Learn IP Addressing - Step by Step Guide to Mastering Subnetting | Tinei Maiswa | Skillshare

Learn IP Addressing - Step by Step Guide to Mastering Subnetting

Tinei Maiswa, Network Engineer + Instructor + Youtuber

Learn IP Addressing - Step by Step Guide to Mastering Subnetting

Tinei Maiswa, Network Engineer + Instructor + Youtuber

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25 Lessons (1h 16m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:09
    • 2. Class Project

      1:33
    • 3. What is an IP Address

      1:16
    • 4. Structure of an IP Address

      4:13
    • 5. Rules of IP Addressing

      1:48
    • 6. What is your IP Address

      2:21
    • 7. Binary vs Decimal System

      3:00
    • 8. Convert Binary to Decimal

      4:13
    • 9. Convert Decimal to Binary

      2:57
    • 10. Public vs Private IP Address

      2:09
    • 11. IP Address Classes - A, B, C

      4:55
    • 12. Classful vs Classless Addresses

      6:26
    • 13. What is subnetting

      1:44
    • 14. How to subnet

      3:17
    • 15. Important Subnetting Questions

      5:14
    • 16. Subnet Class C - (/25 Address)

      2:57
    • 17. Subnet Class C - (/26 Address)

      1:58
    • 18. Subnet Class C - (/30 Address)

      2:32
    • 19. Subnet in the mind

      2:49
    • 20. Subnet Class B - (/17 Address)

      2:08
    • 21. Subnet Class B - (/23 Address)

      2:20
    • 22. Designing an IP Address Scheme

      3:39
    • 23. Variable Length Subnet Mask - VLSM

      4:13
    • 24. Network Troubleshooting Tools - Ping, IPconfig, Tracert

      6:57
    • 25. Outro

      0:21
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About This Class

IP Addressing is one of the most intimidating but extremely important subjects in IT. Everything revolves around IP addressing, the internet, online stores , your website, payment systems all require IP addresses in order for them to function.

In this class we are going to go over a step by step guide into the basics of IP addressing. Starting from what is an IP address, structure of an IP addresses to more complex topics such as subnetting, VLSM and network design. The objective is to give you a simplified overview into the subject. We will cover basic steps of converting decimal to binary to designing our own IP address scheme.

By the end of the course you will be comfortable to design an IP address scheme, provide detailed logical network diagram.

Who is the course for?

Anyone with an interest in IT
Helpdesk, Service Desk Analyst, PC Technician
Aspiring Network administrators, Network engineers, Network designers
Certifications (A+, Network+, CCNA, Juniper, Fortinet, AWS, Azure)

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About Me!

My name is Tinei - I'm a network engineer based in Australia, and on the side I am a Cisco Instructor and also make YouTube videos about networking and the IT industry. In all my classes, IP addressing has always been that one topic that most students have challenges with. Through reading books, certifications and practical experience designing and troubleshooting network issues. I feel that I've developed a bit of knowledge about the topic and that's why I've decided to put this series of Skillshare classes to share my own knowledge and hopefully help us someone else.

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Other Useful Links:

My website - https://thenetworkhustle.com/
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/tinei.maiswa
Youtube Channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCM1LK7SM64pxEB3R7ayn1Fw

Meet Your Teacher

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Tinei Maiswa

Network Engineer + Instructor + Youtuber

Teacher

Hi there,

I'm Tinei, I work as a network engineer based in Australia. 

20 years ago a stranger gave me an opportunity and introduced me to the IT industry. Due to that one encounter my life was changed. This has led me to my goal to educate and mentor over 1,000 network engineers in less developed countries over the next 5 years. I strongly believe that everyone has the ability to succeed, provided their given an opportunity. 

I'm passionate about all things networking and I'm working on a series of Skillshare classes where I will share my experience and knowledge that I have acquired in the industry. 

