Learn Korean Fast at Home ∥ Online Basic Korean Class | [Korean Girl] Cracking Korean 101 | Skillshare

Learn Korean Fast at Home ∥ Online Basic Korean Class

[Korean Girl] Cracking Korean 101, Korean teacher for you

Learn Korean Fast at Home ∥ Online Basic Korean Class

[Korean Girl] Cracking Korean 101, Korean teacher for you

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37 Lessons (4h 28m)
    • 1. Introduction to Learn Korean Fast at Home for Beginners Course

      5:20
    • 2. Korean Hangeul Introduction

      6:43
    • 3. Korean Syllable formation

      8:06
    • 4. Korean Short Vowels(Unrounded) l, ㅔ, ㅐ, ㅡ, ㅓ, ㅏ

      6:44
    • 5. Korean Short Vowels (Rounded) ㅟ, ㅚ, ㅜ, ㅗ

      6:28
    • 6. [y] soundlike Korean Double Vowels1 ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅖ, ㅒ

      6:58
    • 7. [w], [i] soundlike Korean Double Vowels2 ㅘ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅙ, ㅢ

      6:14
    • 8. Korean Consonants ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ

      7:12
    • 9. Korean Consonants ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅌ

      7:12
    • 10. Korean Consonants ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ

      7:12
    • 11. Korean Consonants ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅎ

      7:12
    • 12. Korean Consonants ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ

      7:12
    • 13. Korean Consonants ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ, ㄹ

      7:12
    • 14. Korean Final Consonants [k ̚ ]

      5:28
    • 15. Korean Final Consonants [t ̚ ] sound,,

      5:14
    • 16. Korean Final Consonants [p ̚ ]

      4:05
    • 17. Korean Final Consonants [n], [l], [m], [ŋ]

      4:32
    • 18. The Names of Korean Consonants+Review

      6:29
    • 19. Korean Double Final Consonants [k ̚ ], [t ̚ ] sound

      5:48
    • 20. Korean Double Final Consonants [p ̚ ], [l] sound

      5:53
    • 21. Korean Double Final Consonants [m], [n] sound

      3:41
    • 22. Korean Sentence structure1

      9:01
    • 23. Korean Sentence structure2

      7:27
    • 24. Korean Connective adverbs

      10:38
    • 25. Pointing to Something or Someone Korean Demonstrative Pronouns

      9:53
    • 26. My Favorite Korean Food Korean Particles 이 , 가

      9:59
    • 27. Introduce Yourself Korean Particles 은, 는 1

      9:19
    • 28. Nationality+jobs Korean Particles 은, 는 2

      8:29
    • 29. Expressing Possessions Korean Possessive Particles 의

      8:23
    • 30. Talking about What You Did Korean Particles 을, 를

      7:06
    • 31. Expressing Existence & Action Korean Particle 에, 에서

      9:57
    • 32. Korean Verbs Creating Action Verbs

      8:38
    • 33. Korean Verbs Creating Descriptive Verbs

      6:20
    • 34. Korean Greetings Formal & Informal expressions

      7:16
    • 35. Korean Farewells Formal & Informal expressions

      5:23
    • 36. Korean Numbers Sino, Native Numbers

      10:46
    • 37. The Present + The Past Ongoing Event Korean Progressives

      8:17
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About This Class

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Hello! Welcome to my basic Korean course number 1 series.

Learn Korean Fast at Home is an online basic Korean course from a native Korean teacher Stormi Kim who was born in Busan Korea. You will learn the four basic Korean Language skills that are fundamentals to Korean communication at home. (Listening ,Reading, Speaking, and Writing) If your goal is to make Korean friends or to have jog opportunities in Korea, this lecture will be the cornerstone of learning Korean language. This course will be helpful for students who prepare for Korean exam Topik. Moreover, anyone who is interested in studying new languages can have a good command of Korean through this course.

This course is recommendable for :

  • Students who want to start learning Korean with a native Korean speaker.
  • People who are K-drama and K-pop lovers.
  • Anyone who wants to have confidence in learning Korean
  • Students who want to master basic Korean expressions for academic purpose such as preparing for Korean Topik test.
  • People who want to make Korean friends.

 

Through this course, you will be able to :

  • read and write Korean alphabet confidently.
  • learn how to make Korean sentences in a correct order
  • speak Korean words with pictures that show Korean culture
  • learn Korean fast and easily with a lot of Korean quizzes and exercises
  • use basic Korean conversational expressions naturally
  • develop your Korean language 4 skills to the next level

This basic online Korean class is divided into four sections so that you can learn Korean step by step and improve your Korean Language skills at your own pace. You will listen to my voice and practice Korean through a variety of Korean language exercises. At the end of each lesson, I recommend that you write Koreanstudygram on your Instagram with pictures which show that you study Korean hard. If you want to get instant answers and likes from me, subscribe to my SNS account called Cracking Korean. At the end of this online basic Korean course, you can write Korean consonants and vowels naturally and master constructing simple Korean sentences in your own Korean language ability. Additionally, I attached some learning materials about basic Korean skills and Korean keyboard for you so that you can practice your Korean language ability day bay day.

Enroll now! 

And start the journey of learning Korean together. 

♬Music by (HYP MUSIC)

발랄한 귀여운 브금 | 저작권 없는 음악 | Free BGM | HYP - Monkey

Meet Your Teacher

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[Korean Girl] Cracking Korean 101

Korean teacher for you

Teacher

Hello,  

I'm Stormi Kim from Cracking Korean. I'm a native Korean speaker who was born in Busan, Korea. I'm your Korean Genie who helps students from all over the world to speak Korean like a Korean native. Before teaching Korean online, I have taught many students from all ages in schools or one on one in Korea over 10 years. I think that the teaching experiences gives me opportunities to improve students' language skills and change their lives. Learning Korean will not be challenging if you learn Korean with a native Korean teacher Stormi. Believe in yourself and discover your potential in learning Korean. You can improve your Korean skills better and better with me. I will guide you to fast and easy path to learning Korean language.

