So I just put here digraph for you to follow. And let me show you, you see the this version. If you see over the surgeon 7.1 and it's all with some bit aversion. That's fine, but it is version seven. All right, so I'm very excited to do this course on the version seven. Now we need to put the IP on those trousers. So this is the C, Yes, it is said the router 1 first, let me just change the name so I will go to system, I will go to identity and let's name it router one. Router one has an IP address on the interface, which is Ethernet, the 1192168, 12, That's one slash 24. It is on Ethernet 01. And it has also an IP on the network which is tended to that 0 dot one. So this one is going to be a bridge interface. So because I'm not connected to two computers to what I can do, I can just create a bridge interface. So let me just take this a little bit like this. All right, So how to create the breach interface is very easy. We go to bridge. From here, I'll just make plus and then I'll say here, okay, now we have this bridge interface. It is just a visual interface, but it's something like a network. Alright? Now I go to the router, one on the IP address again. Then our say here 1000 to 0, that one slash 24. And this IP is going to be on the bridge interface. All right, so that's it. Now, what about this IP, which is on Ethernet five is just an IP to be able to reach to the router. So it's just to allow my computer to connect to the router. So it's not important. All right, so that's it. So we have these IPs year set. Now we go to router, to router two. Let's change also the identity. So system identity, we name it router to router two has an IP address of 192, 168, that one to the two slash 24 which is on it. Then at one you can look to the picture so that this done. Now we create again a bridge. That is the bridge interface we created. And we put on IP on it, which is 17 to that 16, that 0, that one slash 24. And it is which one. So that's it. Now we have set the IP addresses as we have on the scenario. Number one is done. What number to pick from router to router to do you have a reply? Then we have to pick from Router 1 to the destination network and we have to check if we have a reply and why not? All right, let's go first router one, that is Router 1. And we can go to Tools. And we'd go to pink. And let's pick from router one to 192, 168 dot want to D2, which is the ICA. Others we said on Router 2, Ethernet 01, and third, so here we go, we have a pink. So because they are on the same segment, can see each other. What about if I pink to 172, That 1600, that one, which is the destination network, you see there is no route to host, so it's not able to reach it. Why no route the host? Because as I have explained to you before, What's happening is that the pink that the router is trying to do. He's looking at his routing table and is checking that I want to go to 170, that 1600 dot one. You'll see that. I don't have it in my routing table. I don't know how to reach to that that way, then he will drop it. And if you want, I can just show it to you. If you go through router one, we go to IP, and there we go throughout. It doesn't know anything about 172, 16. You see? He knows about the internet, that one, this one, and he knows about this bridge. Now forget about that one because again, that is just for my computer. So he knows about those too. But he doesn't know anything about 172, that 160, that one's or to the 0. So that's why he's dropping the bucket. So that's why he is not able to reach it. Both habitudes down what numbers we configure static graph from Router 1 to the network. On the other two. What does it mean here? Now because he doesn't have it and his routing table, as I said. So what I need to do, I have to go to the router 1.5 to say, okay, add a route and say that this route, if you want to reach to 17 to the 1600, that 0, then send everything to router to interface this one. Why? Because Router 2 knows about 17 to the 1600 that 0 because it's directly connected to him. So he has it in its routing table. So that means once you send that to the router, to router to say, Oh, you want to go to 172, That 1600, the 0, I know about it. I can send you to hear. All right, so let's do that. That is what is the static route. That's what we are going to do now. So if we go to the router one, we have to go now to IP, would go to route. And on here we have to just say plus. So I'm creating a new route. And I have to say, to reach 172, 16, the 0, the 0 slash 24, we have to put the network here, then send everything to your next hop which is 192, 168 dot. So yeah, that's what we need to do and then I'll say Apply. Okay, so now he has a static route. You can see it's a active static, so that's what a ss. So it's a static route, we are saying for Router 1, right? If you receive any packet which is trying to go to 17 field of 16 to 0, the 0 that way, send it to your next talk which is 12, and say dot 12, which is Router 2. Why? Because router to router to router two or his IP route, he knows how to reach to that network inside the routing table because it's directly connected to them. So you can see it's DAC dynamic, active connected. All right, so that's what we have to do and that's how you can configure the static route. Number three is done. Number 4, ping from Router 1 to the network of routers to do you have a reply and y naught. So let's go through router one. And router one, we go to Tools and then we go to pink. Now what I want to do here, I want to say All right, I wanted to come to 17 to the 160, to one That's the other side. And I want this pink to come from the others, which is then the zeros that sealed upon you. Understand what I'm saying here? Let me show you. I'm saying that okay, I want to do to pink to this IP, but I want the pink to come from here because at the end we want this one to reach to this one. All right, so let's think of it. Then. The zoo that Judith one will say to the router, I want to go to 172, That 1600, that 0. Rather one has a route now to router to say, okay, I know how to send it out, send it to router, to router two knows how to reach it, then he will send it to this network. All right, So let me see, can reach it, but we have to see if this guy over here, this network can answer the