Learn LaTex - The Complete LaTex Course | Dr. Gary White | Skillshare

Learn LaTex - The Complete LaTex Course

Dr. Gary White, Senior Data Scientist

Learn LaTex - The Complete LaTex Course

Dr. Gary White, Senior Data Scientist

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29 Lessons (3h 20m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:27
    • 2. Installing

      5:52
    • 3. Creating Our First Latex Document

      4:09
    • 4. Basic Document Spacing

      6:54
    • 5. Basic Typesetting

      12:02
    • 6. Figure Environment

      7:40
    • 7. Subfigures

      6:03
    • 8. Tikz

      23:27
    • 9. Tables

      14:02
    • 10. Basic Document Spacing

      6:13
    • 11. Fractions

      2:54
    • 12. Align

      2:22
    • 13. Integration and Differentiation

      2:26
    • 14. Braces

      2:07
    • 15. Conditionals

      2:03
    • 16. Algorithms

      11:18
    • 17. Bibliography

      6:44
    • 18. Academic Templates

      13:30
    • 19. Report Templates

      10:01
    • 20. CV Templates

      15:57
    • 21. Poster Templates

      5:31
    • 22. Beamer Introduction

      4:45
    • 23. Beamer Blocks

      9:02
    • 24. Beamer Columns

      7:17
    • 25. Beamer Proof

      2:17
    • 26. Beamer Alert List

      4:13
    • 27. Beamer Hyperlinks

      3:14
    • 28. Beamer Onslide

      2:46
    • 29. Beamer Printing

      2:29
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About This Class

This course assumes no previous LaTex knowledge and builds your LaTex skills from the ground up. The course is divided up into a number of different sections that go from including basic lists and figures to using more advanced Thesis and Presentation templates. We will even create our own graphics in LaTex using the Tikz package.

What will you learn?

  • How to create a document in LaTex

  • Document spacing and formatting principles

  • How to cite other papers and build a bibliography

  • How to include figures, plots and tables in a LaTex document

  • How to include and reference mathematics and algorithms in LaTex

  • How to use Tikz to draw figures in LaTex

  • How to create presentations in LaTex using Beamer

  • Formatting tips to make your documents stand out

About the instructor:

  • Postdoctoral researcher and lecturer

  • 8+ years experience using LaTex

  • PhD in Computer Science focusing on Machine Learning

Who this course is for:

  • Academics, students and researchers interested in learning about Latex or developing their Latex skills.
  • Anyone looking to create professional looking documents, presentations and posters
  • Anyone who had heard about LaTex but has avoided learning about it
  • Anyone who want to create beautiful figures in Latex using TikZ

Meet Your Teacher

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Dr. Gary White

Senior Data Scientist

Teacher

Hello, I am a senior data scientist from Ireland. I recently finished my PhD in Computer Science and I am hoping to teach classes that I would have liked to have had while I was a student. My research and teaching experience is in machine learning and data science. I also have experience working with distributed systems and now work in industry for a large tech company.