 

See full profile

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Transcripts

2. Class Project: I've included two projects with this course. The first one is basically a workbook that will help you reinforce the content that you've covered in the workbook. You're going to find questions pertaining to the content that we're going to cover. And the second one is a case study. And this is going to be the highlight project for our class. In this case study, you've been approached by a bank to design an IP address scheme for them, your responsibility is going to look at the business requirements of the bank and develop an IP address scheme that caters for the existing needs and their future growth. After you have scoped their work, you're going to create two documents. The first one is a detailed IP address scheme, and the second one is going to be a detailed logical network diagram that depicts the implementation of your IP address scheme. You can upload your project in the project section, I've provided an example of a logical diagram, but that should not limit your imagination. Feel free to design a diagram that is the documents, your network. And I'm really looking forward to that. If you've got any questions pertaining to the case study or any content that we're going to cover in the course. Please don't hesitate to leave a comment in the respective video. You can also reach out to me on my social media handles that are contained in the overview page. Once again, without much further ado, let us begin. 3. What is an IP Address: So what is an IP address? It is an address that uniquely identifies a device on the internet or a local network. In order for us to understand, we need to look at the different types of addresses that we deal with on a day-to-day basis. Most of us have a home address. This is where we reside. We use that address to send and receive items. It could be utility bills, online purchases. That address is what your local post office uses to identify your house amongst other houses in your neighborhood. The other form of address that all of us have is an e-mail address because it would have been impossible for you to sign up on skillshare without one. We use our email addresses to send and receive emails, servers across the world about emails based on that particular dress. So we're getting to understand that an address is a very important component and it must be unique. Ip addresses allow devices to communicate over the network. They are used to route packets from source to destination. And the Internet depends on IP addressing. In order for it to function, you will notice that our addresses have different formats. In the next video, we're going to look at the structure and the format of an IP address in more detail. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 4. Structure of an IP Address: Now that you understand what an IP address is, we're going to look at the structure of an IP address. There are two types of IP addresses, IP version 4 and IP version 6. In this course, we're gonna be focusing on IP version 4. And IP version four address is 32 bits in length, and it is usually written in a format as the decimal dotted notation, which is shown on the screen and is usually pronounced as one line to John 16, eight dot 0, dot 25 for the address is split into four segments, each separated by a dot. Each segment is a bits in length and eight multiplied by 4 gives us a total of 32 bits. Each segment is known as an octet or one bright. These terms can be interchanged when defining an IP address. So visual that you're comfortable with the different terminology. The value of each octet ranges from 0 to 255. So if we look at our diagram, you'll notice that I wrote the address in the dotted decimal notation on the top. And then I wrote the equivalent in binary. But I separated the bits to four segments. We have the first byte, the second byte, the third byte, and the fourth byte is equivalent to an octet, and each octet is eight bits. So you add that altogether, we come up with 32 bits or four bytes. We have the network portion and the host portion. The network ID identifies the network and the host ID identifies the individual device on the network. In our example, we have the username, that is John King. Then we have the at sign. And lastly we have the domain name. And in our case, gmail.com, the at symbol or sign is what separates the username from the domain name. So any e-mail address with the same domain name would belong to the same network. The network ID is similar to the domain part of the email address, in that any IP address with the same network ID would belong to the same network. The host ID, on the other hand, identifies the individual device on the network. And it has to be unique because you cannot have two IP addresses that identical in one network. Whilst it is easy to identify the username and the domain part of an email address because they are separated by the enzyme. It is not easy to do the same with an IP address. I want you to take a guess which part of the address is the network ID and which part is the host ID? You can pause this video and take your time. Unfortunately, there's no way to tell. We could try to use the classical boundary of the address, such as class a, B, or C, but that will not be accurate. We need something that draws the line and tells us which