pink back to here. Or at least try. Let's do the test. So that is now again, that is the 17 to the 1600, that one coming from 1000 0001 Enter. You see request timed out. But why you can reach to that network, right? We have seen that it's possible. Look, if we go to the IP route, he knows how to reach to that network. He was has to send it to router to router to that is sort of two knows how to reach to that network because it's directly connected. So y is not answering. Why? Because if we go back to the picture, because one it is reaching to here, so it's in fact reaching through that level to this network. But the problem is that this one, what do you want to answer back? You say, Okay, now I have to answer back to 1000, that 0 dot one. So we'll send this to resulting router 2. And it was shared to router, to router to send it this packet to tended 000 000 network router to open his crafting table. I don't know anything about them. That 0, that 0, that 0 network, then he would drop the packet. And if you want, let me show you that this router two now, look rather to doesn't know anything inside his routing table about then that's 0, that's 0, that's 0 network. And also about what set to 16 000, 001 I torsade with one through that 0. Nothing about 1000 that year, that year. That means what? We need to do a route back from router to, to reach to the destination network of Router 1. So the communication can happen. You get the idea before is down port number 5. Now, make a default static routes from router to router 1. So what we have done on router one, we just created a static route. Now here they say create a default static routes. So what does it mean here? So let's clear a little bit here to show you where I'm going to do. So we know that the Roth or one can reach to the destination network of Router 2. That's no problem. But now we need this network of the router to, to be able to reach to the destination ethic of Router 1. We can also say to router two to go to then the 0, that 0, that 0 sand everything to here. So we are specifying what is the destination network that's possible. But let's say that we have different networks. We have many, many, many networks over here, or maybe we are connected to the internet. Yeah, so we don't have to write all the networks. So what I'm going to do on Router 2, I'm going to use a default route to say that, to go to anywhere. So which is standard yielded 0, that 0 is one of these anywhere. And so it's part of the anywhere. But to go to anywhere, sent everything to router 1. So that's what I'm going to do. This is what the default route. All right, let's go to router two. Let's write the default static route. So the default static layout, we have to say destination address 0000, 0000 sludge 0. Then the gateway is the next salt which is 192, 168 dot one, looked at a picture that is the next. Okay. So why do you say 000, 000, 000 slash 0? You are saying that is a default static route enter. So you can see This has been created. So now if we think of a, logically, what's going to happen, this guy will make the recite been coming from here. So it comes to router. One router can say, Oh, 17 to just 16, then I have to send it to router. To router two can reach to here. That is working. Now this guy is answering back, you go to router to router two, I want to go to 1000, the 000, 000, 000, 000, then it's anywhere. Then I'm going to send it to the next hop, router one, router one, open his routing table and you say, I know about tendency to 0, that one I just connected directly to me and then he will send it to here. I can if you want look at Router 1, the disruptor one, Luke, he knows about 1000, 0000 network. All right, very good. Now this is done. We have to try to do the dest port number 5 is done, port number 6 pink. Now from Router 1 to the network router to do you have a reply and y? So we should have a reply and why? I have already explained it. But let's try. So we see here, we were trying before to pink to oneself to the 1600, that one from dental Judaea, that one, it was not possible. Now let's repeat that one. Here we go. You see it is working without any issue. And if you want to bank from Router 2, We can thrive from Router 2. And we can go to the tools. And to pink. We have to pick two, then the 0, the 0, that one. Let's do pink gum from the source address, which is 172, that 1600, that one. And here we go. Perfect, So it's working without any issue. So you can see that the default route, you don't specify two which destination address you want to go. We just say it is to go to anywhere. So it's like we call it the gateway or the less resort, whatever you can call it as fine. So it's just to say to go to anywhere, go from this side that it is normally we use it to connect to the Internet. What number six is done at this point, I have showed you how you can configure the static route and how you can configure the static default route. That is a simple lab, but it's very important because by doing this lab then you understand the whole concept of static route and the default static route. So I hope that this lecture was informative for you and I'll see you in the upcoming lecture. 7. 6 Static Floating Route Introduction: Hi there that this might have that here again. So now we know what is the static route and what is the default static route. Now there is another way to also do a static route which is called floating static route. So what does it mean really floating static route? Let's imagine that from one router you can reach to a network, but you can reach it from two bus. So there is two paths to reach to that network. So what you can do, you can select one of those bass or the route to be the primary one. And then you make the second one as a backup one. That means that all the traffic will always go from the first link. But then wants this first link, which is the primary one, goes down. Then the second link, which is the backup on, will be enabled and will be busing or the route would be used from that lake. So that's what is the floating static route. And I'm going to show you that on a lab and they are coming lecture. So I will have to extend for you more clearly about the floating static route. And then I wouldn't do that to show you how you can configure that on the mycotic routers using the router OS version seven. So this is what we are going to do in the upcoming lecture. If you are ready, let's go that actually and start with explanation of what is the flooding static route. And then to do the lab. 8. 