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Transcripts

1. Introduction to Learn Korean Fast at Home for Beginners Course: Hello, welcome to my online basic Korean course, 'Learn Korean Fast at Home for Beginners'. Do you like K-pop, K-trot or K-drama, but haven't you learn Korean with basics? Don't you know how to read and write Korean? Or do you want to speak Korean naturally, even if you haven't visited Korea before? Then, how about learning Korean with the native Korean speaker, Song-yi Kim online. My Korean name is Song-yi. I was born in Busan, Korea where you can see beautiful beaches and taste lots of fish food. I have lived in Korea until now. I am an absolute native Korean speaker. I can be your Korean genie. Learning Korean will change your life. If you become fluent in Korean, you can get job opportunities in Korea and also make a lot of Korean friends. You can even understand the meaning of lyrics of Korean songs and of Koreans subtitles in K-drama or film without much effort. As a Korean, I understand the difficulties or the problems you have when you learn a new language. For example, Busan or Pusan? Sometimes, many students mispronounce the word Busan on at Pusan or more, they might be confused with the different meanings of Korean words. Look at the Korean word, gul. The picture shows my homemade oyster soup. Oysters are very cheap in Korea. the Korean word gul means an oyster or it means a cave. Do you think Korean is difficult? It's not that difficult. As Hangul, the Korean alphabet is phonetic language, it sounds exactly how it is written. So don't worry about learning Korean. I will guide you to through a fast and easy path to cracking Korean. This course, 'Learn Korean fast at home' deals with every aspect of Korean language, listening, reading speaking and writing. You will listen to my Korean pronunciation first and you will read the romanization of Korean words and sentences. Through practice, you can read Korean by yourself. For a practical purpose, I designed your turn activity and many types of worksheets so that you can improve your Korean speaking and writing skills. This course is categorized into four sections such as introduction, Korean alphabet, sentence order and conversation plus grammar. In the introduction section, you will learn about the history of a Korean alphabet called Hangeul and look through the hangeul with consonants and vowels. Then, you will learn about the Korean syllable structures like CVC or CVCC that are completely different from English syllable structures. With many example sentences, you can read and make simple Korean sentences. In the Korean alphabet sections, you will have deeper knowledge about Korean consonants and vowels through worksheets and activities. There are three types of consonants, basic consonants, final consonants called 'Batchim' and double final consonants called 'Gyeopbatchim'. Vowels have two types, short vowels and double vowels. As for short vowels, short vowels can be characterized by roundess of lips. As for the sentence order section, you will compare Korean sentence structures with English sentence structures using sentence structure strips. Moreover, you will learn how to combine sentences using connecttive adverbs. They have six functions. Finally, you will be taught conversational expressions with some basic Korean grammar points. This section does not solely focus on grammar. For instance, when teaching particles, I will provide you with some pictures of Korean food to help you talk about your favorite Korean food with the target grammar. Additionally, as for verbs, I created fip verb card activities so that you can learn Korean in fun and easy ways. At the end of each lecture, I recommend that you upload your pictures of studying Korean on your Instagram. I will give you immediate feedback so that you can improve your Korean skills better and better with me. Enroll now and start the Journey of learning Korean language at home together. 2. Korean Hangeul Introduction: Hello, welcome to my course 'Learn Korean Fast at Home for Beginners'. In today's lesson, you will learn about the history of Hangeul, Korean consonants and vowels, and the original of Korean alphabets. Let's get started. What is Hangeul? Hangeul is Korean alphabet used for writing the Korean language. The Korean letters consist of consonants and vowels. Then, do you know who made Hangeul? Kings Sejong in Joseon dynasty made the Korean alphabet in 1446. At that time, Korean people struggled to write their own thoughts in a letter because only aristocrats were entitled to learn Chinese characters. There was no writing system made by Korean, so King Sejong, he created the Hangeul to help people read and write in their own language. Korean alphabets consist of 40 letters, 19 consonants and 21 vowels. Let's look through the colored Korean alphabet first. As for consonants, green letters are aspirated consonants and blue letters are double consonants. They are tensed. As for vowels, basic vowels are colored in red as in 'ㅏ, ㅑ, ㅓ, ㅕ ,ㅗ, ㅛ, ㅜ, ㅠ, ㅡ, l'. The vowels are created by combining one basic vowel to the other. Let's deal with the vowels in the blue boxes. When you add the vowel 'l' to the each basic vowel 'ㅏ, ㅑ, ㅓ, ㅕ', you can make the black vowels like 'ㅐ , ㅒ, ㅔ, ㅖ'. Similarly, add the basic vowel 'ㅗ' to the each vowel, 'ㅏ, ㅐ, ㅣ' in the silver box. The vowels 'ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅚ' are created. The vowel 'ㅜ' is added to the vowels 'ㅓ, ㅔ ,ㅣ ' in the gold box. You can create the vowels, 'ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ'. ('ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ') Finally, the basic vowel 'ㅡ' is attached to the vowel 'ㅣ' in the brown box. As you can see, the vowel 'ㅢ' is created. 'ㅢ' 'ㅢ' Here, let's learn about the origin of consonants. When King sejong developed Hangeul, he created five basic consonants, 'ㄱ, ㄴ , ㅁ, ㅅ, ㅇ according to the shape of vocal organs. These consonants are distinguished in the place of articulation. Let's see the classification category here. 'ㄱ' is a velar sound. 'ㄴ' is a tongue sound and 'ㅁ' is a labial sound and 'ㅅ' is a dental sound and 'ㅇ' is a guttural sound. As for 'ㄱ', 'ㄱ' was made by the tongue root throat and 'ㄴ' letter was formed by the tongue tip. As for 'ㅅ', 'ㅅ' consonant looks like a shape of teeth. and 'ㅇ' was made by the shape of throat. King Sejong created other consonants by adding strokes to the basic consonants. Look at the letters with added storkes. 'ㄱ' becomes 'ㅋ'. 'ㄴ' becomes 'ㄷ, ㅌ' and 'ㅁ' becomes 'ㅂ, ㅍ' and 'ㅅ' becomes 'ㅈ, ㅊ' and 'ㅇ' becomes 'ㅎ'. The red colored consonant here does not exist in modern times. This letter has disappeared since King Sejong dynasty. Look at the base form category. The three basic vowels symbolize the universe in our lives. The symbol for the sky is a dot. The vowel 'ㅡ' is similar to the shape of the horizontal line of the land and the vowel 'l' represents the standing human. The other vowels are created by adding strokes to the three basic forms. When you combine the dot with the vowels 'ㅡ, l' , the four vowels are formed, 'ㅏ, ㅗ, ㅓ, ㅜ'. Once more, by adding the dot to these four vowels, double vowels such as 'ㅑ, ㅛ, ㅕ, ㅠ' are made. Let's recap what we've learned. What are 19 consonants? And can you remember 21 vowels? Stop the video for a moment and think about the Hangeul that we've learned. Are you done? Let's check~! 19 consonants are 'ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅇ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ, ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅉ, ㅆ' and 21 vowels are 'ㅏ, ㅐ, ㅑ, ㅒ, ㅓ, ㅔ, ㅕ, ㅖ , ㅗ, ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅚ, ㅛ , ㅜ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ, ㅠ , ㅡ, ㅢ, ㅣ'. Here, red letters are basic vowels and black letters are combined vowels. You did a great job! In this lesson, you've learned about the beautiful Korean alphabets. In the next video, you will learn about how to read Korean in syllable unit. Keep practicing what you've learned and record your Korean study time on your Instagram. I will give you comments if you have any questions about learning Korean. 3. Korean Syllable formation: Hello, in this lesson, you will learn about the syllable structure of Hangeul. Before you learn the syllable structure, let's find out the meaning of a syllable in Korean. A syllable is composed of one or more consonants and one vowel, which becomes a single unit. The syllable structure of Hangeul is CVC sequence. In the square box below, there are two consonants and two vowels. The syllable structure is different depending on the kinds of vowels as you can see such as the vertical shape vowel (vertical shape vowel) and the horizontal shape vowel. First, let's see the basic structure, CVC sequence. When the vertical shape vowel is used. you should write a consonant and a vowel from left to right like the left picture. But, when the horizontal shaped vowel follows a consonant, you have to write the letters from to bottom. Let's read some words in CV sequence. Furniture in English is 'gagu' in Korean. First block in the word contains a vertical shaped vowel 'ㅏ' and the second block in the word includes a horizontal vowel 'ㅜ'. Read the word in two times. '가 구' ('가구') Next 'a-i' in Korean means a child in English. The syllable structure of the word is the same as the previous one as CV sequence. Read the word two times. 'a-i' ('a-i') As for milk, can you read the syllable of Korean word here? Yes, it is written as 'u-yu'. ('u-yu') Each syllable is written from top to bottom. (top to bottom) The second syllable structure of Hangeul is CVC sequence. The final red consonant here is called 'batchim' in Korean. Batchim As you can see, the final consonant is added at the end of each syllable from left to right, top to bottom. Let's read some words in CVC sequence. Korea is called has to 'Hanguk', ('Hanguk') and the Korean alphabet is called Hangeul. Hangeul in Korean The following word also has CVC sequence. 'u', 'un-yeong', 'unyeong' means management. o u n o, u, n, o, yeo, o But, focus on the initial sound of 'o'. When 'ㅇ' is located at the initial position of a syllable, there is no sound value in the consonant. When 'ㅇ' is put at the final position, It has a /ŋ/ sound. Next, do you know music in Korean? Let's read. 'eum-ak' ('eum-ak') The third syllable structure consists of CVCC sequence. There are two final consonants at the end of a syllable. We call the double consonants 'gyeopbatchim', 'gyeopbatchim' in Korean. In Korean, the words for 'to read' is 'iltta' 'iltta'. As for the gyeopbatchim 'ㄺ', 'ㄱ' is not pronounced So the double final consonant sounds like a consonant 'ㄹ'. ('ㄹ') ('ㄹ') Let's read the other Korean word that means 'scratch', 'geultta' 'geultta' in Korean. 'ㄹ' is pronounced in the double final consonant. 'ㄱ' is not pronounced. We will learn the pronunciation of the double final consonant in detail in the another chapter of the lesson. Now. It's time to solve some syllable formation quiz. Consonants are in the pink box and the vowels are in the blue box. Please create a word by referring to the circles in the screen. 'g', 'ae' 'gae' becomes one syllable. Right? What is it in Korean? Here~ okay! The answer is 'gae' ('gae') It means a dog. Question number 2~ First syllable is colored red and second syllable is colored blue. p, a, r, i, right? Combine the first syllable with the second syllable to make a word. The word a is 'pari' ('pari'). It means fly, the insect or it means Paris in France. Question number three. j, u, (j, u), s, eu 'ju-seu' 'ju-seu' in Korean. 'juice' in English Question number four. The word has three syllables. 'b, a, g, e, t, eu' 'bageteu' ('bageteu') It means bread. This word consists of four syllables Make a word step-by-step. 'b, a, i, r, eo, seu. 'ba-i-reo-seu' 'ba-i-reo-seu' The picture looks like a Coronavirus? (Yuk!) Final quiz. Look at the bottom of the screen. You can see the initial sound hint, 'b, b, j, s' ('b, b, j, s') 'b ae k, b a n, j eo ng, s i k' 'baek ban jeong sik' Read the word two times 'baek ban jeong sik' ('baek ban jeong sik') You will see the word in a menu board at Korean restaurants. As you can see, in the picture here, a bowl of rice and a variety of side dishes are served. It looks great. Let's see recap what we have learned in this lesson. You've learned the meaning of syllable and how the syllables are formed to make a word. In the next lesson, you will learn some vowels. Please review the lesson by solving some questions. on worksheets. If you have any questions, ask questions to Cracking Korean on Instagram. I'll give you comments as soon as possible. 4. Korean Short Vowels(Unrounded) l, ㅔ, ㅐ, ㅡ, ㅓ, ㅏ: Hello today, you will learn unrounded short vowels, the front vowels 'ㅣ, ㅔ, ㅐ' and the back vowels 'ㅡ, ㅓ, ㅏ'. They are unrounded vowels, so two lips are not rounded like the picture of the mouth. Front vowel 'l , ㅔ, ㅐ' Front vowel 'ㅣ' sounds like 'i' 'i' 'i'. You should write 'ㅣ' from top to bottom. Practice the word i sound with words. G-Dragon Who is G-Dragon in Korea? Well, G-Dragon is a famous singer in Korea. The acronym for the word G-Dragon is the alphabet GD. Let's read the romanization of the word. gidi This word is written as '지디' ('지디' in Korean) Read the words two times. '지디' '지디' Front vowel 'ㅔ' has a sound 'e' 'e'.how does sound? The vowel 'ㅔ' is composed of three strokes. First one from left to right The second and the third one go from top to bottom. Let's practice 'ㅔ' sound in a word. Question number one This fish is catfish. Read the romanization of the word in Korean. m e g i '메기' ('메기') Question number two This is one of the outdoor clothing brand in Korea, Nepa. n e p a '네파' ('네파' '네파') Front vowel 'ㅐ' has a sound 'ɜ'. This sound is similar to the previous one but these two vowels 'ㅔ' and 'ㅐ' can be distinguishable as the shape of lips. When you pronounce the vowel 'ㅔ' in the first box, open your mouth wider than the 'ㅐ' in the right box. These days, you don't have to distinguish 'ㅔ' from 'ㅐ'. Let's see the stroke order for the vowel 'ㅐ'. Go down from top to bottom and on the middle of that line, draw a horizontal line from left to right. Then, go down from top to bottom. Question number one Word practice The air Air is called 'd ɜ g i'. '대기' ('대기') Back vowels 'ㅡ, ㅓ, ㅏ' The back vowel 'ㅡ' is pronounced as 'ɯ'. 'ɯ' ('ɯ') When you write 'ㅡ', just draw a horizontal line from left to right. Practice the 'ㅡ' sound with a word. Question number one You may fear worried or tensed during a hard time in your life. This word is related to a brain activity. Can you guess? Read the romanization of the word together. sɯ tɯ re sɯ '스트레스' ('스트레스') The second back vowel is 'ㅓ' ('ʌ' 'ʌ') The stroke order for this one is like this. From left to right, then from top to bottom. Read 'ㅓ' sound in a word. Here, look at the picture. What is it? This is a frost. It is pronounced as 's ʌ r i'. Yes, '서리' in Korean. '서리' ('서리') Question number two It is a spider. In Korean, the name for the spider is 'g ʌ m i'. '거미' ('거미' '거미') Here, back vowel 'ㅏ' sounds like 'a' ('a' 'a') The letter 'ㅏ' is written as follows. From top to bottom , then from left to right on the middle of the line. Look at the word. Nation or state in English is called 'n a r a' '나라' ('나라' '나라') Question number two. Oh, this golden food is curried rice. I like it. The pronunciation is similar to that of Korean. 'k a r e r ai sɯ' '카레라이스' ('카레라이스' '카레라이스') Question number three Korean often makes this stew by putting tofu (here is tofu) and Kimchi on it. The word for the stew is 'kim chi jj i gɜ' (jj=ㅉ) 'kim chi jji gɜ', right? Here, '김치찌개' ('김치찌개') So far, we've learned about the pronunciation and some words of the front vowel 'l, ㅔ, ㅐ' and the back vowel 'ㅡ, ㅓ, ㅏ' I hope you remember the vowels well. If you have any questions, feel free to ask cracking Korean on Instagram. 5. Korean Short Vowels (Rounded) ㅟ, ㅚ, ㅜ, ㅗ: Hello~ today, you will learn rounded short vowels like front vowels 'ㅟ', 'ㅚ' and back vowels 'ㅜ', 'ㅗ'. When you pronounce these vowels, your lips are rounded. You need to pucker up your lips like the picture. First, let's pronounce the front vowel 'ㅟ'. 'y' ('y') The stroke order for the vowel 'ㅟ' is as follows. Draw a horizontal line from left to right. On that line, go from top to bottom in the middle. Then, on the right side of the letter, draw a line from top to bottom. Practice the vowel with a word. Question number one What is a crisis in Korean? (crisis?) Let's read the romanization first. 'wi gi' '위기' ('위기' '위기') The second front vowel is 'ㅚ' It sounds 'we' ('we'). 'ㅚ' is written like the picture on the screen. draw a short line from top to bottom and write a longer horizontal line from left to right. Finally, on the right, write 'ㅣ' from top to bottom. Let's practice the vowel in a word. Question number one brain death Well, when someone gets an accident and is at risk, he or she sometimes goes into coma ,which leads to brain death. We call brain death [?] 'n we sa'. '뇌사' in Korean. Brain means '뇌' and '사' means death. Repeat it two times. '뇌사' ('뇌사') Third, let's learn the back vowel 'ㅜ'. It sounds like 'u' ('u'). 'ㅜ' is written like the picture. Go from left to right. On that line, go down. Word quiz in the picture. There are some rectangular white food on a plate. Korean often eat the food with Kimchi. It is called 'tofu'. 'tofu'in English, right? But what about Korean? Here, it is pronounced as 'd u b u'. '두부' ('두부') ('두부') In this time, you will learn a back vowel 'ㅗ'. 'o' ('o') The stroke order for this one is like this. Go from top to bottom and on that line, underneath, draw a horizontal line from left to right. Let's see how the vowel o is used in a word. In the two pictures, can you guess what kind of meat it is? The red meat Yes, it's beef. Some Korean like to eat seasoned raw beef like 'yuk hwoe' on the left side of the picture. Or they grill the beef. Anyway. beef is called 's o g o g i' '소고기' in Korean Repeat it two times. '소고기' ('소고기') or it is called '쇠고기'. ('쇠고기') Final Quiz! Question number one This ugly creature is a monster. It is called 'g we m u l' '괴물' in Korean '괴물' ('괴물') Question number two Oh, I like the noodle very much. The noodle in this picture is banquet noodle. On a special day like weddings, birthdays, the banquet noodle is served like this. Look at the romanization. 'jan chi guk su' '잔치국수' in Korean '잔치' means banquet or festival and '국수' is noodle. Repeat it two times. '잔치국수' ('잔치국수') Question number three In this picture, this salad is made of acorn jelly. (acron jelly) Korean likes to this acorn jelly with season vegetables. It is 'dotorimuk'. Acorn jelly is '도토리묵' in Korean '도토리' is acorn and jelly is '묵'. '도토리묵' ('도토리묵') We've learned rounded vowels such as front vowels 'ㅟ, ㅚ' and back vowels 'ㅜ, ㅗ'. In the next video, you will learn double vowels. Practice what we've learned on your own with a customized worksheet that I made and feel free to ask any questions on cracking Korean instagram. 6. [y] soundlike Korean Double Vowels1 ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅖ, ㅒ: Hello. Before we check today's lesson, you need to know a variety of double vowels. There are three types of diphthongs, , [y] soundlike diphthongs , [w] soundlike diphthongs , [i] soundlike dipthongs. [y] soundlike diphthongs are ' ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ ㅠ, ㅖ, ㅒ'. [w] soundlike diphthongs are 'ㅘ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅙ' [i] soundlike diphthong is the only one 'ㅢ'. Today, we will learn [y] soundlike diphthongs 'ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅖ, ㅒ'. Let's read the [y] soundlike diphthong 'ㅑ' two times. 'ㅑ' ('ㅑ') There is a word for the vowel 'ㅑ' in one syllable. '야' That means 'Hey' in English. '야' When you write the vowel 'ㅑ', you have to write three lines. For the first one, you draw a line from top to bottom. Then, for the second and third one, you need to draw a shorter line from left to right. from left to right~ Let's practice. 'ㅑ' sound in a word. Question number one 'baseball' Baseball is 'y a g u'. '야구' in Korean Repeat it two times. '야구' ('야구') Second [y] soundlike diphthong is 'ㅕ'. ('ㅕ' 'ㅕ') The stroke order for the vowel ''ㅕ is contrary to the previous vowel 'ㅑ'. Draw a short line from left to right for the first and second line. Then, write 'ㅣ' letter from top to bottom. Look at the picture. She is a girl. In romanization, A girl sounds like 'y eo j a' '여자' in Korean '여자' ('여자') Let's practice [y] soundlike diphthong, 'ㅛ' together. 