Learn Innovative Concepts in the Sports Industry and How to Apply it | The Sports Executive Path | Skillshare

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Learn Innovative Concepts in the Sports Industry and How to Apply it

teacher avatar The Sports Executive Path, Sports Business and Management

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

6 Lessons (1h 43m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Innovations in New Techniques

    • 3. Innovations in New Technology

    • 4. Future Trends Sport Goes Digital

    • 5. Future Technologies in Sport

    • 6. Conclusion

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About This Class


Sports are competitive by nature, and athletes and sports organisations must always innovate to stay ahead of their rivals. When we talk about innovation in sports, we can refer to several different things. One of the main ways that sports innovate and adapt over time is by introducing new techniques, helping athletes to push themselves to new limits. Since the invention of the very first competition, people have been coming up with ways to make sports faster, more exciting and better to watch.

Over time, the introduction of new technology has also had a wide-reaching effect on sports. New technologies don’t just affect how sports are played but also how fans view them. When we watch sports today, we take for granted a lot of the innovations and changes that have happened over the years. We are watching the accumulation of thousands of different innovations, from countless individuals, who have all had a hand in helping sports to evolve.

Modern sport is the pinnacle of these innovations, as athletes can break new records each year and thrill fans in new ways. But the progress is never over. New innovations continue to change the way sports work each year. As sports spread into new markets and reach new heights in revenue figures, there are more reasons than ever for sporting organisations to adopt smarter methods.

As well as the innovations brought to existing sports, new sports are continually developing and reaching new markets and fans. The emergence of the internet and social media has helped to increase globalisation in our world. This, in turn, has led to new sports being able to reach millions of fans around the world in new ways.

The future of sports will continue to see athletes and sports teams looking for new ways to get advantages over their competition. The increasing prevalence of technology in major sports could perhaps lead to ever-improving performances. We could also see the fan experience taken to new and exciting levels. Recent years have seen an explosion in technology, and sporting organisations are continually developing new ways for fans to watch and consume sports.

 What You’ll Learn

  • What innovation is
  • How innovation in business relates to sports
  • How the adoption of new techniques can lead to significant improvements in athletic performance
  • That not all innovations are initially welcomed, and some take a long time to become mainstream
  • How technology can improve sports on the field
  • The ways technology is helping to enhance fan experiences
  • How a new sport can develop and spread into new markets
  • How innovations have significantly changed the way we view sports
  • The influence of social and digital media on sports
  • How future technologies can affect how sports are played and enjoyed by fans and athletes alike

Words from the Author, Saam Momen:

I have a true passion for teaching! I have proudly taught university courses in Switzerland, USA and Brazil. My career spans over 15 years in the sporting industry with jobs at the London Olympic Bid Committee, UEFA, CSM and TEAM Marketing. I possess a Master Degree in Sports Management and an Executive Education diploma at Harvard Business School on The Business of Entertainment, Media and Sports. I hope that throughout this course you are able to have a wonderful learning experience! Please do not hesitate to reach out should you have any queries.

Why Choose This Course?

This course has been developed to provide you with a deeper understanding of innovations in sport. You’ll learn more about what innovations are and how they can have an enormous impact not just on how the sport is played but also how fans feel about the sport. If you’re interested in developing your career in the sports industry, you’ll need to understand innovation, and its effects on athletes, sports organisations, brands and fans.

The course is filled with up to date information, providing you with current examples and statistics from major sports around the world. You’ll learn about the latest innovations and how they’ve affected sports in a multitude of ways. Rather than showing you outdated examples from one particular sport, you’ll be able to discover the latest in sports innovation from a range of sports and leagues.

This course presents you with the ideal way to learn all about the continuously evolving sports industry. While some courses might focus solely on theory and explanations, here you’ll be able to learn from real-world examples. You’ll have the chance to explore various case studies. Each case will detail how the change developed and shaped the sport. You’ll also hear from quotes of people directly involved and be able to discover exactly what it took to bring the innovation from an idea into reality.

Case studies provide an excellent way to gain a deeper understanding of a subject. Rather than just gaining basic knowledge, you’ll be able to relate the theory to how it actually affects the industry. You’ll learn about what innovation is and how innovation in the business world relates to innovation in sport.

You’ll discover how innovations to techniques in sport can have a significant impact on how the game is played. The course will discuss examples of technique changes to various sports and how they helped teams and athletes to reach new heights. You’ll also discover how each innovation went from a simple idea to a game-changer.

This course goes into detail on technology and how it affects sports in all areas. Rather than present a superficial example of technology and how it can be used, you’ll learn about past, present and future applications of technology. The course will present you with case studies showing how technology can have a large impact on athletic performance and how fans access sport.

In helping to prepare you for a successful future in the sports industry, this course will also introduce you to ways social media can be used to promote sports teams, brands and athletes. You’ll discover how digital media influences sports and the innovative ways it can help promote sport to new fans across the world.

Finally, you’ll also have the chance to look at the future of sports. You’ll discover what new innovations are currently making waves in the industry and how these might develop further in the future. If you want to work in sports, you’ll need to understand that it’s an incredibly fast-moving and competitive industry. Those working in the sports industry must be able to innovate and adapt to changes constantly. The future promises to bring better technology, faster sports and more fans than ever before. To stay ahead of the competition, you’ll need to adopt a creative approach and learn how to make the most out of technologies both old and new.

This course is designed to give you a closer insight into how sports evolve over time and the ways that progress can rapidly develop. For anyone looking to start their career in the sports industry, this course will help to broaden your knowledge of how the industry works. You’ll also learn more about how sports organisations and brands can innovate to increase their success. Innovation is critical for success, not just on the pitch but also in the boardroom.

Meet Your Teacher

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The Sports Executive Path

Sports Business and Management


The Sports Executive Path is an online platform created to help anyone interested in gaining knowledge about sports management and the sports industry. Entering the world of sports is notoriously difficult and challenging, competition is fierce and jobs at the top of the pyramid are scarce. Through our courses we will provide guidance and tips, explain myths and grant access to valuable information for anyone wanting to enter this vast and exciting world.


The Sports Executive Path was founded by Saam Momen. Saam is an independent business professional who has over 15 years of involvement with the world of sports. His involvement with the sports industry started in a series of world-class sports events in Brazil. Further knowledge was acquired when obtaining a M... See full profile