See full profile

Related Skills

Technology Latex Data Science

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: So this is the complete latex course. It's a course designed to take students from knowing absolutely nothing about Latex, to being able to create professional-looking typeset documents using high-tech. So my name is Gary. I'm a postdoctoral researcher in computer science, having finished my PhD last year. And I've been working with latex for eight or nine years. So I have a good range of experience. So in the beginning of the course, where you're going to get started in the basically takes environments. So using the subsections, the different range of symbols and accents and emphasis that you can use in the latex document. And also some of the options you have for font sizes on the different lists environments. So whether you want a bulleted list or an enumerated list. We then go through including other elements into our diagrams, such as this table of contents and the figures. So using one column figures, double galium figures, and also some figures on creating our own individual figures using the tics library. So using the Takes library, we can create these really nice tree diagrams, circuit diagrams, and we can also include different tables as well. In the later part of the course, I'll give you access to some really nice templates, such as this thesis templates which you can use if you're submitting era masters or PhD thesis. It has a table of contents that has automatically updated, as well as the list of figures and tables on the different chapter titles as well. And at the very end, it also includes am, an appendix, and a bibliography gets updated. So you can also use Latex to create presentations. So I'll give you a nice Beamer template and we'll go through how you use Latex to creation, um, presentation slides. And then you'll be able to print these out to students as well. So one of the final things will go through is using latex to create CV. So latex is a good option for formatting your CV and it looks really professional and really clean. And so this course is a total, complete guide to light x. We take you through each of the individual elements such as lists and the emphasis that you can use. And then in later sections we will give you access to some really nice templates. So if you want a complete guide to Latex, you should definitely consider taking this course. 2. Installing: Okay, so we're first going to get started with installing latex. And there's a really good site called the latex project that I'll leave a link to in the resources section of this lecture. And we can use this to install all of the latest texts distributions. So this is what we use to compile our latest code. So do some slightly different distributions for Mac, Windows and Linux, but essentially all do this exact same thing. So once you have late I code that runs on Windows, it will run on Mac. And then next in the exact same way. So it's just, the different distributions are just for basically installing it on different operating systems. So if you have a Mac, you can click on the Mac OS distribution. And this brings you to Mac tech. So you can click on download mac tech, and then this brings you to the package environment. So you can download this MAC tech dot package. It's approximately four gigabytes. So it is quite large. So if you have maybe slightly slower internet connection, it might take you all and just leave it as long as it takes and it will install. So if you're using a Windows operating system, you can check out the mic TEC package. And once you go to the mic tech site, you can go to the download section. And in the download section, there is an installer here that you can download, and it's an dot EXE file. So it's really straightforward to just download it and install. They also have a mock distribution in mid-deck. But I find the previous Mac tick distribution is a bit more easier to install in Mac OS. So that's why we use dash. If you're on Linux, I assume you probably already know how to install may take, but you can get any additional information you need here using the text Live distribution. So it provides the necessary commands that you need to install it from whatever terminal you're using. So once we have her text distribution installed, we can install holder writing environment that we'll use to actually write the latex documents. So the one environment that I favor her that I been using for the last five or six years is TEX studio. So it basically just an integrated right, writing environment for creating latex documents. So it provides a lot of debugging information. There's also a lot of inbuilt commands, so you can automatically insert functions and different algorithmic environments, which we'll see later on in the course. So there's a lot of really good inbuilt options in this environment. So you can download it now. And it will automatically detect your operating system. So it's detected that on Mac and has an Alexei OSX.dmg file. So just package other console. If it doesn't automatically detect to your operating system, you can go to the Downloads file. And here you can see the Windows environment and you can download the installer and that they have here. And they've are a huge range of different latex or different Linux environments that you can download from. And if we scroll down further, it also has the Mac OS ten orders. So once you have that installed, you're all ready to get going with writing your latex documents. So in the next lecture, you will then know the latex files that we're going to be using in the course. So just one other thing to mention is that you can write latex documents online using services like over leaf. So these are really good if you're collaborating on projects, The allows you to share a link with other people, sort of like a Google Doc that you can use to collaborate on latex documents. But they can be a bit slow if you're so if you're just working on your thesis and you're the only person who's logging? Yes. They can be a bit slow compiling. So I usually prefer to have my own local version of latex and the writing environment. But if I'm collaborating on a paper or something than working on over leaf is a really good option. So in the next lecture, you're going to download these files. So for each of the sections of the course, I have a begin and an end folder. So to begin is where you start. So you see here in the first getting started with latex, we start with a totally blank document and then we build it up into this PDF. Nasa has all of the table of contents and that title sections and the different subsections I would go into. So for each of the sections, start with the begin and then work your way adding more content to this. And then if you ever get stuck, you can have a look at the end document to see what changes I've made here to create the final document. And so I also include a number of different templates, em in later sections. So we have templates for writing academic documents and also some really nice templates for and if you're writing your thesis or if you want to create your own CV. So I included tree different CV options. So some of them are quite minimalistic and there's some more modern ones. So, and this is a really nice modern one with a lot of different color. And then we also have some poster templates. So that's just a quick overview of the files. And you'll be able to download those in the next lecture. 3. Creating Our First Latex Document: So once you open the document Getting Started with latex, in that extra video, you should see something like this. So it's a totally blank document at the moment. And we're going to try and build our latex knowledge from the ground up. So the first command that we're going to learn bash is the Document class command. So the Document class commands and you can specify some key values in the square brackets. So this would be things like the font size, the size of the paper that we're using, and whether we want to have two columns, one column. So in this case, we're just going to specify that we are going to be using A4 paper. And then the class is the specific latex document you want to create. So this could be an article or report, or M, a slideshow presentation. So for these beginning tutorials, we're going to work in an article class. So once we know which type of document we want to create, we can begin a document environment. So this is something that latex expects to have an every text document. So you can use slash and then begin. And if you're using text Studio, you can see that it's providing some suggested keywords. Um, so you can use the environment name and then you get Enter. And once you hit document, you can see that creates the begin and end document. And this is because for every begin environment you alternate to end it. So TEX studio there's auto completes that force. And once we have the begin environment and begin document and an end document, we can also begin the first environment that we need for an article on this is an abstract. And now once we have our abstract environment, we can start populating it with some content. So in this case, this is a simple abstract. And now we are able to compile in few latex document. So we can use M, this green button here to compile or hit the keyboard shortcut F6. Then we can use this button to view or document or use the keyboard shortcut F7. And we can see here is her first hello world sort of latex article. You can use this green button to compile and view at the same time, or use the keyboard shortcut F5, which I'll be using for the remainder of the tutorials. And so this is a very simple document where we have the title of abstract and then just some simple text saying, you know, this is a simple abstract. So to show you some of the commands you can specify in the document class, I'm going to use a package which just generate some dummy text. So I'll explain more about this later in the further tutorials abet the different packages you can use. But this is just to show the options of the document class. So I can just generate some Lorem Ipsum text, which is just some dummy text. And you can see here that it specifies a couple of paragraphs of dummy text that we can use to, to view the options and document class. So if you want to have a document that is two column, we can just specify that in the document class options it compile. And now we have an article which is to gallium and fits onto one page. If you want to update the size of the font. So it's 10 font, but the moment I think is the default, and you want to specify it to be 12 font, an update that there. And then we see that the document goes over two pages instead of the single page. Then it was. So you can change back. And we see that the font size has been reduced again. 4. Basic Document Spacing: Okay, so in this video we're going to look a bit more at the document spacing in my deck. So I'm just gonna go back to the default settings for the article template, which is the one column. And now we're going to add a title to her document. And so we're going to make a title which in this case is introduction to latex. And we can use in in-built command which prints the latex Logo. Are also going to specify who is the author of the document. You can specify multiple names. In this case, I'm just gonna put Gary, which is my name. And in the document just before our abstract, we're gonna make use of the Make title command. So that's backslash make title. Then we hit F5 to compile. And you can see we've got this nice introduction to latex and specifying the author and the date that it was created. So just to show some of the other m spacing options that you can do, I'm going to reintroduce the abstract, which is one paragraph text, and show you some of the different levels of sections that we can now. So the highest level section that you can have is just slash section, then you would specify your title. So in most documents the first section would be an introduction. And then if we compile dash, we see we have the number one would introduction. If you want to specify to have the section with numbers, you can use the star in after section just before introduction. If we compile that, you see the number gets removed. So just getting rid of this term, we can see that the number comes back. And then we can have different levels below this, a subsection. So that can be and learn them. And we can just populous, populate this with some lip, some text. There's another level of subsection that can go underneath as well, which is sub subsection. And this can be ipsum. So recompile this. We can see that the lorem ipsum after the first subsection, and then we have a sub sub section after this with m epsilon. So I just put one paragraph there of the dummy text. And we can see that we get the at three levels of hierarchy to ipsum. There is another level that you can go after this, which is called a paragraph. And these are usually for some small point to, to want to make her short point. And you can just say, this is a small point. And this just bowls the title of the paragraph and puts detects beside it. So when you're actually writing the text in athletic and you need to have a space between the sentences MRL set. They will be joined into the same paragraph. So this is a sentence which is still part of the same paragraph. So if you have a sentence which actually goes onto a new paragraph, you need to have a clear line of space. So this is a new era. And you can see that cuts indented and moves on to a new paragraph. So one of the things you can do with latex is to be able to refer to these sections and subsections. And the way you do that is by using labels. So when you're using labels, one good idea is to have a key in front of the label. So you would do things like SEC to specify that this is a section. If you're using tables, you'd put TAB at the front part of the label. And if you're using a figure, he'd use FID at the front part of the label. And this just makes it easier to find the references that you want to when referring to them later on the document. So in this case, we're referring to a section and the section that we're referring to is epsem. And so we specify that in the introduction. So in ipsum, we will sum in section, section epsilon, we will discuss x, y, and z. And so we can compile that. And you see it's populated with the section number, which is action 1.1.1, which is what epsilon is. And so this makes it really easy to, if sections get changed or you add, say, a subsection in front of this, it will automatically update the numbers. Just so you see this automatically gets updated to one dot one dot two because we've put in a subsection before epsilon. So this is one of the huge advantages compared to word, is everything happens automatically and later, OK, which is really useful, especially for longer documents. 5. Basic Typesetting: But one of the advantages of latex is the huge range of typesetting options or. So. In this section, we're gonna look at some of the basic typesetting options that we have. And we're creating documents and latex. So when great resource for this is the latex symbol list. So I'll give a link to this in the resources section. But basically it's a 338 page document that provides a really comprehensive list of all the different latex symbols. So you can see here we have an add different in mathematical symbols. We have inbox, some ancient languages. We have some musicals and moles. So make sure you're interested in creating some musical documents and other symbols, which can be things like clock, left arrow, right arrow, right turn, smiley face. So basically, there's just a huge amount of m symbols that are available in latex. That's never been the case that I'm I've been using latex and haven't been able to find the symbol that I was looking for. So and we're just going to take a quick look, true. One of the as sort of symbols that we can use. When you're using these symbols, you want to get the package name. So in this case we're using the mirror SIM currencies and we'll package. And so if we go back to our document, we can include that in the US package function. So the US package and then M a, R, V, o SOM. So the US package function will basically just load in these commands and make them available, available knitr document. So in this case, we can include a Euro's and MOOC. It just does backslash and then couple of E coupled UK lore. In our basic type setting section, we get our hero symbol. So you can see a huge variety of options that we have available. And seeing that we have an even multiple different Euro symbols. So we have backslash your, and then we have different, suddenly at 12345 different types of yours symbol. So we can use this slash euro HV, which maybe sounds very euro, high visibility or something. And you can see we get a slightly different Euro symbol. So one of the other things you may want to, when you're creating formulas. Later on in the course, we go through an entire section on creating equations and different formulas. But one of the things you may want even and just writing a regular document is accents. So in Tech Studio, it makes it really easy to use accented letters. So we can open up this accented land letters panel here on the left. And then we can just literary click on the Add different symbols here, different commands. And Tech Studio will automatically populate the document first. So you see here and we can have dashes because right touches left, we can have the hash and inverted hash. And if we compile this and see how it looks in our typesetting section. So you can see we have an EA with the two dots, with the dashes where a single dot when a dash going to trash can actually left the hash, the inverted hash. I'm more of a semicircular and then a straight line. So basically, every single symbol that you could try and think of will usually be available pretty easily in latex. Or you can do an online search for. And if you want to replace these with any other lenders or say a, B, and C. You can see the symbols get updated. And yeah, it looks a bit strange on the bee. But that's because B doesn't usually have these marks and vote. Yeah, so that's how you can include lots of different types of fonts and different accents in your latex document. Okay, so I'm just tidied up the basic typesetting section by adding in some sub-sections four symbols and accents. And in this subsection, we're going to look at the different kinds of emphasis. Or you can entrepreneur document. So you are probably familiar with using bold text and italicized text in Word. And we can also use these different ways of emphasis in Latex. So the way that we specify dash is by using slash text PF. And this gives us the boldfaced x. This is so bold faced x. And if we compile that, we can see we get this bolded text. So Absalom and normal text, just for comparison. We can compile Tosh and you see the difference between the bolded text on the normal to x. So we can also include some italicized text by using slash IT. And then this is awesome. Italics. And if we can combine large, you see the difference between the bolded text, normal text, and then the slanted and text that has italics. So we can also combine these options. I'm using a simple sentence. And let's say we want to bold and italicized or it's simple. So in tech studio, we can use the keyboard shortcut Command B on a Mac and Control B on a Windows machine. And then we can select where it again and command i. And that will apply. E pull phase and the italics to simple. We can see here that we get the word symbol that has been bolded and italicized and the rest of the sentence. So using a very simple air, using a parry and sentence, all are just normal text. So another formatting option that we have available to us in latex is the typewriter text. So inside some squiggly brackets, you can use backslash t, t to access the typewriter font family. And then this sample. And if we can combine lash, you see that you get this sort of monospace font that you can use for ammeter direct quotations, or by