7 Configure Static Floating Route: Hi there, that is smart. Have that here again. In this lecture, I have to explain to you what is the floating route is static routing route. And then I'm going to do this lab that you see here in front of you. We have five months to do. But before I start doing those bonds, Let's go to the lab scenario because I have a new lab scenario now to show you what this our scenario to explain to you what is the floating static route? And then we'll come back to the points and start doing the lab. So this is my lab scenario. I have two mycotic routers which are running on the router OS version seven, router one and router to router 1 has a network here, which is one, that one, that one, that one, which I made it as a bridging to face and route it to has this network here. So the idea is like we have seen in the previous lab. We want this network to reach to that network. And of course, that network over here, which is now rather to reach to this network. So we know that we need to do static route. But now we do have two links. That means it can go from either the first way or from the second way. So over here what we can do, we can make the static floating round. What does it mean? This means that I'm Eric, one of the links, Let's say this first one, I make it the primary. So that is the primary. And I make the second one as a backup. So that is primary and that is it backup. That means that all the traffic will be flowing from this network to that network and vice versa from the primary. Now, in case this primary link goes down. So they say that the interface goes down or whatever drought has been stopped. Then in this case, this one will move from backup at this one would be start flowing the traffic. So here we have some type of a failover, and this is what the exactly the floating route is. So I make two static routes from this size, and I make two static routes from this side. I elect one of the static route to be the primary and the second one to be the backup. So the As long as the primary is enabled, then no problem. The traffic would go from the primary. Once the primary goes down, then the backup would be one used to send the traffic. Now in case the primary comes back again, then directly the backup which was flowing, the traffic on it, then it will go to backup again, and then the primary becomes the first one. So this is said the frothing static route. And this is what we are going to do in this lab. I'm going to show you how this works. So now we understand what is the static floating route. Let's go back to the pons and Sandra, Wanda. Number 1, all IP addresses are set as photographs so to win time or just put already the IP addresses. So everything as you can see here, I put the picture, everything is set only IP addresses. That's what we have. Now from Router 2, we have to do to static route to reach one, that one, that one, the 0 network from both gateways. So what does it mean here? From router to see, we can start from router one also, but it's okay. We will start from router to wear to say to go to one, this one, this one both 0, 0 network. They send all their traffic through this next hop and to this next top right, because it can reach it from the sides and also from Router 1, I have to say to reach to 22 to the 20 network, then send all your traffic to this next hop, enter this next hops. And then we have two static routes configured here, and we have two static routes configured here. All right, let's start with rotted through. First. We go to refer to and you can see these are the iPad, this is set here. Now I have to go to IP route. And I have to say here to go to one dot, one dot one dot 0 slash 24, then go to your next hop, which is one I too want to say it's not one to one. So that is apply or make a copy because I need to make another one, will also say to reach the one that one, that one that zeros slash 24 go to one item is eight dot one dot one, which is also the next hop. Now, as you can see once we do that, you see that on the router OS Version 7, you see those two are now enabled and that is what is here, a plus. So if we look on a plus, so what is doing now is so we call it the ECMP. That's something I'm going to speak about it later. So that means it's doing some load balancing Sandy from both traffic. But I don't want to do the load balancing. I want to say that a one-to-one league to be the one primary and the secondary link to be the backup. On the broader as Version 6 1, we have like this configuration, then normally one of those routes will be inactive. While on the router as V7, both there will be active and they will be doing the load balancer. I'm going to change that in a moment. Fault number one is done at point number two is done now point number three, we need to do also to static graphs to reach to the, to the, to the 0 from both gateways. So same. But now we have to do with from rather one will go through router, one, I'll go to IP and Alberto route. And we do have a default route. That's what I got from the Internet, but let me just remove it just to make confusions for you. So I will remove it from the DHCP client. All right, so you can see we don't have any route only the connected one. So I would make to reach to, to the, to the, to the zeros slash 24 goes to 192, 168 dot one to two. That is the IP of the next hop, as you can see on the picture. And then I make Apply copy also to reach to the, to the, to the 0. Then go to one eye to 16. To wander too and then enter. So also what you have seen here, there is an equal cost multipath. Recall it because they have the same distance. I'm going to speak about it in a moment. What is the distance and why we have the ECMP here. All right, so that's what is done. And now if we leave it like this, then the traffic will be sent from most lakes. And I don't want that. I want one of the links to be the primary and the second late to be the backup. So what's the primary go down to backup would be the one which is using port number 3 is down point