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1. Introduction: My name is Sam Coleman, and welcome to this course on sports innovation. Before we start, I'll give a short introduction about myself. I have had the privilege of working for over 15 years in the sports industry in companies like you, a for which is the governing body of European football, great sports marketing agencies, such a CSN team marketing the London 2012 Olympic bid committee, as well as in dozens of other sports related projects. In this course, we will be talking about innovation in sports. Sports are competitive by nature, and athletes and sports organizations must always innovate to stay ahead of their rivals. What Children in this course is what a sports innovation, how innovation business relates to sports, how technology can improve sports on the field, how a new sport can develop and spread into new markets. How innovations have significantly changed the way we view sports the influence of social and digital media on sports and much more. The idea is that not only this course, but all future courses are actionable and that you can implement the ideas immediately. There is a workbook in the project segments to write down not only your notes, but to provide links toe all relevant content discussed in each chapter. If you have missed the others courses here, feel free to watch them. So without further ado, let's begin. Welcome to this presentation on innovation and sports. We'll be discussing exactly what innovation is, how it relates to sports on the ways in which innovation helps to direct change across industries. Throughout this course, you come across really life examples, which will help to increase your understanding of this subject. This course was designed to give you the best possible understanding of how innovation has helped shape the face of sports and how future trends could continue to change how sports have played and consumed around the world. If you'd like to get an in depth look into how innovation can change an industry, plus, learn more about how innovation in sports may happen in the future, this is the course for you. What is innovation? Innovation is often used as a buzzword to describe something positively, usually without adding any real meaning toe. What they describe. The Guru dictionary definition of the word is particularly unhelpful, the action or process off innovating. Most people can agree that innovation is something important, particularly in business, but are often unable to describe it. So what exactly is innovation? It's perhaps best described as the process of making changes to something already established introducing new ideas to help improve and specialize it. Innovation is all about coming up with new ideas and bringing them into practice to create a better version off something already established depending on the industry you work in. This innovation can take many forms and might involve specific products, or a process may also involve the application of new technology. Innovation doesn't have to be something huge or convoluted. Often the most important innovations can come from the smallest changes. At the heart of innovation is creativity that is, the ability to form new and interesting ideas. Creativity is required to help kick start innovation, but isn't enough on its own ideas are their own art. As valuable as you might think, they need to be applied and scaled properly. In order to create true innovation in competitive fields of industry, innovation becomes highly necessary and extremely valuable. As with sports, gaining an advantage over the competition puts you ahead innovation through the successful application of new ideas, methods or technologies is often the quickest way to achieve this. In times of great change businesses and organizations which fail to innovate, we'll get left behind. That's especially true for highly competitive industries. Such a sport. What does innovation in sports? The idea that everything has already been invented is outdated and certainly not true. Creativity has few limits on the sports industry, in particular is constantly innovating. Whether it's improving the performance of the athletes themselves or changing the way fans experience and follow sports change is inevitable. Industry leading companies must invest heavily in research and development to stay ahead in the race and in front of their competition. And no other industry is innovation more apparent than the sports industry in sports. The competition between different clubs and athletes is highly publicized as each team bids to outperform over one another. Innovation forms a large part of the success and failures of a team, and we've seen in the past how small changes to the management, training equipment or playing style has had a large impact on the success of a team or athletes off course. Outside of the teams themselves, Sports have seen a lot of innovation in how it's delivered to the fans. In recent history, the popularity of sports has exploded all around the world as fans were introduced to new ways off following their team. New communication inventions such as the radio and then TV helped to dramatically increase the popularity of sports and allowed those outside the stadium to enjoy games from the comfort off their homes. Sports are also constantly adapting to changes in the market. More than ever, young people want to experience something new and different, with sports often providing that outlet. New sports are created and adopted to fill. Demand in recent decades have seen the introduction of e sports and extreme sports such as the X Games, which are promoted to younger generations. E Sports are now one of the fastest growing sports in the world and have gone from a knish hobby to holding multimillion dollar tournaments watched by millions of people within just a few years. Looking ahead to the future, innovation in sports doesn't look to be slowing down. More money than ever is being spent by fans on watching their favorite teams and sports media rights and sponsorships for some sports are worth billions of dollars a year, and these figures are only ever increasing. As more money enters the game, the need for athletes to innovate gross and teams are increasingly using new technology to help improve performances and deliver better experiences to the fans. Whilst not all innovation comes to the use of technology, the increased use of technology in all areas, sports is a new and exciting trend. Companies are always looking for the next big idea that will put them ahead of the competition. And a lot of cutting edge technology is being developed right now that looks to do exactly that. New tech is starting to be used to improve athlete performance, both with wearable analytics and also with data driven recruitment. Through this course, you learn about how individual sports can adapt and change. Over time, you learn about sports innovation and be able to look into specific examples. Detail ing how changes to equipment, management style processes, training and technology have helped to shape sport as you know it. Today, the course will go into detail about how past, present and future success in sport can depend on innovation and how teams and athletes must always innovate to stay ahead of the competition. You'll also learn about the innovation that has led to increased numbers of fans around the world. Sports are now consumed by millions of people across the planet, and fans can watch games live from lots of different countries. It wasn't always like this, however, and we'll learn about the innovation which has changed, how sports air consumed forever. They'll be really examples off the changing fan experience on how sports have adapted to higher demand. The course will cover the topic of how new sports were created and how innovation has helped to drive the formation of new sports leagues. Consumer demands are always changing, and sports need to adapt to them as new markets emerge. Innovation help sports. To reach these new friends, you learn about how new sports were created to fill demand and cover examples of things like the X Games, any sports which have helped to bring sports to new generations of funds. And finally you'll discover how future trends both technological and practical, will help to shape sports. In the coming years, you'll be able to look at examples of how really technology is changing the game as we know it, and the ways in which sports will continue to adapt technology in the future. We'll also cover the change in how sports air consumed on how digital media and the Internet are changing, how we view sports on the ways in which new fans air made. By the end of the course, you'll be able to confidently discuss innovation in sports on what it takes to succeed and stay ahead off the competition in sports and business, you'll be able to think about ways in which a technology startup could disrupt the industry on how small change in management practices can lead to big results. You'll be able to know what's an idea needs in order to become real innovation and how it's start up. Can it succeed in a competitive industry? 2. Innovations in New Techniques: innovations in new techniques. One of the most important ways that sport develops is through the adoption and development of new techniques. We can look at most sports today and see how far they've come from their early years. Sports are continuously developing and adjusting athletes and teams always aim to find better and more efficient techniques, leading them to greater success. We're going toe. Take a look at some examples of innovations off techniques in sports. Throughout these examples, we'll see how small adjustments were able to have a large effect on the sport. We'll see instances off sport being radically changed overnight. We'll also look at techniques which, while they might seem office today, took a long time to develop. Some even met a lot of resistance from coaches, sporting organizations or athletes themselves. For an innovation to become widely adopted, it needs to show riel proven results. Often, athletes using a new technique will popularize it when they start to have more success at a high level of the sport. The examples will discuss all show how a new technique can develop into the standard practice. It may start out as a fringe idea, but innovation soon becomes mainstream once other athletes learn of its potential for better results. In some cases, the effects of the new technique may not me immediately apparent, however. Many adjustments are being made to how athletes train and compete every day. Sports teams always aim to produce better results and promote longer and more successful careers off their athletes. Over time, innovations that have a successful impact will always start to be adopted and become more widespread. The nature of competition in sport means that competitors will always follow those who are applying new techniques to their advantage. Fosbury flop. The fostering flop is the name given to the high jump technique, which was popularized by American athlete Dick Fosbury in 1968. Previously, two Dicks flop high jumpers had used a variety of different techniques to help clear the bar. The most common techniques before Foster is radical idea included the straddle Eastern cut off Western role and scissors jump. Most of the popular techniques have been developed to help the jumper land on their feet after completing the job, Landing on the feet was necessary because the high jump event was usually held over Samp. It's for low months. These were designed to partially break the fall of the athlete, but they would still need to land correctly. Tow, avoid