part of the address is going to be the host and which part will be the neutral portion. A subnet mask is what we use to identify which portion of the IP address is going to be the network ID and which portion will be the host ID. In our example, the subnet mask is 255, 255, 255 dot 0. This basically means that we are going to use the first three octets for the first 24 bits of the IP address to represent the network ID, then the last eight bits for the host ID. If we count the first three octets and draw a line, it means that 192 dot 168 dot 0 will become the network ID and to FIFO will become the host ID. The subnet mask is not a fixed value, it can change. So with a mask of 255, 255 dot 00, our network ID will change to 192 dot 168, and the host ID would be 0, go to 54. Later on in the course will cover subnet masks in more detail. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 5. Rules of IP Addressing: When I turned 18 hours excited because finally I could get my driver's license. But before I could jump into any car, I had to learn the rules. This included learning about which side of the road to drive, which cards to give way on a T junction. What to do when you see a stop sign. Now why is this important? Because every address standard has a set of rules that need to be followed in order for things to work. I'm sure if you tried to send an email without the egg sign, that event is going to bounce because email addresses required at sign address to be valid. In order for IP addresses to be valid, there are number of rules that must be followed. Rule number one, the host portion of an IP address cannot be said to all binary zeros because that is used to refer to a network address. We will look at network addresses in detail later in the course, rule number 2. The host portion of an IP address in all binary ones represents a broadcast address. This is a special address that is used to send packets to all hosts on a particular network. Rule number 3, the network ID of 127 got 0 dot 0 dot is reserved for diagnostics and testing. Famous address 127 dot 0, 0 0, 1, also known as the loopback address, is used for testing network card rule number 4, then IP address of all zeros is used to represent something known as the default route. And the last rule, then IP address of all ones is used to represent a broadcast to all hosts on a particular network. These rules are important for you to understand. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 6. What is your IP Address: Now that we've looked at an IP address and subnet mask, we now need to check the IP address on our computers. They say that the best way to learn is when you practice. I'm using a Windows machine. If you're using a different operating system, just check one line on the steps of how to check your IP configuration. When readers, there are many ways to get to command prompt, but this is the one that I find easiest to go to Start type run. Press Enter in the book on box that comes up type CMD and press Enter. This should take you into the command prompt, Walton command prompt, type, our command IP config and press Enter. A lot of information is going to show up in your screen. We need to focus on the adapter or network card that you're using to connect to the network. Under the data, you'll see an IPV4 address. Mine is 19 to 16 803 with a subnet mask of 255, 255, 255 dot 0. And my gateway is 192, 168 dot 0 dot one. This means that my network ID is going to be made up of the first three octets, or the first 24 bits of the address. My network address is 192 dot 168 dot 0, and my host ID is DOT 3. So for now, I want you to write down your IPV4 address, write down the subnet mask and default gateway. The next step is going to involve you opening up a browse on your PC. It doesn't matter. It could be Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, or Internet Explorer or Firefox, whatever browser that you have, just open the browser and go to the default Google.com webpage. But I'd like you to type what is my IP address? And press Enter. And an IP address should show up on the screen. Mind is 42 dots, 24123 lines of one. And the address on your screen is your public IP address that is addressed that you use when you're on the Internet. The first one that we find in command prompt was our private address. Later on in the course, we're going to look at the differences between private and public addresses. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 7. Binary vs Decimal System: Any Ali, I mentioned that I could risk can be written in either decimal or binary. In order for us to be comfortable converting our dresses from binary to decimal, we need to learn about the two numbering systems. A little bit of math is going to be required, but trust me, It's going to be nothing hectic. And we're going to walk through together along the way. We have two numbering systems, binary, which is used by computers, and the decimal system, which is what we use in our everyday life or counting. In the decimal system, we use 10 different numerals from 0 to nine. And these are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Just in case you forgot to primary school math. When you get to the number 10, we have no numeral to represent this value. So it is written as 1, 0, then read as 110 and 0 units. The idea is for us to use a new place holder for each