'ㅛ' ('ㅛ') The stroke order for this vowel is like this. You draw a short two lines from top to bottom top to bottom and underneath, you draw a horizontal line from left to right. Let's check 'ㅛ' in a word. The act of making food is 'cooking' in English. 'y o r i' In Korean, it is called '요리'. Repeat it two times. '요리' ('요리') The fourth [y] soundlike diphthong is 'ㅠ'. 'ㅠ' ('ㅠ') It sounds like 'you' in English , which means 'a counterpart person' in English. The stroke order of the vowel 'you' is contrary to that of the vowel 'ㅛ'. Go from left to right. Then, underneath, draw shorter two lines from top to bottom top to bottom. Look at the picture and guess the name of the fruit in Korean. There are tangerines. In Korea, Jeju Island is known for the area of a tangerine production. It is pronouned as ~ 'g y u l' '귤' Repeat it two times. '귤' ('귤') Next, this [y] soundlike diphthong is 'ㅖ'. 'ㅖ' ('ㅖ') It sounds like the word '예' in Korean. It means 'yes' in English. To write the vowel 'ㅖ', draw two short lines from left to right left right , then draw two vertical lines from top to bottom. Practice 'ㅖ' in a word. The brown powder is cinnamon powder. The cinnamon is called ~ 'g ye p i'. '계피' in Korean '계피' ('계피') In this case, this [y] soundlike diphthong 'ㅒ' sounds like the previous vowel 'ㅖ'. Korean usually does not distinguish between 'ㅖ' and 'ㅒ'. Though, let's pronounce the vowel clearly with me. When you pronounce the vowel 'ㅒ' on the screen, open your mouth and throat more. The stroke order for this one is like this. Draw a vertical line from top to bottom and on the middle, draw two short lines from left to right left right , then go down. Let's check 'ㅒ' in a word. The Korean word meaning 'talk' or 'conversation' is 'y ae g i'. '얘기' ('얘기') The word '애기' is an abbreviation for '이야기'. '이야기' ('이야기') Final quiz number one. yogurt In this picture, the liquid yogurt is stored in a small plastic bottle. It is called ~ 'yo gu reu teu' '요구르트' in Korean Repeat after me. '요구르트' ('요구르트') Question number two This is a final question. The yellow sauce is mustard sauce. Sauce is '소스' in Korean. Then, how about mustard? Read the romanization. 'g yeo j a so seu' '겨자소스' ('겨자소스') Great! You did a great job. That is all for the today's lesson. In the next video, you will learn the rest of vowels, [w] soundlike diphthongs and [i] soundlike diphthongs. Don't forget to review the today's lesson. 7. [w], [i] soundlike Korean Double Vowels2 ㅘ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅙ, ㅢ: Hello. In the previous lesson, you learned [y] soundlike diphthongs, 'ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅖ, ㅒ'. In today's lesson, you will learn [w] soundlike diphthongs, 'ㅘ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅙ'. We need to pucker up our lips to pronounce these vowels. And [i] soundlike diphthong, 'ㅢ'. The first [w] sound like diphthong is 'ㅘ'. 'ㅘ' ('ㅘ') The vowel 'ㅘ' consists of four strokes. Draw a short vertical line from top to bottom. On that line, underneath, draw a horizontal line from left to right. On the right side, go from top to bottom. In the middle of the vertical line, draw a short dash from left to right. Practice 'ㅘ' in a word. In the picture, there are watermelons, grapes, etc. They are fruits. In romanization, It is called ~ 'g w ai l' '과일' in Korean '과일' ('과일') Let's pronounce the second 'ㅝ' soundlike diphthong, 'ㅝ'. 'ㅝ' ('ㅝ') We need four strokes to write 'ㅝ' vowel. We draw a line from left to right. On that line, in the middle, go down. Then, write a short horizontal line from left to right. Finally, go down from top to bottom. Learn 'ㅝ' vowel in a word. When you don't understand what the speaker is saying, you ask the speaker 'what?'. In Korean, the word for 'what' is 'm eo r a g o'. '뭐라고' ('뭐라고' '뭐라고') As for the diphthong, we read the vowel like 'we'. 'we' ('we') You need to draw five lines for the vowel 'ㅞ'. Draw the vowel 'ㅝ' and add the vertical line from top to bottom on the right. The word that begins with 'ㅞ' sound is related to the word 'orbit' in English. The word 'orbit' is a path in space in which stars go around a planet. It is called ~ 'g we d o'. '궤도' ('궤도' '궤도') This time, the vowel 'ㅙ' sound sounds like the vowel 'ㅞ' sound that we previously learned. When you pronounce the vowel 'ㅙ' on the screen. you need to open your mouth more. 'ㅙ' The stroke order for this 'ㅙ' vowel is like this. Draw a short line from top to bottom and under the line, draw a short horizontal line and go down from top to bottom. On that line, in the middle, draw a small horizontal line from left to right. Then, finally, go down from top to bottom. Let's check a word that contains 'ㅙ'. Look at the pictures. Korean eat pork in various ways. They marinate the pork with soy sauce or without the process, they grill the pork. The pork is ~ 'd wae g i g o g i'. '돼지고기' ('돼지고기' '돼지고기') The final diphthong that you will learn is [i] soundlike diphthong, 'ㅢ'. Writing the letter is very simple. Draw a horizontal line from left to right. Then, just go down from top to bottom. Look at the picture and check a Korean word for the English word. He or she is a doctor. A doctor in English is called ~ 'eu i s a '. '의사' ('의사' '의사') Let's solve some final quizzes. Question number one Deep fried rice cake in Korea It's a traditional Korean snack. It's very sweet and yummy. Let's read the romanization. 'yu g wa' '유과' ('유과' '유과') Question number two The green bean is 'pea' in English. Then, what about Korean? 'w an du k o ng' '완두콩' ('완두콩' '완두콩') Let's wrap up what we've learned so far. We've learned [w] soundlike diphthongs, 'ㅘ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅙ' and [i] soundlike diphthong, '의'. You've learned all kinds of vowels such as short vowels and double vowel. In the next video. you will learn Korean consonants based on the vowels that we dealt with. Writing and reading aloud the Korean vowels will help you remember the lesson. Record what you've learned on your Instagram. 8. Korean Consonants ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ: Hello, in the previous lesson, you completed the vowel lessons. Today. we will learn about the consonants 'ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ'. They are similar in shape because the sound of these consonant comes from the same vocal organs. Look at the picture. The red line in the picture indicates a tongue. The tongue touches the soft palate to block the passage of air. In this process, the consonants 'ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ' are created. These consonants are called velar consonants. Velar consonants are made with soft palate and the back of the tongue. They have the same place of articulation, the velar but they are different in manners of articulation. 'ㄱ' is a basic consonant 'ㄲ' is a tensed consonant and 'ㅋ' is an aspirated consonant. As for the consonant 'ㄱ', it is pronounced as 'g'. ('g' 'g') When you write the consonant 'ㄱ', draw a line from left to right then go down from top to bottom. Then, let's check a word that contains 'ㄱ'. Look at the picture here. What is it? This lives in the sea. 'go rae' 'go rae' In Korean, '고래' ('고래' '고래') Question number two I like the violet vegetables , sweet potatoes. In Korean, it is called 'go gu ma' '고구마' ('고구마' '고구마') Second, the consonant that looks like a double 'ㄱ' is a tensed consonant. It is pronounced as 'kk'. ('kk' 'kk') The stroke order for this one is like this. Just write 'ㄱ' in two times. From left to right top to bottom left to right top to bottom. Let's see some words that begin with the consonant 'ㄲ'. There is a little kid wearing a hat. It is 'kk o m a'. '꼬마' ('꼬마' '꼬마') Question number two These shellfish are 'cockles' in English. In Korean, the initial consonants for 'cockle' are the same as the previously learned word '꼬마' ('꼬마'), the little kid. 'ㄲ ㅁ' But, it's a different word. Look at the romanization first. 'kk o m a k' '꼬막' ('꼬막' '꼬막') Let's see. Be careful about the final consonant here. The final consonant is located at the end of the syllable. It's not aspirated. I'll teach you about it in another lesson. Anyway, read the word together in two times. '꼬막' ('꼬막') This consonant is an aspirated consonant 'ㅋ'. ('ㅋ') Korea use 'ㅋ' as an internet slang that means interesting or fun. The stroke order for the consonant 'ㅋ' is like the following. Draw a horizontal line from left to right. and go down. Then, finally, draw a line from left to right in the middle. Practice the consonant 'ㅋ' in words. Question number one. nose Nose is 'k o'. '코' ('코' '코') Question number two The fruit is kiwi. 'k i w i' The English word pronunciation is similar to the Korean word pronunciation '키위' ('키위' '키위') In the spring, people go flower viewing often. Flower viewing is called 'kk o t kk u gyeo ng' '꽃구경', '꽃' is flower. '구경' means viewing. Read it two times. "꽃구경" ("꽃구경") Wow, these twisted bread sticks are popular Korean snacks. I also like that. It is called 'kk wa b ae g i'. '꽈배기' ('꽈배기' '꽈배기') In this lesson, we learned about the pronunciation, the stroke order and some words of 'ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ'. In the next video, you will learn the consonants 'ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅌ'. Please review the lesson by solving some quizzes on your worksheet. And if you don't know about Korean , ask questions on Instagram. 9. Korean Consonants ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅌ: Hello, today, you will learn about the consonants 'ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅌ'. When you pronounce 'ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅌ', the tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge to block the airflow. the gum part. So, these are called alveolars. Though they have the same place of articulation, (here), they can be distinguished depending on the manners of articulation. It is like this. 'ㄷ' is a basic consonant. 'ㄸ' is a tensed consonant and 'ㅌ' is an aspirated consonant. As for 'ㄷ', it sounds like the sound of the alphabet 'd'. When you write 'ㄷ', draw a line from left to right. Then, from the left side of the line, go down and go toward a right side. Let's pronounce 'ㄷ' in a word. Question number one city City is 'd o si' "도시" ('도시' '도시') In this picture, you can see the capital city scenery of Korea. It is called Seoul city. There are many skyscrapers and houses in Seoul. The left-sided picture indicates Korean melted sugar snacks and the right-sided picture is a sweet-tasting milky coffee with sugar. Both are made from sugar. The coffee or snack that contains lots of sugar is called 'd a l g o n a' '달고나' ('달고나' '달고나') These days, dalgona coffee has become popular in Korea. Next, let's deal with a tense consonant 'ㄸ'. Read the consonant with me. 'tt' ('tt') The stroke order for the tensed consonant 'ㄸ' is simple. Write 'ㄷ' in two times. Let's practice the word that contains 'ㄸ'. Question number one In this picture, there is a bowl of mystery soup. It is Korean rice cake soup. It is made of slices of rice cake, beef and eggs. It is called 'tt eo k kk u k' '떡국' ('떡국' '떡국') On New Year's Day, Korean traditionally eat this soup to celebrate the new year and they believe that eating '떡국' means gaining a year of age. Question number two Oh, it is also a famous rice food in Korea. It is spicy stir-fried rice cake. This food is 'tt eo k pp o kk i'. '떡볶이' ('떡볶이' '떡볶이') As for ㅌ, it is an aspirated consonant. It sounds like the alphabet 't' sound. When you articulate the constant 'ㅌ', a puff of air comes out of your mouth. Read it with me. 't' ('t') To write the consonant 'ㅌ', you need to draw three lines. First, draw a horizontal line from left to right. Under that line, draw a parallel line from left to right. Then, from the left side of the first line, go down and to the right. Let's read some words that contain 'ㅌ'. Question number one, 'tatoo' Tatoo is 't a t u' '타투' ('타투' '타투') Question number two it is soil. Soil is called 't o ya ng' '토양' ('토양' '토양') Final quiz, question number one This ugly pixie is goblin. It is called 'd o kkae b i' In Korean, '도깨비' ('도깨비' '도깨비') Question number two It is tomato. The English word sound is similar to the Korean word sound like 't o m a t o' '토마토' ('토마토') In this lesson, you've learned about the pronunciation, ,the stroke order, and some words of 'ㄷ', 'ㄸ', 'ㅌ'. In the next video, you will learn about 'ㅂ', 'ㅃ', 'ㅍ'. Practice the 'ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅌ' consonants with some pictures. Learning Korean consonants with words in a picture helps you increase your Korean vocabulary. Feel free to ask any questions on Craking Korean Instagram. 10. Korean Consonants ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ: Hello, today~ What you are going to learn is the consonant 'ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ'. When you pronounce the consonants, press the lips together. 'ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ' The consonants 'ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ' belong to a labial. You should use both lips to pronounce the consonants. But, manneers of articulation is different from each other. 'ㅂ' is a basic consonant. 'ㅃ' is a tensed consonant and 'ㅍ' is an aspirated consonant. The pronunciation for the consonant is like this. 'b' ('b' 'b') When you write the 'ㅂ' consonant, go down from top to bottom and draw a parallel line on the right. Then, on the middle of the first line, go toward the second line. Finally, on the bottom of the first line, go toward the second line. It's word practice time. Question number one This is sea. Sea is called 'b a d a' '바다' ('바다' '바다') Question number two There is a treasure box. Treasure is 'b o m u l', '보물' ('보물' '보물') Next, Let's read the tensed consonant 'ㅃ'. ('pp' 'pp') The stroke order for the tensed consonant is as follows. Write 'ㅂ' consonant two times. It's very simple. Let's check 'ㅃ' consonant in a Korean word. Question number one On a plate, there are many kinds of bread. The bread is 'pp a ng'. '빵' in Korean. '빵' ('빵') Question number two This word has two meanings. First one If someone plays a joke on you, say the word. 'blank 이야' Or it sounds like a pop sound. This is called 'pp eo ng'. '뻥' ('뻥' '뻥') So, the blank is '뻥'. '뻥이야' ('뻥이야') The aspirated consonant is 'ㅍ'. 'p' ('p') 'ㅍ' consists of four lines. Draw a line from left to right. Under that line, draw two lines from top to bottom. (top to bottom) Then, underneath, draw a horizontal line from left to right. Practice an aspirated 'ㅍ' consonant in the word. Question number one This is pie. 'p ai' '파이' ('파이' '파이') Question number two The Korean word for grapes is 'p o d o' '포도' ('포도' '포도') These are Korean beef dishes that are made with minced short ribs. It is pronounced as 'tt eo k kk a l b i' '떡갈비' in Korean ('떡갈비') This word literally translates to rice cake and ribs. But, there aren't any rice cake in the beef meat. The shape of the minced meat just looks like a rice cake. Repeat the word two times. '떡갈비' ('떡갈비') Question number two In a bowl of rice, many types of side dishes are put on the rice. Korean mix the vegetables, meat and rice with a spicy red sauce called 'go chu jang'. (Here) The food is called 'b i b i m pp a p' '비빔밥' ('비빔밥' '비빔밥') That's all for the today's lesson. We've learned 'ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ' consonants in relation to pronunciation, the stroke order, and some words. In the next video, I'll teach you 'ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ' consonants. Don't forget to review the lesson and seeya. 11. Korean Consonants ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅎ: Hello, today, you will learn the consonants 'ㅅ, 'ㅅ' and 'ㅆ' are articulated by touching the alveolar ridge here. 'ㅅ' ('ㅅ') 'ㅆ' ('ㅆ') And 'ㅎ' sound comes from a throat. 'ㅎ' ('ㅎ') So, 'ㅅ, ㅆ' consonants are both alveolars, and 'ㅎ' is a guttural sound. 'ㅅ' and 'ㅆ' consonants can be distinguished by tenseness. 'ㅅ' is a basic consonant and 'ㅆ' is a tensed consonant. 'ㅎ' is an aspirated consonant. Let's practice 'ㅅ' together with a hissing sound. It sounds like 's' in English. Imagine that you are a snake. The stroke order of 'ㅅ' consonant is simple with two lines. Draw a diagonal line toward a left side Then, draw the other line to the right. Practice 'ㅅ' consonant in a word. question number one Oh, there are all kinds of candies Candy is 's a t a ng' '사탕' in Korean '사탕' ('사탕') Question number two The white powder is salt. Salt is 's o g eu m' '소금' ('소금') As for 'ㅆ' consonant, it is tensed. In English, American does not distinguish 's' from 'ss' but Korean distinguishes them. 'ㅅ' and 'ㅆ' are not the same. Read the tensed consonant with me. 'ㅆ' ('ㅆ') When you write the tensed consonant, write 'ㅅ' in two times. Practice 'ㅆ' in a word. Trash or garbage is 'sseu r e g i' '쓰레기' ('쓰레기' '쓰레기') Question number two the small grains are called 'seeds' in English. It is 'ssi a t' '씨앗' ('씨앗' '씨앗') 'ㅎ' 'ㅎ' consonant is aspirated. You should heavily put air out of your mouth 'h' ('h') The stroke order for the constant 'ㅎ' is like the following. Draw a short line from left to right. Then, in parallel, draw a longer line from left to right. Under that line, draw a circle in a counter clockwise Counterclockwise like this. Question number one The word that contains 'ㅎ' is related to the big animal, tiger. Tiger is 'h o r a ng i' '호랑이', '호랑이' in Korean ('호랑이' '호랑이') Question number two Look at the picture on the right. It is a popular Korean snack at rest areas on highways. It is Korean walnut cakes with red bean paste. Its name is 'h o d u g wa j a' '호두과자' in Korean '호두과자' ('호두과자') Final quiz, question number one In a noun, washing one's face is called 's e s u' '세수' in Korean '세수' ('세수') Question number two, makeup Makeup is 'h w a j a ng' '화장' ('화장' '화장') In this lesson, you've learned 'ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅎ' consonants in detail such as pronunciations, stroke order and some words. In the next lesson, you will learn the consonants 'ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ'. Keep practicing what you've learned with your note. Then, read aloud some words with pictures. I'll answer your question as soon as possible. 12. Korean Consonants ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ: Hello, today, you are going to learn the consonants 'ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ'. When you pronounce the consonants 'ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ', Your tongue touches the roof of your mouth near the alveolar. These consonants are alveo-palatals. They have different sounds depending on the manners of articulation. 'ㅈ' is a baisc consonant. 'ㅉ' is tensed and 'ㅊ' is aspirated. The Korean consonants 'ㅈ' sounds like the English alphabet 'j'. ('j') But, there is a slightly different part. When you pronounce the English 'j', your lips are just a little bit rounded but the Korean consonant 'ㅈ' is not. Repeat it two times. 'ㅈ', ('j' 'j') The stroke order for the consonant 'ㅈ' is like this. Go from left to right and go down toward a left side. On that line, in the middle, draw a short line toward the right side. Let's read a word that contains 'ㅈ'. Question number one, sleep The dog is sleeping. Sleep is 'j a m' '잠' ('잠' '잠') A tensed consonant 'ㅉ' is 'jj' ('jj') To draw the consonant, write the consonant 'ㅉ' two times. The word that contains 'ㅉ' is related to Oh, this food is 'jj a j a ng m yeo n' '짜장면' ('짜장면') It is also called '자장면'. ('자장면') '자장면' in Korean Question number two This is a spicy noodle soup with vegetables , seafood or pork based soup. it is called 'jj a m pp o ng' '짬뽕' ('짬뽕' '짬뽕') What about an aspirated consonant? 'ㅊ' continent is aspirated. It sounds like 'ch' in English but unlike the English 'ch', Korean 'ㅊ' sound is unrounded. Just say 'ㅊ' ('ㅊ' 'ㅊ') 'ㅊ' is written as follows. Draw a short line from left to right. Then, under the line, write 'ㅈ' consonant that we've learned before. Read the consonant 'ㅊ' in a word. This word typically has two meanings. 1. car 2. tea It is called 'ch a' '차' ('차' '차') Question number two In a festival, firework usually happens. Sometimes in Korea, several countries hold a lantern festival like the picture on the left. The festival is 'ch oo k jj e' '축제' ('축제' '축제') Final quiz, can you guess why she is frowning? Maybe, she's eating a terribly salty food. Let's see other picture on the left. These are potato chips. They are salty, aren't they? So, to be salty means 'jj a d a' '짜다' in Korean '짜다' ('짜다') Question number two, chocolate Chocolate is 'ch o k o l i t' '초콜릿' in Korean, '초콜릿' ('초콜릿') Today, you've learned about 'ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ', its pronunciation, stroke order, and some words. Next time. you will learn the consonants 'ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ, ㄹ' Don't forget to review the lesson with worksheet or your note. And if you have any questions, feel free to ask Cracking Korean on Instagram. 