showing some algorithms. So the next way you can add emphasis or some basic typesetting to your latex document is truly use of different font size options. So in this subsection, we're going to look at font sizes. And the first way that we can create I'm really small text is by using slash tiny. So this uses a really small text size under including in the squiggly brackets to limited to this environment. So anything after such as our appendix and all these derivatives remain normal sized text. And we're only going to tiny the text inside the square brackets. So this is very small. And if we can compile up, you see that under the font sizes we get this really small text that we need to zoom into C. So if we want to come back to a normal size environment, we can use M slash begin. And then we can create a normal size environment. And inside this, we can populate it with M. So normal text. And everything compile up and see the difference now between the text sizes. So the very small and the normal text. And another way that you can type sash in latex is by using double blacks, backslash, backslash, and thus specifies that you want to create a new line after the end of this text. So we see that some normal text gets moved onto the next line. So if you want to add emphasis to a particular section of your text, you can begin a huge environment. So in the huge environment that you can do a lot of shouting and compilers. And you can see that this is much bigger than the normal text. So we can also specify the W blacks backslash. To go onto the next line. We can see here we have the various different text sizes. So these tiny, the normal and then the shedding. And so once we go right, so in this environment, we just returned to the normal text. So you can see that the text in the derivations and the additional figures has remained the same. So this allows you to specify a font options for different sections or different pieces of your document. And we also seen at the start, we can specify the default options in the document class by specifying a 1011 or 12 font. So one of the other ways that we may want to emphasize text in our document is by including different quotations. Vs. And so latex has some really good built-in environments for doing this. Hash highlights the quotation that you want to include. So we can use a slash begin. And we want to include a kosher environment. And inside the quote environment, we can basically just included the quotient. So the one I've included here is by air, Ralph Waldo Emerson. And he says that next to the originator of the sentence is the first Kosher Amish. So we can compile that. And you can see ish has increased the spacing on its side. And we've also italicize the text and giving you a dash here. And so the double backslash here again means ash. We want the text to go onto a new line. So we can show a bit of the difference here with some as seen in this. So you can see here a down some additional spacing or n, the normal text and recap the emphasis for the quotation. And we can also use some of the previous options, such as italicizing the author. 6. Figure Environment: Okay, so in this section of the course, we're going to move on to figures, diagrams, and tables in our latex document. So in this part of the course, we're going to be using the figure environment. So we can be in that she's using a backslash begin. We're going to type figure. So we'll use figure environments because they're floating environments. So instead of actually displaying the text line by line it, this will allow the figures to float to a convenient location. We can specify some placement options. But if it's in the middle of a page break or at the very end of the page. Than the floating-point environment will allow Latex to use a number of different factors and find out which is the best place to put the figure. So we use the include graphics commands to include our figures. And again, we can specify some key values. We're gonna leave this empty for diminish. And then we're going to specify the location to our image file. So the things that I like to do when I'm creating documents is to have a folder called figures. In this figures folder, we're going to keep all of our images. So this is the academies we're going to be using. We have a VGG architecture that we are going to be including with some fine tuning and some feature extraction. So there's likely they're very thin but quite tall. And we're going to be using some subclassing to include these graphics in our document. So this just keeps hear folder structure quite clean so you don't have all your images getting messed up. Wish all the auxiliary files, stock and latex generates. So once you've included the figures folder path, you can specify cash on that compile. And you see what happens when you don't specify to specify any options. Is it that the image is really big and it goes off this height of the page. So we want to specify the width on tight. And we do dash inside the square brackets. So the width and one of the commands you can use is page with sorry, line width. So if you can compile lush, ish generates the image and uses the width of the line. Because this figure environment is in two columns, it's going to use the width of the single column that it's included in. So we can also specify explicit parameters in centimeters. So say you wanted that to be five centimetres. And we can also specify the height to me, let's say 15 centimeters to make it look terrible. So yeah, you can see here the picture of the gap. The cash gets quite stretched out. So if we make it a bit more reasonable lives, five centimeters, we can see we get the square cut image here. So normally what I'm doing when I'm writing academic documents is I'll just use width and then line width. So that automatically puts it to the width that it should be for that particular line. So there's also other options that we can specify in our square brackets. So if we're going to rotate the image, we can specify an angle. And we can specify 45 degrees to get this 45 degree rotation and the image. You can also specify a negative 45 degree angle to dash D rotation for the other side. And we can also specify the placement options for latex. So latex gives a number of different and placement options that you can include in the floating-point environments. So you specify this in the square brackets beside the figure environment. So we can have it at the top, which is T. If we specify b dash and specifies it to be at the bottom of the figure, but just take away this angles so you can see that better. So if we specify B here, that says to Linux to preference placing this float the bottom of the page. We can also specify P, which is to place the image. And this places the images image on a new page and places it on a page with no extra texts. We can also specify H, which is to place it here, which is just alter this Lorem ipsum text has been generated. So D default is top, bottom place. So this is one latex will use when you don't specify any options. And I think it's a pretty good defaults. So unless you have any really good reason not to change wish, I would just leave it as it is. So one of the other things to do with figures is to add captions. So this is the text that will appear at the bottom of the figure. We can see here, it generates this text and says, figure one, this is a cash. And like the tables, we can also include a label that we can use to refer to it. And this is going to be a figure of cash. And so if we want to refer to this in the text, we can say M at the start of the figure section in the figure. And that when we refer to label someone hundreds fig, cash, cash. And if we can combine all up, you see that at the start to figures and figure one, we see a cache. So this is how we place figures. We can specify a number of different options such as the width, height, the angle, and it's a good idea 12 all of our figures in this figures folder, then we didn't have a caption and refer to them using their label. So if we want to figure to spawn multiple columns, we need to specify some slightly different figure options. So we can copy this single galium and we'll change it to big cash. That's the label so that he can compile this. We see we have the two different figures of the same size, but by placing a star in the figure environment. For both to begin on the end. And recent compiler, we see that we have a multi-volume thicker. So this is just a simple option that you can use to multicore him or larger figures to your document. 7. Subfigures: So one of the iterate types of figures that we may want to include in our document is some figures. So this is where you have a collection of different figures like figure 1A, 1B, and 1C. And you combine these into one individual figure environment. So the package that we're used to create these some figures is the subscription package. So we include that at the top. He's package, so caption. And then after the cat pictures that we've included, we can begin another figure environment. And inside the figure environment, we're going to begin another environment, which is going to require some figure environment. And so when you start to figure environment, you have to specify how much space you want. And this case we're going to use 0.16 by the text width. So the reason why we're using 0.16 is that we're using called num which 0.05. and are going to have tree individualism figure so a, B, and C. And that comes to 0.01. six, 6-7. So if you're using fair to call comes, you can double dash and you're going to treat you for the textbook. So inside the individualism figure environment, you can use the same standard commands like including graphics. And then the width is going to p t line width. And then we just specify the path to our figure, which is in the figures folders and then VGG architecture. So if you combine this, we see we have our finger here and we have room for two more figures in the same columns. So this generates some Lorem Ipsum text. So you can see this is a nuclear. So you can see here we have our figure being included in this column. So we can also specify the option of Hirsh. So it's Vdg heirarchy lecture. And as well we can specify a label that we can use to refer to this specific asset figure. So I'll just give it a label of VGG. And we can basically then include multiple of these some figures to grade the overall image. So I'm just going to copy and paste this one. And just change these names slightly so we know which one we're referring to. And then for the overall figure where you can also include a caption. So you see here, now we have our own precept and figures. And this is our collection of VGS. So they all come under the figure tree, but we've got figure a, B, and C. So I have some slightly different images. Um, so VGG for feature extraction and for fine tuning swell. So these are different transfer learning methods that you can use. So you can see that now we have slightly different images, figure a, B, and C. And then you can update the km, the captions. So VGG fine feature extraction. And this is VGG fine tuning. So if you want to refer it to each, any of the individual and figures, we can just specify them in the usual way that we referenced the labels. So as seen here on that breath. And we have the figures here. So we can specify figure a compiled up. We see that we got the correct label in defects generated after it, lorem ipsum, which is figure a tree a. So you can also specify the label for the overall figure. So just figure tree. So we can get done VGG, bigger, VGG overall. And we can then refer to that in the text as well. So we can refer to any of the individual, some figures as well as the figure over l. So that's figure tree, a tree be configure figure tree. 8. Tikz: So as we've seen, latex is really good at being able to include figures that we've generated from previous programs, either using Python or some computer graphics application. But we can also use latex and more specifically, takes environment to be able to generate our own figures in latex. So T is this. We use the package tics as t takes is really comprehensive sort of mini programming language that you can use to generate figures. So you see here, this is the documentation on takes on its one hundred, one hundred and sixty one pages on. So I'll leave a link to this somewhere in the description of this video. But it's extremely comprehensive. N goes through much of the detail of ticks. So you would really need a full comprehensive course to cover takes in its own right. So I'm just gonna give a higher level overview of takes this screen recording. So we're going to begin a new section in our document, and I'm going to call it plots. And in this section, we're going to begin our first tics picture environment. So I've just pasted some code here. And you can see that we create a ticks picture environment. And we're passing it a scale. And at this scale or passing is ten. So it's ten times the normal size that it should be. And what we're doing is we're creating a rectangle starting at position 00 and going to position 42. So that is the width by the height. And then we're drawing a line. So this is the starch, this is what we're drawing and this is the end. And this case we are drawing a line going from 00 to 0.40.2. And this case we are going from 0.20.400. So I can just remove it from the lines and show you the difference. That makes. So in this case we're just getting our empty rectangle. Then if we remove one of the lines. So this one is going to give us the line going from the bottom left here it's 0 up to the top right hand corner. And if we replace the line, we see we get the line going the other direction as well. So we can put back to scale to be scalable one. And you can see this is meant to be just like a small figure, inline figure that you would have to text. So I'm going to go through some, a few more complicated takes pictures of the examples in the next few lectures. So stay tuned for that. Okay, so now we can draw a, another ad ticks environment, ticks picture and that we're going to have an x86 environment. So we have a number of different options that we can specify when we're drawing these fingers. So I'll just give you a preview of the image that we're drawing here. So it's just a Grid that we're going to have a triangle. And you can see we have two different grid lines. So we have the light grey lines And the more darker grey lines sort of into four box intervals. So I can remove some of these just to show you a utterance and mix. So that's the triangle. And then I can remove the second grid line. So you can see here at the start, we just have a plain basic grid. And you can see the options that we're specifying version. So we have a line wish of 0.01. point. We have gray, this exclamation mark specifying the capacity of a. So if we put it to 90, we can see that our lines get much darker there rather than if we put it back to what it was, which was 30, you can see it gets a lot lighter again. On the step is specifying the step size of the individual lines. And then we're creating a grid which goes from 00 to two. And then we specify, we want to draw outlines. This is going to be on the same grid size. So if we draw the rush, me, recompile it, we can see that now we have these help lines and specified and Tourette's degrade the four block intervals. And if we draw the lines going from 11, so that would be here, 222, which is up here, and then two to one, which is back down here. And then we specify that we want to cycle. This will draw a triangle. So we're going from these three points, we're drawing a line. So this is the option for a line. And then we're going to cycle back to wherever we originally started. So we've be compiled. And we can see if we get this figure here. So we have a triangle which is being drawn on this grid. So if we wanted to have this in a figure environment, we could just wrap it in a slash begin figure. And then we're going to just put the tics environment in here. And then we could unusual things that we have for fingers such as captions, ticks, blush. And we can also add some centering to make sure that our image is center aligned. And you can see here, then we gosh, a file just Adam in some Lorem, Ipsum and z here it appears in a standard figure environment and we have our caption. And you can also add labels as well if we want to refer to it so that you can include At takes pictures in a figure. So in the last figure, we saw how we can specify any cycle using these different lines. And, but we can also use different types of shapes to create the posh and the grid. So in this case, very good to create these outlines grid. It's gonna go from 0 to 34. So I'll just show you the image actually before I go tree the explanation. So at the start we have this grid. It goes from 00 to tree width and then for height. And then this grid, we're going to have one draw element. And we begin with a two-point circle 00. Then we have a line which goes from that point to 11. So that's where we get this diagonal. And then we have a rectangle which goes from 0.1 to 0.2 tree up here. And then from the our triangle we have another line specified here that goes to 0.34. And then we have another line which goes back to here. I'm going to four. And then we have a 2 circle at the end of dash. So this is just to show that you don't necessarily have to have lines to join the part. You can use different shapes, such as rectangles, squares, or circles to join different line pots in your fingers. So we have lots of options that we can specify when you're drawing circles in tics. So the next figure that we're going to focus on is a circle environment. Does different arcs generated initially. So if I compile this, you can see the image that's generated here. So we have this circle which has different start points and endpoints. And you can see that we have some arcs that are pointing in specific directions which are bolded. The actual full circle is dashed. So if we remove everything except the original dashed circle, going to be able to see there's a bit better. So this is what we have at the start of the diagram. We have our help lines going from 00 and a grid to tree too. So that's row height. And then the dashed circle, SHE, 0.11 is the center. And then a one centimeter radius. So it's going inclusion in those four boxes. And the next item, we draw the individual circles which specify the start points of the arcs. And these are circles of different radius. So we have a two-point radius here, a pterygoid radius on that in a four-point radius. And then we draw our arcs. So this is using the draw command. And we can specify the side of the arrow that we weren't drawn. And in this case we want a thick arrow. So we're going from 90 degrees to 180 degrees. So the arc degrees starts from 0, this axis. And so this is 90, then this is 180. And this is the arrows that we're specifying a number using a thick line. So if we added another arrow here, and it would give us the arrow at both sides of the figure. We can undo that. And then we want to, if we want to add another arc going from 0 to 45 degrees, we can see that goes from your starting line at 0 and then 45, which is halfway up the circle. And then we can add in the final other piece of the figure, which was going from do 70 to two to five. So there's one pointing in the opposite direction to these two arcs. So these are the options that you can specify when you're creating a circular figures in texts. So that takes pictures that we've created so far for her husband and quite simple. And, but we can also create a slightly more complicated curves and like busier curves by specifying different control points within our figure. So if we can compile this picture, you see that this is a bit more complicated than the simple circles and rectangles and paths that we've been generating Before. We get this nice curve shape that goes between c1 and c4. And we're using the points as c2 and c3 to control the amount of curve that goes into the path. So looking at the code that we're using to a generator and we have the