number 4 on Router 1 make the route via one item, I say those 12, the two and it's the main one and the route which is a V I1I2, I say the 202 as backup Sam would do on Router 2. So what does it mean here? If we go back to the picture, I want that this route, whether from Router 1 or from relative to, to be the primary. And I want this one to be the backup. All right, so that means all the traffic will be going from the first link. And the second one would be sitting either waiting until the first thing is down, then it would be sending the traffic. So how can we do that? What we can play with is this one. Let me show you here the administrative distance. So by default, every protocol has a default administrative distance. So you see the connected has a distance of 0, static has one EBP or SPF and so forth. So by default you can see this static has an administrative distance of one. And if you want, I can show it to you here. Once we go, this is a static, right? So look here, the distance is one because it is static. This one also is static. The administrative distance is one. This one is connected, the distance is 0. This one connected zeros 0000. So what are those administrative distance now? Lower the administrative distance is the more trust that we have or the router have on the route. That means what? In this case, he has those two routes to go to, to the, to the, to the 0. You can go from those two to gateways, right? But the route has an administrative distance of one, both of them of one. That means there are equal, that means that the router will use both routes. So what we can do, we can come over here to this one and we can increase the administrative distance to do or to a number higher than one. So what's going to happen now if I make enter, look? Because this one, It's going to, to the, to the, to the 0, same this one, right? So there are going to the same destination network, but this one has administered distance of one, which is lower than two, then the router will choose that one. You understand the idea. Now, this one will sit idle, so it's not active. It is active now. So that means it's not used. But what do we can also do to make the Fed over to go faster? We can go to the main one, so that is the main route. And I enabled the check gateway pink. So that means that this router will make pink to one eye to what is said that one to the two. Once this link go down. So that means the pink is not getting a reply. Then directly, it will stop the route and then descended outward. Go active. You understand what I'm saying here? So now did is what I need to do from this shelter. Now we go to the second router also. So on the outer tool, I have also to say that the route which is going from 0 to 1 dot 1, I will increase the administrative distance to two. And over here, I will enable the ping, you get enabled the pink if you want also on this one, That's no problem. So if you want to enable the thing here, there's no problem on the check gateway. But it's not necessarily why. Because let me explain to you why. So if we go back to the picture, now, what's happening is that all the traffic is going from this thing right? From here. And this author is doing pink to router two on this interface. And if he doesn't hear for up to 10 seconds, then in this case, the route would go down and Dorothy than one, the route go down. This one will go up. Correct? So now in case, for example, the primary comes back again. The primary has administrative distance of one and this one has administrative distance of two. Then directly they would compare the administrative distance there. We'll see that one is better than do. Then this would be again, the primary. Alright, so this why it's very important that you enabled pink on the second link. All right, so that's all you need to do now. Now we need to do the experimental, see if it's going to work on. Number four is done. Point number 5, open-end extended pink from Router 1 two to the, to the, to the to and shut down the interface. Ethernet 01 off. You have to put here off Router 2 because it's doing pink on the router 2. Is the pink still working? All right, so now what I'm going to do, I have to go to router 1. You can see now the route to go to, to the, to the, to the, to this from one atom and say dot 12 the two, this is the primary. So I'm going to go to Tools and I'm going to go to pink. And I have to send me to do the to the to the to and let the pink gum from one that one, that one, that one. All right, so I will this a little bit like this side. Then I'm going to open here the IP routes. All right, so this opened. Okay, so now we have the pink ongoing and you can see it's able to reach to the other network. Now, let's go to the router 2. Let's move it like this. And then I will go to the interface and our disable it and at one, alright, it is on the router to toe Internet one loop at a picture as the main link. Our disable it. Look what's going to happen. So we have requests timeout. And in a moment we should see directly that different orbits. So is this is still inactive. But now ripping it takes up to ten seconds to make the failover. So we wait a little bit. And here we go. You can see that now the pink, let me move this. So you can see the pink is working again. And look here. If we go to IP route again, because now it's not clear that it's close it and we go back to IP route. Look, this one is now the act Amman, which is going from 21 dot two, which was the back up. You see, that's how it works. So we had all the up to 10 seconds, the timeout. Undoubtedly it made the failover so perfect. The floating route is working perfectly. Now what I want to do, I want to bring back the Ethernet 01 on the router 2 on. So I have to bring it back and I want to see if this would go back the primary, go back to primary because it has an aggressor distance of 1, y this one has an administrative distance of two. So let's go to router two again. And I will go to Interface, and I will enable Ethernet 01. So let's have a look what's going to happen now. So here we go. You can see that this goes back on. And if you want to disclose everything and open again ip route, you see this goes on again and this one goes inactive. Why? Because this one has an administrative distance of