injury. Foster He had started off jumping with the Orthodox scissor kick style, but soon changed up to his more unique approach. He developed his technique despite the warnings from his coaches, who preferred him to use a more conventional approach. Fosbury found himself succeeding in spite of advice from his coaches, however, on although he risked injury using the style, usually landing on his shoulders or neck, he persisted with the technique. When the 21 year old American reached the 1968 Olympics held in Mexico City, he impressed fans around the world, setting an Olympic record with his unusual style and also taking home the gold medal. After the event, he went on record to say. I think quite a few kids will begin trying it my way. Now I don't guarantee results and I don't recommend my style to anyone. All I say is if a kid con straddle, he'll try it my way. In the next few years, plenty of athletes did start to copy the Fosbury technique. The big change in the sport came about when athletics event organizer's started using deep foam mats. These mats were able to break the fall of athletes much more effectively, preventing injury and allowing athletes to get more creative in their jumping techniques. The deep formats, similar to those used today started to feature at high jump events around the world, and since then the Fosbury flop has become the most common high jump style. The technique uses a stretch off the back to lower the body center of gravity. This, in turn, allows athletes to keep us much of the body as possible below the bar during the jump, meaning that energy from the jump is used more effectively on the higher jump can be achieved. This is a case of innovation that forced technological change rather than the other way around. Phosphor is unique. Technique actually put himself in danger of developing injuries, and the deep formats were developed and used after he had already started to win. With this time theme, 1968 Olympic Games proved to be a turning point in the history of the high jump event into the Mexico City Olympic arena came not only a new name to the sport. But a new approach which was to revolutionize the high jump event Dick Fosbury from the United States demonstrated a new style of high jump, which some considered strange and awkward. It was a jump he had devised in the previous years and one which unsettled his opponents. While the crowd of first saw him as a novelty, his continued success of clearing the ever increasing height soon made it apparent he was a serious contender from the Soviet Union, failed in his attempt of 2.22 meters, while Fosbury and his U. S teammate Edward Corrupters cleared their way to a jump off the bar set up 2.24 Carruthers failed and Fosbury took his new style of high jump over the bar and into the history books . Fosbury had won his. Within a few years, the Fosbury flop had become the standard method of jumping in this great on the big sport. Nutrition science Although it's something that seems so obvious today, proper conditioning and diet of athletes wasn't always something as well known. Nutrition is something that is still being heavily studied today, and new links between athletic performance and certain food types, nutrients and minerals are being discovered each year. These days, athletes are usually highly paid an extremely professional. They dedicate their lives to training and performing at the highest levels. So it makes sense for them to pay close attention to their diet and take good care off their bodies. Professional teams and athletes now invest a lot of money into hiring nutritionists and strength and conditioning. Coach is aiming to get the best possible performances whilst also avoiding injuries. A good example of the way this practice was changed and innovated amongst top level athletes is by looking at the changes which occurred in professional football in the last few decades. Although professional footballers playing at the highest level were always well paid, recent years have seen a huge increase of money in the game. This increase in money has meant that there's greater competition between teams and those employing the best possible techniques will be at a big advantage and how much money they can't. In the Premier League, England's top division of football, the arrival of French manager Arsene Bangor toe Arsenal helped shape the competition and change the way football clubs prepare their players before bangers arrival in 1996 alcohol and bad diets were common amongst even the best players. Players ate fatty and unhealthy meals with little thought towards nutrition. Post match drinking was even encouraged amongst teams to help build team spirits. Of course, all these factors did nothing to improve the performance of the athletes and arson brought fresh ideas from this time managing in Japan all this time managing Nagoya Grampus in Japan , Meghan remarked that it was the best site I ever had. The whole way of life there is linked to health. Their diet is basically boiled vegetables, fish and rice. No fat, no sugar. You notice when you live there that there are no fat people. I think in England you eat too much sugar and meat and not enough vegetables. Vendor also famously helped to popularize sports massages and proper stretching sessions amongst footballers. It wasn't long before other teams around the country were copying these techniques on helping to prolong the careers off their star athletes and get the best possible performances out of them. Football teams across all the visions now pay close attention to the diets and eating habits off their players. Today, teams and athletes across multiple sports spend a lot of ensuring there following the best possible diets. To help improve their performances and prevent injuries, players are often given their own tailor diets and vitamin supplements, which are designed specifically for their bodies. Professional athletes are increasingly realising that the food they put into their bodies is like the fuel you would put into a car. Ah, high performance athlete needs a suitably high performance diets. Moneyball Scouting through Data Moneyball was a 2011 films based around the book Moneyball . The Art of Winning on Unfair Game. The book is a telling off the true story of how the Oakland Athletics baseball team revolutionized 13 by adopting an analytical, evidence based approach to building a competitive team on a small budgets. At the time of the change in scouting practices in 2002 most baseball scouts used outdated and subjective methods to pick players on. A lot of the stats used in player analysis were unhelpful in assessing the actual quality of a player. Some scouts would pick a player based on feeling that is, they would just say there was something about a player that they liked. Obviously, this kind of scouting is inefficient and sometimes lead two teams signing players who weren't worth the money paid. Furthermore, the Oakland A's scouting team became convinced that to statistics in particular, were excellent indicators of offensive success. Whilst players holding high stats in these areas would also be cheaper than those holding Maurin demand stats. Oakland used this strategy to find players who they believed were undervalued by the market . And in doing so, I managed to be competitive with much teams on much bigger budgets. The scouting model used by the Oakland A's also found the traditional methods of recruiting players out of high school based on potential was risky and not worth the risk in most cases. Instead, the team focused on more polished college players who perhaps have lower ceilings of development potential but a much higher rate of success in the seasons that they reached the playoffs In 2000 to 2003 the Oakland Athletics had a wage budget off $44 million a year . Compared to the other teams in the league, Oakland were minnows. During those seasons, there were teams spending more than $100 million season, such as the New York Yankees, who spent $125 million on wages. Both the book and film were highly successful. The book became particulary well known in baseball circles, and it wasn't long before other teams were mirroring Oakland's techniques. Baseball teams across the league started to adapt this statistical approach to scouting and signing players. Oakland were forced to further adjust and home their methods in order to continue their success and stay ahead off the competition. This kind of statistical analysis soon found its way to other sports. And it wasn't long before sports like football were also favoring more in depth data analysis to help focus scouting efforts. Billy Beane, the general manager of the Oakland A's held, talks with Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson, Arsenal owner Stan Crunk on Liverpool FC owner John Harry to discuss how statistics could be used more effectively to scout players in football. Liverpool's owner John Henry also owns the MLB baseball team, the Boston Red Sox. The Red Sox adopted a mathematical scouting model which helped them attain three World Series winds. Liverpool FC adopted their own mathematical model developed by came which physicists Ian Graham, which has led them to sign key players and the manager, Jurgen Klopp. These adjustments have helped propel them to major success, including a Champions League title in recent years. Teams and there are poor teams. Then there's 50 feet of crap and then there's us. That's a dollar man. What? Welcome to Oakland. I need more money. We're not New York. Find players with the money that we do have. I like Paris on ugly drop. Ugly girlfriend means no confidence. You guys are talking the same old nonsense like we're looking for Fabio. We got to think, Who's Fabio? Your goal shouldn't be to buy players. You're goal should be to buy wins in order to buy wins, you need to buy runs. Who are you? I'm Peter Brand. First job in baseball. It's my first job anywhere. We're gonna shake things up. Don't you walk me through the board. I believe there's a championship team that we could afford because everyone else undervalues them like an island of misfit toys. We want you first base. I've only ever played catcher. It's not that hard, Scott. Tell him. Wash. It's incredibly hard. You can't throw, But what can he do? Do you want to speak? When I point here, he gets on base wear card counters at the blackjack table. We're gonna turn the odds on the casino. I'm heading in. Text me the play by play. Wait, What Watch games. Billy Beane has tried to re invent a system that's been working for years. There was a nice theory, just not working out how long is really being gonna last. He's proven himself right out of a job in their minds, is threatening. The game is writing the way that they do things. Hey, cool is your job. What? You hear that Michael? Sometimes don't go on the Internet, Watch TV, talk to people. You're discounting what scouts have done for 150 years. What is happening? It opened. It defies everything we know about way. This team will change the way this better work. I'm just kidding. V style Ski jump. The V style ski jump remains one of the most significant changes to the sport of ski jumping. It was originally used by Polish ski jumper mirrors love graph back in 1969 but took a long time to become a commonly used technique. Graph first used the technique as a child, and although his unorthodox technique wasn't taken seriously by others, he was aware of its effectiveness, noting that his jumps using the technique were considerably longer. Ski Jim wins are based around both distance and style points. At the time, the most common style of jump was the parallel style, and other techniques were punished by low points from judges. In the eighties, Steve Collins used the V style technique to help become the youngest ever winner of a ski jump World Cup competition at the age of 15. Despite this, however, the techniques still didn't catch on as although it resulted in longer jumps. Judges typically penalized those using it. The V style finally became recognized by judges after Swedish and check ski jumpers Yanbo Kloffe on Yuri Melich refused to use any other technique on the way to picking up high rankings and tournament wins. By the mid 19 nineties, it had become the predominant technique for ski jumpers all over the world as it was proven to not only achieve greater distances but also ensure more safety. Today, the V style remains the most common style used by ski jumpers as it reaches up to 10% further than other techniques. Thanks to aerodynamics, it's an example of how a very small change can make a large difference on also of how there can be initial resistance to change from the sports community. In the case of the V style jump on other forms of innovation. Once the benefits of the new technique were proven, the ski jumping community on judges were happier to accept the change in style. 