power of 10 to make up any number that we want. The number 134 in decimal means 103 tens and four units. Although we read it as 134, as shown on the screen, we have 10 to the power 0, which is equals to one. And that represents the units. We have 10 to the power one, which is equals to 10, then that represents the tens. And 10 to the power 2, which is equals to a 100, then that represents the hundreds, and so on. In the decimal system, we saw that 10 numerals were used because computers work in binary and binary on users to numerals 1 and 0, our placeholders in binary increased by the powers of two. So the first has a value of two to the power 0, which is equals to one. The second one is two to the power one, which is equal to two. The third would be two to the power 2, which is equals to four, and so on. This sequence is very important for you to master because it's going to help you along the way. I've put a table for us to practice. On the top row, we have the binary exponent and below we have the decimal value. So starting from the right to the left, these are the increments that we get when recounting in powers of two, we have 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 to 6521024204840968192. But for now, we are interested in the first eight values for up to 128. If you want to match the IP addressing, you need to commit the sequence to memory because you're going to use it quite a lot when subnetting and troubleshooting IP address issues. If I lost two somewhere along the way, please stop this video, rewind it, go through again, because this is the foundation of IP addresses. In the next video, we're going to be converting our addresses from binary to decimal. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 8. Convert Binary to Decimal: There are many ways to do this, but I found it's simpler to use the table for reference when you're starting later on. With practice, you can learn to do it in your head. Remember, and I could address is 32 bits broken into four octets. And each octet is a good. Step. Number 1, we're going to draw a table with eight columns and three rows. In the first row, we're going to put the first eight values of our binary counting system in each column. That is two to the power 0, up to two to the power seven. Below that. In the second row, we'll put our values 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 starting from right to left. Now all we have to do is just basically place of binary digits of our IP address into the respective columns. When we're working with binary, a bit can only be a one or 00 equals two off while is it goes to on. We're only going to add the columns with the bits that are turned on, then ignore the ones with zeros. In the example that I put on the screen, we have a binary value of 01101000. So we only have three bits that are turned on, and these are 64328. So to get the decimal value, we're going to add 64 plus 32 plus 8. And that gives us 104. To convert the full address, we have to take each object separately and write it in the table as follows. Then we have to add all the columns with the bits that are turned on. I've already written the binary of each octet and have placed them in the table, talk to them one, we're adding one to enabler 64, which is equal to 190 to Dr. 2 is 128 plus 32 plus 8, which gives us 16 8, 4, 2, 3 is 8 plus 2, which is equals to 10. And the last octet only has one value under one, so we're not adding anything. When we're done, we then take the decimal values and then write them in dotted decimal notation. And we get our IP address of 192, 168 dot 10 and 1. So our binary address is equivalent to 18 to 16, 8 or 10 or 11 in decimal. I hope there was easy to convert. Let us try another one this time around, I want to encourage you to pause the video, try and do this on your own and then watch whilst we worked on together the binary address that we're going to be converting 0s, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 001. Let's work through together. First, we will draw our table, but this time around, try not to use the powers of two, but just try and put the values 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128. Next, we'll write our binary value into each column, and then we'll end up to them one, we're adding 128 plus 32 plus 8 plus 4. That gives us a decimal value, 172 opted to only has one bit that is tailored to 1643. We add in 64 plus 32 plus 4, which gives us a 100. And the last octet only has one bit that is turned on in that column number two. So our binary address it to 172 dot 16, dot 100 got two in decimal. One more example, but this time around we're not going to draw the table. We want to try and do this for memory, and that should be easy. The first octet only has one value of 128. The second octet, we're adding 8 plus 2 plus 1, which is equal to 11. Remember, starting from right to left, that octet, we're adding two plus one, which is equals to 3. And in the last octet, we're adding 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 to give us 31. So our IP address is 128, 11 to three to 31. Now that we've mastered converting from binary model, in the next video, we will look at converting from decimal to binary. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 9. Convert Decimal to Binary: In the previous video, we looked at converting binary to decimal. This time we're going to do the opposite. The process is similar. The only difference is that we are identifying the bits that we need to turn on in order to get our decimal value. Once again, we're going to start by drawing our reference table. Then we're gonna take our decimal value and decide which columns in our table do we need to turn on in order to get our decimal number? In our example, the first decimal value is 192. So you need to figure out which numbers do we need to end to get 192. In this case, we add 128 plus 64 to get 192, we're going to turn on the bids under 128 and 64 and then put zeros for the rest. One thing to note is that for the numbers that you don't need, you put a 0 and for the numbers that you need, you put a one. Let us look at the following address. You're into two dot 16 dot 10, dot one. For us to get 12 need to do. We need to add 128 plus 32 plus 8 plus 4. So we went to put ones under those numbers. And we're going to put zeros for the rest. So our binary value equivalent will be 101011 000. Let's look at 16, and that's probably much more easier. We already have 16 in the column, so we don't need any other number. For the number 10. We're going to need to add eight to 10 for one, we only need one. So our binary should look like this. The next step is now to write it in a continuous 32 bit value. I have just separated it for ease of visibility. But the correct formatting has no spacing. So 123D to do at 1610 dot one is equals to the binary value that you can see on my screen. Let's try another address, 192, 168 dot 12, 25. For this time we're going to do it a little bit faster. For 19 two, we add 128 plus 64, so we take those two bits and zeros for the rest. For 16, 8, we're going to need 128 plus 32 plus 8. And as for one straightforward, we only need one bit and the last one is two Pi 4. And we're going to add everything except the last bit of one. So our binary value should look something like this. Please take time to practice this until you can comfortably convert an address from decimal to binary or the other way round without having to draw the reference table. Try doing it in the head. In this section, we have covered what is an IP address. We looked at the structure of an IP address and how that is important for us to understand. We also looked at the rules of IP addressing, and we closed off by converting our IP address from either decimal or binary. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 10. Public vs Private IP Address: There are two types of IP addresses, public and private. For us to understand the difference, will need to rewind time to when the incident started. In those days. If you wanted your computer to do in the network, you have to make an application to an Internet Registry organization. For an IP address block, they would review your application and you've granted, they would allocate you a block of unique public IP addresses that we are routable on the internet. You then assign these addresses to devices, and they would also be reachable online. Is republic. As the Internet began to grow, it grew fast beyond anyone's expectations, and demand for IP addresses started to increase. There were concerns that globally unique public IP addresses would be exhausted. So they decided to come up with a block of addresses that we are going to be private and not routable on the internet. So Ayana, who are the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority reserve the following blocks of IP addresses for private use. Any IP address that falls in this range is considered a private IP address. Because these addresses a private, anyone can use them without having to apply to any registry organization. This means that different organizations can use the same IP address block without any conflict. If you look at the IP address on your computer that I asked you to write down area. You'll notice that it falls into one of these three categories. But when you look at your public IP address that you got from Google, you'll notice that it doesn't belong to any of these ranges, minus 42 dot to 429 of one. The IP address for your computer is a private address and is not routable on the internet. So in order for you to go online, you'll need a routable IP address, which your internet service provider allocates to you. And this is known as the public address. So the difference between the two is that one is routable, in the other is not. In the next video, we're going to look at the different IP address classes. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 11. IP Address Classes - A, B, C: Not all networks are created equal. Some are large with many devices, some are small. In the previous video, we mentioned that if you wanted IP addresses, you'd make an application to an Internet Registry and they would allocate your block according. This block size was based on the size of your organization. Then how many devices you'd have on your network. The designers of the Internet decided to create IP address classes for networks based on size. The objective was that each class will be different in size and therefore meet different needs. The simplest example that I could probably come up to help you understand this concept is the different classes you find a commercial flight. There about three classes you've got first, business and economy. And these classes cater for