help lines, which is the grid that we're using. And we have E path, which is the dashed line that goes between each of these points. And the, the individual circles here are just these circles that are used to specify the points. So I can remove this text just to show you how everything builds on each other. So here we have the basic layout of where we want to put the curve. We have this point, C1, C2, C3, and C4. And we do that is we say C1 is controlled by C2. And then we joined Dash 2i tree, which is controlled by s4. So this creates the points in R curve and where we started and where we end. And then the control points that are used to interpolate had the curve is formed. We then label the points using the different anchors to show and which are the specific points that we're using in the graph. So we can see the anchor is West year for C1. So that gets drawn slightly to the right. Then the anchor is East, Farris, S3 and S4. So these are drawn slightly to the left of the Acker point, where you can see here, we've been able to generate this nice continuous curve paths between c1 and c4 by using these control elements. So we've seen that we've been able to generate these really nice high-quality plots using tics. But one thing you probably see is missing from the figures that we're generating at diminished is a bit of color. So in this subsection, we're going to add some color to these bullets. So here specified two different takes pictures. So you can set a default color bypassing in color, spelled with the American way. Dear specifying dash as color red. And then you draw on the individual paths are circles, rectangles, in this case a line between 0 tree to tree. It will use the default color. When you're drawing different types of lines, you can specify your own color, spelled COO or. And you can use green or cyan or any of the standard web colors that you can use in HTML. And in this case, we're just iterating different lines. We're specifying that we want to seek line and we're giving it the arrowhead at the end of the line. And this line goes from 0 to two to two. And in this case we're having cyan and we're having a 50% opacity and then adding in red as well. So you can see the lines that are generated here. We first have the red line. I'll just get rid of this fear for 1 second so we can focus on the lines. So we have the red line generated at the top and we have the thick green line with the arrowheads and the, at the end of it. And then we can see if we just have psi n, we get this really like blue with the 50% opacity, so it's a bit brighter. But then we can also add in some red. And that combines to color, and we get this more darker line. So that's how you can add color to individual lines. But if you have an objects such as circles and rectangles, you can specify fill colors and to fill in the area that's covered by the rectangular circle. So in this case, we're using the fill draw command to draw a rectangle from 0-0 at to-to. We're using ultra thick Phil. And we're specifying the actually wanted to eat green, diminished capacity of 50. And we're specifying the draw to be a blue line. We're gonna pass the FFT. So you can see a disk generates our rectangle, and we have that, the draw line, so the headline is blue. And then the film, so everything that's filled inside it is this bright green color. Then we specify a, another fill draw items that we want to include in this figure. And what we want to include as a circle. So this is as a thick line to fill is yellow and the drawing for the address circle is red. So this is how we can a bit of colour to anneal, to diagrams that we created. So you could add in calligrapher. These individuals circles in here, and we'll do it for a few of the later fingers as well. So one of the figures that define releasable at US takes for is trees. So in computer science we use trees for a lot of different data structures and different algorithms. So it takes us a really nice few commands that allow you to generate really impressive looking trees. So you can see here the figure that we're generating using this takes picture. And we have three different layers, and we have f three is our root node in our tree, and F1, F2 as D sub branches. So there's a huge amount of different options that we can specify in our tree. We have the level distance. So this is the distance between each of the levels. So if we put that up 30 millimeters and see that we're able to expand the distance between each of the levels and entries. And ten millimeter is fine here. And then we can specify her default style for each of the levels of the tree. So that's a fill wouldn't capacity of 60 a circle and then having a black line. And then their separation of 1. We also specified the level one style and we have different sibling distance. So if we put that up to 25, you can see that the tree gets much wider. So we can specify the distance between the different layers in between each of the sibling distance and each of the layers. So it gives you a lot of different configuration options. And then once we've specified a different style options, we can connect each of the individual trees. So in this case we have our top node being f tree. And then from the top node we have F1 and F2, which are the child of this node. Then from the, from F2, we'll have our individual child nodes as well, which are under this command. So in this case we have F1 and F2, which are child nodes of F1 and F2, which are child nodes of F2. So you can extend this as far as you want to create a huge trees and it generates really nice-looking images. So as I've said before, ticks is an absolutely huge library and there's a great deal of resources that you can get from this module. So if we want to draw different logic circuits in latex document, we can go to the PDGF manual. And we have this section on page 557, which goes over a different logic circuits that we can draw. In the ticks library, you actually have lots of different libraries that we can include. Either using the circuits thought logic and package the circuit's dot logic, dot IEC, which are specific circuit logic diagrams that we can use these circuits dot logic dot us. Or in this case I'm going to be using the circuit's dot logic dot CDH. So we can just specify this command at the top of our latex document. My n. We're using a matrix. And this gives us a number of commands that we can use to specify simple circuit logic gates, non gates on basically any type of figuring dy dt would need to create circuit diagrams. So this really shows you the brash of figures that are available in the ticks library because this is just one page of a 1161 page document. So basically for any sort of figured that you would need to generate twos plus probably something that you can find in the ticks library to build upon. Starting up the document, we're gonna be using the circuit's dot logic dot CDH package. And we're going to create our figure at the bottom here. So if crazy it already, so it's a circuit diagram. And it can be seen here. So we create a connection symbol and an input output symbol. And so the connection graphic is used in the wires at the start of the circuit. And it's a black filled circle. So this is connected here. And we have our circle shape that's filled it black. And then we have her IO graphic, which is the circle at the end here. We know Phil. And then we basically create the logic that specifies all of the controls and had the circuit flows between a and B to the individual gates and the bots that are created, true am SNCC. And then we can use the standard labeling techniques. So setting our anchors to be east-west and then specifying the individual circuit items in our circuit diagram. Then we have the lines that we're using. So x-dot input one. So these are the individual wires that are going to each of the logic circuits. So this is just a simple example to show you the real parent that's intakes Because we have, I'm so much available here. So even before that, we have different types of resistors and different types of logics that can be used. So if you just do control F and search for this document, I'm sure you'll be able to find most of the things that you would need to create a technical figure that's producing high-quality vector-based graphics. So this was the short introduction to texts. But you can see the powerful figures that we've been able to generate all writing. You can add color to create different types of complicated splines. And as well embed them in a figure environment in Latex. 9. Tables: Okay, so the final thing that we're gonna cover in this section of the course is tables. Tables are LZ really useful in a lot of different technical documents. On the way that we begin to equals is by using a tabled environment. And inside the table environment, we need to begin a nother tabular environment. And so in the tabular environment, we need to specify the columns that we're going to have in our table and also how those columns are going to be aligned. So we specify a vertical lines using the vertical line symbol, which is shift backslash on a Mac. This specifies vertical lines in the table. And we can have center alignment, beacon of left alignment. Or we can write enlightenment. So I'm gonna go with center alignment and you can have double lines on the outside of the table and then center lines on the inside. So we'll just have a table that has three different columns. And then inside the tabular environment, green specify our polonium bothering calling values. So we loved calling him one, and then we separate different columns using the ampersand symbol. And we have called him to that they're ampersand symbol and then call him tree. So we compile this. You can see that our table, I'll just put in some lorem ipsum text at two separate from the previous part of the course. And we see here we have our table up here. Wish Tree individual columns. So if we want to center the table, we can add a centering call just after de table environment. And this will center the table in the column width. And we can nudge d horizontal lines to our table by using backslash h line. To specify a new line. Again, use backslash, backslash and then each line. So now we can fill in the values that we want to have in the rows of our table. So just pick some random numbers. And after each one of them, you other backslash, backslash to go to a new line and then add in a horizontal line. So I'll just make some small changes to these. And if we compile that. We can see that we have our table which is generated here. So we can also specify the labeling and captioning commands that we have for our figures. So outside of the tabular environment, but inside the table, can use backslash caption and say, I'm a speed race results. And we can also label it. So I usually labeled tables, which a TAB? This is speed race. So once we combine them, we see that we've got our caption now, which is table one with speed race results. And although latex lets you specify all these options, I think this is quite a poor quality table and not through so much unnecessary lines, especially at the edge of the table where we have to use double lines. And having the horizontal line, each of the rows is, it's just quite noisy and doesn't look that good. And for most of the academic journals and conferences, they allow style guidelines M for how to draw tables. And it's usually the minimum amount of information, so it's usually just one line above the column, one-line Indonesia and a line at the bottom. So I'll show you a better way to draw tables in the next lecture. With this table that I showed in the previous diagram or previous lecture, is that it isn't taking up the full amount of space that's available in this column C, it's slightly smaller. So we have some whitespace here that we could be using. So I'm just going to paste in this latest code here. And we see here we're using a table environment like we use previously. So we can also specify the location information as we did in the figures. So top, bottom, place, which is the default, and we pass it in a centering command. So this specifies, do you place it in the middle of the column? And then one thing that we've added here is the resize box. So the resize box allows the table to scale up to whatever size that you want. And in this case we want to scale it up to 0.5. times the texts wish. So this is the maximum meant that you can use in this column. So it allows us to get the biggest table that we possibly can in this column. And this resize box basically wraps around the entire tabular environment. And make sure you have this and squiggly bracket at the end to scale up the entire table. And then once we have this, we can begin our Tamir environment. As usual. We have at four different elements, four different columns in our table, which are all left justified. Then we have a line at the top. I'll just compile it quickly so you can see. So, and this is taken from a recent paper that I was working on. And it's the different characteristics of an IoT edge and the cloud environment. And in this case, we're going to read the deployment, the components, the computational QoS and energy of these different, So they're different computation environments. So different. Iot uses different sort of computers compared to edge and cloud environments. And this table is comparing two different characteristics of both. But you can see at this table, looks much cleaner than the one that we've generated up here. Because it only has these three horizontal lines. And it doesn't, you don't really need the lines between columns and most of the cases. So it just looks a lot cleaner. If you less just left justify or just leave the natural spacing between columns. And we also have our caption, the label. So we can refer to this quite easily. And the same way that we do for the figures that we've generated earlier. So we can refer and then we specify the table. And this is why it's so useful to have the shortcuts that once we pressed T, it automatically knows that we're gonna be looking for a table. And so we can choose our reasoning layers table. Table. And this case two shows the different and just continue on with that runs for compilers. And we can see in that table two shows the different. And so this gets updated if we change the order of these tables. So now we can see Table one shows that because this has been moved to table one. So if you want to OBD-II caption to top of the table, you can do that as well. So we can just cut this from the bottom and added to the top of here. And now you can say, see we have table one computing their characteristics and it's been moved to the top of our table. So just make sure that it's within the table environment, but not in the top inner environment. And then you can still refer to wish in your document. So as we've seen, we've been able to create really nice-looking tables using latex. One of the problems that we have with these table environments is that require intensive to draw. So we need to keep track of all these ampersands and the different column numbers for each of the tables that we're creating. So when I creation tables in latex documents, I'll usually use an Excel or Google sheets and document to keep track of the different things that I'm going to be keeping in the table. And so once I want to have values finalized, i'm going to gen generation my table. There's this really good site called latex. Table generator. So if you Google for dash or go to table generator.com forward slash latex tables. So I'll see if I can even link to this in the resources for this lecture. And then you can file and paste table data. And once you paste on n unloaded, the table will be automatically generated. And then you can just copy the table to the clipboard. So in this case, I have some greater than or equal to symbols. So I want to escape the text symbols. So these will be formatted correctly in the table. And then I can just paste that in there and compile it. And you see we get our table. So one of the problems with this table is that it's so big that it's coming off the edge of the page. So one of the ways that we can solve this is by reusing and some of the logic beyond from our previous table that was banded to half of the textbook. So in this case, we have copied the table here. And I'm in compilers. We can see that if we change this to the dashes at the end of fish, we can compile it again and then it becomes a full page table. And then we can also increased the resize box to be a full page. And now we have a full page table, but it looks a material you'd like this because there are some that many columns, so there's no need to have a table that big. But what we can do is we can copy the tabular environment from here and place it within this box that has been resized to be a full page table. And we can get rid of this. And now we have our double column with table. So we can just add in a bit of formatting to pretty it up. So the horizontal lines up the top after here. And then one more up the bottom. Don't become compiled up. We've seen that we have this really professional looking table. Dash. We can update the label, the caption version. So urban leak Asians. And yeah, you can see you get this really nicely formatted table, goes across the double columns and is professionally formatted. And you can refer to using the labels on the options that we've previously talked about. So that's it for this section. We've seen a lot of different things, true using the tables, the different ways that you can manage the different tics diagrams that we've been able to draw. The individual figures and figures that we drew earlier using the VGG architecture, as well as the cat picture, cat pictures that we had drawn so and double column cat picture as well as this smaller cat picture where we add some rotations as well. So we've covered a lot in this section as well, and I'll look forward to seeing you in the next section. 10. Basic Document Spacing: Okay, so in this segment, we're going to be focusing on mathematics and algorithms. To display mathematical equation, we are going to be using a package called NEMS must. So AMS mass is the American society. And what we're gonna do that text to do is that you can right click on the package name and then open the package, package documentation. So this gives you a usual latex fashion, very detailed document summarizing the main functions. So now you use the gradient environment, the different sort of commands that you can use inside these individual latex environments. So there's a number of different nodes that we have in latex. So we have our normal text mode. You ever just using the standard ROM chips index. Then we also have math mode and we have Display Map node. So we can now math dash just runs along inside the text. So I'm gonna create a new section or a month. This equation is in a line. And so the way we have math mode, dash goes in a line, or that just runs as a lion is continuing. So it doesn't have any equation number ending is just by including niche inside $2 signs. So here we can have x equals y pair to amuse this caret symbol to a superscript. So if it can, you see that x is equal to y squared. And if we want to add a subscript, we can use an underscore. So X1 is equal to y squared in this case. And so this is how we usually formulation simple equations that can be used as a line. But for anything more complicated than this, we usually want to have a gift the equation and numbers of like a table or a figure number. And for dash reuse, display Mountain Road. So first and larger equations, equations that have a lot more components. We usually want to use a display math mode. So this will give us access to an equation number or we can refer to later on in the text. And so the way that he became this environment, it is using a backslash begin. And then we're going to use an environmental is included in the MS math. And last is the equation of environment. So inside this, we can have our equation as normal. So X, each column is equal to y squared. And we see it gets formatted exactly the same the equation that we have here. And we don't need to add in the dollar signs. So you can have slightly more complicated equations as I stand here. So this is the binomial equation. I can go through it line by line. So first of all, we have this some part. So we see that we have a sum from i 0 to N. Why don't we formulate this, meaning latex is the sum and add the carrots and mole tonight. What's a both? And then you can wrap this in text to make sure that we separate the top and bottom components. In this case, when you have more than one symbol that's going to be unexplored, we need to include it in the brackets. So I'll just show you what happens when you don't. So in this case it will only include i. And then this just gets formatted and regular text. So that's why you have to make sure to wrap your equations or appears sub scores, subscripts and superscripts in these equations. So if we go back to the equation, the next bit of new equation, this is the binomial vert. And so here we are having the binomial from n and I. Then we're including a superscript I and then P superscript n minus i, not equal to a plus b and also the power of n. And we can add a label to this equation just like we did for our table. And finger environments. Smi usually perhaps an EQ for equation. And this can be my own. And so this is in Asian. We see ash. So integration one, c dash. And then whatever text you want to fit a line here. And we see the binomial. So this gives us the ability to refer to our equations land. Wherever the inline equations, we just usually doing something that's only one or two symbols and is very small. But for the equation environments, we'll usually do something more substantial. Equations. 