3. Innovations in New Technology: innovations and new technology. So we've now seen the effects that new techniques can have on sports. We've seen how sports can be changed very quickly from a seemingly small change in technique and what impact this has on competition as a whole. Now we're going to take a closer look at what technology has done for sport over the years . Technology is the application of science and creating new and exciting devices. Technology can make things easier, more efficient and more successful. Over the years, technology has become widely associated with sports in many ways, starting with the development of the first running shoes to developing high tech systems powered by computers that record and analyze performances. All successful applications off technology and sport have helped to advise the game in some way. It helps to deliver better performances and assist athletes entertaining better results. We saw the Techniques chapter. How even small adjustments could make a big difference. On the same is true off advances in technology. Often the device or system that's created doesn't have to be highly advanced for it to make a big difference off course for technology toe enter sports. Whichever governing body is in charge of the competition has to permit it. This is especially true for professional sports. In this chapter will see examples of the issues that face technology in being accepted not just by governing bodies but also by fans. Many people are afraid that too much influence from technology will lead to sports changing for the worst. It could lead to sports becoming more about the test of technology than a test of athletic ability and skills. The examples will cover will all show just how much potential technology has to make significant changes to sports. These examples will also remind us off why it needs to be regulated. Finally, we'll discuss how technology can help, not just to improve performances, but make things better. For fans watching the sport, Hawkeye sport is a game of very fine margins and at the highest level of competition, referees and umpires need to be certain about a decision to award a goal or points in fast paced sports. It can be impossible for a human referee to determine whether a ball has crossed the line, which runner crosses the line first or whether a ball or player went out of bounds major controversies have regularly occurred in major sports around the world, with fans losing patients with referees who missed big calls. The job of a referee is difficult and often thankless toe. Any kind of assistance that helps them to make the correct decision could be a big change to lots of different sports. Lots of different ideas for implementing a system which is able to accurately judge where the ball is at all times were talented. Ideas included magnetic sensors within the bowl, super slow motion cameras, computer modeling on extra referees. In the end, the computer modeling idea was shown to be the most effective. Hawkeye is a system that was originally developed in 2001 to provide TV viewers with a clearer idea of key moments in a cricket match. The system uses a computer program on high powered camera system to accurately track the trajectory off the ball. Whilst it was originally used to give television viewers a clear picture of the game, it's high accuracy soon led to the system being widely adopted by governing bodies of a variety of different sports. The Hawkeye system uses video from six or more cameras positioned around the playing area to create a three D representation off the ball's path. Although it's not perfect, it's stated as being accurate to within 3.6 millimeters. The technology that started out as a broadcasting aid is now trusted by major tennis, rugby and cricket competitions as an impartial second opinion to the referee or umpire. Although Hawkeye was shown to be highly effective at helping referees make important decisions correctly, the technology still met with a lot of resistance from the governing bodies of football. Despite a lot of high profile controversies that might have been prevented with Hawkeye to assist, FIFA was reluctant to allow the system to be implemented into football games. As the main governing body of world football, FIFA ultimately held the power to allow Hawkeye or not. Sepp Blatter, then the head of FIFA, had discussed that in 2007 they were testing ways to implement goal line technology. This was to aid referees in judging whether the ball had crossed the line or not. Although tests were promising. FIFA scrapped the idea and it wasn't until the after the 2010 World Cup, which featured several high profile referee errors that FIFA revisited the idea. Finally, in 2012 the laws of the game were amended to include the use of goal line technology, the 2012 Club World Cup in Japan implemented to different forms of goal line technology to test the two systems. Eventually, Hawkeye was chosen as the preferred system and it has since allowed referees around the world to make the correct decision. When a wording goals. Tennis, like many sports, has relied on an umpire for split second judgments. But sometimes television replays would embarrassingly reveal an incorrect decision. That's why the whole chi system was developed by tracking the ball with high speed cameras with different views of its trajectory and then, having these visions streams analyzed digitally. An accurate representation of the ball's path can be replied in three dimensions. Look, I was developed by Roque Man, a research in the UK, and the system was first revealed to the public in 2001 during a test cricket match between Pakistan and England broadcast on Britain's Channel four. It's major use in cricket has Bean in allowing 1/3 umpire to review the path of the ball in questionable leg before wicket decisions. But the conservative cricket establishment would not allow any notice to be taken of its predictive function. Sporting bodies were yet to be convinced, and they were reluctant to undermine their officials authority. So Hawkeye concentrated on providing broadcasters with a wealth of statistical information that could be displayed graphically television audiences. A breakthrough came in 2006 when a top level tournament, the Hopman Cup in Australia, decided to introduce a system of appeals that used Whole Guy. The court was rigged with 10 cameras feeding information to several computers. Setting up testing Hawkeye requires a high level of precision so that each camera is aligned at an exact angle to the line it monitors. Today. All the Grand Slam tournaments have a system of appeal to the Hawkeye technology carbon fiber tennis records. Originally, tennis rackets were made from wood. The very first instances of a game played with a bowl, a next and rackets occurred in the 14th century. This early medieval game was still a long way off what we considered tennis today. The records were made using animal guts stretched out over a wooden frame, the frame off the rack. It was heavy and made of solid wood in a teardrop shape. The invention of laurel tennis in the 19th century saw the game reached new heights of popularity. Tennis records were still heavy and large on built with frames made entirely from wood. The tennis record barely changed in style for the next 100 years. Although the sizes of rackets changed occasionally, the material used was always would. Eventually, tennis racket manufacturers started to produce metal rackets, offering high powered rackets made from both steel on aluminium metal frames often gave players more power in their shots whilst also being durable and in the case of aluminium lightweights, the's mental rackets did still have the problem of being too flexible, however, and players were often faced with the problem off aluminium rackets, bending doing shots, sending the ball in unintended directions. Because of this, wooden rackets remained popular amongst both professional and casual tennis players for many years. Due to the problems that scene in aluminium rackets, manufacturers were always on the lookout for new materials that could be used to produce high quality rackets. In the late 19 seventies, a new type of material started to enter the market. This material was extremely strong and lightweight, whilst also not being too flexible. Known as carbon fiber or graphite, the new material was originally designed to be used in high performance jet engines. Carbon fiber has since been used in a variety of areas, including motor sports, civil engineering and the military. The characteristics off carbon fiber also make it ideal for tennis rackets, providing players with an extremely lightweight yet powerful racket that doesn't bend or break under high impacts. In the 19 eighties, carbon fiber rockets started to be produced for the first time. The done look Max 200 G was used by Joe McEnroe in 1983 and was a full carbon fiber racket , which achieved great success thanks to the popularity of McEnroe on the strong and powerful characteristics off the rackets. Tennis racket manufacturers such as Done Look also experimented with different composites, mixing carbon fiber with ceramics, glass fibres, born and titanium. Each tennis racket manufacturer hope to be able to produce the next big thing and to corner the market eventually come visit and carbon fiber rackets took over, and by 1987 the last ever wooden racket was seen in competition in Wilder. Since then, tennis racket production has remained largely unchanged on lost. Manufacturers still introduced new composites to increase strength and lower vibrations. Carbon fiber remains the predominant material used in their production video assistant referees Sports are often changed by small decisions throughout a game. Unfortunately, in a lot of cases, games can be decided on the wrong reasons rather than a coach or player changing a game. A match can sometimes be heavily influenced by the actions of a referee whilst the referees air there for good reason. Ideally, their impact on the game should be at a minimum to keep the game flowing. Referees are only human, and sometimes, as with all humans, they can make mistakes. If a referee makes a mistake in a big gang that potentially changes the course of the game , it can be incredibly frustrating for players, coaches and friends. In addition to this, a win or loss of a big tournament game can make a huge difference in prize money for each team on. Therefore, it's doubly important that the referee makes the correct decision each time because