13. Korean Consonants ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ, ㄹ: Hello today, you will learn about 'ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ, ㄹ'. The consonants 'ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ' are nasals in which air is passing through your nose. And 'ㄹ' is a liquid. As for the places of articulation, 'ㅁ' is a labial by using two lips. 'ㄴ, ㄹ' belong to an alveolar. We use a tongue tip and an alveolar ridge to pronounce 'ㄴ, ㄹ' consonants And 'ㅇ' is a velar. You will need the back of the tongue and soft palate in articulating the consonant. Let's deal with a nasal consoant 'ㅁ'. Press lips together to articulate the consonant 'ㅁ'. 'm' ('m') 'ㅁ' consonant consists of three strokes. First, go down from top to bottom and from the top on the first line, go toward the right and go down. Finally, from the end of the first consonant, go from left to right. With me, read some words that contain 'ㅁ' consonant. Question number one Mind, mind is called 'm a eu m' '마음' ('마음' '마음') Question number two I really hate the insect in the world. It is a mosquito. Mosquito is in Korean, 'm o g i'. '모기' ('모기' '모기') Second, the alveolar nasal consonant is 'ㄴ'. 'n' It sounds like 'n' sound in English. For the stroke order, just write one line. Go down from top to bottom and to the right. Let's practice the sound with words. Question number one Tree is 'n a m u' '나무' ('나무' '나무') Question number two Korean like to eat vegetables such as mushrooms, ,bean sprouts, and spinaches with seasonings. A variety of seasoned herbal dishes are 'n a m u l'. '나물' in Korean '나물' ('나물') The consonant 'ㅇ' is also a nasal but it has two sounds. When the consonant 'ㅇ' is located at a word initial position, It has no sound value. However, when it is at the end of a syllable, it has 'ㅇ' sound. 'ng' ('ng') To write the consonant 'ㅇ', draw a circle in a counterclockwise. The example word that includes 'ㅇ' is (question number one) baby. Baby is 'a g i' '아기' ('아기' '아기') Question number two My hometown is Busan in Korea. The picture on the right shows a beautiful night view of Busan. Hometown is called 'g o h ya ng' '고향' ('고향' '고향') Lastly, we will read the alveolar liquid consonant 'ㄹ'. It sounds like the alphabet 'r' sound or 'l' sound. But the consonant, Korean consonant 'ㄹ' and the alphabet are not the same. Look at the pronunciation table. When you pronounce the English consonants 'r', do not touch the hard palate. Just roll your tongue to your throat. As for the English consonant 'l', touch the alveolar ridge which is right behind the front teeth. But, for the Korean consonant 'ㄹ' sound, touch the hard palate like pronouncing the alphabet D sound. 'ㄹ' ('ㄹ' 'ㄹ') 'ㄹ' is written like this. For the first line, draw a line from left to right and go down. Second, draw one line toward the end of the first line. And finally, from the start point of the second line, go down and to the right. The Korean word that includes 'ㄹ' is question number one. Oh, this food is ramen. Korean sometimes put hot peppers and onions to improve its taste. Ramen is just said 'r a m yeo n'. In Korean, it is called '라면'. '라면' ('라면') Final quiz, question number one It is Korean traditional alcoholic beverage made with rice. It is made with the rice fermentation process. This drink is 'm a k kk eo l li'. '막걸리', '막걸리' in Korean. '막걸리' ('막걸리') Question number two If you combine emotion with icon, you can get this word. What is it? 'i mo t i k o n' '이모티콘' ('이모티콘' '이모티콘') In this lesson, you've learned about the nasals 'ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ' and the liquid 'ㄹ', its pronunciation, the stroke order and some words. Maybe you can read any Korean consonants from now on. In the next chapter of the video, you will learn about final consonants. If you don't know about Korean ask me on cracking Korean Instagram. Bye bye. 14. Korean Final Consonants [k ̚ ]: Hello, before we check the today's lesson, why don't we go through the seven final consonant sounds that are used at the end of a syllable. They are 'ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅇ'. Final consonants are called 'batchim'. ('batchim'). Look at the box below. Batchim consonant is located at the yellow bottom of the box. In today's lesson, we wil learn batchim consonant 'ㄱ' sound. The consonant 'ㄱ, ㄲ ㅋ' sounds like 'k' at the end of a syllable. Final consonant 'k' is unreleased. Remember! Unlike the final consonant, the initial consonant 'k' is released. Like, for example, the word '코' is the word for nose. Look at the final consonant 'ㄱ' in these words. When you read the each syllable, '각, 볶, 엌' , all the final consonants 'ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ' are transformed into the unreleased 'ㄱ' sound. '각, 볶, 엌' ('각, 볶, 엌') Practice the final consonant that has 'ㄱ' in a word. Question number one This is a ladle. (ladle) Ladle is 'g u k jj a'. '국자' ('국자' '국자') Question number two This soup is a popular Korean food in Busan. It is pork and rice soup with vegetables. It is called 'd wae j i g u k pp a p'. '돼지국밥' ('돼지국밥' '돼지국밥') Let's see the consonant 'ㄲ' in a final position. Question number one A man is fishing. Fishing as a noun is called 'n a k ss i' '낚시' ('낚시' '낚시') Question number two In this picture, fried rice is on an iron plate. Fried rice is 'b o kk eu m b a p' ('b o kk eu m b a p') '볶음밥' ('볶음밥' '볶음밥') Let's deal with some words that end with 'ㅋ' consonant. 'ㅋ' Question number one kitchen Kitchen is 'b u eo k'. '부엌' ('부엌' '부엌') Question number two This is the time around dawn. It is called 's ae b yeo ng n eo k' '새벽녘' ('새벽녘' '새벽녘') Final quiz, question number one outside Outside is 'b a k' '밖' in Korean '밖' ('밖') Question number two Jaw It is in Korean 't eo k' '턱' ('턱' '턱') Question number three This picture shows a floor culture in Korea. In Korea, some old fashioned restaurants have no chairs. Instead, floor paper is on the floor and customers eat food while sitting cross-legged on a mat in the restaurant like the picture. This dining culture is called 'j wa s i k ss i k ss a' '좌식식사' ('좌식식사') '좌식' means sitting. ('좌식') And '식사' means dining. In this video, you learned about the final consonants 'ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ'. In the next video, I will teach you the final consonants that have 't' sound. Keep practicing what you've learned. If you have questions about Korean, ask me on Cracking Korean instagram. 15. Korean Final Consonants [t ̚ ] sound,,: Hello, let's look through the seven final consonants called 'batchim' before we check today's lesson. Here, 'ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅇ' In today's lesson, you will learn some consonants that sound 't'. The final consonants 'ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅎ, ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ , ㅊ' are articulated as the unreleased 't'. Let's read the example syllables. '닫, 팥, 넣, 곳 었, 늦, 꽃' ('닫, 팥, 넣, 곳 었, 늦, 꽃') All the final consonants are transformed into the batchim sound 't', the unreleased 't'. Let's read some words that sound the unreleased 't' as a final consonant. Question number one This is a spoon. Spoon is 's u t kk a r a k' '숟가락' in Korean The final consonant in the initial syllable sounds like the unreleased 't'. Repeat it two times. '숟가락' ('숟가락') In Korean, this word ends with the consonant 't', the unreleased 't'. Red beans are called 'p a t' '팥', '팥' in Korean 'T' in the find position here is not aspirated. Keep that in mind. '팥' ('팥') Let's see the word that ends with a consonant 'ㅎ'. The name of the Korean consonant 'ㅎ' is 'ㅎ i eu t'. '히읗' ('히읗' '히읗') The initial consonant 'ㅎ' is aspirated but the final consonant 'ㅎ' is not. '히읗' ('히읗') Let's read the word that includes the find constant 'ㅅ'. Korean use these utensils to eat food. This is a spoon and these are chopstics. and teach. Chopsticks are called 'j eo t kka r a k' '젓가락' ('젓가락') As you already know, the word that ends with the double final consonant 'ㅆ' sounds like the unreleased 't'. 'to be' or 'to exist' is 'it tt a'. '있다' ('있다') Practice the final consonant 'ㅈ' in a word. Question number one It sounds like the unreleased 't'. Look at the daytime picture. The pavilion in the center is the part of the Gyeongbok Palace in Korea, the famous tourist attraction. The day or day time is 'n a t' '낮' ('낮') Look at the picture. The find consonant 'ㅊ' also has an unreleased sound, 't'. Let's see the English word 'flower'. Flower is 'kk o t' '꽃' ('꽃' '꽃') Final quiz, question number one The burnt woods are charcoals in English. In Korean, the charcoal is 's u t'. '숯' ('숯' '숯') Question number two 'To listen' as a verb is 'd eu t tt a' '듣다' ('듣다' '듣다') Question number three 'To put' is 'n o t a'. '놓다' ('놓다' '놓다') It is a final question. 'To walk' is 'g u t tt a' '걷다' ('걷다' '걷다') Wow, in today's lesson, you've learned the final consonants that sound the unreleased 't'. What were those? 'ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅎ, ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ, ㅊ' In the next lesson, you will learn the final consonants that sound the unreleased 'p'. Learning Korean will not be difficult if you try to practice Korean with me. 16. Korean Final Consonants [p ̚ ]: Hello, let's look through the bottom again. The seven bottoms are 'ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅇ'. In today's lesson, you are going to learn the final consonants 'ㅂ, ㅍ'. When the final consonants 'ㅂ, ㅍ' are at the end of a syllable, they both have the unreleased 't' sound. Read the example syllables together. '팝 엎' '팝 엎' '팝 엎' Let's read the word that ends with the final 'ㅂ' consonant. Question the number one Korean usually eat a meal with a bowl of rice and a stew. Rice is called 'b a p' '밥' '밥' ('밥') Question number two In modern time, , these days, many Koreans live in the apartment like the picture on the right side. It is called '아파트'. ('아파트') But, in the past, there weren't any apartment in Korea. Look at the left-sided picture. Korean ancestors were used to live in a Korean traditional house called 'Hanok'. Anyway, home is 'j i p'. '집' ('집' '집') This time, let's study the final 'p' consonant. Let's see how the final consonant 'p' sounds like in a word. Question number one This picture shows the forest of the metasequoia road in Korea. It is in 'Damyang'. Forest is ariculated as 's u p' '숲' ('숲' '숲') Question number two The front part is called 'a p' '앞' ('앞' '앞') This time, let's solve some final quizzes. Question number one 'leaf' Leaf is ~ 'i p' '잎' ('잎' '잎') Question number two This is ketchup How can we write the word in Korean? Pronounce the remediation 'ke ch u p' '케첩' ('케첩' '케첩') Question number three In Korea, the street food 'cup and rice' is popular among students and workers in Noryangjin in Seoul. This food consists of simple ingredients such as ham and eggs but it's tasty and convenient. This food is pronounced as 'k eo p pp a p'. '컵밥' ('컵밥' '컵밥') So far, you've learned the final consonant 'ㅂ, ㅍ' the sounds like the unreleased. 'p' sound. In the next video, you will learn the final consonant 'ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅇ' You can improve your Korean language ability, if you don't give up. Cheer up! 17. Korean Final Consonants [n], [l], [m], [ŋ]: Hello, I think you can't forget these batchim consonants now. 'ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅇ' Today, you will learn about the batchim consonants 'ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅇ'. 'ㄴ' sounds like the English consonant 'n' and the batchim 'ㄹ' sounds like the alveolar consonant 'ㅣ' at first but it is a different sound, 'ㄹ'. ('ㄹ') And 'ㅁ' sounds like English consonant 'm' and and this consonant has the velar 'ng' sound at the end of a syllable. Let's practice the batchim sound with syllables. Read letters with me. '안, 굴, 삼, 깡' ('안, 굴, 삼 깡') Let's find out some words that contain the final consonant 'ㄴ' sound. Question number one Door Door is ~ 'm u n'. '문' in Korean '문' ('문' '문') Question number two, money Money is in Korean ~ 'd o n' '돈' ('돈' '돈') This Time, read words that have the final consonant 'ㄹ'. Oh, these are Korean noodle soup. One is with mushrooms and green pumpkins and the other is with clams. Noodles are really thick. Sometimes red pepper powder is added to the soup like the picture. This noodle soup is in Korean ~ 'k a l g u k ss u' '칼국수' in Korean '칼국수' ('칼국수') Question number two It is dolphin. Dolphin is ~ 'd o l g o r ae'. '돌고래' ('돌고래' '돌고래') Let's see some words that include the final consonant 'ㅁ'. Question number one Korean ginseng is called ~ 'i n s a m'. '인삼' ('인삼' '인삼') Question number two This food is Korean ginseng chicken soup. It is 's a m g ye t a ng'. '삼계탕' ('삼계탕' '삼계탕') Finally, let's deal with the final consonant 'ㅇ' in a word. Cleaning Cleaning is called ~ 'ch eo ng s o' '청소' ('청소' '청소') Final quiz number one Look at the clams. These are oysters. In Korea, the price of oyster is very very cheap. The word has two meanings. First one is oyster and the other is cave. It is called ~ 'g u l' '굴' ('굴' '굴') Question number two One of popular Korean seasoning is fermented soybean paste. Koreans dry the blocks of fermented soybean here to make the soybean paste. The name of the soybean source is 'd oe n j a ng' '된장 ('된장' '된장') Wow, we completed the Korean final consonants lessons. Korean consonant lessons are almost done. In the next class, you will learn the names of consonants by reviewing some consonant sounds. Please review the previous lessons every day and ask questions about Korean on Cracking Korean Instagram. 18. The Names of Korean Consonants+Review: Hello. This time, in today to lesson, you will review the sounds of Korean consonants first. Then, you will learn about the name of Korean consonants. Let's get started. Question. Can you remember how many consonants are there? Yes, 19 consonants Question number two What are 19 consonants? Please pronounce the consonants. You don't have to remember all consonants. Stop the video for the moment and just say the consonants that you can remember. Are you ready? Let's check. The 19 consonants are 'ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ,ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅇ,ㅈ, ㅊ,ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ, ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅉ, ㅆ'. The sound of the consonant is 'g'. 'g' ('g') The name of the constant that sounds like 'g' is '기역'. '기역' ('기역') This consonant sounds like 'n'. 'n' ('n') The name for the consonant that has a sound 'n' is '니은'. '니은' ('니은') This consonant has 'd' sound. 'd' ('d' 'd') It is called '디귿'. '디귿' ('디귿') This consonant sound here is very tricky. You may think that the sound is similar to the English consonant 'R' or 'L'. But the consonant has a little bit different sound. Pronounce this consonant without rolling your tongue Just touch the hard palate and just say 'ㄹ'. ('ㄹ' 'ㄹ') Its name is '리을'. ('리을' '리을') This consonant has 'm' sound. ' 'm' ('m' 'm') It is called '미음'. ('미음' '미음') Pronounce this consonant by using two lips like the consonant 'm'. Its sound is 'ㅂ'. ('ㅂ' 'ㅂ') The name of the consonant is '비읍'. ('비읍' '비읍') This is pronouncedas 'ㅅ'. ('ㅅ' 'ㅅ') Its name is '시옷'. ('시옷' '시옷') Look at the consonant. It is pronounced with two sounds. When this consonant is located at the beginning of a syllable, it has no sound like this. but it has 'ng' sound if it is at the end of a syllable. The name of the consonant is '이응'. ('이응' '이응') The sound of this consonant is 'j'. ('j' 'j') Just touch the hard palate of your mouth. The name of the consonant is '지읒'. ('지읒' '지읒') And it has the sound 'ㅊ'. ('ㅊ' 'ㅊ') Its name is '치읓' ('치읓' '치읓') This sound is articulated as 'k'. ('k' 'k') It is called '키읔'. ('키읔' '키읔') The consonant here has 't' sound. 't' ('t' 't') Its name is '티읕'. ('티읕' '티읕') This consonant is articulated as 'p'. ('p' 'p') The name of the consonant is '피읖'. ('피읖' '피읖') Finally, this consonant has 'h' sound. 'h' ('h' 'h') Its name is '히읗'. ('히읗' '히읗') Now let's recap the name of the consonants. Basic consonants are called like the following. Look at the screen. '기역, 니은, 디귿, 리을 미음, 비읍, 시옷, 이응, 지읒, 치읓, 키읔, 티읕, 피읖, 히읗' If you are confused with these consonants' name, please pay attention to the last syllable of the consonants' name. Memorizing the names of consonants is not that difficult. In the table, there are five pink boxes. '기역, 디귿, 비읍, 시옷, 지읒' These consonants can become double consonants , so the double consonants 'ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, ㅉ' are called '쌍기역 , 쌍디귿, 쌍비읍, 쌍시옷, 쌍지읒'. Superb! From now on, you can not only pronounce each Korean consonants but also call the name of the consonants. In the next video, you will learn about double vowels. Believe in yourself. Practice makes perfect. 19. Korean Double Final Consonants [k ̚ ], [t ̚ ] sound: Hello, let's go through double final consonants first. There are 13 double final consonants called 'gyeopbatchim' Koreans select one consonant to pronounce the double consonant between the two consonants. The double final consonants can be characterized as six-type sounds. As you can see, 'k, t, p , l, m, n sounds The double final consonant such as 'ㄳ', 'ㄺ' 'ㄲ' belong to the unreleased 'k' sound. and 'ㅆ' has the unreleased 't' sound at the end of a syllable. Next, 'ㄼ', 'ㄿ', 'ㅄ' have the unreleased 'p' sound. As for 'ㄹ' sound, there are 'ㄽ', 'ㄾ', 'ㅀ', 'ㄼ'. The double consonant 'ㄻ' has 'n' sound. 'ㄵ' and 'ㄶ' have 'n' sound. Today, you are going to learn the double consonants that sound like the unreleased 'k' sound and 't' sound. Look at the words that contain the double consonants 'ㄳ, ㄺ,' and 'ㄲ'. Let's read the words together first. neok (neok) dak (dak) bak (bak) The meaning of each word is like this. 'Neok' is 'soul' in English. 'Dak' is chicken. and 'bak' is 'outside'. This time, pronounce some words that include the double final consonant 'ㅆ'. As you already know, the 'ㅆ' consonant has the unreleased 't' sound at the end of a syllable. For example, 'gat tta' ('gat tta'), 'meok eot tta' ('meok eot tta') and 'sat tta' ('sat tta'). The present tense verb '가다' and 'sada' have the verb stem, '가' and '사'. ,which includes the vowel 'ㅏ' , so '았' is used as the past ending of the verb. In case of '먹다', to make a past tense, '었' ending is used because the verb stem of the present tense contains 'ㅓ' vowels. The meaning of three words are like this. '갔다' means 'went'. '먹었다' means 'ate'. '샀다' means 'bought'. Practicing times! Solve some word The words you will learn about include the unreleased sound of some double final consonants. First, let's deal with the unreleased 'k' sound in a word. Question number one. A word that means 'to peel an apple' or 'to cut prices' is 'kk a k dd a' '깎다' ('깎다' '깎다') Question number two On the left side, you can see the chicken. This chicken is spicy seasoned fried chicken and the picture on the right side showes fried chicken without sauce. Fried chicken is 't o ng d a k'. '통닭' ('통닭' '통닭') Question number three 'Soul' is 'n eo k'. '넋' ('넋' '넋') Let's read the unreleased 't' sound as a batchim in a word. Question number one. The example sentence is like this. 'I slept.' In Korean, 'to sleep' is ~ '자다'. ('자다' '자다') Then, what about the past tense form of the verb? Here is the answer. 'j a t dd a' '잤다' ('잤다' '잤다') Question number two There is a goldfish in a bowl. 'To exist' or 'to be' is 'it dda' '있다' ('있다' '있다') So far, you've learned the unreleased sounds 'k', 't' of the double consonants like ㄳ, ㄺ, ㄲ, and ㅆ. In the next lesson, you will learn some double final consonants that have the unreleased 'p' and 'l' sounds. If you have questions about learning Korean, visit Cracking Korean Instagram. 20. Korean Double Final Consonants [p ̚ ], [l] sound: Hello. In the previous lesson, you learned the unreleased sound of the double consonant 'k' for 'ㄳ, ㄺ, ㄲ' and 't' for 'ㅆ'. In today's lesson, you are going to learn about the unreleased sound of the following double final consonants such as the unreleased 'p' sound for 'ㄼ, ㄿ, ㅄ' and 'l' sound for 'ㄽ, ㄾ, ㄿ, ㅀ' Look at some words that have the unreleased sound of 'p'. There are 'ㄼ ,ㄿ, ㅄ double final consonants. Let's pronounce a double consonant between 'ㄹ' 'ㅂ'. You should pronounce 'ㅂ' in this first word. '밟다' ('밟다' '밟다') Second word is '읊다'. ('읊다' '읊다') You should pronounce the second consonant 'ㅍ'. Two following words have the double final consonant 'ㅄ'. '값' ('값' '값') and '없다' ('없다' '없다') The meaning of each word is on the next page. The words that end with '다' are verbs. '밟다, 읊다' But, '없다' is an adjective in Korean. '밟다' means 'to step on'. '읊다'means 'to recite' and '없다' means 'not to be exist'. '값' is the noun that means price. The double final consonants that sound like 'l' are as follows. 