11. Fractions: So one of the other types of equations that we usually want to continue the or technical documents are fractions. So we're going to take a quick look at fractions in this subsection. So we begin in the other equation, Bernoulli's equation environments. We want to create our fraction. So it takes Studio is actually quite good, pre-populated. And some of the math symbols we may want to include entering text. So you see in this case it gives you the texts commands that you need to use a subscript, superscript scripts, fraction, square roots, different alignments, which has different map loans and MathFunctions such can use. So if you ever, you're searching, printing a good place to you in math mode, it could place to check is in the last menu next to you. So in this case we want to have a fraction and it pre-populates that. But the numerator and denominator compile this. So if we compile this, we see we get a fraction with the numerator denominator. You have equations in our equation number. Now we can refer to later on in the text. So we can replace this speed denominator with C. And we have a fraction here, a plus b or c, The labeled, but we can refer to if you want to do other labor and the equation. So we can also use a slightly more complicated fractions or continuous fractions. So in this equation is near, we have an equation which approximate the square root of two minus one. And this is a continuous fraction. So we have one over two plus one over two, and it just continues on forever. So instead of using the usual path slash production environment, we're using this continuous production environment, which aligns the fraction. So when slightly going down the right each time. So we're going to talk a bit more English aligning different fractions. So if you want to have alignment equal symbols, you can do that using a specific type of environment. But this C fraction environment is useful if you ever have these continuous fraction Americans, such as backslash see frac. 12. Align: So if you have multiple equations together, if we're doing derivatives or something like that, we may want to align them in some way to show the logic of the equations that we're using. So in this subsection you are going to use collide, right? So the way that we beat the aligning variant is within these slash bin. And then we just type the name of the parameter. And it's basically quite similar to the equation environment. So we just type in the equation that we want to perform a. So in this case, the red and remain to align each of the equations in the equal symbol. So the way that we do that is by having the ampersand to sue front of dissemble that we want relying on. Let us say that equals a plus B plus C. So it looks just like a regular equation. We have the equation number first. So if we ask to blacks lashes for a new line, we term again aligned on T equals sum max x squared. Since linear equations cash lined up. So the equals sign is at the center of the equation. So we cannot make another new line. And even if we have spaces and 20, t equals phi plus four. And then again, you see that it doesn't matter either the equal signs stroke lined up. So we have some options that we can specify between the equations. So if we want to have a number which is numbered manage markets render of the equation number four, the final equation. So we usually use this when we're doing derivatives. 13. Integration and Differentiation: So we're going to be times the field mapping industry to integration and differentiation. So the McDonald's though you can use and so far I've been in the begin and requirement of either equation or lying around species in the dollar sign in create online text. Here's another novel that you can use using the backslash square brackets. And this will allow you to write the equation that we want, x plus y two. And this is sort of the same as the equation environment, except we don't have any collision numbers. So it can be useful for things that are larger than mine, but which we don't want to refer to later in the text. So in this case we're going to have integration and differentiation in this slash square bracket environment. And for the integration, we can split it up into the different lines. So the first symbol here is our integrations are known and we have the superscript B and D subscript today. Then we're integrating tree expert dx becomes equal to. In the next line, we specify that we want the x squared, x cubed to be on the left. And then we have our right revert burning, which is this straight line here, which is P and the top and bottom. And then that's finally ego, once it's integrated into the pool to be killed finest 8x cubed using the values that we've placed in here. So we can also do differentiation and to Amy to Nash is by using the partial differentiation. So inept set equal to x squared plus x y. And the partial derivative, it is dx d t Z t x equal to 2x plus y. So that's how you do integration and differentiation in the legend. 14. Braces: So another symbol, but you may assume latex equation is braces, which we'll cover in this section. So these are two of the squiggly lines. You see sometimes the hunger equation referring, giving some additional explanation on what it means. So you can see here we have our equation, x to the power of k, that's equal to one times x times x times x. Continuing. Then at the bottom, we have this 11A brace, hurry say k1 times x. So it's just giving some explanation on the formula that we're using here. So the way that we construct this is by equation of x, k and y equal to r under grace. And in the under brace, the first predator Bayesian is one. Then backslash times two, multiplier symbol, that's x times x times. And sustaining dots that are used when we have a final times x, which shows the equation there. So if we are in English convinced, you can see this is just the equation that I have an explanation. Then we want to add in some text which explains this. So we use the underscores alone, and this will write text either under variance t. We use the text man to specify or writing text. News comes running K times X. And that's just the type stuff gets displayed under the equation. So if you ever need to do any additional explanation in your equations, braces can be a really nice way of just giving us the extra detail on the explanation of the equation. 15. Conditionals: So the final thing that we're going to look at in equations is conditionals. So this is if you have multiple different conditions that your equation can take, senior specifying, see different formula. I'm going to have a number of different cases. And you may want to use a conditionals case. So here we have n factorial and it's equal to one. If n is equal to 0 to normal the cases is equal to n minus one factorial times n if n is greater than 0. So the way that we write this is using the first part of our equation. Yeah, and factorial is equal to and we became our cases environment and inner cases environment. We can have as many different cases that we want. And we have the first parameter case, which in this instance is a one. Then we have the ampersand, which is sort of like what we use the alignment environmental near. And we can see that it serves the exact same function in this case variables. Thus, her explanation of why this condition is true is aligned together. So in this case we have if n is equal to 0 and if n is greater than 0, they are lines using this ampersand symbol. So once we have our first case here, depends to one. If n factorial is equal to one, if n is equal to 0, we can run into a run. And then n minus one factorial times n if n is greater than 0. So this is the other case that we have for the factorial. And then we just ended our case in environment and then P and the equation on brand. So this looks sort of like a sidewards Bryce, and can be really useful for explaining if you have lots of different conditionals. 16. Algorithms: So in this section, we're going to look at algorithms and until we can display nicely in latex environment. So latex physically implemented, which is that you can use to display algorithms. And they have to print on the benefits to using and each of them. The first thing that we're going to look at is the algorithm to EPA image. So actually started with documents. You're going to want to include this Parkinsonism use package command. Then we're going to include the algorithm. And then this algorithm to be how we're going to specify some options, square brackish. And I'll go to E. And this just avoids and naming conflicts when we use some of the other algorithms. So in this environment, we paste this later Xcode, which generates algorithm. And the algorithm that we're creating is really triploidy Mary's stallions on lips, New Text. Ok. So here you can see we have a good mb times a switch case, and we're specifying the placement opportunity. So top, bottom place. Yeah, I switch order then with inside the switch case statement. So we use the black smash switch, which are commands are specified in calculating e. And if you want to manage all the and commands that are specified in this package, you can right click open the package documentation. And that will bring you to this latex document where you can see all the options of the package. So deducted language options and I'm the n-doped man's. So going back to our equation here, we have an algorithm. First switch statement than in the case it's putting the analogies vodka. And then we don't even know fica me by war. And that's the case for Burberry. Say we have a different order for Huffman scheme. We can have the whiskey mortar outlined very curves show there I need to taste. Then we break out of that loop. And then otherwise we just scared water. So this is our algorithm serving drinks at parity. And it has the two different options. And we specify the UK case if T2 is another option. So you can see here, this ends the case statement, which we don't want to have their first one. So we want the cases to continue on. And you see u is a shortcut that we use to specify dash. There is another case after this. Commodities are quite straight forward, so pleasing t dot slash for if statements. And then having the condition pretty if t then condition, if it's true, I'm going to have as many different decode after each of the cases. So we're adding whiskey order, adding infinitely close. And we'd use the semicolon is will help contain different lines using the backslash, backslash semicolon. So this squadron environment for displaying and algorithms latex and you grew up in a female. So another environment that we can use for computing algorithms in there and they text document. Here is the algorithm on algorithmic environment. So to include this, we need to use two different packages. So these microbes command on Britain, we all tend to use to use packaged food algorithmic. So algorithm is essentially referred me to arrange our alphabet environments. And this allows us to have the title of the algorithm cannot captions labeled, so we can refer to it in the text. Sort of acts like the figure environment that we have for our images. And then algorithmic is for specifying the actual algorithm that we're going to use. So again, you can right click on these and find out more about the commands that are included. And which is especially useful if you're looking for and what the exact syntax is for while statements, statements in d specific environment. So I'm just going to paste a simple algorithm that we have here. So we can see we have our algorithm environmental yet so, and so being permitted the algorithmic environment for second, you can see that this just such a caption for algorithm on them, a label that we can use to refer to later in the text. So it doesn't actually do anything for the algorithm that we're writing. It just opsins acts as a wrapper. Alright? So the algorithmic environment he's used to actually specify the details of the algorithm. So you can see here we have our caption at the top. So it's Algorithm one, my algorithm, which is captioned and find. And then we can also have the label and trooper who favor the text. This is one. So this should prefer to algorithm one time as we see those here. So in the environment, we have a number of two-piece titans not we can use some. Those are the backslash require is that the input w onto our PR algorithm. So maybe it's a string and we're doing some processing of the string. Or it could be a certain type of array dot order and certainty. So we don't want to include. Decimals earned something like Homer algorithm. And then teacher is the Iperf. So maybe we're returning a sorted array at the end of algorithm, then the rest of the statements are pretty straightforward. And the backslash, if the condition don't even think about the algorithmic environment is that we can also refer to line numbers. So in line and specifying the line, the crystalline it is. If so in mind, if you see statement. And so if we combine a lash, you can see in line one, we can see our first if statement. So this is one of the options that we have to specify in our algorithmic environment. And it's the amount of lines to mentor the membranes are going to improve an outcome environment. So he specified one here, which means that every line gets its own number. If we specify to use dot every second line get to some number. We can also do it for trees along. And we see that even though the number is indeed displayed, our line one is still referring to Pilloton first-line. So we have another label that's included in an algorithm, which is the default statement at the end of the algorithm. So that's the default case came our algorithm. So we didn't want to refer to that. We are using the default. Default. So here we can see in 96, we can describe what we're doing here. Didn't mind. One can describe our Newton here as well. And it makes that very less formatted output. We also have the inputs I put Star expecting. So this is the environment I would typically use in most of my papers as it creates quite nicely operations. So the final environment that we're going to look for displaying algorithms is the listings anywhere. And it's probably going to tofu better five-inch, which is the listing package. And we fish ONE listings environment here. So we set the language using backslash. That's T, such that the language that you want. So it has a good variety of different languages. So you can specify travel, Python. And that will change the formatting that's used to display the algorithm. We can also have a caption. So in this case, just some symbol, C Plus Plus code. We can also have the label if we want to refer to it later on text. So in this case we're going to have a single frame. And then we're just going to specify our algorithm in this Ls t listing environment. So in this case we just have a simple for loop. Goes from Syria, less than ten, incrementing when each time, and then incrementing the pointer. That's what we include here at the bottom. So I would normally use the listings environment if I had the actual source code that I want to display. So there's some small technical, technical point that I wanted to discuss in more detail, using the wrong saw squared, sorry, source code. But if I wanted to give just a high level of review, which in most cases that's all you need for your algorithms. Like what are the inputs and outputs? And then do different processing steps to have any algorithm rather than the actual Ross, our source code. So each of the environments as thrown sort of benefits weaknesses. For the most case, I would use the algorithm and algorithmic environment which produces this figure. If I was just playing loss or scope, probably used to else t listing requirement. But for most cases, I think the algorithm, the algorithm, an algorithmic environment, you'd probably be the best option for displaying the algorithms. Can I take? 17. Bibliography: Okay, so in this section of the course, we're going to look nasty bibliography on how to use a good tech file to automatically generation geography and let it. So this is especially useful when we're dealing with ish related work. So if we're writing a technical documents, you want to say that we are using the previous method that was first described in another paper or building on some previous papers work. And we usually need to cite that paper so that a reviewer or angular alter conn check which paper in that moment. So in the latex document, we have two files that we're going to be interesting. So we're going to be editing the bibliography dot txt file, which contains all the commands that we're using to generate the latex document. This is things like T. I'm strikes the table of contents. The introduction is where the main body of texts that's going to be in our document goes. And then we also have to be wrapped up into five. So this is going to be all the citation information that we're going to use when we're referring to papers, when referring to tankers and our document. And you can get this tree using Google Scholar or your favorites like Academic Search Engine. So once you search paper that's going to be able to find all this information. And so if you're using somewhere like I'd tell you is we have this big button that says cite this. And that'll bring you to a page like this. You'll be able to get tainted information. So you can copy that and then you can paste it here, wrapped up in file. This will contain a unique ID that you've been used to refer to the citation in the Tags file. Now, so all the information that's going to be used to generate a bibliography. So that's the title, the author, the book title, the pages here and organization. So all of that will be included in your document once we sludge. So say we're referring to some previous work in this case is study in the propagation of failures. We can just copy this. And we use the method. That means backlash site. Then we just entering the div ID. So that's the unique identifier and are wrapped up in fall and replaced that inside this I've command. And so there's multiple different styles have bibliography that you can use. So one of the most common is I Tripoli transactions. So if you do backslash style being specified, I Tripoli and t are and So this stands for entrepreneur, the transactions, which is a well-known format for a lot of technical documents. Then we need to specify the bibliography file or bearing two. And so that's T ref dot bit blow in. And then you read. So this is the file that contains all of the bibliography information. If we compile the code. You see me now, the citation here. So number one and her references as being automatically generate. So once we have compiled the references, we can also have more easily cite them. So if we use the bus backslash site, we now get the drop down menu, showing us a list of citations to use. So we can also select multiple different documents inside one site environment. So we can also cite this paper on transactions, system, LAN and cybernetics inside the on-site environment. And that gives you this joint citation inside the square brackets. And so now I know we're referring to 12 country poetry citations. And so if we move moraine today will be adequately data. So as I said, there's multiple different styles that you can use. So another popular one is ECM. And one thing that's slightly, slightly strange, flesh may take establish. If you're making changes to the bibliography, you need to make a slight change to the Beam phones long for it to get dated. So I usually just out in space or something. And you can see we now get a slightly different preferences. So the names and a capitalized, but we can also refer to alphanumeric by using t alpha bibliography style. And again, we need to make a small change in units and your references will recompile. And you see here in the references I've been updated. And we're using this often American-style two referring to the citations in our document. So that's me. You include bibliography and latex and you can specify multiple different style options. Leucine is him, I talked me out of the optimum American style. So the recommendation is to use whatever style. It's actually hard either the conference century submitting to whatever stuff style your supervisor is telling me to do for your board. And there's usually some automatic commands like the bibliography style, such can use to automatically generate the references between me. And the great thing about this is that if I maintain is removed, you can just update the rest style and let's compile. It gets removed SIR, references are automatically updated. I'm trapped. So it's not like an weren't where you can be really expensive to maintain your bibliography. Everything niches automatically generated and maintained. 