of the increasing amount of money in sports there is also an increasing amount of pressure on referees who already perform a thankless job under high pressure. It makes sense then, for referees toe have asthma, much assistance as possible to help them make correct decisions that mean the game can be played fairly. As we saw with the Hawkeye system, some sports adopted a system of using technology to assist the referees much more readily than others. Robbie was the first major sport to fully utilize video technology toe help assist referees in making correct calls since 1996. Rugby league first allowed referees to consult a video assistant at any point of a gang where stoppage occurred. Rugby union soon followed in the year 2000 and since then basketball, cricket and tennis have all allowed the referees to consult video replace to help make important decisions that affect the game. Despite the success of this technology in other sports, football took much longer to accept this innovation. There was a lot of resistance from the governing bodies of the sport who claim that technology would interfere with and slow the game down, ultimately making it less enjoyable for fans. Some also claimed that contentious decisions were part of the game and that they helped to create discussions and increase the impact off the sport. As a number of high profile and costly referee errors increased. However, FIFA were no longer able to deny that video assistance could potentially improve the game. Finally, in 2018 the laws of football were altered to allow the use of a video assistant referee to correct clear and obvious errors and serious list incidents. This video assistant now allows referees to check slow motion on close up video footage off a major event to correct or review decisions. Whilst the system isn't perfect, it does help to prevent potentially costly mistakes that were starting to play the sport. 2018 World Cup Russia will see the introduction of the video assistant referee, the A R specific incidents involving much changing situations. V. A R team will support the referees from a centralized video operation room located at the International Broadcast Center in Moscow. The team consists of a video assistant referee on three assistant video assistant referees . Additionally, four replay operators will select and provide the best angles from all relevant broadcast cameras, plus two additional offside cameras In addition to feeds generated from the video operation Room will be distributed to the venue v A R output, which includes all the angles being reviewed by the B A R team. Also, video operation room Tamra Fee. Capturing a lot The action during a Via are reviewed. The V A R team supports the decision making process of the referee in four match changing situations. Goals on defense is leading up to a goal penalty. Decisions on defense is leading up to a penalty. Direct red card incidents on mistaken identity throughout a match. The V A R team is constantly checking for mistakes related to these four scenarios. They will communicate with the referee only for clear and obvious errors or serious missed incidents. The referee can delay the restart of play it any time to communicate with the and will signal this by pointing to his ear. Once the ers or the referee decide an incident is in fact, reviewable referee would initiate an official review by signaling the outline of a TV screen. The referee will then either make a decision based on the information received from the B A R team or personally reviewed the incident at the Referee Review Area situated in the video operation room, a FIFA staff member will have direct access to the V A R output on all referee communications. He is responsible for generating official Vieira review. Information. Vira Networked Touch Tablet To ensure transparency within the the review process, Tablet information will trigger the V A R related match television graphics, templates and produce messages on the Web and venue based commentary information systems. This all new process will provide media rights licensees, commentators and producers with updated and detailed information on the V. A R Review. Yellow messages will indicate there is or could be a delay in the match. Read messages will show v R. Official review Details on green messages will display the outcome of the V. A R Review. Host broadcast production teams will implement a picture in picture solution to help explain the complete story. This composite consists of three boxes. The big box remains the main program cut, focusing on replays and live group shots and close ups of the players involved. Top small box will show the referee at all times, ensuring any signal is, you know, missed the bottom small box will initially focus on player and coach close ups but will river to the video operation room camera only when the official review signal has been made by the referee when the referee has delayed the restart of the match match production team could insert the picture in picture. Once the official review signal has been made, video operation room camera can be inserted on a bottom left. Graphic will explain which and before defined match changing decision is under review. Depending on the review scenario, referee may elect to review the infringement in question at the referee Review area. The match production team will show the output of the B A R replay line, showing the viewers exactly what the referee is watching To complete the process. A graphic will be inserted clarifying the outcome of the review, keeping in line with people's safe coverage within the stadiums. The initial process on the big screen begins with a camera one wide shot. Once the referee has initiated an official reviews the picture in picture contras, it will be implemented. It features informative graphics camera one wide shot on the video operation room camera. Once the referee has made the final decision a full frame graphics late explaining the outcome of the review will be inserted, followed by the decisive replace from the video. Assistant referee Theo Information from the V A R System will also be used to inform about the V A R events both on FIFA dot com on the FIFA app in both platforms, this will show in the live flog as a match event v. A r will support the referees throughout the 2018 FIFA World Cup for match changing situations, providing the assistance they need doing priests Fairness in the game. Wearable tech Wearable technology is helping to kick start a revolution in sports and the way athletes are coached. Lots of big leagues and teams are now starting to take notice of this technology and implement it into their game. It's thought that this technology can help to enhance performance, prevent injury and prolonged the careers of top athletes in a similar way to how nutrition science help Decades before. Before wearable tech, the movements of athletes during a match were typically captured two cameras or just by eye . If a player looks tired, a coach might signal to substitute them. Camera feeds would pick up if a player is failing toe work in a specific area off the pitch and can give coaches ideas on how to change tactics from looking at video footage. Whilst these techniques are useful, if the data is accurate, it can sometimes be hard to tell just from video footage, especially by I. With the advent of wearable tech, athletes can. Now we're a small lightweight system which tracks various metrics relating to their performance. Metrics can include heart rate, skin temperature, position on the pitch and more the's details can instantly be relate to. The coach was then able to assess the situation and act accordingly. Baisden Riel Measurable Data on example Off a wearable technology being put to good use is the added as my coach elite system. This technology was used by the German national football team during the 2014 World Cup, which they won. The system features a small sensor which is worn by all players. The sensor is small enough toe hardly be noticed by players and is able to measure speed acceleration, distance covered on heart rate. It also usually features a GPS, which can display exactly where on the pitch a player is operating. All of these metrics are incredibly useful for a coach in helping to plan and develop tactics during a match. The coach receives all this data in real time and can instantly make decisions based off of it. A player who is slowing down in speed or isn't covering enough distance can be substituted off on. A player can be eased by back from injury slowly by keeping an eye on their heart rate. Similar systems are now being used across major sports leagues, including the N ba NFL on primarily feedback is extremely important, and improving any system on sports is no different. It's hoped that with increased access to valuable data, coaches will be able to reduce subjectivity and get even better performances out of their athletes. This should also help athletes to manage their injuries better in order to prolong their careers and success 4. Future Trends Sport Goes Digital: future trends. Sport goes digital. So far, we have examined house boards can change over time and the innovation that can lead to completely new sports and sports leagues. We have discussed what it takes for sport to successfully innovate and change over time and how a sport can market itself towards a specific demographic. Targeting new demographics that are underrepresented amongst sports fans is a great way for a new sport to develop. Finish on a passionate group of friends. One of the things we looked at in previous chapters is how different sports and sports leagues have utilized advances in technology to gain exposure around the world. The introduction off the Internet has been a game changer for many new brands sports on leaks as it allows them to instantly reach hundreds of thousands of previously unreached demographics. Young people are one of the largest demographics online, but as the popularity of the Internet and social media has grown, it now serves as a powerful tool for reaching millions of people in all age groups and demographics. Future generations are going to have more access to the Internet than ever before, and this will bring new opportunities for sports fans to watch, interact and enjoy sports and hundreds of new and exciting ways for this chapter will be looking at ways in which technology is being used to innovate and change sports for future generations. The digital age promises a new era of connectivity, with fans all around the world able to directly watch and interact with their favorite teams and athletes in ways that would never have been possible just a few years ago. This digital age will also bring about new opportunities for sports teams and organizations to expose their brand to new and emerging markets. Sports marketers will also be able to take better advantage over the increased connectivity by launching goods and services to a global audience promoting their products. Well known global sports stars. Whilst endorsement deals and sponsorships already exist today, the future could see greater control over advertising and better deals than ever for athletes and the brands sponsoring them. If the past few decades have been anything to go by the next few years, we'll see further advancements in technology on an ever growing increase in the popularity of sports. More popularity means more money, which, as ever, is the driving force behind innovation. Let's take a look now at some possible future trends that could start to emerge in the next few years. The implications off social and digital media the rising use of mobile phones and social media has had one of the biggest impacts