one. This one has an administrative distance of two. So that's why this is working and you can see depicted in 3D stop. So that's why I told you you don't really need to put here in pink. Check gateway ping. So you can just put it on that one. And that works perfectly. So if you see that it's not happening right away, close only the route and then open it again. That's what I have seen. So and then you can see that the change will happen right away. What number 5 is done? And there were this point I have explained to you about the the static floating route. So you see that you can have a backup route, just want that all your traffic to go from one level on one route. So you can just change the administrative distance, make it lower than the second one. And then in case the primary one go down, then the second one will be doing the backup and we'll be sending the traffic for you. So that is why I wanted to show you in this lecture. I hope it was informative for you and I'll see you in an upcoming lecture. 9. 8 Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) Routing Introduction: Hi there. This might have that here again. In this section I have to speak about another type of rhotic we have, which is ECMP, cost multi-pass show much. You have, for example, two routes that have the same cost. And in this case, what you can do on the Microsoft Graph or you can create what's called the ECMP. Let me, for example, if you are connected to two ISPs and those two ISPs are providing you internet. So what you can do you create ECMP, then you can use both ISPs to go to the Internet, then you have more bandwidth for your lab. But of course, the CMP is not the best solution. There are many other load balancing types that you can use, a microwave and the best one is the PCC. And I have a course speaking about all those different load balancing. If you want, I will leave for you a link. So in case you want to go to that course also as possible. Now, the first lecture is going to be about explaining what is the ECMP and what are the good things on the HMP and the drawbacks. And then after that I'm going to do the lab to show you how you can do the ECMP configuration on the microsecond. So this is what we're going to do in this section, if you are already, has go to the first lecture to explain to you about ECMP. Then after that, we will work on the lab. 10. 9 Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) Routing Explanation: I'd add that this might have that here again. So in this lecture I have to configure the ECMP, which is the equal cost multipath. I'm going to configure it to show you how the load balancing would happen. But before I do the configuration, I just want to give you explanation about ECMP. So we have to understand how each MP work and things. So at the end we are able to configure it correctly. All right, so as you can see here, we have a lab of three points. Before I start doing those points that go first to the lab scenario to show you what is the lab scenario now and then give you explanation about DCMP than our comeback to the pons. And start with that, I'm connecting from my router to two ISPs. Each ISP is giving me one megabit full-duplex. So one megabit by one megabit on this one and this 11 megabit by 10 megabytes. So firstNode that ECMP use per connection load balancing. So per connection because you have some load balancing works on a per packet load balancing and some works on per connection. And here I have from micro Tech website, I have this selling that are also going to live for you, the link so you can check it. You can see that these are the different type of load balancing that we can do. That is DCMP, that is PCC, that is NADH. So those are the layers three. Load balancing, bonding is layer two and I wanted to cover that one because that sound layer two and OSPF and BGP, those are actually the routing protocol that can do load balancing. Ospf have already a core speaking about it, and I speak about load balancing on OSPF, so I'm not going to cover it and BGP because not everyone is using BP and his enterprise networks I'm not going to cover. So now we'll just set on ECMP. You see ECMP it is per connection. So you see, yes, it's per connection, load balancing and not per packet. Just to remember that this is per connection. So that means what? That means. It makes the load balancing on the connections and not on the pocket, but you have to know that every connection has pockets inside of it. So what is the connection is just like if you go, for example, to Yahoo.com, then you open a connection to Yahoo.com and all the packets of this connection will go through that one. Alright, so now let's go back here. We know that it is first, it is a bird connection load balancing. It use round robin. So what does it mean round-robin? That means it will send one from one ISP at the second from another ISP. So once we enabled ECMP, so we have ECMP that in this case router one was sent for example, like this, the traffic will be loaded like this. So one from here, one from here, one from here, one from here. Or what is the routes open? So it's like round-robin going from 111 link to another link then from one length and another length. All right, so that's what is load balancing. So let's go back to the explanation. And it says here that it used round-robin per source and the destination address combination to distribute traffic to multiple network link. All right, so it used the combination of source and others. Now how this works, let me just explain to you how the process works. So first, once you add the two routes on the configuration of our go-to see how then the reachable next hops that miss. The next hop offer IS p1 and p2 would be copied to the FIB table, right? So this is a table on the microchip router. And over there, the decision of the forwarding will happen. So all what is the FIB table? You have fib and you have ribs. So FitBits, the forwarding table, that means that it will put the next hop of the router, which is SP1 and the ISP to it. We put it on the front. And then based on that, it can take the decision how the route has to go. The fifth, make the decision for the route, how they have to go. All right, so that's something you have to remember. Now, if we look at this paragraph, that's