different needs. First-class has the fewest number of seats, and it caters for those who can afford and want to fly in luxury business class. On the other end, as the name says, it caters for those who want to fly and work at the same time. While the city more than first-class, they are less than economy seats. And I don't think I have to explain economy. I mean, that is where the bulk of us belong. The seeds are crammed. They can barely reclined, but the cost is the most attractive part. You have options when you're purchasing a ticket. It just depends whether you're concerned about cost, comfort 0, privacy. Ip addresses have five different classes. We have class a, B, C, and D, but we're going to be focusing on the first three. The last two are reserved for special addresses. So let us look at the different classes. Class a was designed to support large networks, over 16 million hosts. These addresses are allocated to big internet service providers who would then break them down into smaller networks and sell them to their customers. A class a address uses the first eight bits for the first octet of the IP address for the network ID and the remaining 24 bits for the host ID. This means that we have fewer networks with a maximum or a 128, but each network has plenty hosts. On the screen we have two diagrams. There's one that shows the network ID and host ID split for each class. And the other one shows the number of networks and host class. These are basically there to help you visualize the difference between the classes. A class a address consumes almost 50 percent of all the entire IP addresses. Later on in the course, we're going to look at how mathematically we arrived at those numbers. A class, a IP address range starts from one up to 126. So any IP address that starts with any of those numbers will belong to this class. This is similar with the flight first-class C2C only be one to ten business class from 11 to 29 and then from 30 to 200, that would probably be economic loss. Okay, let's look at class B. This was designed to support the needs of moderate to large size networks that would have up to 65000 hosts. A class B address uses the first 16 bits for the network address, and the remaining 16 bits for the host address. You can have more networks over 16,384, and each network can have up to 65000 hosts per network. More organizations could apply for a class B block of addresses, and they consume almost 25 percent of all IP addresses. The easiest way that you can identify a class B IP address is it starts from 128 up to 19 to one. And the last class that we're going to look at is class C. This was designed to support smaller networks with a maximum of 254 hosts. Class C addresses used the first 24 bits for the network address and the remaining eight bits for the host address. This means that you can have up to 2 million networks. Each network having up to 254 hosts. They consume about Tok where 5% of all the IP addresses. And the best way to identify that is any IP address that starts with 192 up to 223 would be considered a Class C address. Class D is used for multicast and class II is experimental blocks. But as we mentioned earlier on, we're not going to be focusing on those classes. These classes were known as classful addresses and they were not flexible. They came in blocks that you could not change. And this caused the problem. In the next video, we're going to come with the problem more in detail. Thank you for watching and I'll see you in the next one. 12. Classful vs Classless Addresses: Classful addressing was good, but had the challenge of wasting. I could resist. Remember, our organization had to apply for IP addresses with an Internet Registry. If a company went to buy a block of IP addresses, they only three options. Class, which gave them 60 million hosts. Class B with over 60000, or by a Class C with only 254 hosts, and there was nothing in between. So a company that only required to 1000 addresses will be forced to buy a Class B block with over 16 thousand addresses. A class C address block would have been too small because it only at 254 hosts. So to put this into context, I want you to imagine greater shop to buy a pair of jeans. And the only three sizes, large, small and extra lunch, and there's nothing in between. That would be ridiculous. So shrubs have solved this problem by making sure that the genes in almost every size so that you and I can get a size that fits us. A system called classless inter-domain routing, or Sida, was developed as an alternative to the traditional subnetting. This meant that the abundant the network classes and you could add a specification IP address to identify the number of bits that you're going to use for the network portion. Instead of being tied down to the traditional slash a slash 16 or slash 24, you could choose a variable length subnet mask. So what does this mean? If we look at an example, Sida IP addresses are composed of two sets of numbers. We have the IP address and then we have the slash notation. In this case is slash 22. That 22 indicates how many bits are being used to represent the network ID. So that slash notation can be adjusted depending on the size of the network. Anyon we saw that a class C address used the first 24 bits for the network ID and the last 8 bits for the host ID, 2 to the power eight gives us 2 to 6. This meant that a class