on sport in recent years. With so many different social media platforms available, it has become normal for fans and users to create and share content online with each other and join communities of other fans. Online Spectators no longer simply watch the match. They can record clips, take photos and share opinions off the game. An athlete performances online. Fans are also able to receive news and updates instantly, whether it's about an injury squad selection or transfer to a new team. Social Media has become the number one place for sports related news, which is often delivered directly from the athlete or club themselves. Direct reporting through social media by athletes or sports teams has made things easier for fans, but harder for traditional sports journalists. Major sports sites have been forced to innovate and come up with new ways to report delivered news. Most sports journalists now use Twitter and other social media to deliver terrible and interesting news stories. Other sites, such as The Players Tribune, use the demand for athlete focused content by creating stories and news delivered by athletes themselves as well as athlete created content. There is a real demand for interesting user generated content, and social media helps users to create and share their own content. Fan run blog's and video channels have become hugely successful, with examples like a F. T V. Having more than one million subscribers and 600 million total video. France Social Media has helped to create what's known as per Sumers that is a mix between consumers and producers. Fans are no longer just watching the game and going home. They're now creating and producing their own content based around the game and helping to create discussions around the sport. Online sports brands are using this widespread adoption off social media to their advantage , innovating and finding new ways to leverage social media to spread brand awareness and reach new markets. Major brands such as Nike have found value in creating terrible content, such as short clips and ads showing impressive sporting feats over social media. Fans want to comment and share quality content, which in turn increases the exposure for the brand. The streaming revolution, faster Internet speeds than ever before have allowed for more fans than ever to stream high quality clips on full matches off their favorite sports. Streaming services give consumers direct access to the content they want toe watch. They also provide fans with greater control over how and when they watch, allowing them to pick content that interests them and pause, rewind and rewatch whenever they want. The greater control and accessibility are a big part of the reason why streaming services can be so successful. Fans love having an easy way to access all of their favorite sports content, and having full control over how you watch it is ideal. On top of that, sports streaming services can make it easier for new viewers to come across the content and potentially lead to new fans. For me, younger friends in particular are usedto watching and consuming content on my in ways that suit them best. Many of the younger generations are unlikely to ever use traditional or cable tv, according to research, because of this having the availability of a sports streaming platform is vital for reaching younger demographics. The zone is one such streaming platform, which aims to provide on demand sports to a growing demographic of young, digitally conscious sports friends. The service offers a flexible subscription service and provides fans access to loads of live events, plus supplementary content and sports news. More importantly, for a lot of young fans, it can be accessed on a variety of devices. This allows people to watch from mobiles and tablets as well as their TV. With the success of streaming platforms, fans can have more access to the sport they love, rather than having toe watch. A limited number of games and sports is shown by a traditional broadcaster. A streaming service could potentially give fans thousands of options. Women's sports is one such sport could see wider exposure from online stream. Woman sport is very rarely seen on TV, but it has a growing fan base, thanks in part to all live streaming services showing women's games the pitfalls of digital media. While social and digital media has a lot of great benefits for sports and athletes, it can also come with a lot of serious downsides. Athletes being closer to their fans than ever before is great. From a marketing perspective, athletes can directly advertise their endorsements toe loyal fans through social media posts. What happens when millions of angry fans turn on their heroes, too? Social media allows fans to have a voice and connect with their favorite things and athletes, but this can sometimes lead to extreme abuse and harassment cases. Many athletes have spoken out over the abuse that he sometimes suffer after a game, particularly if they make it cost the error or winning contribution at least two rival fans or even their own fans, sending them abuse and even threats. Until the Maria on Argentine footballer who has played for Real Madrid, Manchester United and PS, she was particularly hurt by online abuse he suffered. The weaker was affected by insults and walking online by his own fans as he struggled to make an impact during Argentina's World Cup qualifying campaign. At one point, it got so bad that did Maria even considered retiring from international football. Instead, he sought help from a psychologist, was able to help me block out the insults and focus on what matters the means to the players of the national team hurt us a lot, he said. To me, a psychologist helped me a lot to talk on Um, burden. Thanks to that, I learned it's easy to make fun from behind a computer or cell phone. My head is fine as well as sometimes suffering from abuse from fans. Athletes also have to be careful about what they share online. In many cases, wouldn't athlete considers? The lighthearted joke between friends can be seen as offensive by a large portion of their followers. Maybe athletes now have to take social media awareness courses to ensure that they don't post anything that could be damaging to their personal brand On the brand off. The club, on competition recently to primitive footballers in the UK, landed in hot water thanks to social media for Pop. Bernardo Silva, who plays for Manchester City, tweeted a picture publicly to his teammate Benjamin Mendy. The picture included a racial stereotype and compared it to a photo of his teammate as a child. Super was forced to apologize for his insensitive tweet, and the player was also banned for one game that I also found himself in trouble for his behavior on social media after the Tottenham hot Spurs player appeared to make a racially charged joke, The midfield was recording a video on social media that appeared to make fun. Often Asian man in relation to the Corona virus outbreak that started in China, Ali was forced to apologize and was also banned for one match. Clearly, social media has great power when used responsibly, but athletes need to be aware of the pitfalls that come with it. Online abuse may not seem like a lot to handle for a successful athlete, but the negativity can be very damaging for a player. On top of that, athletes need to be aware that some jokes could be seen as offensive and can cause damage to an athlete's reputation, especially when it comes to athletes promoting themselves and reaching your fans. Making ill judged comments on social media can go drastically wrong as time goes on and social media becomes more prevailing than ever, athletes will have to be more cautious about what information they give out over the platforms and how much time they spend their 5. Future Technologies in Sport: future technologies in sports. As we discussed in previous chapters, technology has come a long way in recent years, and it's starting to affect the way sports airplane. We saw examples of how new materials such as carbon fiber helped to build strong and durable tennis rackets capable of delivering fast and powerful shots at high actors. New materials have been used in other ways, too sports where is now made from synthetic fibers that stretch to fit the shape of the body, allowing for maximum comfort and performance. Most modern sportswear brands also produced clothes that allow moisture from sweat to evaporate and keep the body cool, vital for athletes who are training hard for long periods. New advances in technology also mean that sports where is becoming more adaptive and innovative than ever. Adaptive smart fabrics can be used by rugby players to provide extra protection against big hits, both in training and in games. We also saw earlier on in the course how wearable technology is starting to become commonplace in many sports. Wearable tech is a great example of a relatively small and inconspicuous technology that has the potential to make a big difference in the quality and performance of athletes. The technology came to the forefront off many fans minds when Germany effectively used wearable tech during their win off the World Cup in 2014. Whilst at this point wearable technology wasn't permitted to be used during games, the German national team used the system during training matches to measure the effectiveness and fitness off players. The vast amount of data on each squad member was collected using the help off the wearable tech. Coaches could then use this information to better plan future training sessions and make team selections and substitution. The technology helped influence Germany's head coach Joachim Allow to bring on Mario Gutsy , who scored the winning goal in the final. After seeing the potential for coaches to better manage the fitness and performances off their players, FIFA decided toe alter the rules to allow wearable technology to be warned during games in 2018. Now coaches have access to a lot of really useful data, allowing them to make more informed decisions over squad selection and keeping athletes in better condition. Off course. Wearable technology has a lot of great applications across lots of sports, not just football it can be useful for long distance runners, for example, letting athletes manage their training more effectively and determining the optimum paste at certain stages. In a race, the potential for technology to be used to improve sports is endless. We have already seen some great examples of how technology can make sports better with video referees, wearable tech and improved materials. Next, we'll take a look at some examples of technology that could soon become the way of the future. Virtual reality Virtual reality is fast becoming one of the most exciting technologies around and, like TV and radio before it could drastically change the way sports are experienced. As we already mentioned in a previous chapter, virtual reality has massive potential for improving the fan experience. It can be used as a way for overseas fans to enjoy unauthentic life match experience from the comfort of their homes. Besides providing a new way for offense to experience life sports, VR Tech also has a lot of potential for improving how athletes train and how fans and consumers purchase sportswear and sporting equipments. Whilst the technology is still in its infancy, it presents a great opportunity for brands and organisations to use it to innovate and bring it to more mainstream audience. Virtual reality systems incorporate different sensors and equipment to provide the user with a computer generated simulation off a fully three D environment. Typically, users will need to wear a headset and pair of sensors toe help map the