really very important one because the result of the forwarding decision are cached. That means that the decision is inside the FIB now. So it's a cached packets with the same source address, destination address, source interface, routing mark and TOS are sent to the same gateway. So again, if we have, that is the ISP one, that is ISP to you have here the router, and you have here the links. All right, and that you have here, for example, your laptop or your computer or whatever. So in case it goes from this way to the ISP one. Alright? Now, all the packets that have the same source address, destination address, source interface, routing, and toes. There are sent via same gateway. So as long as all of those are the same, the packets will keep going from this side. All right, so that's something you have to know. So this means that each ERP route does not perform pure per connection load balancing. So it's not really pure because in case it meets all of those that we have seen. Yeah, so it will skip going from the same connection, from the same gateway. So it's not really a pure per connection load balancing, but it can be used to load balance condition if at least one of the previously mentioned parameters is different than the previous one. So what does it mean that miss any of those? Like source address, destination address, source interface, routing mark at those. If there are not the same, then it will go from the other side. And it will again do the route Roman like this, like this, like this, like this. So that's how it can make for you the load balancing. Then you have, for example, like 50, 50% percent of the traffic going from this side and from that side. All right, so that's very important to remember. Now, another thing to mention, sometimes a lot of people ask like, OK, I have this scenario, right? So if we go back to here, but instead of having on this ISP, I have one make one meg. I have, for example, two megabit per seconds. And I have two megabits per second. And I want to use the two megabit, two megabit and that one megabit to one megabit. Because yeah, if we just do with one megabit, one megabit, then it's going to use half of this one. So what you always have to think of as like you do 2 divided by one. That gives you 2. That means what that means, you have to create two gateways from here. So we make to get away from here and one get away from her. And that's something I'm going to show it to you wanted to do the lab. So that means you create two gateways from this side and one gateway from the side. Then in this case, you are able to use all the traffic from the ISP one and all the traffic from the ISP to all the bandwidth. Now if we go to the ECMP problems, what are the problems that we may encounter on ECMP? First of all, DNS issue. So it's very important that you don't use because we are using two ISPs now. So don't use on your land, for example, the DNS that one of the ISP giving has given to you use third party because look what they say, Hey, DNS requests can be denied from one ISP to another. So if we have two ISPs, maybe you get a DNS from one ISP. It may happen that you have the second highest bid doesn't accept the DNS requests coming from the first ISP, then your intranet will not work. So that's a very important suggest is to use third party data as something like, for example, Google DNS, a dot, dot, dot a. You can put it also on your mycotic router as well, or one dot, one dot one dot one. Those are public DNS. You can use them. So this the first thing you have to keep in mind to use third party DNS. Now the second problem, which is a major problem on ECMP, which is a routing table flush. So what does it mean routing table flush? Anytime you do changes on the routing, then the routing table will flush. Flush means it will remove everything and then come back. And this goes that for example, if some connection I go from my SP1 and it will start going from my sp2. This makes problem for your connection. So here, there is the explanation. Every time when something's triggered, flash the routing table and ECMP cash is flushed. Connection will be assigned to gateways once again. So again, the connection will be assigned to gateways and may or may not be the same gateway. So it may or may not be on the same gateway in case to get us you have 50 percent of chance that are going to be on the same day because you have two links. So it says Perfect percent that it's going to be maybe the same gateway, but as much as you have more links, then this percentage will go lower. If you have a fully routed networks, that means everything's working fine. Client, others can be routed via all available gateway. Change of Gateway will have no ill effect. Effect. But in case you use masquerade, which is most of the case we use masquerade, then change of the gateway will result. Change of packet, source and connection would be dropped. So once the a gateway will be challenged, and because we have the table had been flushed, then the connections that we have open will be dropped and done a lot of applications, what for example, like voice calls. If the connection is dropped, then you may lose the call or some other applications like maybe to go to the banking system or banking website that's also make goes for your problems. So here they say for you the routing table flash for two things. First of all, if you make changes on the routing, something like changing the dynamic route or the manual changes. So this makes the routing table to flash. And by default every 10 minutes the routing table is flush for security reasons, that's by default. So even if you don't do any changes, the routing table will have to flush every 10 meters at this to avoid possible denial of service attack. So even if you don't do any change on the routing table, connections may jump to other gateway every 10 minutes at yeah, that's also a major problem on ECMP because we have, for example, some connection open and going from i SP1, then this is working fine. Then the routing table flash, and then this will start going from ISP to. So that may do problems for what we're using. For example, like VOIP or as, as an example. Or it may make problem also for the destination because something like a banking system, he doesn't accept to have two connections coming from two different ISPs. You are not able to do, continue your work on the banking system so that it is really a major problem on ECMP. But in case you think that you are going to use only these load balancing for people want to browsing and chatting and something like this. So it really doesn't make too much of effect right. Now. That is the whole idea of ECMP. I have explained to you what is ECMP and I have explained to you the problems. And so we know now. And now let's go to the lab to start doing it. And then we'll see how we can do the configuration of ECMP. 11. 