18. Academic Templates: Okay, so in this final section of the course, we're going to look at some of the templates that you can use in late OK. So the first templates that we're looking at, the templates for academic papers. So I include two triplet to templates and downloadable files. So a template for transactions which formats papers in this sort of style D2 column. And we have the title of the paper, then an author list. And it's formatted in the traditional I Tripoli two-page format. Then we have the lecture notes in computer science. So this is used for a lot of the Springer journals and conferences. And this is a single page, single column document, which is formatted like this. So we have the contribution dyed onto a list of arteries and affiliations. So we'll take a closer look at each of these now. So you can open up the bear conference dot txt file. And this includes all the information you need to submit a paper to a nitrogen bullied I'm transactions, journal or conference. And they can also be good if you're writing just small reports that you're using for a class in university. So the documentation with these templates is actually really good. So it was originally headed by Michael shell. And you can visit the website for more information or any of the support sites and it has all the legal notice here. So if anything goes wrong. And so you can see the document class that we're using here is the aaaa transactions. And we're specifying that we want the conference a template specifying to use Conference. So there is a very useful and they take package information. So just some of the utility baggages that you may want to include. For specific and DVI or a PDF code. There is a citation, citation packages to gash I has specific styles and we're using the package, slips them to generate some of the text that I had to fill it in. And were using mostly the same packages that were used in their traditional articles. So on the graphic xx packages to include these images and the AMS Matt package that we've seen before and the algorithmic package. So if he wants to include any of these, we can just uncommented dash and then the package will be included. And we can use the formulas that we've been studying in the previous section. I'm just include them directly into our article. So the good thing about this template is it provides a lot of information. So we already know that AMS map. It's a popular package from the American Mathematical Society that provides many useful and powerful commands for dealing with mathematics. So, yeah, we've seen that in the previous lecture slides. And if you want to include it, we just uncommented ash. And then we can use the equation environments. So we've looked at the algorithmic package beforehand and all the different alignment and am signature packages that you can use. So and there's lots of information that you can go into more detail. So if you want to include URLs, there's a specific URL package that you can use. Then we begin the actual document. So in this slash title command, just like we had for our articles and basically all of the other documents that we created and we can change the title of the paper, compile. And then we guess that the title has been updated to title of paper. So after Nash, we list the author names that are included for who contributed to this document. So as Gary author to R3, and then it was the school of computer science, statistics. And we go to a new line and then we just list the author and the author and email addresses. So in this case it was Cary Christian and Andre ash, XYZ, and Todai or whatever the email addresses that you want to include. And this is all within an author block. And it's broken up into the author names, D School, and then the email addresses. Then we're using a lot of the same commands that we've used rightly, latex. So the Make title command, we have our abstract, which is just some Lorem Ipsum. And then we have our introduction background unrelated work, design, implementation, evaluation and conclusion. And the image is included. Basically the same way that we would have included an image in her article or any of the beam representations. So within a figure environment, including the graphics using centering in the caption on the label. So basically anything that you've learned in latex is applicable to using it for any of the standard articles. And then there's just some additional information at the end of the document. So we also listen acknowledgement. So I would like to thank the world. So this is usually where you acknowledge maybe your supervisor or if you've received some funding from state buddy Dale usually wants you to acknowledge them. So that's where you put your grant number, whatever that you've received from them. So the style that we're using here is I Tripoli introns and then the bibliography. So where are we include all the bibliography information where it's cited here is in the href dotted file. So this is where all our bibliography information is, and it's the citation that's included in this package. So it makes it really easy to submit papers to conferences and journals that are unbiased I Tripoli, because you just need to update this with the contents of your paper. And it's formatted in the correct style, which makes it easy, really easy for publishing. So obviously you're going to need to update the section titles and they can be anything you want. But they'll usually follow the same sort of pattern of having an introduction background, some design, implementation and evaluation and inclusion. So that's the overall style than most academic papers would fall. But as you can obviously mix and match as EC fish, there, they're going to be different between different papers. So all of the style information is included in this I triple E trans dot CSS file. So this is basically where all the information is stored and how do you actually form out this paper? So you never need to change anything in here, but it can be interesting to just have a look at it to them to see how it's formatted. So it's quite detailed and goes on for a good bit. So it's basically declaring all the commands, d different typesetting options. So when to put a figure on to a new page or to break up some text. That's all defined a near. But there's no need to change any of this. It can just be interesting to take a quick look at it and see what the document is actually formatted. So moving on to our next academic document format. It's the lecture notes and computer science. So this is a single column paper environment, and you can open it using the sample paper dot txt file. And so once you have done latex, You can see here we have the Document class. You are using LL, NCS for the lecture notes and computer science series. And we're passing in the running heads option. So we're using a lot of the same packages that we used in the article and I triple E class and it'll de traffic x package for including our images. Then we begin to document and and we also am a staring in the title. So we give tanks to support for organization next. So this is probably some funding body or maybe if it's just something for a glass than maybe a TA helped you or you got some support from your friends. See you can miss some things there. So then in the same format as we move on to the authors, you can include your orchid ID. So I'll researchers now will mostly have an orchid ID. So it's like a unique identifier, identifier which can identify them among other researchers. And then we list the, the institution, the email for all the different authors on this gets updated in the subtitle of command, which is quite similar to what we've seen previously. And the numbers just refer to the institutions. So you can have, in this case, the second author belongs to multiple institutions. So Princeton and Springer, Heidelberg. And after dash weren't just defining some keywords that are separated by the slash and which puts this dots in between each of the keywords. And then we have our first section, then a samples, a subsection sample, then a paragraph. So an even lower than a sub section. And then we have some of the tables, which includes the different size of fonts that we can use. So you wouldn't use this in an actual table just to demonstrate the different types of fonts that are available. So having the Section D, sub sections and then the paragraph and what the different level font sizes will look like. And then we include some formulas. So we have the equation environment that we've seen from AMS mats and the image. So when you're using these formats, the lecture notes and computer sciences images take up quite a lot of room because obviously they're only single column. It's amazing that you're taking up an entire row rather than just hover. Oh, so it can be quite challenging or I've, and using these templates, the papers at and to have a lot more pages and it can be harder to maintain compared to double column. So just keep that in mind when you're using these templates. Normally there's not much choice. If you want to submit to a particular conference, you have to use the template because you can just keep that in mind. And so at the end, we can also have these proofs. And if we want to include the bibliography information, we can use either a separate bibliography file. So this is what is specified here. You can use the SP LINCS 0-4 style. And then you can include the bibliography in the roughed up bib, as we've seen in the transactions. And it includes the bibliography in roughed up bib and use the bibliography style I triple E transactions. They do it slightly different in the default temptation lecture notes in complete cuter sciences, they begin the bibliography and then you include the bib items. So this is where you are. And if you remember previously, I'd said that some templates, they'll include the bibliography information within the text file. I don't usually like to do this. I'd like to have a separate file. But here you can see that they've included the different bid items. And it has all the information. I meant the citations that are included threat the paper. So you can use this style if you want to push typically, I would have the raft AP IB style instead. And so if you want more information on the lecture notes and computer scientists formatted, you can go to the NCEES dot CLS. So that's the class file and that contains all the information about how it's formatted and wash the individual commands either defined. And so that's basically the two styles of an academic article template that I include in this. They can be really useful even if you just have to submit a report in your class or in your school or university. It makes your Abort look really professional and well done. And it can be really useful as well, just to separate it into different sections and subsections, I find it much easier to rise in latex because you end up just breaking the documented parrots into the different sections that you need to write. And then you can just focus on writing one section and then building it up into a complete document. 19. Report Templates: So the next template that I include in the downloadable files is for thesises or longer documents. So the academic papers are usually for a shorter reports there maybe five or ten pages. But if you have a thesis, so an undergraduate reports your master's thesis or a PhD thesis. It's better to use this report glass. So you can open it up by double-clicking on the thesis dot txt file. Then we can take it and preview of it. So at the start, we list all the packages, the document configurations that we want to have. So we define a graphics path using figures. So if you look here, you see as usual, we have a Figures folder which will contain anneal, the figures that we want to include in our thesis. Then you can set up the packages that you want to include. So we have things like square numbers comma, you can set up the hyperlinks. So whether you want to clear the hyperlinks that color that you want to use them. So you can set this up as blue. And if we mile, you can see that all the hyperlinks now gets set up as blue. So if you have, you can specify that once you click on the university name here would redirect you to decide. So normally I like to leave the URL colors black. So it's not as obvious. And they fit in which the editor text that isn't linked. So we use the title and generated here. This is all the packages and touch we include in the document, redefine some specific colors. So my green migrate my wave. And then we also have all the formatting options. So whether we wanted to show tabs, the step number, normally I'd leave all of this as it is. It's pretty well set up and, and this, this template has served me quite well. So I've been using it for my undergraduate and my master's and my PhD. So it's been really useful over the last few years. And I've been using the same template for most of the major documents that have had to rush. So where we define all the information is in the thesis dot CSS file. So in the thesis dot txt file, you can see here by the comments that this is the title page. And so within the title page, we begin this title page environment, we center it. And then we have a large and then we have our university name, which is backslash University name. So where the university name is defined is in the thesis dot CSS file. So if we scroll down in the margins and to the document variables. So this is where all the variables that are used in the thesis are defined. So if you want to change the title or change your, your supervisor is suitable for S or who have H2. We can. It comes out again and you see our professor gets updated to professor who. So this is where you can change a lot of the information in the file that will be used, tried to file. So it's things like the title of your thesis. Your examiner is what degree you're going for, the author, the address, the subject keywords. And then so a lot of the information of the university, the specific department or in what research group you're in? My faculty urine. So all of this information can be included to write the document, but you only have to specify it once in here. And then you can just refer to it by using the commands that you built up here. So things like backslash thesis title or a backslash University name. So the actual title page, I think is really nice for this document. Where you have the university name, you have some spacing, then you include the logo. So in this case the logo is in the pictures folder. And then this the logo of my University. So that's just include it here. And you can specify the size. Then we have our horizontal rule and we have our thesis title. So we can update that here. Thesis titled tree. And then we have the and the author names. So the author is Gary supervisor, mas professor who. And you can provide a, a Draf, so a link to their site. If you want to redirect people, new take on the supervisor's name or in the university name, and then you have a degree that the report was submitted for. So in this case, it was submitted for a doctor of philosophy in the university name. So you can finish all these variables. I'm either in the text file or in the CLS file. And then we move on to the list of contents. And we have in this document, so we have our list of figures, list of tables. And then these are in the chapter titles, student chapter, university univariate analysis, interesting topic and ensemble methods, comparison and imaginative contribution. So these are all of the different chapters that we include in this document. So the textFile is actually quite small, and most of the content comes true these chapters, which are inputs using the input command. So if you click on one of the chapters here on the left, you can see that it opens all the content that we have for chapter one. In this case, we have the chapter title, which is univariate, univariate analysis. The label that we can use to refer to the specific chapters. And then heading that we're going to use attrit the chapter. And this case I just cite some papers and then how some Lorem Ipsum text. So in the main text file, you can see we have the contents. Then we have another page for the list of figures. We don't have any figures yet, so it's just blank. Then we have another page for the list of tables. And we know that many tables which just blank. But this will automatically update once you include tables in the document. So here you can see the first chapter that we described in this chapter one, 0.2x vol. So they're all in the chapters folder in the main document. So you can go to report chapters and then open in chapter one dot dx. And so there you can see the references that we've made using the backslash site command. And then we're just using some Lorem Ipsum text to fill up some of the pages. And here is the text that we're using at the top of the page. So if we get rid of the univariate analysis, you can see now that the top of the page, it just says in Hamas system instead of univariant analysis. So you can customize this for each of the individual chapters in your document. So we can open up Chapter Two, 345. So these are all of the different chapters that we have in our report diminish as just mostly Lorem ipsum text. And so at the very end of our report, we have our bibliography. And so this is generated in the text file at the start. So we specify the bibliography style as we've seen in the previous report templates using notes and Computer Sciences and I triple E transactions. And this we're using the U and S or T NAT bibliography style. I don't really know much about it. And it seems to generate a quite nice bibliographies. And then we're using, we're including the