'ㄽ, ㄼ, ㄾ and ㅀ' Pay attention to the double final consonant 'ㄼ' in a red letter. Previously, we learned 'ㄼ' double final consonant that has the unreleased 'p' sound like '밟다'. ('밟다') (to step on) However, in that case, on the screen, it has 'l' sound, 'l', as in '넓다'. ('넓다' '넓다') It sounds like a little bit difficult. but if you practice and remember words every day, you will become a super genius in Korean. As for the double consonant 'ㄽ', Korean does not use the word '곬'. ('곬' '곬') You can pass the word. Look at the third word in the table. '핥다' ('핥다' '핥다') 'L' is pronounced in the word. Finally, '싫다' ('싫다' '싫다') 'ㅎ' is pronounced by combining 'ㅎ' and 'ㄷ' 'ㄹ' is articulated in the word. The meaning of each word is like '곬' means 'fixed direction or waterway' Korean hardly use the word. '넓다' is 'to be wide'. '핥다' is 'to lick'. '싫다' means 'to hate'. Practice some double final consonants that have the unreleased 'p' sound. Question number one There is a poem one a note. Some people may recite a poem at a leisure time or while studying. 'To recite' is 'eup tt a' '읊다' ('읊다' '읊다') Question number twot In the picture on the right, can you guess why he is so panicked? I think he has no money in his bank account. Maybe he goes broke. Isn't he pitiful? 'To be pitiful' is ~ 'g a yeo p dd a' '가엾다' ('가엾다' '가엾다') Question number three This television is so wide and flat. 'To be wide and flat' is 'n eo p jj eo k a d a' '넓적하다', '넓적하다' in Korean Let's pronounce 'l' sound of the double final consonants in a word. Question number four This time, guess what the child is thinking. He's thinking of his deceased grandma and his lost wallet. 'To lose somebody or something' is 'i l t a' '잃다' ('잃다' '잃다') In this lesson, you've learned about some double consonants that have the unreleased sounds 'p' and 'l'. In the next video, you will learn some double consonants that contain nasal sounds. Keep practicing Korean with me. Bye bye~ 21. Korean Double Final Consonants [m], [n] sound: Hello. Do you remember what we've learned in the previous lesson? Read aloud some double consonant that sounds the unreleased 'p' such as 'ㄼ, ㄿ, ㅄ' and 'l' sound like 'ㄽ, ㄾ, ㅀ, ㄼ'. In today's lesson, the double final consonant that contains ''n' sound is 'ㄻ' and the double final consonants that have 'n' sound are like 'ㄵ' and 'ㄶ'. Read some words that sound 'ㅁ' at the end of a syllable The double final consonant 'ㄻ' has 'm' sound. 'ㅁ' '앎' ('앎'), '삶' ('삶'), '닮다' ('닮다') The meanings of these words are like this. '앎' means 'knowledge'. '삶' means 'life'. '닮다' means 'resemble'. Next, let's read 'ㄵ' and 'ㄶ' double consonants that sound, 'n'. 'n' This word sounds like '앉다'. ('앉다') And it is '끊다'. '끊다' Let's learn about the meanings of the words '앉다' means 'to sit'. '끊다' means 'to cut off'. Practice time Practice some words that contain 'n' sound at the end of a syllable. Question number one If you want to eat corns or eggs, you will boil the eggs and corns. 'To boil' is 's a m dd a' '삶다' in Korean ('삶다' '삶다') '삶다' ('삶다') Question number two 'To skip a meal' is 'g u m dd a' '굶다' ('굶다' '굶다') Let's see some other double final consonants that that have 'n' sound. 'To put on' indicates 'eo n dd a' '얹다' ('얹다' '얹다') Question number four Look at the picture. There are lots of umbrellas. 'To be many' or much is 'm a n t a'. '많다' ('많다' '많다') In today's lesson, you've learned some double final consonants that sound 'ㅁ' like 'ㄻ' and 'n' such as 'ㄵ' and 'ㄶ'. You've learned all kinds of consonants so far. In the next chapter, you will learn about sentence orders. Don't forget to review the lesson by solving some quizzes on your worksheet. Please ask questions about learning Korean on Cracking Korean instagram if you want to learn more about the lesson. ByeBye 22. Korean Sentence structure1: Hello. Today, you will learn about the similarities and differences between English and Korean structures and some particles such as subject particles and object particles. Look at the table that shows English and Korean structure. Korean and English have the same sentence structure like subject and verb but there are some differences as well, In English sentence, the verb follows the subject like 'subject-verb-object'. Also, 'be verbs' here follow the subject and after the 'be verb, complements like adjectives and nouns are at the end of the sentence. Unlike English, the verb is at the end of a sentence in Korean such 'subject-object-verb' sequence or 'subject-complement-verb' sequence. Let's learn the Korean sentence structure with some English and Korean sentences. First, let's read some sentences. If you look at the sentences closely, you will find that the English sentence structure 'subject and verb' is the same as the Korean sentence structure 'subject-verb' sequence. The English sentence 'Toto smiles' and 'A bird sings' are transformed into the following Korean sentences like '토토가 웃는다.' ('토토가 웃는다.') '새가 노래한다'. ('새가 노래한다.') One difference is that the particle '가' is in each Korean sentence. '토토가 웃는다.' '새가 노래한다.' The particle '가' marks the subject of a sentence. I will teach you some particles in other lessons. Next, English and Korean sentences show different structures. The English sentences, 'She is pretty' and 'He is cool', mean '그녀는 예쁘다' ('그녀는 예쁘다') '그는 멋지다' ('그는 멋지다') in Korean. In English, the 'be verbs' follow the subject 'He or She'. Then, the adjective follows the 'be verbs': 'pretty, cool'. However, in Korean, the adjectives '예쁘다, 멋지다' follow the subjects, '그녀는' or '그는', respectively. Instead of using the 'be verbs', ending '다' Is used at the end of the adjectives to make a predicate. Here, the particle '는' in a red letter is attached to a subject to mark the subject role in the sentence. Look at the other sentences. In English, the sentences are written like this. 'Minho is a scientist.' 'Sujin is a nurse.' In Korean these are ~ '민호는 과학자이다.' ('민호는 과학자이다.') ,'수진이는 간호사이다'. ('수진이는 간호사이다.) Find out the differences between English and Korean. In English, the sentence sequence is 'subject-be verb-complement' as a noun. In Korean, however, verb is at the end of a sentence such as '이다'. ('이다') The word '는' is used as the subject particle to indicate its subject role of nouns like '민호', '수진이' in the sentence. In this time, an object is in each sentence. In English, 'I like K-pop'. K-pop is an object. In Korean, it is '나는 케이팝을 좋아해.'. '케이팝을' is an object. As you can see, in the Korean sentence, the object 'Kpop' follows the subject '나'. while in English, the object 'Kpop' is at the end of a sentence. Particles are not used in the English sentence but in the Korean sentence, the particle '을' is used to indicate the object of the sentence. The particle '는' is attached to the subject '나'. ('나') Finally, there are some differences between English and Korean interrogative sentence. (interrogative sentence) Let's read the sentences together. 'Is Suhyeon an actor?' The English sentence is 'Is he on an actor?'. This sentence is transformed into the following Korean sentence. '수현이는 연기자야?' ('수현이는 연기자야?') In English, to make a question form of a sentence, the order of 'subject-verb' is switched like 'Is Suhyeon~'. But, in Korean, the sentence order does not change. Just make a high-pitched voice at the end of a sentence like '수현이는 연기자야?' ('수현이는 연기자야?') Let's practice some Korean sentences. Question number one Put the words in a correct order to make a sentence. There are some cards. '빵을' '좋아해' '나는' '빵' means 'bread'. '좋아해' is 'like' in English. '나는' indicates 'I'. Stop the video for a moment and think about the question. Are you done? Let's check the answer. '나는 빵을 좋아해.' It means 'I like bread.'. Read the sentence two times. '나는 빵을 좋아해.' ('나는 빵을 좋아해.') Question number two There are two blocks. First one is '달린다', which means 'running'. The basic form of the verb is '달리다'. '달리다' means 'run', Second one is '기차가'. ('기차가') '기차' is 'a train'. I'll give you five seconds to order the Korean sentence correctly. What's the answer? The answer is like the following. '기차가 달린다.' (The train is running.) Read the sentence to two times. '기차가 달린다' ('기차가 달린다') Let's solve some final quizzes and put the cards in a correct order to make a sentence. Here, look at the cards. '온다' means coming. The original form of the verb is '오다' in Korean. '오다' I'll give you seven seconds to make a correct sentence. Are you finished? Let's check the answer. The answer is '소영이가 온다.'. '소영이가 온다' It means 'Soyeong is coming.'. 'Soyeong is coming.' Question number two Look at the picture. The man is eating a piece of watermelon. Watermelon is ~ (Look at the cards.) '수박' in Korean. ('수박') And '먹는다' means 'eating'. The basic verb is '먹다' in Korean. ('먹다') I'll give you ten seconds to form a sentence correctly. The correct sentence is '그는 수박을 먹는다.'. ('그는 수박을 먹는다.') Now, can you make a Korean sentence in a correct order? In the next lesson, you will learn about Korean sentence structure again in detail. If you feel confused, ask any questions on Cracking Korea instagram. Bye, bye. 23. Korean Sentence structure2: Hello, in today's lesson, you will learn about the way you make Korean complex sentences. Although you already know the sentence structure of Korean, I'll teach the Korean structure in detail this time. The sentence structure is as follows. Time, place ,object, adverb and verb Subject is '주어' in Korean. Time is '시간'. Place is '장소'. Object is '목적어'. Adverb is '부사' and verb is '동사'. The verb is at the end of the sentence, which has the most important meaning in the Korean sentence. Keep in mind that the Korean basic structure is 'subject-object and verb'. Timie and place act as adverbial phrases and around the verb, adverbs add additional meaning to the verb, Read the Korean sentence structure again. Subject, time, place, object, adverb, and verb English sentence structure is different from the Korean one like 'subject-verb-object-adverb place and time'. ('주어, 동사, 목적어, 부사, 장소, 시간') English basic structure has 'subject-verb-object' sequence. Additionally, adverb and adverbial phrase of place and time follow the basic sentence structure in order. Let's practice the Korean sentence structure with some examples. In the Korean sentence strip, pay attention to some particles and an endings. They assign an important role to the sentence The particle '이, 가, 은, 는' indicate the subject of a sentence and the particle '에' shows the time when the subject is doing something. The particle '에서' indicates the place where an event happens. The particles '을, 를' represent the object place in the sentence. Adding the adverbial particles '게' and '으로' to a Korean adjective makes a phrase function as an adverb. Finally, the endings '이다, 다, and 요' are used to end a sentence. When you put the ending '요' at the end of the sentence, it implies the subject's politeness. Let's practice the Korean sentence structure with some exemples. There is an English sentence such as 'I do my homework faithfully at home at night.'. Change the English sentence into a Korean sentence. Please pause the video for a moment and make the Korean sentence. Let's check the answer. By referring to the sentence strip, we can make the following Korean sentence. '저는 밤에 집에서 숙제를 충실히 해요.' ('저는 밤에 집에서 숙제를 충실히 해요.') As you know, the red color letters such as '는, 에, 에서 and 를' are the particles which assign certain role to the sentence. '요' is the polite form of ending. Next picture shows the Korean food 'Kimchi pancake'. It is called '김치전' in Korean. Read the English sentence together first. 'My mother made Kimchi pancake at home aon weekend.' Let's change the English sentence the Korean sentence. Are you done? In Korean, it is written like this. '엄마가 주말에 집에서 김치전을 만들었어요.' ('엄마가 주말에 집에서 김치전을 만들었어요.') Adverb is optional in the sentence. What about next? Read the English 'Mira plays a soccer passionately on a playground at lunch.' When you transform the English sentence to the Korean sentence, you can get the sentence like '미라는 점심 때 운동장에서 축구를 열정적으로 해요.' ('미라는 점심 때 운동장에서 축구를 열정적으로 해요.') In the sentence, '때' means time. Let's pronounce the other English sentence. 'Dong-su goes jogging hard at the park every morning.' Check the answer with me. '동수는 매일 아침 공원에서 조깅을 열심히 해요.' ('동수는 매일 아침 공원에서 조깅을 열심히 해요.') '공원' is 'park'. '조깅' is 'jogging'. '열심히' is 'passionately'. The last practice sentence is 'Sujin sings a trot loudly at school during break time.' The trot is a genre of Korean music. It has repetitive rhythms and vocal inflections. The English sentence is changed into the following Korean sentence. '수진이는 쉬는시간에 학교에서 트롯을 크게 불러요.' ('수진이는 쉬는시간에 학교에서 트롯을 크게 불러요.') You do a great job. It is a final quiz time. Cards are scrambled. You need to unscramble the cards to make a sentence. The Korean meaning of each block is as follows. '저녁' means 'dinner'. '먹는다' is 'eating'. '부엌' is 'kitchen'. '삼겹살' means 'grilled pork belly'. Oh, Koreans love to eat grilled pork belly with grilled garlics in the picture. '맛있게' means 'tastly'. I'll give you some time to order each block in a correct order. Stop the video and think about the answer. Are you ready? The answer is '수미는 저녁에 부엌에서 삼겹살을 맛있게 먹는다.'. ('수미는 저녁에 부엌에서 삼겹살을 맛있게 먹는다.') In this lesson, you've learned the complex Korean structure with sentence strip. In the next lesson, you will learn about connective adverbs to combine one sentence to the other. If you can't remember previous lessons, watch some videos and solve some quizzes on your worksheets again. 24. Korean Connective adverbs: Hello. In today's lesson, you will learn about connective adverbs. Connective adverbs are adverbs that connect two sentences. The connective adverbs have six functions such as coordination causation, addition, conversion, emphasis, and repetition. Let's see how two sentences are connected in Korean sentences. Connective adverbs are inserted between two sentences. Find out about connective adverbs that function as coordination first. They have additive meaning. For example, '그리고, 또한, 또', these adverbs add additional information to next sentence. Read the Korean sentence with me. '사과는 달다. 그리고 (사과는) 새콤하다.' Repeated it with the other adverb. '사과는 달다. 또한(또) (사과는) 새콤하다.' You can omit the subject part, '사과는'. What does an apple taste like? Apple is sweet and also apple is sour. '달다' is 'sweet'. 'Sour' is '새콤하다'. This time, when the adverbs '그러나, 하지만 그렇지만' are at the end of a next clause, the next clause has adversive meaning in coordination sentence. Pronounce the Korean sentence and repeat it with connective adverbs. '수영이는 예쁘다. 그러나 나는 그녀를 좋아하지 않는다.' '수영이는 예쁘다. 하지만 나는 그녀를 좋아하지 않는다.' '수영이는 예쁘다. 그렇지만 나는 그녀를 좋아하지 않는다.' It means 'Suyeong is pretty but I don't like her.'. '좋아하다' is 'like' in English. Regarding coordination, some connective adverbs have the meaning of choice such as '또는' or '혹은'. Next, there are some connective adverbs that show causation between clauses. This pattern '왜냐하면 ~기 때문이다' expresses a reason for a first clause. Focus on the pattern on the screen. '왜냐하면' follows the first sentence, which has the meaning of effect. The second sentence follows the adverb '왜냐하면' , which means cause. And the phrase '~기 때문이다' is at the end of the second clause. Practice the causative adverbs in the Korean sentence. '한나는 매일 아침 김을 먹어. 왜냐하면 김은 맛있기 때문이야.' '한나는 매일 아침 김을 먹어. 왜냐하면 김은 맛있기 때문이야.' (Hanna eats seasoned seaweed every morning because seasoned seaweed is super, tasty.) Korean call this food 'Gim'. ('gim') It's not a paper. The first clause is the main clause '한나는 매일 아침 김을 먹어.' and the following clause gives a reason. Pay attention to the following adverbs, '그래서, 따라서, 그러므로'. This time, sentence one has the meaning of cause and the second sentence has the meaning of effect or result. Let's check the meaning of the Korean sentence using the adverbs, '그래서, 따라서, 그러므로'. '그는 배가 아팠다. 그래서 (그는) 병원에 갔다.' You can omit the personal pronoun '그는' in the second sentence. '그는 배가 아팠다. 따라서 (그는) 병원에 갔다.' '그는 배가 아팠다. (그러므로) 그는 병원에 갔다.' That means 'He had a stomachache, so he went to a hospital.'. The second clause suggests a result for the clause. Look at the connective adverbs that function as addition. '게다가, 또' The following example sentence shows the meaning of addition. '둘리는 공부를 잘한다. 게다가 (둘리는) 운동도 잘한다.' '둘리는 공부를 잘한다. 게다가 (둘리는) 운동도 잘한다.' 'Dooly is doing well at school. Besides, he is also good at sports. The adverb that highlights the meaning of the first sentence is '특히'. ('특히' '특히') The example Korean sentence is '나는 개을 좋아한다. 특히 (나는) 비숑을 좋아한다.' '나는 개을 좋아한다. 특히 (나는) 비숑을 좋아한다.' (I love dogs. Especially, I like bichon.) The second clause explains the first one in detail. Next, the adverb '그런데, 아무튼' change the topic of a first sentence. They function as conversion. Let's read the Korean sentences. '저는 그녀를 알아요. 그런데 이름을 까먹었어요.' ('저는 그녀를 알아요. 그런데 이름을 까먹었어요.') It means 'I know her'. By the way, I forgot her name. The second example sentence is ~ '즐거웠어. 아무튼 지금 가야해.' ('즐거웠어. 아무튼 지금 가야해.') It means 'It was fun. Anyway, I have to go right now.'. When two sentences are connected, the adverbs '즉' and '다시말해서' restate what is mentioned in the first sentence. The Korean example sentence is ~ '나는 모든 한국 아이스크림을 좋아해. 즉, 나는 메로나도 좋아해.' '도' is particle which add the meaning of 'too' or 'also' to a subject. In English, the sentence means 'I like all kinds of Korean ice cream. In other words, I also like Merona ice cream.'. This picture looks like Merona ice cream in Korea. Let's practice what we have learned with me. Feel confidence. I will help you. Fill in the blanks with connective adverbs. Question number one Find out the meaning of some words first in the sentences. '날씨' means 'weather' and '바람' is wind. The first sentence is '날씨가 흐리다.' That is 'The whether is cloudy'. The second one is '바람도 분다.' it means 'It's windy, too.' Can you guess what adverb connect the two sentences? The second sentence add more meaning to the first sentence, so the answer is ~ '게다가' (게다가') Number two '지갑' is 'a wallet' and '읽다' is 'to lose'. There are two sentences. One is '민수는 화가 났다.'. (Minsu is angry.) The other sentence means that 'because he lost his wallet.'. Please focus on the phrase, '~기 때문이다.' at the end of the sentence. The phrase is the hint for the question number two. The second sentence is the cause of the first sentence, so '왜냐하면' should be used in the blank. Question number three '통닭' '통닭' is fried chicken and '어젯밤' is 'last night' in English. '살이 찌다' is 'to gain weight'. Read the Korean sentence aloud with me. The First clause, it is said '지영이는 어젯밤에 통닭을 많이 먹었다.'. '지영이는 어젯밤에 통닭을 많이 먹었다.' Jiyeong ate lots of fried chicken last night. The second one is '그녀는 살이 찌지 않았다.'. 그녀는 살이 찌지 않았다.'. That means 'she does not gain weight.' Think about it. When you eat a lot of fried chicken, you may gain weight. However, Jiyeong is not. So, the answer for the blank would be the adverb '그러나' , which marks the adversive relationships between the two clauses. Today, we've dealt with connective adverbs concerning six functions. I think you will become a genius of Korean structure if you practice Korean with the attached worksheets I made every day. In the next chapter, you will learn some grammars and basic conversations in Korean. Feel free to ask questions on Cracking Korean instagram. 25. Pointing to Something or Someone Korean Demonstrative Pronouns: Hello, today, you are going to learn demonstrative pronouns to point to something or somebody. In Korean, these are '이것, 그것, 저것, 이게, 저게, 그게, 이건, 그건 저건'. You will also learn interrogatives like '무엇', '누구' and endings. Endings are categorized into two groups, formal endings such as '입니다, 입니까, 예요, 이에요' and the informal endings like '이야' and '야'. First, let's learn some demonstrative pronouns that end with '것'. These are '이것, 그것, 저것'. The pronoun '이것' is made like this. '이' plus '것' it means this thing. '이' is this and '것' is thing. Likewise, the pronoun '그것' is the combination of '그' and '것'. It means its thing. And the pronoun '저것' consists of '저' and '것', which means 'that thing'. '입니다' and '입니까' are formal endings. '입니다' is used for a statement and '입니까' with a high-pitch appears at the end of question sentence. Let's see how a speaker points to something with '것'. When an item is near a speaker, the speaker asks a listener a question with '이것'. '이것은 무엇입니까?' '무엇' The word '무엇' means 'what'. The question means what is this? When you point to something, '것' is used. In the listener's position, the item is far away from the listener. In that case, we use the pronoun '그것'. So, he answers the question like '그것은 연필입니다.' That means that is a pencil. Its sentence ends with formal endings. Look at the bottom on the screen. '입니다' for a statement and '입니까' for a question This time, in the yellow boxes, what pronoun will be the answer for the blanks. Look at the bottom. Scissors are near the listener. Around the speaker, there aren't any item. You can guess how the speaker ask questions with demonstrative pronouns. The speaker will ask '그것은 무엇입니까?' ,which means 'what is it?'