10 Configure Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) Routing: I've added this man had that here again. So now we understand what is the ECMP and what is the good things and the bad things that ECMP can give us. So start to start doing the lab. And as you can see, we have a level of only she points before I start doing those bonds, just go as usual to the lab scenario to explain to you what is our scenario? Then I will come back to the pons and stat on them. So that is my lab scenario. I do have here one mycotic rather, which is also on the rubberized version of a sudden. And this mycotic router is connected to two ISPs, I SP1 and ISP two. That means we do have here two default route, one from here and one from here. So the idea is that, as we said on ECMP to do the load balancing. So what I want now is just, I want you to use both links to go to the Internet because I'm anyway connected to two ISPs, so wide do not use both services. From this ISP. I have a bandwidth of one megabit by one megabit. From that ISP also have a bandwidth of one megabit by one megabit per second. That means if I use both of them, I can provide to my users who are inside the land more traffic. Again, you are doing load balancing. You are not adding bandwidth. So even though that the result at the end, you will see that you'll get up to two megabits, but you are not really adding the bandwidth to each other. You are just doing load balance sheet. That means one traffic from here, one from here, one from here, one from here, one from it. That's what we said, the round-robin. Alright, so now what I want to do is to go to my router and then I want to connect it to the two ISPs to receive the DHCP client. So this dot will be connected to the Internet. And I want to share the Internet to this computer, which is my computer. And then from my computer I want to run a test to see if by the end I will be able to get something like two megabit on Download and two megabits on the upload. All right, so this is what we are going to do in this lab. Let's go now back to the pons and started with them. Number one enabled the HTTP client on Ethernet 01 and Ethernet 2 and configure NAD and the HTTP server. So what is the idea? Let me first put the picture. So as you can see on the picture, that's also go to the picture right away. So I'm connected to ISP one on Ethernet 01, and I'm connected to an SP2 on internet too. So I just want to enable the DHCP client here and also the DHCP client. So it receive an IP address, the subnet mask, the gateway, then this router is connected to the Internet. Then after that, I want to share the Internet from this router. So that means I have to configure DHCP server in this case, to provide IP automatically to here. And I have to configure the NAT. We already have the routes received from the ISPs, so we don't have to create the route. And of course I need to put an IP first on the interface it in S3 where my computer is connected. Actually my computer is connect to internet for and not to Ethernet three. All right, so that's what I need to do. Let's do that. First we go to the router. So that is semi rotary can see it's on the version 7.16. So let's enable the DHCP client. Now I have to go to IP. The HTTP client will go here and I say Ethernet 01 and I will say now received the default route, Let's receive it to able to go to the Internet. So the Internet one, there we go, we receive an IP, also written at two. And we shall receive an IP. So you can see, I have received an IP from ISB 11 at you and say, don't want to hear one or two and say to one. So those are two different types. Now if you want just to make it tests to see if this author is connected to the Internet. I can go to Tools. And then from here I have to go to, I think we can think of a that is connected to the Internet. And if you want, you can just say here, paying from Ethernet 01 is working. Ping from Ethernet 2, which is from the second ISP. It is working. So now the router is connected to the Internet. We need now to share the Internet to my computer. All right, so first I have to go to IP others. And I see that I already have put an IP on the interface ethernet for 17 to 20 edge, you know that one. So that is just a private IP others. So I will keep it. Now. I want to go to the IP DHCP server because I want this data to provide IP others automatically to my computer. So we got disconnected. Let's reconnect again. All right, So now actually this is not the right router, registry, router that I want to reconnect to it. Very good. So now we go to IP, DHCP server. And I will make, there should be set up on internet for that is where my computer is connected. So it's not as on the picture. So next, this is the other space, correct? This is the gateway which is Internet for iPad is correct. This is the range of IPs which kinda be leasing. Let's put here only those two DNS servers, and that's it. So that is done from that side. Now the last thing is to make the NADH to allow the computer to go to the Internet. So I will just make it simple action masquerade without mentioning which interface. So because it can use it in at 10 internet too if you want, we can also do maybe it's good practice. So we can say Ethernet 01. That is one source net for Ethernet 01. And then I'll make a copy internet to with, of course, masquerade. So now we do have to masquerade rules going out from Ethernet 01 and from Ethernet two. So let's check now if my computer is connected to the Internet. So open the command prompt. They would go first, let's check if we received an IP. Yes. And I think to pay the data table eight, yes, My computer is connected to the Internet. So now we