bibliography, bibliography dot M file, which is here. So we're not using raft up bib and has a slightly different name. And it's called bibliography dot bib. So that's how we include all of the additional information that we want. So we can also include John appendix in our document to V12. So we see here we have our thesis content for appendices, which will also add ish had to the contents. And we start the appendix environment using the slash appendix. And then we can include Appendix a, which is in the folder appendices. So up here we have an Appendix a, which includes some information and inclusion code. So we can just be smart, detailed information and any formulas that you've derived or some additional figures or maybe some detail of that decoder including just contained some more detailed information about the code that's included along with this report. And it also gets added to the table of contents at the start. So this allows us to generate some really nice-looking reports. We have all the contents that are needed. The chapter titles listed, figures, tables to include a code and the bibliography. So it's been really useful for me. I've used it for my undergraduate from my Master's, my PhD, and I've never had any problems with it. So definitely if you have big report coming up, you should definitely check it out and try and use it. 20. CV Templates: So another thing that latex can be really useful for is for creating or CV. So I include tree different CV templates and the downloadable files. So we have CV underscore two, seeming underscore seven and tv underscore 14. So these are just different templates that you can use depending on which style you find the best. So the first one, CV underscore two, is a very minimalistic style. So like a graduate template. So it just has some objectives. The Education, a brief experience, and some extra curricular activities. And it's a very simple format, so all in the same color with just a simple line to differentiate, differentiate or some of the text. And See V7, it's a bit more modern. We have a cover letter, first of all, and then we have the actual CV for P3's mesh. In this case, we have an image at bit more colorful and the text is divided and with a bit more emphasis. And then we have another page just listing some other awards, computer skills and communication skills. And then cv 14 is quite a modern template as well. So there's lots of different color and bright red color. You have the nice central formatting. Then we have lots of different sections for skills experience, extracurricular activities, honors, presentations, and writing skills. So we can take a look into each of the individual CV templates by open. So take a look at the first one, which is cv underscore 2.2x, And you can preview and using F7. So this is a medium lent graduate curriculum vitaes. It's quite minimalistic. You can update the document class options and what the margin on the font size that you want to use. In this case, we're using 10 font and are using the rest dot CSS file. So this contains all the formatting information, the class Frisch. And then we can set the text wit. So depending on whether we want a bit more whitespace or we want to test to be a bit more spread out to the edges of the document. So in the first section of the CV contains the name and address information. So in this case we have John Smith name that's displayed up here. And we have this a horizontal rule, which is the big line. And you can update any of the height font information to make it a bit bigger or smaller if we really wanted to. And in this case we have address. So it's 1234 Broadway. We can update to be 1-2-3-4-5. Broadway dot gets up, updated automatically. And then we have the city stage. And then we can have some phone contact information as well. So then we begin the actual Resume section. So in this case, the first Bish is the objective. So the objective for John's Mish is a position in the field of computers with special interests in business applications, programming, information processing on big data, on management system. So that's quite a good objective. But you can update it to me whenever you want. So if you're not in the field of computers, you can change it to be biology or whatever. And then you go into the education section. So here you can list all the various degrees. So if you just have a bachelor science or you've done your masters, you can make it a bulleted list with all the different types of education that you have. And then go into the computer skills section. So any of the languages that you know, such as cobol, focus, notice Auto Tab, and the different operating systems that you have experienced wish. And then we get into the actual professional experience section. So in this section, we're listing all of the previous jobs that we've had. So in this case, John was previously a business applications programmer and the fall of 1990 and it was in whenever department. And so when you're listening experience, it's always good to have quantitative outcomes that you had while you were there. So in this case, at John had developed for user-friendly forecasting systems, each of which produces 18 to 139 individual reports. So when you're listing your previous job, you want to have some specific bullet point touched you accomplished there, which John has managed to do. And then he moved on to another position as a research programmer. And then he was an assistant manager. And then the penultimate section is the community service. So this is some volunteering work that he's done before. This was a basketball marathon, 24-hour charity event to beneficial and whatever club he was raising the money for. Then you can also test whenever extra curricular activities. And so this is quite a nice template, although it's a bit basic, seeing that it uses, uses all the same color. There's not much, not much additional images or things included. So C B7 is a more modern CV. So you can open up by going to you see V7, 0.2x. So in this CV, it's a more modern, includes a cover letter. So at the top of the CV, we can specify a lot of the information, such as the Document class, what size paper we're going to be printing it on, whether we are using the suns font. And then this is the crass we're using, which is modern CV. So in the document, you can see there's a lot of color used. So we can change the color used by updating the slash modern CV color option. So in here, we can specify red. And if we compile it again and see all of this and the previous formatting which had been blue, has been updated to read including the quotient. I quite like blue though, so I'm going to change a bug. And we have a few different styles that we can use when we're using the actual modern TV template. So at the moment it's classic, but we can change it to a banking CV style. And if you see here, it's updated the cover letter to be quite a bit different. And it's changed the formatting here in the at the actual TV. So I'll just switch back to give you another look. And you can see here for the banking one, we lose this picture and change the formatting information because in banking CVs you usually wouldn't have a picture included. So this CV is really easy to change and you can change the colors and a different margins. So if you want to reduce the document margins, you can just change the scale. And so now we get into the actual person information than we have in the resume. So the firstName is Peter Smith. So you can change this to be whatever you want. John Smith. And that updates. The John Smith up here is updated ever ended document. So you only need to change it once and then it's changed in the CV on the in the cover letter and you add in the address information. So your contact information, your filling the facts, the email. So you can comment on any of these if you probably you don't have a fax at this stage, so you can come in at a dash and then it just gets removed from the title up here. The information that's added here. You can include your email address as well and also have a photo in the pictures folder. So and that's where our picture of John is at the minute he's quite old or has a classic looking photo. Then we begin the actual cover letter. So it's going to send this to the hatred Department of Whenever company where applying to and then Dear Sir or Madam, some Lorem ipsum text and then whatever the letter closing. So yours sincerely and the new page. And so then we get into the actual curriculum VTA. And here we have the different sections. So we have our education sector, him section. So he did a Veterinary Business Studies at the University of California at Berkeley, got a 7.5 GPA, would a specialization and commerce. And also had a Masters of Commerce from the University of California, Berkeley and a GPA of h. And that was from 2010 to 2 thousand has an entertaining so between speed of up by air, maybe you ended up one year. And so that's how easy it is to change these templates. Then we go to the work experience section. He had some vocational work experience as a first-year analysis and Lehman Brothers. And again, he shows the detailed achievements. So making the specific things that he achieved clearly visible, I just time and Lehman Brothers. And yet also as a summer intern there for awhile and some other miscellaneous experienced study had so like summer jobs as a computer repairs specialist. So the next section we have is the award section. So this could be anything that you've done in your undergraduate or during your time. In school, the different computer skills that he has. So things like programming languages and Microsoft Windows, and then also the communication skills. So if he's won some oral presentations or a poster at an annual business conference, then we have the languages. So if he has any international languages such as Spanish or Mandarin or Dutch in this case. And you can also list the skill level at the end of it. So you want to say whether you're a conversation, a fluent, or if you just have a basic understanding. And then finally, just some interests that actually has. So Piano, dancing, cocaine, and running. So they're not really that important to include in your CV, but you can just have them at the end. So the final CV template that we're going to be looking at is cv underscore 14. So if we open up the resume underscore CV dot txt file, and you can see a preview of it here. So this is a really nice lugging modern CV template. And you have the header here at the top, which contains basically an overview of all the information. So he's a software engineer on security expert, and all of his contact information is right at the top. So it makes it easy to reach all of the sciences. Linkedin is GitHub website and then his email address and phone number. So the first section contains the packages on the document configurations. So in this case we're using the awesome CV template. We have the geometry. So the amount of margins that we're having at the end of the document. And here we can change the color. So here we have awesome red, so we can change that to be pink. And you see now we have the pink color instead of red in our CV. So you can change it to that if you'd like. And then we get into the actual personal information on the CV. So the name being Club de park yi's from Korea. And all of his contact information. So there's LinkedIn is get up, his homepage is positioned as a software engineer and his specialty is in security. And he has a quote to make the change that you want to see in the world. So we can be nice to have a quote like this at the start of your CV. And then the CV is actually broken into a number of different text files. So sort of like the report that we've seen in the last section where it was broken up into chapters. In this case, it's broken up into Cv sections. So we go to the CV sections, we'll learn how we can see. He has a section for your education and experience, extracurricular, and honors. So if you go into tech studio, we can open up the education section. And then here we can see the education that is included. So he uses this backslash CV entry command. And his degree is in Computer Science and Engineering from Poland University of Science and Technology in South Korea. And he was there from 2010 to present. So it's been quite a long time. Then he has a specific item and he was given a scholarship. So that's included in this first section in education. And we'll move on to the skills. He has a, another CV skills section. And at each of the backslash, CAD skills creates this nice formatting option where it has programming, then the list of programming languages that he's learned to lab on. The web languages and also the communication languages such as Korean, English, Japanese, and Chinese. So then we go to experience. So he's had quite a lot of experience on a number of different companies. And these are just in these backslash CV entry commands. So you can update, update, update, and change this as you need. And then we go to the extra curricular activities, the honors and awards, and the presentations. And it's quite a long CV. It's over two pages, which I wouldn't really recommend. They usually recommend for most companies. If you have less than ten years experience that you should have a CV of two pages. So you'd probably want to remove something like the D riding her the presentations to make sure it fits into two pages or maybe remove some of these awards. But you get the overall idea and touched. You can basically change any of these programming committees are just delete the old thing entirely. And from the resume dot text, say we want to remove committees. We can comment that out and recompile it. And you see the committee's gets removed. So if you remove the writing as well. Now RCV fits into two pages. Show, so we've shown a lot of different CV template so far. So you can choose whichever one works for you the best and just update the information. And then compiler. 21. Poster Templates: Okay, so the final thing that I'm going to cover in this course on latex is a poster template that you can use to generate posters for a 0 or one. So basically for some large forum posters. So we have two different ones for generating either landscape or portrait poster. And you can see this is the general format of the posterior done it generates. And we can open up using by double-clicking on conference poster underscore five. And we can get a preview of it. So we can specify the Document class that we want to use. So we can specify a paper size. We're generating a four. In this case we're using a 0 and we're generating a landscape poster. So we specify all of the packages on the different document configurations. And these first section. So this is all the packages that we want to use. They're all pretty standard that we've seen before. So Graphics x, the specific font that we're going to use, the MS font. If we wanted to include mats, then this is the posterior header section. So we begin a mini page. We can change the color. The unnecessary complicated research title, an exploration of complexity by John and James Smith. So you can change all this information to match your university and department names and this specific research topic that you're investigating. And then at the start here we have the multi columns form Cindy meant of columns that you want to break the poster into. We have the color that we're specifying for abstract. Then we're just filling in some Lorem Ipsum text. Then in the introduction, we use this not-so-great lugging saddled Brian. And then we specify all the details that we want in our introduction. Then we move on to the different objectives. This is in a bulleted list that contains the numbers one through eight. So this is the main objectives that you were trying to get in your study. Materials and methods. The mathematical section, and the results can be generated using the table. So we use a rap table environment to wrap the table inside some text. Because in posters you usually don't have that much space, so you want to fit as much as you can. So in this case, we're wrapping the table around the text. And the table contains some information on the different treatments. And all the text is going around dish. And we have typically include graphics for including any figures. And we have some tables and any text or Anish. And in the conclusions, we have another figure here on the top right. And then we have any of the main conclusions that we've had in this paper using the Sava Brian go there and some forthcoming research BAD that references and acknowledgements. And so in this case, we're using the sample bibliography vital. And we're using a plane referenced auditing. So we can use a CM or hyperbole or whatever Reference Style at your university professors. So the other poster is quite similar. And it's for a portrait poster, basically contains all of the same sections and the same format, except now we only have two columns on it's designed to be printed out as an A4 and a 0 in a portrait style. So it's basically the exact same. So you can just update and fill in the same information that you would in the landscape and poster, but just for the portrait poster. And then you can print today and it would look really good even on a 0 size paper. So this is the final template that we've covered using latex. So hopefully if you've got a lot of really good ideas of how to use latex. Had to use the different templates, either for CVs, for a year at thesis, for posters, for presentations, for academic reports. So if you've got a really detailed understanding of early, late X can be used in a number of different scenarios. And also a really good understanding of how to make anything you want intellect text documents. So whether that be a list using different font options, using different equations, you should be able to do that. And I haven't basically any environment where you would need a professionally typeset document. So thanks for taking the course and please leave a five-star rating if you felt it was really good. Or if you have any questions that you would like me to uncertain, you can leave them in the common section of this course. And hopefully I'll see you in future courses. 22. Beamer Introduction: Okay, so in this section of the course, we're going to be looking at using latex to pH presentations. The cluster we're going to be using for this is the beam or class. So we're talking bus where we specify what classroom use him as a boss in women. So it's an index files for producing her presentations and slides. And then we specify in the square button spot mode, we want to use the class. In this case, we're using the presentation mode. So you can also specify a unlit mode. And what this does is that if you have multi-site frames, which are basically slides and b1, instead of showing bullet points one by one, we just show you the end frame on the foundation. So it's really useful if you want to produce size that you're going to give to your students, you can just change from one day to presentation mode. And you get a readymades slides that you can apply to your students. So Oberon, reading presentations in here is really similarity. Here a standard document in later. So you can have different sections still in your beam presentation. So you can have a headline. And inside the affine section, then we can have the frames. So the frame who's basically slide too long too, became a frame and learned. And inside latch B12 country contacts. So this is going to be an outline of marsh and her presentation is going to contain. So we can just populate that table of contents. So you can think about again, we see we get eric mine here, which is the first section that we have in a presentation. So if we have another section which includes the Introduction written now, another frame, which is a sentence. And so now we have the two sections. We have our headline introduction. And then you have a first real slide saying this is the center. So one of the good things that that matrix is that you can use all the previous punish that you've been using for reading w once and use it in beam. So if we want to have a list, we can begin to eyes learned. We cannot take the Argentine study wants us to include screening for buy. And so if we can vouch who can see the average lined with this sentence, hello, lined up. We're able to use all the knowledge that we previously balance and to generate these slides. So some of the other options at your VAD frames. So if you want to specify the location of the times, you can relax using top volume like power line. You can see that now we have the content and it's displayed at the top because we have a T here. We can also be displayed at the bottom. So Steven, so we have this content here and split up button. So normally I just gave this default display somewhere in the middle. So we can also give title storing slides using coding practice. And so this is a detail topic. This is the title various line and it has some content in the body of the slide. This is all wrapped up side or introduction section. 