. The listen will say '이것은 가위입니다.' These are scissors Next, look at the picture on the right. They look at the chalkboard. The chalkboard is far from the speaker and the listener. Therefore, the answer for the two blanks is '저것' ('저것') Read the sentences. '저것은 무엇입니까?' (What is that?) The listener says '저것은 칠판입니다.' That is a chalkboard. The contracted forms of demonstrative pronouns are '이게, 그게, 저게, 이건, 그건, 저건'. The pronoun '이게' is composed of '이것' and '이'. '이' is the subject particle. The particle '이' is attached to the noun. '그게' '그게' consists of '그것' and '이'. And '저게' consists of '저것' and '이'. The particle '이' shows that the noun is a subject. Look at the yellow box below. The pronoun '이건' is created by combining the two. '이것' and '은' '그건' consists of '그것' plus '은'. '저건' is composed of '저것' plus '은'. In the examples, topic particle '은' is used to show the topic of a sentence. I will teach you the particles in the next chapter. Let's see the other elements that help you make a sentence. To make an interrogative sentence, use '무엇'. '무엇' can be transformed into '뭐' in a contracted form. For a casual statement, '이야' and '야' endings are utililzed. The ending '이야' follows the word that ends with a batchim, the final consonant. The ending '야' is located after the word that ends without a batchim. Let's find out the demonstrative pronouns. '이게, 그게, 저게, 이건, 그건, 저건' The man is looking at a mug and thinking 'What is this?'. 'What is this' is (in Korean)~ '이게 뭐야?' ('이게 뭐야'?) The girl is pointing at the mug and telling him that that is coffee. 'That is coffee' means (in Korean) ~ '그건 커피야.' ('그건 커피야.') In the next picture, the man on the left is wondering what item the sales man is holding. He said '그게 뭐야?' ('그게 뭐야?') in a casual way, which means 'what is that?'. The salesperson answers the questions with this sentence, '이건 스마트폰이야.' in an informal way. This time, two men are far away from the laptop. The speaker is thinking that 'What is that?' In Korean, '저게 뭐야?' ('저게 뭐야?') The listener says 'That is a laptop'. '저건 노트북이야' ('저건 노트북이야') The English word 'laptop' is '노트북' in Korean. When you point at someone, the word '사 람' that means a person is used. '이 사람' means this person in English. '그 사람' is the person. and '저 사람' is that person. Before we practice the demonstrative pronouns, remember the following endings. '이에요' and '예요' are formal endings. When the word that ends with batchim, the ending '이에요' is used. The ending '예요' follows the noun that has no batchim. In the picture, Santa is near the baby. Fill in each blanks. Are you done? Let's check! The baby says '이 사람은 누구에요?' , which means 'Who is this person?'. The penguin answers the questions like '그 사람은 산타예요'. It means the person is Santa. Next, the man is close to the girl who holds a book. This is a hint. Fill in the blanks. Are you done? Let's check. The answer is '그 사람은 누구예요?' ('Who is the person?') ,'이 사람은 영진이에요.' ('This person is Yeong-jin.') '이 사람은 영진이에요.' This time, the monster is away from both the speaker and the listener. So, the answer for the blank is '저' '저 사람은 누구예요?' ('Who is that person?') '저 사람은 누구예요?' '저 사람은 프랑켄슈타인이에요.' ('That person is Frankenstein.') '예요' and '이에요' are formal endings. Right now, let's go through the informal conversation. Please choose an answer between the two. Hint The girl is next to the blond hair girl. Let's check the answer, The speaker says '그 사람은 누구야?' ('Who is that person?') The yellow hair girl says '이 사람은 선희야.'. This person is '선희'. The name '선희' ends with a vowel so the appropriate ending is '야'. ('선희야') Next, in the speech bubbles, there is a new expression, '분'. '분' is the more formal expression of '사람'. Choose correct answers. Check the answers with me. '이 분은 누구입니까?' ('Who is this person?') '이 분은 누구입니까?' '그 분은 경수입니다.' ('The person is Gyeong-soo.) '그 분은 경수입니다.' Final practice What are these on the corner of the left side? These are potato chips. Choose a right answer and fill in the blank. Did you solve the quiz? The answers are like the following. '저게 뭐야?' ('What are those?') '저게 뭐야?' '저건 감자칩이야.' ('Those are potato chips.') '저건 감자칩이야.' Great! You've learned some demonstrative pronouns and some formal and informal endings through conversational sentences. In the next video, you will learn about particles. Keep practicing what you've learned with worksheets. Ask questions about Korean on cracking Korean Instagram. 26. My Favorite Korean Food Korean Particles 이 , 가: Hello, today's topic is my favorite food. You will learn about the particles '이' and '가' and you will also learn some Expressions regarding 'likes' such as '이/가 좋다.' '이/가 맛있다.' and dislikes such as '이/가 싫다, 좋지않다,' and '이/가 맛없다.'. In addition, you will learn other expressions like '이/가 ~하고/고 있어요.', '~것 같다.'. Particles have two types. One is the topic particles '은, 는' and the other is subject particles '이, 가' They are seemingly different in usages but Koreans do not rigidly distinguish topic particles from subject particles. But, let's learn about the characteristics of each particle Topic particles focus on description rather than subject. They suggest old information. Also, when you compare and contrast one thing to the other, topic particles are used. They are located after any noun. On the other hand, subject particles focus on subject. They indicate new information concerning the subject and the subject particles '이' and '가' represent broad statement, not comparing or contrasting something. Pay attention to the number four fact. they are located only after the subject of a verb in a sentence. Let's see how the subject particles '이' and '가' are attached to a word. The particle '가' follows the word that ends with a vowel, which means it has no final consonant called batchim. As for '이', the particle '이' is after the word that ends with a consonant, final consonant. Here are some phrases that can be used with the subject particles '이' and '가' like 'S가 V고 있어요.', 'S이 V고 있어요'. The word that ends with a vowel is located before the phrase 'S가 V고 있어요.'. When the word ends with a consonant, the phrase 'S이 V고 있어요.' follows the word. These phrases express a situation in which a subject is doing something. Look at the example sentences that describe the action of a subject. '제가 뛰고 있어요.' '그들이 먹고 있어요.' In the sentence '제가 뛰고 있어요.', this means I am running. The subject is '제' ('제'), which is the honorific form of '나' ('나') or '내' ('내'). In English, 'i' The subject is running in hand, so subject particle is needed in the sentence. The particle '가' should be attached to the subject '제' because the noun '제' ends with a vowel. On the other hand, the subject particle '이' is used in the second sentence because the subject '그들' ends with a final consonant 'ㄹ'. The meaning of a second sentence is 'They are eating.'. Meanwhile, when you want to express your liking for a certain food, these phrases are useful. 'S이/가 좋다.' 'S이/가 맛있다.' The phrase 'S이/가 싫다.', 'S이/가 맛없다.' are used to show that the food you are eating is tasteless or you hate the food. Like I said before, the particle '가' is used after the noun that ends with a vowel. The particle '이' follows the subject when the subject word ends with a consonant. Let's see the example sentences like '불고기가 좋아요.' ('I like bulgogi.'), '짜장면이 맛있어요.' ('jjajangmyeon' is tasty.'). The word bulgogi is followed by the particle '가' because it ends with a vowel. The particle '이' is after the word 'jjajangmyeon' that ends with a consonant. Practice subject particles '이' and '가' through fill-in-the-blank activity. Imagine that you are at a Korean noodle restaurant with your Korean co-worker. You will see the words '물냉면' and '비빔냉면' on a menu board. '물냉면' is buckwheat noodle served in cool beef broth with sliced meat and vegetables. '비빔냉면' is served with spicy chili sauce, meat and vegetables without broth. Fill in the blanks with me. Your co-worker would say 'Which food is the best?'. Person B would say '물냉면 seems like a good idea.'. The answer for the blanks is '이'. '무엇이 좋을 것 같아요?' ('무엇이 좋을 것 같아요?') '무엇' That means 'What'. It is substituded with '뭐가'. ('뭐가') B's answer is '물냉면이 좋을 것 같아요.'. ('물냉면이 좋을 것 같아요.') Question number two This time, supposed that you go to a traditional Korean restaurant with your Korean coworker. You would ask the co-worker the most delicious food in the restaurant like '무엇 blank 가장 맛있어요?'. The particle for the blank is '이' because of the noun that ends with a consonant. Look at the three pictures. The first one is called '두루치기', which is stir-fried pork with gochujang sauce and vegetables. The second one is '불고기 전골'. It's like 'bulgogi casserole'. The bulgogi casserole consists of marinated bulgogi, ,stock and glass noodles with various vegetables. The final one is steamed pork called '수육'. The Korean co-worker would recommend '두루치기' by saying '두루치기~ 가 가장 맛있어요.' .('두루치기가 가장 맛있어요.') Next, person A is the person B's friend. The person A is curious about what the person B is doing in the kitchen. The person A would want to find out that the person B is eating a bowl of rice by saying '너 가 밥을 먹고 있니?'. The person B is eating seasoned tofu pockets stuffed with rice. He would say '응, 내 가 유부초밥을 먹고 있어.' ('응, 내가 유부초밥을 먹고 있어.') ,which means 'Yes. I am eating 유부초밥.' Question number four The conversation is about the food that the person B hates. A asks the person B like the following. '네 가 싫어하는 음식이 뭐야?' '네가 싫어하는 음식이 뭐야?' ('What food do you hate?') The two pictures are like this. One is grilled gopchang called called '곱창구이', and the other is gopchang marinated with gochujang sauce. It is '양념곱창' in Korean. The person B says 'I hate gopchang.' ,which is translated into '나는 곱창이 싫어.' ('나는 곱창이 싫어.') Look at the sentence closely. There are two particles in the sentence. The main sentence is '나는 곱창이 싫어.' and the inserted sentence is '곱창이 싫어.'. '곱창' is the subject of the adjective '싫다'. ('싫다') In this case, the particle '는' shows relevance to the topic '나'. (나=I) The sentence means that as for me I hate 곱창. This is the final practice quiz. The pictures are typical set menu in Korean snack bar that is '분식집'. (bunsikjip) 오뎅, 순대, 김밥, and, 떡볶이 If you go to a Korean snack bar, you will ask your friend whether he or she likes the set menu '김떡순' like '너는 김떡순 세트 가 좋아?' '너는 김떡순 세트가 좋아?' The friend will say 'No, I like fish cake', which is translated into '아니, 나는 어묵 이 좋아.' '아니, 나는 어묵이 좋아.' Now, it's time to practice on your own. Write about your favorite food on your note and translate the sentence you made into the Korea sentence. Upload your homework on your Instagram from your improvement. Please add the following hashtags when uploading your homework. In today's lesson, you've learned about how to talk about your favorite food by using subject particles and some key expressions. In the next video, you will learn the way you introduce yourself. 27. Introduce Yourself Korean Particles 은, 는 1: Hello, in today's lesson, you will learn about the particles '은, 는' and some endings depending on formality. The formal expressions you will learn are '이에요, 예요, 입니다'. The informal endings are '야, 이야' and '다, 이다'. Particles have two types. The particles '은, 는' belong to topic particles. The particle '이' and '가' are categorized into subject particles. Let's see the topic particles in detail. The particle '는' is located after a noun that ends with a vowel. Unlike the particle '는', the particle '은' follows the noun that ends with a consonant. Look at the Korean sentences below. '저는 딸기예요.' It means 'I am a strawberry'. '레몬은 과일이에요.' This means 'a lemon is a fruit.' In the first sentence, the noun '저' ends with a vowel, so the particle '는' is right after the noun. However, in the second sentence, the noun lemon ends with a consonant. In this case, '은' follows the noun. The rules are also applied to putting endings at the end of a sentence. The ending '예요' is needed at the end of the sentence when the word before the ending ends with a vowel. Conversely, the word that ends with a consonant is followed by the ending '이에요'. ('이에요') Read the example sentences two times each. '저는 딸기예요.' ('저는 딸기예요.') '레몬은 과일이에요.' ('레몬은 과일이에요.') Remember that the topic particles '은' and '는' are used to state a general fact like the example sentences. Unlike the particles '은, 는', the subject particles '이' and '가' are are used to mark the subject. Now, let's see how the two fruits introduce themselves depending on formality. Let's read the Korean conversation about the red colored fruit. '안녕하세요? 당신이 크랜베리예요?' ('안녕하세요? 당신이 크랜베리예요?') It means 'Hello, are you a cranberry?'. B says '아니요, 저는 딸기예요.'. '아니요, 저는 딸기예요.' (No, I'm a strawberry.) '저는 딸기입니다.' can be substituted for '저는 딸기예요.'. On the right, there is a lemon. A says '안녕하세요? 당신이 오렌지예요?' '안녕하세요? 당신이 오렌지예요?' ('Hello, are you an orange?') '아니요, 저는 레몬이에요.' '아니요, 저는 레몬이에요.' It means 'No, I am a lemon.'. A asks a question again. '레몬이 과일이에요?' '레몬이 과일이에요?' ('Is lemon a fruit?') B answers like '네, 레몬은 과일이에요.'. '네, 레몬은 과일이에요.' (Yes, a lemon is a fruit.) '레몬은 과일입니다.' can be substituted for '레몬은 과일이에요.'. These fruits can also introduce themselves in an informal way. Let's see how the red creature introduces herself in the conversation. A: '안녕? 너가 라즈베리야?' '안녕? 너가 라즈베리야?' ('Hello, are you a raspberry?') B says '아니, 나는 딸기야.' '아니, 나는 딸기야.' (No, I am a strawberry.) Instead of using the ending '야', the ending '다' can be used at the end of the sentence. What about lemon? Look at the conversation on the right side. A: '안녕? 너가 참외야?' '안녕? 너가 참외야?' ('Hi, are you a Korean watermelon?') B says '아니, 나는 레몬이야.' '아니, 나는 레몬이야.' ('No, I am a lemon.') A asks a question again. '레몬이 과일이야?' '레몬이 과일이야?' ('Is lemon a fruit?') B says '응, 레몬은 과일이야.' '응, 레몬은 과일이야.' ('Yes, a lemon is a fruit.') The sentence can be transformed into '레몬은 과일이다.' '레몬은 과일이다.' Here are some rules about the informal endings '야' and '이야'. In the sentence, '나는 딸기야.', the ending '야' is used because the word '딸기' before the ending '야' ends with a vowel. The ending '이야' is used because the noun before the ending '이야' ends with a consonant. Next, before you solve some exercises about the particles '은' and '는', let's learn about Korean name. My name is '김송이'. '김' is first name, that is a family name. '송이' is a given name. When you call a Korean name, just say a given name like '송이야' in an informal way or '송이씨' in a formal way. I wrote down the introduction of my name with some blanks. Fill in the gaps with appropriate endings for formal sentences first. The sentences are as follows. '저는 김송이 입니다.' '김송이예요.' '저는 송이예요.' As for the informal endings ,the sentences are '나는 김송이야.' '나는 김송이다.' Practice time, introduce the person on her side in Korean using the formal ending '입니다'. ('입니다') Question, '당신이 선생님이에요?' ('당신이 선생님이에요?') It means 'Are you a teacher?'. She answers the question like this. 'Yes. I am a teacher.' In Korean, the English sentence is transformed into the following. You can make the sentence '네, 저는 선생님입니다.'. '네, 저는 선생님입니다.' Next, introduce the people in Korean using the endings '이에요' or '예요'. Question, '당신들이 직원이에요?' '당신들이 직원이에요?' ('Are you employed?') '직원' is employee. They answers 'No, we are students.'. In Korean , it is '아니요, 우리는 학생이에요.'. '아니요, 우리는 학생이에요.' Final question, introduce the singing person in Korean. Question, '너는 배우야?' '너는 배우야?' ('Are you an actor?') The answer is 'No, I am a singer.'. The sentence is transformed into the Korean sentence, '아니, 나는 가수야.' or '나는 가수다. '아니, 나는 가수야.' '나는 가수다.' You change the sentence into '난' '난 가수야.' '난 가수야.' or '난 가수다.' It's your turn time. Self-introduction homework Write self-introduction in Korean on your note using these forms. Please upload the picture of your homework on Instagram, including the following hashtags for your improvement. In today's lesson, you've learned about introducing yourself in Korean. In the next lesson, you will learn how to talk about nationality in Korean. 28. Nationality+jobs Korean Particles 은, 는 2: Hello, today, you will learn about the topic particles '은' and '는' in more detail and endings like '이다' for a positive sentence and '아니다' for a negative sentence. Let's review the particles '은' and '는'. '는' follows the noun that ends with a vowel. This means it comes without a batchim. The particle '은' comes right after the word that ends with a consonant. Let's find out the main functions of the topic particles '은' and '는'. The particles '은' and '는' are often used to describe someone or yourself with an adjective. Read the first example sentences that include adjectives two times. '김밥은 맛있어요.' ('김밥은 맛있어요.') It means 'Kimbap is good.'. '나는 행복해.' ('나는 행복해.') This means 'I am happy.'. Additionally, the particles '은' and '는' are used to describe someone's profession or nationality. Here is an example sentence on the bottom. '저는 한국인이에요.' ('저는 한국인이에요.') It means 'I am Korean.'. This time, describe the following person's nationality and jobs in a formal way. The first picture is about Paul. Before filling in the blanks, let's see the information about him. 이름: 폴 (His name is Paul.) 국적: 미국 (He's from America.) 직업: 회사원 (His job is an office worker.) Here, fill in the blanks using some appropriate formal endings. Is he Korean? No. So, the answer is '폴 씨는 한국인이 아닙니다.' '그는 미국인 ~ 입니다.' '폴은 회사원 ~ 입니다.' Read the sentences one more time. '폴 씨는 한국인이 아닙니다. 미국인 입니다. 폴은 회사원 입니다.' Let's see the picture on the right. Look at her profile. 이름: 연아 (Her name is Yeon-a.) 국적: 한국인 (Her nationality is Korean.) 친구 국적: 중국인 (Her friend's nationality in Chinese.) 연아의 직업: 사진사 (Yeon-a's job is a photographer.) Look at the blanked sentences and check the answer. '연아는 한국인 ~ 입니다.' '그녀는 중국인이 ~ 아닙니다.' Because her friend is from China.. '연아는 사진사~ 입니다.' Read the sentence together. '연아는 한국인입니다. 그녀는 중국인이 아닙니다. 연아는 사진사입니다.' Next, look at the man who is running. Read his profile with me. 이름: 피터 (His name is Peter.) 국적: 영국인 (His nationality is the British.) 직업: 슈퍼맨 (His job is a Superman.) Complete the sentences using some informal endings. '피터는 한국인' '피터는 한국인이 아니야.' ('Peter is not a Korean.') '그는 영국인 이야.' ('He is the british.') '그는 슈퍼맨 이야.' (He is a superman.) '피터는 한국인이 아니야. 그는 영국인이야. 그는 슈퍼맨이야.' Let's make full sentences. '지현이는 한국인 이야.' ('Jihyeon is Korean.') '그녀는 캐나다인 이 아니야.' ('She's not Canadian.') '그녀는 의사 야.' ('She's a doctor.') Read the sentences one more time. '지현이는 한국인이야. 그녀는 캐나다인이 아니야. 그녀는 의사야.' Fill in the blanks with formal endings. A: '안녕하십니까? 반갑습니다.' ('Hello, nice to meet you.') '저는 나나 blank~' What is it? '입니다', '저는 나나입니다.' ('I'm Nana.') B: '안녕하십니까?' ('Hello?') '나나씨는 뉴질랜드인 blank~' Here, you should put the question form of the ending '입니다'. The answer is ~ '입니까'. '나나씨는 뉴질랜드인입니까?' ('나나씨는 뉴질랜드인입니까?') ('Is Nana newzealander?') A: No 아니요. '저는 일본인 blank' '입니다' '아니요, 저는 일본인입니다.' ('No, I am Japanese.') Next, fill out the blanks with informal expressions. A: '안녕? 반가워.' ('Hi. Nice to meet you.') '나는 톰~ 톰이야.' ('I am Tom.') '나는 톰이야.' B: '안녕? 톰. 너는 화가 야?' ('너는 화가야?') It means 'Are you an artist?'. '아니, 나는 배우 야.' ('아니, 나는 배우야.') ('No, I am an actor.') Number three, let's guess what her job is. Fill in the blanks considering formal situation. '저는 blank 입니다.' '저는 요리사 입니다.' ('요리사' is a cook.) Read it two times. '저는 요리사입니다.' ('저는 요리사입니다.') Therefore, she's not an architect. Architect is '건축가'. In Korean, it is transformed into '저는 건축가~ 가 아닙니다.' Repeat after me. '저는 건축가가 아닙니다.' ('저는 건축가가 아닙니다.') Number four What's his job? He is a waiter. Let's fill in the blanks with some informal endings. Waiter is waiter, so '웨이터야.' ('웨이터야.') ('He's from Mexico.') So in Korean, it is '나는 ~ 멕시코 사람이야.' '멕시코인' has the same meaning in Korean. '나는 멕시코 사람이야.' ('나는 멕시코 사람이야.') or '나는 멕시코인이야.' Final activity is your turn activity. You should make your own name card with the expressions that we've learned. Upload some pictures on your Instagram about homework for your improvement. Don't forget to include the following hashtags when uploading your homework. In today's lesson, you've learned the topic particles '은' and '는' regarding nationality. In the next lesson, you will learn the possessive particle '의'. 29. Expressing Possessions Korean Possessive Particles 의: Hello. Today's lesson is about the possessive particle '의'. Possessive particles are categorized into two types, possessive pronouns like '나의 것, 너의 것, 그의 것, 그녀의 것, 우리의 것, 그들의 것' and possessive adjectives like '나의, 너의, 그의, 그녀의, 우리의, 그들의'. You will also learn the word '누구' ('누구') , which is used in a question sentence. Let's see the two possessions. The bear cup is Mina's and the two glasses are theirs. How can we change the phrases like Mina's and theirs to Korean phrases? To indicate someone's possession, you should know the pattern first. The possessive particle '의' is inserted between a subject pronoun and the noun '것' , which means an item. Look at the table. There are subject pronouns such as '나(I)', '너(You)', '그(He)', '그녀(She)', '우리(We)', '그들(They)'. Using the subject pronouns, we can make possessive pronouns. Some blue letters indicate informality. 