user's movements into the three D environment. The technology has mostly being used for tech demos and video games so far, but certainly presents a new way to connect with consumers and friends. The N B A has embraced virtual reality technology and is currently paving the way for other leads to follow. Right now, the National Basketball Association is working with Intel to bring basketball and virtual reality to France. For those fans not able to buy tickets to events, virtual reality represents the next best thing and for many allows them to experience sports in detail. They could only ever dream. The virtual reality coverage off the NB puts the viewers in control of the action. You're able to choose specific camera angles, bring up stats and detailed information plus watch. Highlights of key moments, especially made commentary is included that directs you to turn to the left or right to catch different moments as they happen. Life. All the camera angles are designed to give fans the closest possible view and helped to make the sports viewing experience more visceral than ever. NB executives expect their early adoption of ER to make a big difference in helping to grow the sport and build stronger connections with their existing funds. Adopting new technology early and innovating it to create a new way for sports to be enjoyed is a great way for sports to break into new markets and expand the families off the sport outside of improving the fan experience. Virtual reality is also being trialed in training. An athlete preparation video footage has long been used by coaches and scouts to assess and analyzed performances. Now virtual reality presents the next innovation toe. Actually, train American football teams are making use of virtual reality to test and train player reactions to different scenarios. This is particularly useful in college American football as players have their on field practice times capped. It also allows players to train how to deal with different situations on the pitch without risking injury or creating fatigue. Although the equipment used represent a significant expense. Being able to reduce injuries sustained in training and dramatically improving performances makes the investment worthwhile. VR technology also represents a brilliant way for motor sport. Drivers toe learn about tracks they compete on and prepare for upcoming races without stepping into a car. As the technology gets more realistic, VR becomes more useful for preparation as programs are able to simulate the exact track conditions and provide realistic feedback from the car drink turns on. Breaking Another resident in the hub is odd tech. They are, which is helping sporting teams through virtual reality VR technology, which enables people to be present in other locations or other situations when they're not there. That sounds pretty back to the future. It is pretty cool and really benefits people in training situations, a corporate or sports. So basically, these technology, these athletes and mental advantage, because when you're in the pressure cooker of a sporting situation, free throw goal kicking, it's hard to replicate that in training. Yes, athletes around the load. They were very, very hard This way they can actually get them extra mental repetitions in while sitting on the couch or sitting in the player's room and the first of the guy a bit shaky. This question. What about if you're a eggs athlete and you want to pretend that used to be enough, like going into these things, pretending round the clock back, we could make you feel like you're superstar? Oh my gosh, it's like it's basically feel black. I am right on the core. Underneath the possible, I feel like I could catch the bulls. This could help a lot of athletes and quite anxious in those sort of sporting Iranians. Some a little less lights love, Um, craft. A lot of athletes obviously fade off them, but they're athletes, that blonde, that sort of environment, your life stressful and it affects performance. I can completely say Why is the future off school augmented reality Augmented reality is similar to virtual reality and that it helps to create a more immersive experience rather than creating an entire three D environment. However, augmented reality superimposes generated information or images over the existing real world . Similar to virtual reality. This new technology can be used to enhance fan experiences, help trade and prepare athletes, plus provide further information to coaches on how players are performing. Lastly, there's also a lot of chances for companies to innovate with augmented reality in the field of sports marketing. As we already discussed in the previous chapter, Amazon successfully used augmented reality toe allow viewers off NFL games to purchase items on Amazon prime during games. One of the most exciting uses augmented reality in sports is how it could be used to enhance viewers experience both in stadiums and whilst watching on TV or online street. Whilst we will discuss more about augmented reality at the stadium in the next chapter, there's also a lot of room for augmented reality to be used during live broadcasts. Augmented reality is already being used by a lot of different sports broadcasters to give fans more information about the game. Superimposed graphics can be used to relate key information to fans, including the stats of a player hurry, distance on area covered, plus showing where key moments are happening on the pitch. Pundits and commentators can also give their own opinions using augmented reality to demonstrate their point, point out what a team is doing right or could be doing differently in the same way a coach or coaching team can make use of detailed statistics and augmented reality to view the game in differently. This information could be vital for making key decisions that could impact the outcome of a match. We already saw how statistics from wearable tech can be used by coaches to analyze athlete performance, leading to better results and injury prevention. This data can be paired with augmented reality to show a clear image of how matches going and improve the information a coach has access to. Players can also use augmented reality technology to analyze their own performances. When watching video footage, they can view information about their performance at key moments and use the technology to better understand how to improve in future games. In the same way this that can also be used during training toe help, players better understand how to execute certain movements or tactics on the pitch. Coaches can display an augmented reality version of how he wants the team to play over video off the team. Performing innovations to the way augmented reality is used in sports can potentially lead to better training and coaches who can explain their ideas more clearly to athletes and show them how they should be performing. With the use of this technology, we could see athletes becoming faster, less injury, parole and smarter, leading to more exciting matches for fans and higher level competition for athletes. We mentioned how Amazon had utilized augmented reality to display ads directly to viewers off NFL games. The technology has a lot of applications for using sports marketing, and thanks to the amount of money involved, this area is seeing a lot of innovation. One of the ways of mental reality is currently being used for sports. Marketing is through the use of advertising boards around the stadium. Advertising boards and stadiums are nearly as old a sport itself, but have since evolved with the help of augmented reality. Modern advertising boards now display different advertising to different audiences, with the fans in the stadium seeing different adverts to those seeing domestic or international broadcasts. Being able to target different demographics in this way is incredibly valuable and can allow multiple brands to pay for the same advertising space, meaning more money for the game and better value for the brand's placing. The act Smart stadiums, with TV and home viewing growing ever better Thanks to improvements in technology, stadium operators need to innovate to ensure that fans get the best possible experience. Whilst I hard friends are unlikely to be kept away from stadiums any time soon, some fans may prefer to stay at home if there are better options available to them. The increasing availability of high quality TV broadcasts and Internet streams, plus the eventual growth off VR tech, means that stadium operators need to say ahead of the game. State of the art stadiums are being developed that will take the fan experience to the next level. Smart stadiums are modern stadiums that make use of sensors inbuilt, augmented reality smartphone, APS and other tech to help fans feel more comfortable and keep tickets in high demands. Stadiums are usually multimillion dollar investments and therefore need to be kept cost effective. Whilst using smart statement. Tech may seem costly. It can be done fairly simply, just installing sensors and Internet connectivity. This also can be retrofitted into older stadiums, giving a classic ground a much needed revitalisation. Fans have grown to expect a high level of digital connectivity, better convenience and excellent customer service. The younger generation, in particular, expect to be able to connect to the Internet and went at the game. A mobile phone can be an important part of the experience. Fans like to be able to use their phones to record videos and photos and upload them to social media networks. Providing the tools to do that is important in any modern stadium, so smart stadiums need to make sure that WiFi is available and free to use all over the state. Mobile phones can also be used in other ways that smart stadiums. A lot of modern stadiums now have their own apse, which can help finds to find the best parking space. The quickest concessions lines on the shortest route to the bathroom mobile APS can even be utilized by fast order food and drinks directly to their seats. The social element of watching the game at the stadium is one of the most important aspect and is unable to be replicated when watching a home. Because of this smart stadiums, unless do as much as possible to increase the social factor off attending games, acts can be used by fans to help find friends outside the stadium or posting and voting on the best user generated content from inside the stadium Mobile fold. APS can also be used to increase fan engagement during the game itself. A phone can show life stats during the match and show up close camera angles or highlights of key events. This kind of app can also make use of augmented reality tech to overly the information on the pitch when viewed through the phone's camera. Smart stadium technology is all about increasing. Find comfort and excitement toe encourage fans to attend live games, particularly younger friends. The NBA's L. A Clippers makes use of smart state of tech to capture images of millions of fans during the game. Fans can download a picture of themselves at the game afterwards by entering their seat number in tow. Around 25% of fans attending games have the act on the photos regularly get uploaded onto social media by fans. - The evolution of sports sponsorship exposer ships have long been a part of sports. In fact, the earnest form of sports sponsorships was recorded way back in the time of the ancient Olympics in 776 B. C. In modern times, sponsorship began to evolve as money and fans started to increase in sports. And today cos air still innovating to ensure that their sponsorships are bringing value to their brands in previous decades, Companies recognize the potential of huge sporting