23. Beamer Blocks: So one of the commands that you use to analyze important topics in my slides is using the blocks and learned. So we can begin to reframe. This rain is going to go over these blocks. And in the content, we want to begin another environment. And this is a Blocks environment. And so in the squiggly brackets after blocks, we want to keep our attention to some things, some interior and standing conservation. Then in the actual content of this block, we're going to have a more detailed discussion was observed. And so if we fall, so blocks is undefined, so it should be block. So you can see an interesting observation gets highlighted. And we have this subtexts underage. So at the moment, sooner or later, ten, impressive. And so what we want to do to make our presentations stamp, I'd get moon is T US, Sweden. And the team we're going to use is Copenhagen, mi e. And this is the presentation team, a true UDC and lot of latex slides. So we have this blue to talk. We have an introduction sections with the title of the presentation is nicely highlighted in blue sections. These nice graphics because item, Sierra list, formatted, nice plane. We have a name and the presentation, my presentation title at the bottom. You can see now that our block has been color-coded in this nice fashion. So we have an interesting observation than more detailed discussion about was observed. You can also have a new line and one text. And so then that's how the block environment. We will have a smaller topic. Since it is a really nice way of drawing attention to specific points that you may be trying to raise and the slide. So there is a huge number of different latex themes that you can use, and so on. So there's a huge number of different latex teens which can use. So there's a huge number of tipping Playtex teams that can ease, so we're alone. So if you compile lunch becomes gave me that this yellow and blue certainly environment. And then at the bottom we see that the further is formatted slightly different. The number of slides that run servitude, six fields things miss here yet the slightly different formatting is we have this shadow instead of the displayed using Copenhagen. Also use Metro partners. So this is what I'm taking much more recent matrix is and this is much more on them in the list. And you can see for each section is, has a section slide, which we did not presume determines the economic introduction. And it's just a lot more minimalist, be formatted and the other things. And you can see here we have a nice slide title. And it definitely doesn't use as much. And Rao's much attention in the block environments. It's not as no spoke that this is a block comparative ease in Copenhagen. So spatial planning to Copenhagen. You see this is much more on contrast ina and you get a lot more attention drawn to the text material. Or if you want to make an important point for an interesting observation. So it's totally up to you and which team that you choose to use. I quite like travelers because it just says my style that mark, but countries with everything you want. So there are a number of different blocks then we can use for creating errand matrix presentations compared to religious divisional dark. So if we frame very going to be talking about another one of those, Nash is the first block. So this is maybe if you want to have a presentation born-again, can students something or trying to like something actually on people to buy. And he basically created a very similar way, reacted again frame. And then inside the begin frame became large block. And if you give a title to alert block, so this one is time alert estimation. Then in the contents, you can draw your attention to what you want your learner to be. So it's going to be don't yell students. And then you could compile dash. Using that we get this alert here. And it's highlighted differently. P block environments, the default block environmentally specified appear. So there's other environments that we can increase, latex and very different things that we want to draw attention to. And the different colors help create. The printing's too may want to draw attention to it. So another team that we can generate a frames is a example block. So what if we began example? Say, this is a great low. And if compile Nash VC, that gets color-coded that screen. So we have the library, read fare alerts, and blues are defaults. Blocks we sort of match the current slide ingredients for definition. So to use another block that we can use and that's varying definitions. So if they became the motor frame using block three definitions, in the definition environment. We take next is always equal to t seven, which is true. And then we guess and mission, which is a slightly different way. So there are a range of different blocks that we can use a latex and they're really good for prime here, student or even the audience's attention to specific things that you want to call out in her slides. Pla, just general things you want to call it alerts. Examples are definitions. These are definitely made using these stretch response. 24. Beamer Columns: So one of the things really is to Microsoft PowerPoint is having multiple different columns inside. So you usually see the slide where you have some texts in the left picture in table on right. So we can also lead to same thing in data. So as we begin another friend environment. And good inside the frame, we can begin a columns environment. And within the Colonies violent, we can specify as many times as we want. In this case we're going to have. So you use the backslash column. Then we're gonna specify inside the curly brackets the sizeable. So when we say 0.5. texts was within the text where you can type on the same sample sentence. Then we can add another body to fill up the rest of the slide. That's going to be 0.5. Sweet texture. And so on this slide of this side of this slide, we are going to include a graphic. Image. Width equals 85 centimeters. And the image file is included in the fingers folder in this scripture in the folder structure route and willing to inequality tougher than from earlier in the presentation. So you can see here we have the simple sentence and then we have the cap folder, which is on the presentation. So it not amortize theory. And so we can keep building up text here as much as you want and stays within this point. So if we increase the size of cache, we'll see if it stays on this side of the column. It becomes to the rest of the image on the bottom. So 5-7 years being good enough size for this image. And you can have the text here which describes what you want. So within the frames, we can also ask label. So we want to refer to this later on the slide. We can see the slides catch. So we can also include any latex presentations and eating that we were able to include in the general latex document. So if we want to include the tables that we used previously, you can follow the exact same format that we use reduction. So in this case we have a frame in a columns environment. And then we set up the column still 0.5 times the x width. Text is sampled external table. And then the other 05 of the textbook, so the other half is find where creating a table fragment. We then century the table environment and we resize this box to be expert. Service is resized to take up the full text with which is defined here. Then we have our table, which is left justified, left. And it's the simple computing their characteristics table. And we had seen before in latex document small c compiler. You can see that no, we have the slide generated. So on the left hand we have, this is a sample text for the table. And then to the right, we also have a table generated all using latex. And so it's really easy to implement ending that you've learned in the previous lessons and just put it straight into a presentation. You need to just copy and paste it. Once you put it into the correct slide, times the correct column within slide. So you can also still referring to individual tables and slides. I just labeling, labeling them in the same way. In this case we have a labeled or we can use later on sedation. Surely you can refer to specific slides. So one of the other good thing is that you can be included from the previous lessons that you've learned about is tics. So say you have a really nice figure that we've drawn. It ticks, you can easily put it into a presentation. I am using the column environment. So this case, we just have the sample text with the text block. And then we just became takes environment as we were to normal latex document. And in this case from a tree. So we have to novel distance, style and sibling distance as well. So the only thing we have to make sure that we change his touch, we use the package takes. So if the rewatched and you see now we have these really nice takes figure, which has been generally, we have the text onto Lecture is really one of the really good tens image made us is that once you draw, once it's applicable under and so you can change the level distance, you can change the sibling distance. You'd change the color. But once you've got a plot that you're happy wish in the paper and touchy drawn in. Just easily copy and paste dash into these slides under threading for presentation. So once he works within your final document, then it's really easy to transfer that to the presentation you may have to give. So if you're writing a technical paper and you need to then give a presentation on Ash Wednesday gets accepted to a conference. This makes it really easy to generate the presentation because you basically have all the content that you use in your actual Bangor and you just copy and paste that into a really nice presentation. So let's if freezing takes me back to the next topic. 25. Beamer Proof: So there's one other environment, WK inquiring spirit frames, which may be useful to somebody, especially from a more mathematical things subject to trade size for that. So one of the things we can do is have a proof in a frame. Similar. We have t printing title which says there is no largest prime number. And then between subtitle, which says that the proof uses, we looked at how to absurdum. And then we have the actual proof that program to show in the slides. So we're using the same alert syntax of babies before. And we start it alert the second slide. So we get this first slide is the completion outline of the proof. Then the slides that are generated using this proof and burning and highlight the specific steps of protecting each side. So we get the first slide with nothing I'm ready. And this alert is generated. The second slide, highlighting the first enumerated list point. And then we get the second grains on the 3 formula. So all the different steps that we have in our proof. So there's letting the number of primes, suppose that number is finite at p, the product of all primes. Then people's monitors not visible anti-party, therefore, p plus one and salzberg, Right? So you don't need to sort of understand the logic of the proof, but it just shows how you can include different types of groups in the slides if you need them. So there is a specific environment. And so if you are generating the notes, do you change the reference at the tops to, instead of presentation, meander into shows the final bit of the groups that can be a slightly less light to reduce the amount of printing. That's me. 26. Beamer Alert List: So once we have all our definition and some examples of inner presentation, we can move on to a new section and hazards. And if we rush, you can see that method's gets added to appear is the formatting option. And this thing takes presentation. And it also automatically gets added to the table of contents. So again, this is the variability of X matrix compute PowerPoint is dash. All this stuff is automatically generated. And one thing I will mention though, if you're using presentations in a team environment where you need to work with other people and make sure that comfortable using latex soon TRC experience. Because most people say you've created a presentation, they will expect you to give it a words that we want to make some small edits and changes. And so if you give them a femur and text documents in the image here on that particular gene. So I'm going to, if you're using this in a professional setting, ash, everyone on your team is completing that later and from recent paper. So if you want to create frames, Bash, different alerts, and there's a few different options that you can use. In this case, we create a frame environment and you want to have a list. So we peak in itemize environment and inside the ice because environmental idle. And then at the bottom you can see we have an alert specification. So learn specification is what we want to use in this presentation. So we can now and the crystalline, and this will highlight whatever is in the text First. We don't mean spending takes, so you can decide on and we can create another item that gets alerted on slide 24 more. That's a fair, there's a train. So if we combine them, we can see we have one slide here for an item one is highlighted, and layer two is either you have another tree is out of it. So this is a lattice to generate tree slides where we have different numbers of slides each. And so we change this to one retinal. And we go back. Doctrine knows, we see that we only have landslide January. So this were latex is quite clever. And last, if you have a handout, you don't want to have all these partial slides in unknown because there is no point W, one below 0.20 a. This is the same content in the slide. So freely handouts, you can just have the phone list that you're going to have fun slide. But make sure if you doing the presentation, that you change it back or else the same. Combat lunch, we now have items that are highlighted again. They are introduced and stage by stage. 27. Beamer Hyperlinks: So one other cool thing that we can include a latex presentation is femur buttons that can allow our users to go to hyperlinks within the presentation. So if you wanted to go to particular slides, so we can begin a crane environment title hyperlinks. And within the spring, we're going to create a hyperlink. So the hyperlink in the name, we give it the name of the reference that we want. So in this case, we want to reference to the image that we had, which was the cache. Miss is the label that we previously defined. In the text. We can use a beam or button. The blue button text edX from. But in this case it's a cut pitcher. We can see here it's clickable. Brings us to the cup, the picture of the slide that it was all. We need this to ferry to basically any of the labels that we have in our documents. And we have another label for the introduction. So we can have another hyperlink to the introduction. We can convince him everything. So there is a beam or in CO2 gotten female return button, be skipping. So there is slightly different. But please, so this one is the one that we have at the minute. And you'll see when we have the Introduction button, it's femur returned buttons. So there's an arrow pointing backwards. If we click on that, it brings us back to the introduction. So you can use this to referring to basically anything in your document. So that's one more hyperlink that goes to the results. And we can see another inner button. So we can now a femur Doty button that goes to the results. So let's pick this easy to their results line. So this is really useful if you want to have an clickable items in your presentation, thinking Bringing the user. So if you're using it for notes and you want to use them to get quickly, look up something. You can have. A hyperlink goes forward and then when they're twins as well. So he can use these at the bottom of individual sites. So they don't really take some x-rays. 28. Beamer Onslide: So if you want to show some results slide by slide, and I'm only showing partial bits of information. You can use the onside land. So you see in this proof environments, give the full proof upfront. And then we go through the individual steps of it. Let's say if we're showing some results, B may want to build up some tension and strain, or we can do that is by using the backslash on the slide command. So here we're showing some results from the data scrapped along within the frame, we have a title, so it's tables. And then moving the table, we have the combatant rename the swing colony cycle type, calling in public comment, and then their total time. So if we combine all this, you can see here in the first line of table, it gets presented in the first slide. So we have the very lame adder then on slide two to the end. So the commands on slide and you suppress specifies these angle brackets that we want to go through two to the end. And this is from slotting tree to the end, side force Vm. And that's basically how you show different demands of text and true number of different sites. Until the end. You can see here the information keeps getting out of it. Until we'd have the phone table or hand, which goes the triathlon results. Stay and did another time they run so turbulence and a and the overall winner, norman P. So you want to build up in the detention are revealing some information slide-based sideway, slide by slide. You can use the on-site command to break apart your slides and then specifying an mudslides monitoring to prepare on. And if you wanted to run to the end, you just use a dash after and they were at the end. So we can be a really good way of breaking up and dividing slide. So you see, we will have to include this in the results section. Then the results have been added to the top here. We show the relative difference. 29. Beamer Printing: So one final thing I want to mention, if you printing these slides for you students, and we change the presentation option in Pillar 200. So as I said before, this makes it so that is we have these lists that I generated over multiple slides. And it just prints the finalist instead of fighting and to print all the site before ej, which would be liberalized a paper for one of the other cool things that you can use is package which lazy to specify the mental pages that weren't argument of slides that you want in each page. See the package, prefer PDF pages. And using this package, unless it's to use the P, g, f page. Ages, use lineage. And inside as command, we can specify and many slides we want per-page. So for page compile up. And you've seen that we have for slides on every one a. So if we open that up pdf here, you can see it more easily. So if you wanted to print the sash in a time p, And then we're able to print cash and take slides. So one of the options that we can also look and to my slides, these border shrink specify that equal to two millimeters. And if we compile, we didn't see that we get a two millimeter border now, Randy, outside of our presentations. So yeah, that's basically how you would transform these presentations and do something that's pronounciation lectures. And you can specify the length. So you can have two slides, presentation if you feel that much better. But I usually go for the force its presentation.