나의 것, 내 것, (내꺼)' mean mine. '너의 것,네 것, (니꺼)' are yours. 'His' is '그의 것' and 'Hers' is '그녀의 것'. '우리의 것, 우리꺼' indicate hours in English. 'Theirs' is '그들의 것' in Korean. As for possessive adjectives, just drop the word '것'. '나의, 저의, 제' mean 'my'. '너의, 당신의' mean 'your'. 'His' is '그의'. 'Her' is '그녀의'. 'Our' is '우리의' or '우리들의' in Korean. 'Their' is '그들의'. Now, let's check your understanding of constructing possessives. The cup is Mina's. Mina's is what in Korean? '미나의 것' in Korean ('미나의 것') On the right, the glasses are 'theirs'. 'Theirs' is changed into ~ '그들의 것' ('그들의 것') Fill in the blank with a possessive and read aloud the sentences. The teacher asks the student the following questions like '이건 누구의 공책이에요?'. '이건 누구의 공책이에요?' (Whose notebook is this?) '누구의' is 'Whose' in English, the interrogative. Maybe the notebook is hers. What's the answer for the blank? The answer is '저의', which means 'my'. '저의 공책이에요.' '저의 공책이에요.' ('This is my notebook.') Then, what is the abbreviation of '저의'? We've just learned the expression. The answer is '제'. ('제') '제 공책이에요.' ('제 공책이에요.') Here, the man says '이건 누구의 가방이야?'. '이건 누구의 가방이야?' ('Whose bag is this?') The red-haired man says 'blank 가방이야.'. I'll give you a hint. The word for the blank means 'my', so '나의' is the answer. '나의' The abbreviation of '나의' is '내' ('내') '내 가방이야.' ('내 가방이야.') or '나의 가방이야.' ('나의 가방이야.') 'It's my bag.' Next the man asks her a question like '이건 누구의 사탕입니까?' ('이건 누구의 사탕입니까?') by holding a candy. 'Whose candy is this?' What will the woman say in Korean? There is a hint. 'Your' is transformed into '당신의', '너의' in Korean. Therefore, you have to pick the phrase '당신의' for expressing formality. In this picture, the teacher says '이건 누구의 일기장 입니까?' '이건 누구의 일기장 입니까?' (Whose journal is this?) Do you remember what the subject 'we' is changed into? '우리들의' or '우리의' '우리들의 일기장입니다.' ('우리들의 일기장입니다.') or '우리 일기장입니다.' ('우리 일기장입니다.') It means 'This is ours in English.'. This time, a little kid says '이건 누구의 운동화입니까?'. ('이건 누구의 운동화입니까?') Look at the sneakers. Whose sneakers are these? The owner of the sneakers is the boy. So, grandpa says '그의', '그의 운동화입니다.'. ('그의 운동화입니다.'.) These are his sneakers. If the owner of the sneakers is the girl, in the picture, the grandpa will answer like this. 'Her' is '그녀' in Korean, so '그녀의 운동화 입니다.' ('그녀의 운동화 입니다.') Thsese are her sneakers. Let's solve some final quizzes together. These are A team's lunch set hamburgers. The man on the right asks him whose hamburgers these are. The man on the left side belongs to a B's team. Choose a correct pronoun between the two. The answer is '그들'. ('그들') '그들의 햄거버야.'. ('그들의 햄거버야.') 'The hamburgers are theirs.' If the man on the left were A's team, he would answer the question using the pronoun, '우리들' or '우리'. This is a final quiz. The girl with blond hair wants to know the owner of the lipstick by saying '이건 누구의 립스틱이야? '이건 누구의 립스틱이야? ('Whose lipstick is this?') Look at the lipstick the blond-haired girl is holding. Her name j is written on the cover of the lipstick. What's the answer? '니꺼' or '내꺼' The girl Kay says '니꺼야.'. ('니꺼야.') It's yours. You did a great job. Today, you've learned how to express someone's possessions. Please review day by day by memorizing words and phrases that we've learned. In the next video, you will learn the particles '을' and '를' and the past tense. ask questions about Korean on Cracking Korean Instagram. 30. Talking about What You Did Korean Particles 을, 를: Hello, today, you are going to learn the object particles '을' and '를' and the past tense maker '았, 었 했'. The particle '을' follows the word that ends with a consonant and the particle '를' is after the word that ends with a vowel. As for the past tense, the past tense makers '았' and '었' follow a different vowel. '았' follows a verb that ends with a vowel, 'ㅗ' or 'ㅏ'. '었' is right after a verb that ends with a vowel, 'ㅜ' or 'ㅣ'. The verb that contains the past tense makers enbds with the endings like '습니다' for more formal, '어요' for formal, and '어' for informal. In case of the verb '하다', when making a past tense, it is transformed into '했' plus the ending '습니다' or '했' plus {'어요' or '어'} Let's practice the object particles '을' and '를' with some pictures. The picture is Korean blood sausage Let's express what the person B did in a formal way in Korean. A wants to know what food the person B ate for lunch. Make a Korean question sentence with me. Please remember that Korean sentence has a basic structure, a SOV sequence, not a SVO sequence, the English sequence. Stop the video and fill in the blanks. Are you done? Let's check! '당신은 점심 때 무엇을 먹었습니까?' It is '을' because the word '무엇' ends with a consonant. '무엇을 먹었습니까?' Repeat after me. '당신은 점심 때 무엇을 먹었습니까?' '당신은 점심 때 무엇을 먹었습니까?' (What did you eat for lunch?) B: I ate '순대'. The English sentence is transformed into '저는 순대 blank 먹 blank'. The word '순대' ends with a vowel, so the object particle '를' is needed. '저는 순대를 먹었습니다.' '저는 순대를 먹었습니다.' (I ate soondae.) In this picture, the person B, 'Seojin' is sleeping. Let's make a past tense with a formal expression. The verb '하다' means 'do' in English. A asks Seojin what he did in this morning. '서진 씨는 오늘 아침에 뭘 blank?' '서진 씨는 오늘 아침에 뭘 했어요?' ('서진 씨는 오늘 아침에 뭘 했어요?') Here, '뭘' is the abbreviation of '무엇'. B, B slept this morning. So, in Korean, the sentence is '저는 잠을 잤어요.' ('저는 잠을 잤어요.') The base form of the verb 'sleep' is '자다' in Korean. Its stem '자' ends with a vowel '아', so the past tense maker '았' is inserted between '자' and the ending '어요'. In the next picture, the girl read a book yesterday morning. Let's fill in the blanks with casual expressions. A: What did you do yesterday morning? In Korean, it says '너는 어제 아침에 무엇 blank blank?'. The past tense of '하다' is '했', so the answer is '너는 어제 아침에 무엇을 했니?' ('너는 어제 아침에 무엇을 했니?') Focus on the ending '니'. It is used to make a question. B says 'I read a comic book.'. 나는 만화책 '을 or '를'? '을' is the answer. '나는 만화책을 읽었어.' ('나는 만화책을 읽었어.') '었' follows the stem '읽' because '읽' ends with a vowel 'ㅣ'. There is a refrigerator in the picture. Yesterday, the person B bought a refrigerator. A asks the question like 'What did you buy yesterday?'. 'Buy' is '사다' in Korean. The answer is '너 어제 뭘 샀어?' ('너 어제 뭘 샀어?') B says 'I bought a refrigerator. 나는 냉장고 '을' or '를'? The word '냉장고' ends with a vowel, so the object particle '를' should be used. '난 냉장고를 샀어.' ('난 냉장고를 샀어.') The stem of the verb '사다' is '사' ,which ends with a vowel 'ㅏ'. So, '았' is inserted between '사' and the ending '어요'. Last picture In this picture, the man on the sailboat caught a big fish. A wants to ask B what he caught at a river in a formal way. Look at the word. '잡다' is 'catch' in English. A: 당신은 무엇 '을' or '를'? '을' is the answer. '당신은 무엇을 잡았습니까?' ('당신은 무엇을 잡았습니까?') What did you caught? B says 'I caught a fish'. In Korean, it is ~ '저는 물고기를 잡았습니다.' ('저는 물고기를 잡았습니다.') Now, it's your turn. Make a diary on your own. Write your yesterday's activity on your note with the expressions below. Then, upload your homework photo on your Instagram for your improvement including the following hashtags. In this lesson, you've learned the particles '을' and '를'. You've also learned how to construct a past tense sentence. In the next lesson, you will learn the particles '에' and '에서'. Don't hesitate to ask questions about what we've learned when you are confused about Korean. Beethoven I see you tomorrow and bye-bye. 31. Expressing Existence & Action Korean Particle 에, 에서: Hello In today's lesson, you will learn about the particles '에' and '에서' and interrogative like '어디' ,which means 'where' and '무엇' that means 'what'. First, let's compare the particle '에서' with '에'. The particle '에' follows a place noun, which indicates existence or direction. The particle '에서' is right after a place noun that shows the location where some action takes place. Let's see the usages of the particle '에'. It shows existence. There are two cages. In the first picture, the parrot is in the cage but in the second picture, there is no parrot in the cage. How can we change the English sentences 'The parrot is in the cage.',' The parrot is not in the cage.' into Korean sentences. Let's read the Korean sentences two times with the particle '에'. '앵무새가 새장에 있어요.' ('앵무새가 새장에 있어요.') '앵무새' means a parrot. '새장' is a cage in Korean. The other sentence is '앵무새가 새장에 없어요.' ('앵무새가 새장에 없어요.') This time, make Korean sentences with the particle '에' that shows direction. The English sentences are as follows. 'I go to a concert right now.' 'I go to A university.' The two sentences have a verb in common, 'go'. But, in Korean, it is transformed into different forms in each sentence. The first one is '저는 지금 콘서트장에 가요.'. ('저는 지금 콘서트장에 가요.') The other one is '저는 A 대학교에 다녀요.'. ('저는 A 대학교에 다녀요.') The words '콘서트장' and 'A 대학교' are place nouns. The particle '에' is used with directional verbs such as '가다' or '오다'. From now on, make some Korean sentences with the particle '에서' that indicates a place for an action. Look at the first picture. This is the Statue of Liberty in New York. The man who is eating a piece of pizza lives in New York. The English sentence. 'I live in New York.' is transformed into the following Korean sentence, '저는 뉴욕에서 살아요.' ('저는 뉴욕에서 살아요.') In the second picture, the girl 'Na-yeong' does a part time job at a bakery. In Korean, it is ~ '나영이가 빵집에서 아르바이트를 해요.' ('나영이가 빵집에서 아르바이트를 해요.') Here, '살다' means to live. '빵집' is a bakery. Part time job is '아르바이트' in Korean. If you want to ask someone a certain place or information in Korean, these interrogatives would be helpful, '어디' for 'Where' '무엇' or '뭐' for 'what. The word '어디' comes before the place particle '에' or '에서'. When it comes to the interrogative 'What', the object particle '을' follows the word '무엇'. That is '무엇을' or '뭘'. To make an interrogative sentence, keep in mind the interrogative pattern of Korean. Subject+ Where(That means place) + 'What' + Verb sequence. Just make a high pitch at the end of the question sentence. Let's find out how the interrogatives are used in a sentence. Number one Read each sentences two times with me. A: 유미씨, 당신은 어디에서 살아요? '유미씨, 당신은 어디에서 살아요?' (Yumi, where do you live?) B: '저는 일본에서 살아요.' '저는 일본에서 살아요.' ('I live in Japan.') Number two C: '거실에 무엇이 있어요?' '거실에 무엇이 있어요?' ('What is in the living rooom?') '소파가 있어요.' '소파가 있어요.' ('There is a sofa.') Next, make a sentence with '에' or '에서'. In the picture on the left, Anna does online shopping at home. In Korean, it is ~ 안나는 집 '에서' or '에'? Look at the verb '해요' first. The base form of '해요' is '하다'. It means 'do'. Anna does a shopping online in person, so the particle for the blank is '에서'. '안나는 집에서 인터넷 쇼핑을 해요.' ('안나는 집에서 인터넷 쇼핑을 해요.') Fill in the blank of the second picture. There is a woman holding a book. She's from Singapore. She says 'I'm from Singapore.'. 나는 싱가포르 '에' or '에서'? '에서 왔어.' The base form of '왔어' is '오다', , which shows a person's action, 'come'. Oh, there is a dog in the room. Before filling in the blank, let's see the adjective at the end of the sentence, '있어요'. The base form of '있어요' is '있다' , which indicates the dog's existence. Therefore, the particle '에' is used in the sentence. A asks B '방에 무엇이 있어요?'. '방에 무엇이 있어요?' ('What's in the room?') B answers the question like '개가 방에 있어요.' or '개가 있어요.'. Hear, the phrase including the place particle '방에' can be omitted. The dog is in the room. Look at the picture on the right. There is a refrigerator in the kitchen. A wants to know what is in the kitchen. The answer is '부엌 에 뭐가 있나요?' '부엌에 뭐가 있나요?' ('What in the kitchen?') The sentence is equivalent to the following question sentence. '부엌에 무엇이 있나요?' ('부엌에 무엇이 있나요?') B answers the question like the following. '냉장고가 부엌에 있어요.' ('냉장고가 부엌에 있어요.') or, '냉장고가 있어요.' It means the refrigerator is in the kitchen. If you look at the conversation closely, you will find that the adjective '있다' is used. Both '있어요' or '있나요' are the formal expression of '있다'. And '없다' is the opposite of '있다'. Final practice A is curious about where the penguin is from. A asks the penguin a question in Korean. '너는 어디 blank 왔어?' Focus on the verb '왔어'. The base form of '왔어' is '오다'. This is an action verb. So the particle '에서' is the right answer. '너는 어디에서 왔어?' '너는 어디에서 왔어?' ('Where are you from?') In the penguin B's reply, the verb '오다' is used again as in '왔어'. '나는 남극에서 왔어.' '나는 남극에서 왔어.' ('I'm from Antartica.') '왔어' and '왔니' have a same meaning. Let's fill in the rest of the blanks together. Look at the picture on the right. A: '너는 어디 에서 왔니?' '너는 어디에서 왔니?' ('Where are you from?') B: '나는 프랑스에서 왔어.' '나는 프랑스에서 왔어.' (I'm from France.) It's your turn. Where do you live? Write where you live in Korean on your note. Then, read aloud the sentence on your own. You can do it if you practice making Korea sentences many times. Don't forget to ask any question about Korean on Cracking Korean Instagram, If you have difficulties in learning Korean. In today's lesson, you've learned about the place particles '에' and '에서' to express someone's existence or action. In the next video, you will learn how to construct verbs with the word '하다'. 32. Korean Verbs Creating Action Verbs: Hello~ Today's lesson is about making action verbs with the verb '하다'. Before learing about action verbs, let's review the verbs of Korean. Verbs are very important to complete Korean sentences. A verb is located at the end of a sentence as you already know. Depending on formality, different endings are attached to a sentence. '습니다 , 이어요, 어요' for formal endings and '야, 이야, 어' for informal endings Verbs typically have two types, action verbs and descriptive verbs. First let's deal with the usages of the verb '하다'. '하다' means 'to do' when it is used with action verbs In the object plus verb '하다' sequence, the verb '하다' has a meaning by itself as in '농구를 하다.' ('do a basketball') '숙제를 하다' ('do a homework'), '사랑을 하다' ('do love'). Also, without the object particles '을' and '를', A noun and the verb '하다' are combined to make action verbs such '농구하다', '숙제하다', '사랑하다'. Let's make action verbs by combining the following nouns with the verb '하다'. First, read the noun words in the vocab table. 면접 (interview), 운동 (exercise), 일 (work) , 취소 (cancellation) ,준비 (preparation), 환영 (welcome) , 인사 (greeting), 감사 (thanks), 주문 (ordering) Using the nouns, action verbs are created like this. Read each verb two times. '면접하다' (to interview) '운동하다' (to exercise) '일하다' (to work) '취소하다' (to cancel) '준비하다' (to prepare) '환영하다' (welcome) '인사하다' (to greet) '감사하다' (to thank) '주문하다' (to order) Let's read aloud the following nouns with me and attach the verb '하다' to the nouns to make action verbs. '사랑' is love. '운전' is driving. '질문' is question. '화장' is makeup. '이야기' is tallk. '결혼' is marriage. '졸업' is graduation. '요리' is cooking. '생각' is thinking. The action verbs are as follows. '사랑하다' (to love) '운전하다' (to drive) '질문하다' (to question, to ask) '화장하다' (to make up) '이야기하다' (to talk) '결혼하다' (to marry) '졸업하다' (to graduate) '요리하다' (to cook) '생각하다' (to think) This time, practice action verbs through the sentence making activity. Flip the cards of action verbs and with the verbs, make a simple sentence like SV sequence or SOV sequence. I'll make example sentences for you, but you should make a sentence on your own later. There are many hearts in the first picture. What word can you think of? Let's see. 'To love' 'To love' is '사랑하다'. For example, I'll make one Korean sentence. '나는 내 강아지를 사랑해.' (I love my dog.) Look at this. This is a graduation cap. To graduate is '졸업하다' in Korean. The exemple sentence is '저는 S 대학교를 졸업했어요.' I graduated from S University. Three, the woman is doing a makeup. 'Do a makeup' means '화장하다' '그녀는 화장을 해.' (She wears makeup.) Let's see the cards on the bottom. When recruiting new employees for a company, this event takes place. What is it? Yes, '면접하다' or '인터뷰하다' It means 'to interview'. '사장님은 지원자들을 면접했다.' The boss interviewed the candidates. Then, what is he doing? Drive? To drive' is '운전하다'. '그가 그의 차를 운전한다.' (He drives his car.) Look at the picture on the corner. Here, the couples are getting married. To Mary is '결혼하다' '그들은 결혼한다.' (They are getting married.) Next, the man is using a laptop. He's working. 'To work' means '일하다' in Korean. '그는 열심히 일해요.' (He works hard.) Oh, the man is opening the front door to welcome someone. 'To welcome' is '환영하다' '당신이 저의 집에 오신 것을 환영합니다.' it's okay to omit the subject phrase '당신이' like '저의 집에 오신 것을 환영합니다.' It means 'Welcome to my house.'. Look at the picture on the right. He's running on the treadmill. 'To exercise' is '운동하다' in Korean. The exemple sentence is '그는 매일 아침 운동한다.' He exercises every morning. Look at that! What is she thinking? She has a lot of ideas on her brain. 'To think' is translated into '생각하다'. For example, '그녀는 어젯밤 BTS 가수를 생각했다.' She thinks a BTS singer last night. Next picture, the teacher and the students are vowing each other. 'To greet' is ~ '인사하다'. '선생님과 학생들이 서로 인사한다.' The teacher and the students greet each other. Last picture, the man is ordering a hamburger on his smartphone. 'To order' is ~ '주문하다'. '그는 햄버거를 주문했다.' It means 'He ordered a hamburger.' From now on, can you make action verbs with the verb '하다' by yourself? There are many kinds of action verbs in Korean dictionary. This time, it's your turn. In the online dictionary, find some other action verbs that end with '하다'. Write the words on your note like this. '운전하다' (to drive) Upload the homework on your Instagram for your improvement. Please attach the hashtags to your Instagram post. I recommend this online dictionary site, National Institute of Korean language dictionary. You can easily find Korean words with your language by clicking one of these buttons. You will see this picture on the bottom of the page. In today's lesson, you've learned some action verbs that include '하다' in Korean. In the next video, you will learn some other types of verbs called descriptive verbs. 33. Korean Verbs Creating Descriptive Verbs: Hello. Today, you will learn about the principle of making descriptive verbs. After learning the verbs, you will describe things with descriptive verbs. Look at the picture first. The cat is smiling. Maybe the cat is happy. What do you think about him? He looks tired. Look! The two girls are eating cherries. I guess they think the cherries taste good. 'happy', 'tired', 'taste good' They are all related to the adjectives. So. what are descriptive verbs? Descriptive verbs describe something. They are similar to the adjectives of English. Look at the example. '귀엽다' is to be cute. '피곤하다' is to be tired. '맛있다' is to be tasty. '있다' is 'to exist'. '흐리다' is 'to be cloudy'. '편안하다' is 'to be comfortable'. Focus on the descriptive verbs. The verb '하다' is used to make descriptive and active verbs. Then, let's compare descriptive verbs with active verbs. Action verbs are called active verbs or dynamic verbs. The action verbs are combined with the object phrases that contain the object particle '을' or '를'. They function as verbs. Descriptive verbs have some different points from active verbs. The descriptive verbs are called stative verbs. The verbs describe shape, emotion, appearance. The descriptive verbs are not used with the object particles '을' or '를'. They function as adjectives. This time, let's learn how to make descriptive verbs. There are some descriptive verbs by themselves. These are combined with subject particles '이' and '가'. Also, other descriptive verbs are combined with the subject phrases that include the subject particles '이' and '가'. The particles can be omitted to make descriptive verbs. Find out the examples of descriptive verbs in detail. These examples of the verbs do not have a subject particle. They are descriptive verbs by themselves. '귀엽다' is 'to be cute.' '피곤하다' is to be tired. '크다' is 'to be big'. '젊다' is 'to be young' '예쁘다' is to be pretty. '쉽다' is 'to be easy'. The descriptive verbs with the subject particles'이'and'가' are '맛있다' (to be tasty) '맛없다' (to be tasteless) seemed '힘들다' (to be hard) '재미있다' (to be interesting) They are also called '맛이 있다', '맛이 없다', '힘이 들다', '재미가 있다'. Let's practice descriptive verbs by making some sentences. In the first card, they are eating cherries. They think the cherries taste good. 'To taste good' is '맛있다'. For example, '체리가 맛있다.' (Cherries taste good.) The name of the street is 'Easy Street'. 'To be easy' is '쉽다'. '이 시험은 쉽다.' It means 'The exam is easy.'. What does she look like? Isn't she pretty? 