have this is working. Now we need to check the routes and now we need to check if we will have the load balancing. And then my computer can get two megabytes instead of one megabit per second. Number 1 is done. What number to check the routes that you have received, remove them and make static one. So let's go to the router again. If we go to IP routes, we can see indeed that we have received the two routes. One from the router, which is 12, that one, which is the ISP one, and this is from my SP2, so to default routes. But look, you have here the plus, plus means it's at this time is using the ECMP. So in the older version when we were working on the version 6 something. So before if you have two routes which have, both of them have the same distance and there are going to descend destination. So in this case, one of them will be active, the other one would be inactive. So what you needed to do, you had to add the route said by yourself manually. So if you want, I do have here a router. Let me show you that. So that is my home router. So this is on Version 6, you see 6.48. So if you go to IP route, I don't have here ECMP, I don't have two routes, but just to show you. So if you make your plus and you said to go to anywhere, go to 192, 168 dot 10 to the 1. Right? Now if you want to do ECMP in this case, you had to click here and then you had to put 100 to one, say those 21 dot one. So you had to create two gateways in order to have this ECMP to be working. That is on the DJ version six while on Version seven. So that is, I don't need it anymore. On Version 7, you don't have this option to click. So directly there we'll take the ones that have the same distance and they have the same destination network that would do the ECMP. All right? Now what I want to do, I don't like things to be dynamics, so I want to make them static. So I will create the same routes, but I will make them static first, we need to take out the dynamic. So I'll go to the SCP client. And I would say here down, give me a default route. So that is for the first one, and it is for the second one. So once I do that, you can see that the routes have been taken out. Now all create them manually. So say plus to go to anywhere though to 18 to 16 a quantile, the font, you can see you cannot add another gateway like we used to have the version six on the router OS. And I will say check gateway with a pink. So this one, you see there is no plus it's not ECMP because that's the only route we have. But I'll create another one to go to everywhere. One act to 16, 8 to 12 point actually. And then check gateway pink. And here we go. So now we do have those two routes. Then they are doing now load balancing using ECMP. So now we need just to make the test to see if it's gonna work and if we are going to get the two megabits, because on the router that is behind them. So the ISP routers, they have limited me for one megabit, one megabit from each of those links, port number two is down what number three? Do a test and check if you are getting two megabit on both upload and download. So what I want to do now is to go to the interface first. Let's keep the interface link to it and that one and Ethernet 2 on the TX and RX. So let me just bring them back to where they were. Okay, So that is the x and the direct TX means download. So it is from the router is sending to your computer, so ended up coming to you computer as download our x. It is, in our case, it is the upload, that means it is what the router is receiving from our computers. All right, so let's go to the speed test. So open the browser here. So we go too fast. To come. And here we go. So the test has started. And let's go to the interfaces. So let's move it a little bit down like this somehow to see. So you can see this is the, now the RX is giving me two megabit per second. Now it's going to do the dx. So if you want, you can just click on the Show More. And of course it's now show me him or more than normal because it's still in the running the test, the test is still running. So here we go. So it's now dropping. But if you look to the interfaces here, you see that somehow it is now passing the traffic on the Internet tool and not on Ethernet 1. So that's why we only have one megabit. And that's again the problem with ECMP because it may has seen that all the things are the same. So it has taken one route and not the other. So let's also look to the settings here to see. So I will open a connection, let's put a two. And I will say that muxes to also save. So I want to use tools, connections. And let's try to do the test again to see if there would be any difference. So here we go. Now it's showing up to megabit. Shall see also now the second side. Here we go, you see this is, this is there were showing, yeah, you're there showing traffic to megabit. So if we say you show more, Here we go, two megabit. So you can see that is each MP. So we are now using both routes. And as you can see, if we go back to here, to the router, and if we go to IP routes, you can see that both of them, they have now a S plus, so they are doing ECMP now. In case we have, for example, let's make an example like this. Isp is giving me instead of one make one man is giving me two meg to Mac. And this one is giving me one mic. One mic. Well, so remember how we can do that. So we do need to divide it by one. That's give me two. That means I have to create two routes from here and one route from here. All right, so what we can do in our case, we don't have this balance, we have one might want to make, but just to show you. So then you go to the ISP one that is the route for SP1 and you make a copy. So I'll make coffee and then I will say here, okay, So what we have done now, I have graded two from I-SPY two routes, and then I have created one. So that means over here we have one packet going from here, one packet long for me than one. But it from here, you understand the idea and so that's how you can do it. Whatever Shri is Dan had with his father had showed you everything about ECMP. So I have explained for you first and the previous lecture about ECMP. And in this lecture I have made the lab. I have showed you how you can configure ECMP. So I hope that this lecture was informative for you and I'll see you in the upcoming election.