events for marketing opportunities. They saw the high attendances and viewing figures as a way of obtaining exposure for their brands. Sports sponsorship was focused on obtaining as many eyeballs as possible, and paying lots to be an event sponsor or have advertising during an event was considered money well spent. Although this kind of sponsorship can provide results, it also invariably leads to failures and wasted marketing budgets. Consumers will often ignore ads and brands, which don't have a real connection to an event. Simply putting your ad in a stadium may bring some exposure to your brand, but it likely won't leave a lasting impression. Companies are no longer as willing to spend lots and sponsoring an event without knowing how much return they'll receive on their investments. Better data and metrics are becoming available for marketers, allowing them to see a clearer picture of exactly how much of a impact their campaign hat, rather than just buying ad space and hoping it works data is now being used to create winning formulas that appealed to the right set of fans. Brands are now able to get much more value out of sponsorships than ever before, providing the use of data correctly to create the most value out of sponsoring an event. Companies have to ensure that they can build a really unbelievable connection between their brand. On the event, fans can be cynical and will disregard any efforts they think are instance. Here. Companies now make an effort to build a connection with fans of the event, creating memorable ads that give fans a chance to interact with the brand. The future off sports sponsorships will see more brands than ever before working to find an event that they can build a real connection with. Another trend that started to emerge is for brands to organize their own sporting events, giving them more control on a direct link to the sport, their advertising on the fans they want to target. In the future, we'll see more examples of brands collaborating directly with sports teams to host events. Allowing sponsors to be part of the event planning stage can lead to a much stronger relationship between the brand and the sport. In turn, this can lead to better results from sponsoring the event, meaning sponsors are more likely to return and spend more money on future events. 6. Conclusion: conclusion. We hope you have enjoyed this presentation of innovation in sports. Competition is the very core foundation off all sports and without innovation, competition as we know it doesn't exist. It's natural then, for the sports industry to be a constantly evolving and shifting force with those unwilling to change ending up left behind. The examples in this presentation were chosen to help give you an idea of how sports can change over time. While some innovations required a lot of planning and preparation, others came about from simple adjustments. Anyone can innovate and hopefully this presentation has helped to inspire and motivate you to create, innovate and change the face of sports. We have explored the idea of innovation and how it effects sports. We have also discussed how innovation can continue to change the sports we love in the future. We have looked at how fans, sponsorships, revenues, a new technology all have a part to play in changing sports, plus how they can all be affected by change. Now let's conclude what we've learned and discuss what's next for the sports industry. In a world where innovation is rapid and constant. Those who work in sports need to be prepared for change and adapt to it. As it happens, we'll talk about how those working in the industry can stay ahead of the curve and adapt to innovations. What have we learned? You should not be able to define innovation and describe the similarities between innovation and the business world and how it relates to sports. You should know that innovation is the application of new ideas toe an existing product or service using creativity to spark real change off course. As we've seen, the innovation doesn't have to be a big change, but can often have a big impact on the sport. Nevertheless, as we saw, the idea is just one part of innovation. Many ideas can be well received, but ultimately failed you to a lack of work to realize them. Innovation doesn't just rely on creativity and ideas, but also the people were willing to work hard to put those ideas into practice. Every example we have looked at has needed an idea to be grown from its early stages into a fully fledged working innovation. Often these ideas air subject to ridicule naysayers and those who say it's bad for the sports rarely were they ever an overnight success. As an innovator, you need to have confidence in your ideas on a willingness to see them through to completion. Industries are always changing, and being able to adapt and change along with it is crucial for any business. For sports, it's no different fan Expectations are changing all the time, as are the ways in which fans can view and consume sports to reach their fans and market themselves to new ones. Sporting organizations have to be willing toe alter how their sport is viewed, changing the rules, technology or markets to reflect changes in the industry. We have seen how important recent technological advances were in advancing sports. Tech has had an impact not just on how fans are able to watch through the radio, TV and eventually the Internet, but also had a dramatic effect on all other areas off sport. More than ever, innovations in sports technology are being used to improve training, scouting and coaching, ultimately making sports faster and more competitive than ever. This innovation shows no signs of slowing down and coupled with more ways for fans to interact and enjoy, sports is leading to sports becoming ever more popular around the world. What does the future hold for sports? People love to predict the future and walls. It may be impossible to accurately guess exactly what will happen in 25 to 50 years. We can make a pretty good guess of how the industry will look based on current trends. We have already seen technology creeping into sports, and this will likely continue as more leagues on organizations give the green light for technology assisted referees, coaches and players. Although it's faced objections from some fans, technology has a lot of potential to help improve officiating in sports. First and foremost, as we've seen from wearable tech, it can also be used to help a coaches decision making. Electing athletes get enough rest and recovery between training and matches, leading to fewer injuries. Any technology that helps to protect athletes and give better performances can be a really positive addition to any sport. And as time goes on, the data available from this tax will only improve. The future could even see some coaches leave squad selection and match substitution entirely down to data analysis and computer programs, in the same way that a computer program can now be chess grandmasters. Computers could increasingly be used to develop and execute tactics on the pitch for court , working with a coach who focuses more on the psychological side of the game to get the best out of the athletes alongside changes to the way sports have played and managed, we can also expect to see big changes in how we watch sports. As we already covered technology. Such a cemented and virtual realities are started to become better than ever. And as they develop, sports organizations are using them to innovate how fans consume sports. We're likely going to see a big increase in the availability of virtual reality in the sports industry in the next few years. Los. That may seem like a gimmick. First, if the industry gets it right, it can change the way fans watch sports forever. Teams will be able to fill stadiums plus sell hundreds of thousands of virtual tickets, which will provide the full match day experience. We have already seen the NBA trialling this technology, and it will likely get better and more immersive over time alongside changes to how fans view sport through technology such as augmented and virtual reality. The future of sports will likely feature more fan generated and lead generated content than ever. Rather than being dependent on broadcasting networks, leagues may start to produce their own content using Internet streaming to give fans wider access to matches. Sports, which allowed fans to have better access and increase the amount of free content available , have a lot more long term success as they can build up a strong fan base before increasing monetization. We have also seen how user generated content has increased in the last few years, and thanks to the spread of social media networks, this will continue in the future. Sports organizations are realizing the power that found made content can have on helping to expose their brand to new markets. As fans gain more control over how they view and consume sports content, we can predict that the popularity of sports will grow and spread to new areas of the world . Whilst market saturation is a real possibility for some global sports, we may see a growing trend off more niche sports emerging into the spotlight. Recent years we have seen a big increase in the popularity of sports like Tech bowl Formula E and Free South football, which are spin offs often already popular sport. Appealing to a younger audience and making use of social media has led to these sports taking off on as their popularity grows. We can expect other sports to follow similar models in the upcoming years. How can organisations stay ahead? In a fast moving industry, the nature of sports means that athletes and teams are always competing against each other and need to constantly be adapting to stay ahead of their rivals. Big changes to how the sports industry operate have occurred in a short space of time. And just like athletes, sporting organizations and brands need to make sure they're always in front of their competition. With more money than ever coming into the sports industry by way of more fans and bigger sponsorship deals, organizations are becoming increasingly competitive, and this means more need than ever to innovate. Companies can't afford to stay stagnant and must always be innovating to stay successful. Risk taking is a big part of innovation, and it needs to be encouraged within the industry. You need to be able to recognize that change doesn't come without risks and also be able to understand the mistakes are part of the process. All the stakes are learning process and provided you're able to adjust after making them shouldn't be punished as it discourages future innovation. To stay ahead in such a fast moving industry, organizations need to embrace changes as they happen, following competitors with new techniques and technology that brings them success is needed to avoid falling behind. As we saw in some of the examples, successful innovations are soon copied by competitors on those that don't adapt get left behind date of forms. A large part of what makes innovations successful. Being able to properly measure the success of a new technique or technology is vital for knowing whether it really makes a difference. Data gathering analysis techniques have become a lot more and fast, and organizations need to make use of its to innovate successfully. Lastly, innovations don't have to be big changes or make use of the latest technology. We have seen plenty of examples where a small change or adjustment led to a completely different results. Keeping it simple is vital. A small innovations are easier to plan, measure and implement. More importantly, they take less time. And in a fast moving industry, time is the most valuable thing