'To be pretty' means '예쁘다 '그녀는 예쁘다' means 'She is pretty.'. Look at the cards on the bottom. The red cat looks cute. 'To be cute' is '귀엽다'. For example, '펭귄은 귀엽다.' (The penguin is pretty.) Next, the boy is playing on the swing. Maybe he feels that it's interesting to swing. 'To be interesting' is '재미있다'. '게임은 재미있다.' (Games are interesting.) The last picture shows that he's carrying a heavy box. He is exhausted. 'To be hard' or 'to be strenuous' means '힘들다'. For example, '달리기는 힘들어.' It means 'Running is hard.'. Next page The owl looks tired. 'To be tired' is '피곤하다' in Korean. '부엉이는 피곤해.' (The owl is tired.) He is a young boy. 'To be young' is '젊다'. For instance, '그는 젊다.' (He is young.) In the final picture, the penguin ate something with a spoon. I think the food that he ate was tasteless. 'To be tasteless' is '맛없다'. For example, '풋사과는 맛이 없다.'. It means 'An unriped appple is tasteless.'. The final activity is your turn activity. Search for some other descriptive verbs in the online dictionary, and write the words on your note. For example, '맛있다' (to be tasty) Uplead the homework on your Instagram for your improvement. Please attach the following hashtags to your Instagram post. Like I said at the previous lesson, the online dictionary from National Institute of Korean language is recommendable. Look up some words on the site by clicking the language you are familiar with. You will see the picture on the bottom of the page. In this lesson, you've learned some descriptive verbs and some differences between the two type verbs like action verbs and descriptive verbs. In the next lesson, you will learn about greetings in Korean. 34. Korean Greetings Formal & Informal expressions: Hello. Today, you will learn how to greet someone by using formal or Informal expressions. Let's read the basic greeting expression. '안녕하다' ('안녕하다') This is the dictionary form of the word. It literally means 'to be in peace', but its actual meaning is 'hello' or 'bye'. The word '안녕하다' has different forms depending on formality. In a formal situation, such as entering a restaurant or hotel you can use '안녕하세요' to greet someone. Please greet someone with a slight bow like the person on the screen. '안녕하세요?' ('안녕하세요?') It means 'Hello. How are you?'. When you want to say 'Hello' to a boss in a company, greet the person with a bow by using this expression '안녕하십니까?' ('안녕하십니까?'). It's more respectful than the first expression '안녕하세요?'. If you greet someone in an informal situation, just say '안녕?'. ('안녕?') It means 'Hi?'. In this situation, you don't have to bow each other. Let's see how the verb '안녕하다' is conjugated. The base verb '안녕하다' consists of '안녕' that means peace and '하다' that is 'to do'. Korean use different endings to mark a specific context. '안녕하' is a stem and '다, 세요, 십니까' are endings. The ending '해요' shows a politeness to the other person. The ending '십니까' represents a high-polite style of speech. Both the endings '세요' and '십니까' are used for a declarative and interrogative sentence. Let's turn to the other greeting expression. If you meet someone who you haven't often met before, utilize this basic verb. '오래간만이다.' '오래간만이다.' (It means 'long time no see'.) The conversation between the speakers take place in a formal setting. Read the sentences with me. '오래간만이에요. 만나서 반가워요.' '오래간만이에요. 만나서 반가워요.' That means 'Long time no see. Nice to meet you.'. You can simply say this like '오래간만이에요. 반가워요.' The person on the right says '저도 만나서 반가워요'. '저도 만나서 반가워요.' It means 'It's nice to meet you, too.'. Just say '반가워요'. ('반가워요') The base verb form of '오래간만이에요' is '오래간만이다'. '에요'and '입니다' indicate politeness. The ending '입니다' shows a high formality. Read the two sentences two times. '오래간만이에요.' ('오래간만이에요.') '오래간만입니다.' ('오래간만입니다.') Here, focus on the expression '오래간만입니다'. When a verb is conjugated with an ending, the stem of the verb is often slightly changed. '오래간만이' is a stem in the expression. The stem ends with '이' and the ending '입니다' starts with '이'. ('이') '이' and '입' have a similar vowel sound '이', so '이' before the ending '입니다' is erased. '오래간만입니다.' ('오래간만입니다.') When you meet a person for the first time, in a high formal situation, use the expressions. The person on the left says '처음뵙겠습니다.'. '처음뵙겠습니다.' It means 'How do you do?'. The person on the right '만나서 반갑습니다.' ('만나서 반갑습니다.') Nice to meet you. These are bizarre greeting expressions in Korean. '밥 먹었어? 식사하셨어요?' '밥 먹었어?' for a casual greeting and '식사하셨어요?' for a formal greeting. '밥' means cooked rice or a meal. We usually call a meal '식사'. ('식사') Well, you may feel shocked when you hear these expressions in the morning. Why does he or she want to check if I eat a bowl of rice even as a greeting? The two expressions literally means 'Have you eaten yet?'. But they really means 'How are you?' like an icebreaker in English. From the sentences, '밥 먹었어? 식사하셨어요?', you can guess Koreans regard rice as an important source of energy in daily lives. If you heard that expressions, just say yes. However, when someone asked you '밥 먹었어?, 식사하셨어요?' right before having a meal, the sentences mean 'Let's eat food together.'. Keep that in mind. Imagine that you meet an acquaintance in the morning in a formal situation. Let's greet the two persons like the following. '안녕하세요. 식사하셨어요?' The person D says '네', which means 'Yes'. The person C says '아니요' because he haven't had breakfast in the morning. If you greet friends, use the expressions like '밥 먹었어?'. ('밥 먹었어?') Your friend would answer the question like that '아니' ('아니') if he or she haven't had a meal. The opposite expression of '아니' is '응' ('응') in an informal situation. It means 'Yes'. Final activity It's your turn. Greet your friends in Korean with the expressions you have learned so far. In today's lesson, you've learned some greeting expressions and its usages depending on the context. In the next video, you will learn about farewells in Korean. Bye bye. 35. Korean Farewells Formal & Informal expressions: Hello. In today's lesson, you will learn how to say goodbye depending on formality. Let's read the base forms of verbs first. '안녕히 있다' and '안녕히 가다' Look at the blue letters. '있다' means 'to be' or 'to exist' and '가다' means 'to go'. The honorific forms of the verb are as follows. '안녕히 계세요' '안녕히 가세요' They are used in a formal setting. Find out the meaning of each phrase, '계세요' and '가세요'. '계세요' means 'to stay' or 'to exist'. '가세요' means 'to go'. The word '있다' is transformed into '계시다' and '가다' is changed into '가시다' in a formal situation. Let's see the honorific forms of the verbs '안녕히 있다' and '안녕히 가다'. These are '안녕히 계시다' and '안녕히 가시다', which have a common honorific stuffix '시'. ('시') When the final ending '어요' is added to the honorific suffix '시' , the final form is changed into '세요' as in '안녕히 계세요.', '안녕히 가세요.'. The ending '십시오' indicates high formality ,which follows the stem '안녕히 계시' or '안녕히 가시'. Let's read the final formal expressions, '안녕히 계십시오.' '안녕히 가십시오.' Practice the farewell expressions in the picture. The customer is about to leave the restaurant by saying '안녕히 계세요'. ('안녕히 계세요'.) The cook says goodbye to him with the expression, '안녕히 가세요.' ('안녕히 가세요.') We've learned the formal way of saying goodbye. This time, let's learn some expressions of saying goodbye in an informal way. The frog wants to go out of the squirrel's house. So, he says '잘 있어' to the squirrel. ('잘 있어') The squirrel says to the frog by saying '잘가'. ('잘가') The base forms of these expressions are '잘 있다', '잘 가다'. Its stem is conjugated with different endings. The stemIt '잘 있' is followed by the ending '어' because the stem ends with the vowel 'ㅣ'. Here, the stem '잘 가' ends with the vowel '아', so the ending '아' is attached to the stem. '가' and '아' have a similar vowel sound '아'. By omitting the letter '아', the expression '잘 가' is created. Look at the other farewell expressions in a new formal setting. When the squirrel says goodbye such as '잘 가' in Korean, the frog says '다음에 또 봐.' (See you next time.) Repeat the following expressions two times. '다음에 또 봐.' ('다음에 또 봐.') The expression '다음에 또 봐.' is transformed into the sentence, '다음에 또 뵙겠습니다.' in a formal setting. The girl on the left says goodbye to the grandparents in a formal way. Read the expressions two times with me. '다음에 또 뵙겠습니다.' ('다음에 또 뵙겠습니다.') In this picture, the girl is about to leave Korea with her suitcase. They are couples. The man says goodbye to her by simply saying '안녕' with a low tone. The girl also says '안녕' to him before leaving the place in an informal way. Instead of the expression '안녕', '잘 가' is also used to express 'goodbye'. The man says '잘 가' and the girl agrees to his remark by saying '응, 잘 가.'. It means 'Yes, goodbye.'. Or, you can reply to him with this expression, '응, 연락할게.', ('응, 연락할게.') That means 'Yeah, I'll call you.'. For your turn activity, say goodbye to your friends in Korean. In this lesson, you've learned some farewell expressions depending on a context, formal or informal situation. In the next video, you were learn about numbers in Korean. 36. Korean Numbers Sino, Native Numbers: Hello. In today's lesson, you are going to learn about the two Korean numbering systems, sino numbers which are originated from Chinese and native numbers from 1 to 99. We call number '숫자'. ('숫자') First, you need to know about sino numbers. The sino numbers are borrowed from Chinese numbers. These numbers have four primary usages. The sino numbers are used when you are telling time for minutes and seconds. You also use sino numbers when you are talking phone numbers, prices, and dates. Focus on some units in the bracket. You will read numbers with the Korean counters later. '분' is used for telling time for a minute. '초' is used for telling time for a second. '번' is used for pronouncing phone numbers. For prices, you use '원'. When it comes to dates, you use '월' for a month, and '일' for a day. Now, let's count numbers from 0 to 9 with sino numbering system. It's not that difficult if you read the numbers with me. Repeat after me. gong/ yeong (gong/ yeong) il (il) i (i) sam (sam) sa (sa) o (o) yuk (yuk) chil (chil) pal (pal) gu (gu) Then, let's read the two digit numbers that end with 0 from 10 to 90 in sino numbering system. sip (sip) i sip (i sip) For the number 20, it is literally two ten. That is called 'i sip'. Read the following numbers with this rule. sam sip (sam sip) sa sip (sa sip) o sip (o sip) yuk sip (yuk sip) chil sip (chil sip) pal sip (pal sip) gu sip (gu sip) For the number one hundred, say baek. (baek) Similarly, the number 21 consists of two sets of 10 and 1. For 21, i sip il (i sip il) in sino numbering system. With this rule in mind, read the numbers from 21 to 29. i sip il ( i sip il) i sip i (i sip i) i sip sam (i sip sam) i sip sa (i sip sa) i sip o (i sip o) i sip yuk (i sip yuk) i sip chil (i sip chil) i sip pal (i sip pal) i sip gu (i sip gu) This rule also applies to these two digit numbers that end with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. These are some words that contain a lot of zeros. Read the words with sino numbering system. One hundred is 'baek'. ('baek') Ten thousand is 'man'. ('man') One hundred thousand is 'sip man'. ('sip man') And one million is 'baek man'. ('baek man') Ten million is 'cheon man'. ('cheon man') One hundred million is 'eok'. ('eok') A thousand million or billion is 'sip eok'. ('sip eok') Finally, trillion is 'jo' ('jo') in Korean. This time, let's talk about native numbers from 1 to 99. Native numbers are not affected by Chinese, so they are also Korean numbers. Native numbers are used for counting items, people. Also, the numbers are used for telling time for hours and ages. There are some counters you need to know. 'Gae' is the item counter in Korean. 'Myeong' is the people counter and 'si' is used for counting time. 'Sal' is used for counting ages. Let's read the Korean numbers from 1 to 99 hana (hana) dul (dul) set (set) net (net) da seot (da seot) yeo seot (yeo seot) il gop (il gop) yeo deol (yeo deol) a hop (a hop) yeol (yeol) seu mul (seu mul) seo reun (seo reun) ma heun (ma heun) swin (swin) ye sun (ye sun) il heun (il heun) yeo deun (yeo deun) a heun (a heun) As for 21, there are two sets of 10 and one. seu mul hana (seu mul hana) Use this rule to count numbers from 21 to 29 in native Korean numbering system. Read the numbers with me. seu mul hana (seu mul hana) seu mul dul (seu mul dul) seu mul set (seu mul set) seu mul net (seu mul net) seu mul da seot (seu mul da seot) seu mul yeo seot (seu mul yeo seot) seu mul il gop (seu mul il gop) seu mul yeo deol (seu mul yeo deol) seu mul a hop (seu mul a hop) The same rule applies to '21-29', '31-39', '41-49', '51-59', '61-69, '71-79', '81-89' and '91-99'. For one hundred, the sino number system is used. Please remember counting some specific native numbers. When counting ages, use descriptive forms. Only five native numbers '1, 2, 3, 4 and 20' take descriptive forms combined with the age counter 'sal'. For one-year old, it is not called 'hanasal' but 'hansal'. Just drop the final consonant of the last syllable in the native numbering system. So, three years old is 'se sal'. For four years 'ne sal' and for twenty years old, 'seu mu sal'. 'hansal, du sal, se sal , ne sal and seu mu sal' Now, it's time to check what we've learned about numbers. First, read the phone numbers below in Korean. Are you ready? I'll give you some time to think about it. Are you done? Let's see the hint. You are supposed to read the phone numbers in sino numbering system. The answer is 'yeong il yeong il i sam sa o yuk chil pal beon' or 'gong il gong il i sam sa o yuk chil pal beon'. You have to add the number counter '번' at the end. Next, choose the appropriate word between the two. 'da seot cheon won' or 'o cheon won' The price for the yellow bear doll is five thousand won. 'Won' is the counter of Korean money. There is a hint. Use sino numbering system. The answer is 'o cheon won'. ('o cheon won') This is the calendar for January. There is a circle on the January 23rd. Hint, translate the date in Korean with sino numbers. Are you finished? The answers for the blank are 'il' and 'i sip sam'. That is 'il weol i sip sam il'. (il weol i sip sam il) 'Weol' is the counter for a month. 'Il' is the counter for a date. In the picture, there are four people. How can we say four people in Korean? This time, use native numbers. The answer is 'ne myeong'. ('ne myeong') The counter for people is 'myeong'. ('myeong') This time, read the grandmother's age in Korean. She's 80 years old. (80) Are you done? Use native number. The answer is 'pal sip sal'. ('pal sip sal') Tell me the number of animals in Korean. Use native number here. The counter for the number of animal is 'mari', so the answer is 'du mari'. 'Dul mari' is not the answer. 'du mari' (answer) For a final practice, let's read the time on the electronic clock. To tell time, you should use both forms of the number system, sino and native numbers. What is the answer? The answer is 'il gop si i sip sam bun gu cho'. 'il gop si i sip sam bun gu cho' Native numbers for hour and sino numbers for minute and second. We've learned sino numbers like 'il i sam sa o yuk chil pal gu sip'. and native numbers like 'hana, dul, set, net, da seot, yeo seot, il gop, yeo deol, a hop, yeol' The next class will be our final lesson. You will learn about progressives. Ask questions about Korean on Cracking Korean Instagram. Bye-bye ~ 37. The Present + The Past Ongoing Event Korean Progressives: Hello, in today's lesson, you will talk about describing what a person is doing or what a person was doing. Look at the expressions. You will learn about the present progressive phrase, '~고 있다.' , and the past progressive, '~고 있었어요.'. In this lesson, you will practice the place particle '에서' which you had learned before. First, look at the man in the picture. He's swimming, right? Before making a Korean sentence about the picture, let's learn about Korean progressives. If you want to make a present progressive sentence, you need to know the pattern first. 'verb' plus '~고 있다' '~고 있다' means 'A subject is doing something now'. The verb before the phrase '~고 있다' will be action verbs. '있다' is also a verb and '고' connects the two verbs, 'verb' and '있다'. When it comes to formality, different phrases come after verb stem. The phrase, '~고 있습니다', shows high politeness. The phrase, '~고 있어요' indicates politeness, and '~고 있어' is used for an informal expression. Instead of using the phrase, '~고 있다', you can use '~고 있는 중이다' at the end of the sentence to express what a person is doing. '중' is a noun that literally means 'in the middle'. The actual meaning of the word '중' is 'in the middle of verbs + ing or doing something'. '있는' modifies the noun '중' and the word '중' is combined with 'the verb 있다' and '는'. '는' makes the verb '있다' into the adjective '있는'. If you use the phrase, '~고 있는 중입니다', after a verb stem, it marks high formality. '~고 있는 중이다' is used for expressing present progressive in a casual situation. Let's see the sentence structure. Here is the Korean basic sentence structure, 'SOV sequence': subject, object, and verb. In the structure, the place particle '에서' is inserted between a subject and an object to tell a person a place where an action is taking place. Pay attention to the two sentences. '나는 집에서 한국어공부를 하고 있어요.' '나는 집에서 한국어공부를 하고 있는 중이야.' The meaning of the two sentences is the same. 'I am studying Korean at home.' Next, let's guess what the cook is doing in the kitchen. Here, kitchen is '부엌' in Korean. The red-haired man asks him '너(는) 뭐하고 있니?' , which means 'What are you doing?'. The cook will answer the question using the phrases above, '~고 있다', '~고 있는 중이다.'. The answer is '(나는) 부엌에서 요리를 하고 있어.'. That means 'I am cooking at the kitchen.'. Cooking is '요리' in Korean. In this picture, the man looks like an engineer. The man on the left asks him the question, '당신은 무엇을 하고 있습니까?' It means 'What are you doing?', Yeah, he is fixing on a machine in a factory. Look at the vocab. '기계' is 'machine' and '공장' is factory. The English sentence is changed into the following Korean sentence. '저는 공장에서 기계를 고치고 있는 중입니다.' The verb '고치다' means 'to fix'. If you want to express what was happening in the past, use the phrase after a verb, '~고 있었다'. The suffix '었' marks a past activity. The phrase '~고 있었다' means that a subject was doing something in the past or an event was happening in the past. Various endings are attached after verb stems. '~고 있었습니다' show a high formality. '~고 있었어요' has a low formality and '~고 있었어' indicates an informality. '~고 있는 중이었다' also means that a person was doing something in the past or an event was taking place. Let's describe what the girl was doing in the past. The man on the left asks his friend what Seunghee was doing in the yesterday morning by saying '승희는 어제 아침에 뭘 하고 있었어?'. Look at the girl. Seunghee was riding on her bicycle in the park. Check some Korean words. '공원' means 'park' and '자전거' means 'bicycle'. The man who wears a yellow t-shirt describes what Seunghee was doing in Korean as follows. '승희는 공원에서 자전거를 타고 있었어.' '승희는 공원에서 자전거를 타고 있었어.' In the next picture, the man asks her what she was doing yesterday , which means '당신은 어제 무엇을 하고 있었습니까?'. The girl thinks 'I was playing the piano in my room.'. '방' is room in Korean. She says '저는 제방에서 피아노를 치고 있는 중이었습니다.' ('저는 제방에서 피아노를 치고 있는 중이었습니다.') Now, it's time to solve some final practices. The girl on the right asks her the question, '당신은 무엇을 하고 있어요?' ('당신은 무엇을 하고 있어요?') , which means 'What are you doing?'. She's washing the dishes. Here, '설거지 하다' is 'wash the dishes' in English. So, in Korean, it is '저는 설거지를 하고 있어요.'. ('저는 설거지를 하고 있어요.') I am washing the dishes. There are pandas. The panda on the left wants to know what he was doing this morning by saying '너 오늘 아침에 뭐하고 있었어?'. Look at the vocab. '밖' is outside. He says '(나는) 밖에서 스케이트를 타고 있었어.'. '(나는) 밖에서 스케이트를 타고 있었어.' It means 'I was skating outside'. The boy is curious about what they are doing , so he asked them the question, '너희들(은) 지금 뭐하고 있니?'. ('너희들(은) 지금 뭐하고 있니?') That means 'What are you doing now?'. There are many kites. The Korean word '연' is 'kite' in English. They are playing kites. So, in Korean, they say '우리들은 연을 날리고 있어.' or '연을 날리고 있어.' It's your turn. What are you doing? Translate the English sentence 'I am studying Korean' into Korean on your note. Then upload your homework on your Instagram with the four hashtags. In this lesson, you've learned about progressive with some examples. This is the final Korean lesson. If you can't remember what we've learned, watch the video many times or review the Korean lessons with the printable worksheets that I made for you. Also watching K-pop or K-drama will help you learn Korean in a fun way. I hope you've enjoyed the Korean lesson. Bye. Bye.