C network could only support 254 hosts if we needed more than 254 hosts with the slider notation, all we have to do is just move the subnet to a slash 23, which then gives us 23 bits for the network ID and nine bits for the host portion. To 2.9 is going to give you 512. So we have 510 hosts for that particular network. And this was not possible with classful addressing. So when you go to an ISP, give you a block of IP addresses, and it will look something like this. 192 dot 168 dot, dot 0 slash 28. The slash notation tells you how many bits will be ones or turned on or the ones that are going to be used for the network ID. And in this case is 28. And the rest of the bits that are not turned on or there are zeros, are going to be used for the host ID. This means that the number of host B network can now be adjusted to meet a client requirement, resulting in little or no wasting of addresses. Let us look at our default subnet mask. Class a address is 255 dot 000 000. Converting that into binary, you will notice that the first octet is all ones, hence is a slash eight. When referring to sided notation, we need to count all the ones to figure out the subnet. So 255 dot 000, 000 will be a slash eight because it has the first eight bits as one's a Class B subnet of 255. 255 dot 0 would be a slash 16. Because when we convert that address into binary, you'll notice that the first 16 bits, once in the last 16 bits are zeros. So to simplify this, we're going to look at a cider block table that is going to provide a good overview. To help us put this altogether. We have the column that represents the subnet mask and the second column is going to represent the equivalent insider notation. And the third column is the number of hosts per network. And the last is going to be the binary exponent. It's very important for us to be able to view all these things together. Now you'll notice that as the slash notation value increases, our subnet mask also increases. What do I mean? Let's look at a slash eight. We find that our subnet mask was 255 dot 00. But a slashed nine has a subnet mask of 255 dot 128 dot 0, dot 0. The more our slider notation increases, the subnet mask also increases with it as the slash notation value increases. Our hosts per network reduce a slice. 17 has 32 thousand hosts per network, but a slash 22 only has 1024 hosts on that particular network. This means that we are no longer tied down to the fixed subnets of classful addressing. Earlier on, we looked at a company that require 2000 addresses. In the old system, there would have been forced to buy a slash 16. But with a slider notation, the company can now purchase a slash 21, which gives them 2048 addresses, giving them exactly the number that they need, or some way within the significant opec. This limits the wasting of IP addresses. Classless addressing means that you can allocate addresses the quiddity network requirements. So you can get a slash 28 addressed. That will give me 32 addresses, something that was impossible with classful addressing. Please go through the table and be comfortable because those sequences are important. When you're trying to subnet your networks. Sida allowed us to choose networks that were directly proportional to the IP address that we required. And thus St, IP addresses in some sectors sideways actually credited for saving the Internet and slowing down IP address depletion or exhaustion. Thank you for watching and I will see you in the next one. 13. What is subnetting: This is the section that most people struggle with in networking. So I want to try and simplify it as much as possible. Subnetting by definition is the process of breaking down something big into smaller components. It could be land, food, or in our case, it's breaking down a large network into smaller networks. There are many reasons for subnetting, such as security, creating smaller networks that are easier to manage, traffic segmentation and breaking down broadcast domains. In the case of land, property developers by huge tracts of land and sub-divide them into smaller stance, which they sell to end users. This makes lambda affordable for you and I to buy and build homes. Pizza companies do the same. They sell their pizza sliced so that it is easier to eat. It might be trying to eat a hot pizza that is not sliced. The Republic be a nightmare. So the next time we have to subnet, want you to think about pizza when you're subnetting? There are few questions that you need to ask yourself. How many parts or portions do you need? If you're for friends and you want to share a Brita equally, you're going to cut it into fourths license. However, if you have eight friends, then you'd have to cut it into h license. So the number of slices is based on how many people or how many pizzas you have. This is the same with networks. They are questions that you need to answer to help you subnet. Such as, how many do you need? How many hosts per network will you require? Those questions will determine how you're going to submit your network. In the next video, we will look at how we can subnet. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 14. How to subnet: There are many ways to subnet a network. In this video, I'll cover a method that I learned from one of the famous networking authors by the name or third Lumley. No copyright infringement is intended. I'm just trying to teach a method that I found simplest amongst other metals that are available to subnet toward if you're watching. Thank you for coming up with this method. Before we look at subnetting, we need to have a quick recap on the binary system increments. It is important once again for you to be comfortable with counting to a two to the power 10 in your head without having to write it down. Remember, we're multiplying the value by two to get the next increment, 2 times 2 equals to 4. 4 times 2 equals 8. I want you to close your eyes and try and see how far you can go. Let's begin. 1248, 16, 32, 64. Okay. I trust that you're able to complete it by yourself. So when we are subnetting, we are usually given a block of addresses such as 192, 168 dot 10 dot 0. We need to take that network and then subdivided into smaller networks. We subnet by borrowing bits from the host part of the IP address in order to divide our larger network into smaller subnetworks called subnets. Remember earlier on, we said that an IP address is made up of two portions. There is the network ID and then there's the host ID. We also learned that the subnet mask tells us which part of the address is the network and which part is the host? A class, a address has a subnet mask of 255 dot dot, dot 0. And it uses the first eight bits for the network address and the last 24 bits for the host ID. A class C has a subnet mask of 255, 255, 255 dot 0. Then the slider notation, that's a slash 24. And it uses the first 24 bits for the network address and the last 8 bits for the host address. So when we are submitting a class C address, our focus is on the fourth octet, because that is the octave that signifies the host ID. This means that we only have eight bits for that host ID. It is from that host ID that we borrowed bits to create our subnet. So we're going to look at an IP address before and after subnetting. We noticed that before subnetting, our IP address is broken into two parts. We have the network ID and host ID, but after subnetting, will have the network ID, the subnet ID, which the borrowed bits, the new host ID, the original host ID has now been divided into two parts. There are five questions that are critical for us to answer before we can subnet. The first question is, how many subnets does the chosen mask produce? The second one is how many valid host tablets are available. The third, what will be the valid subnets? The fourth is what will be the broadcast address for each subnet? And the last one is, what are the valid host in subnet? I'll break down these questions in more detail in the next video. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 15. Important Subnetting Questions: In this section, we're going to cover the critical question that we need to understand before you can subnet in more detail. So question number one is, how many subnets does the chosen mask produce? In order for us to know how many subnets we can have from a chosen mask. We use a formula. And the formula is two to the power x is equals to the number of subnets, where x is the number of borrowed bits or one. And in our case, we are borrowing three bits. So x is equal to 3, therefore, two to the part 3 is equals to eight. So if we borrowed three bits, we can create subnets. Since we are submitting a class C address, we are interested in the fourth octet. So we're going to demonstrate an see the difference that happens before and after you're born and you get the original classy subnet is a slash 24. So it uses the first 24 bits for the network ID and the last 8 bits for the host ID. Now the original host ID is all zeros, and it looks something like this. But because we are borrowing three bits, for every bit that we borrow, we are going to change the value from a 0 to a one. After we aborted the first three bits are the host ID is going to be different and is now going to look something like this. The first 24 bits are for the standard class C subnet. But now we have three new borrowed bits, which makes it 24 plus 3, giving us 27 1s. And we have a remaining five zeros or on borrowed bits. So our new network ID is now a slash 27, and our host ID is now five bits. Remember, an IP address is 32 bits. That is the maximum number of bits that we can have. How many hosts can we have a subnet? And the formula for this one is two to the power y minus 2, where y is the number of unburned bits or zeros. In our example, we borrowed three bits out of eight. So we add five and borrowed bits. Therefore, y is equal to 52 to the power five is 32 minus 2 is equal to 30 hosts or subnet. The reason why we separate two is because there are two addresses that we need for every subnet, known as the network and broadcast address. And these cannot be assigned to hosts. Now, a point that you need to note and borrowed bits at the same as unmasked gets, the terms are interchangeable. Sometimes you'll find other books will call the masked and unmasked bits, but they're basically the same as borane, borane bits. So bird bit is equals to mass bits, which is equal to 1. And borrowed bits is equals to unmasked BC, which is equals to zeros. Sorry, it's not the most simplest way to pronounce and mask bits. Yes, and must be. Question number three, what are the valid subnets? This basically tells us where our network's begin and where they end. The formula for this is 256 minus the subnet mask is equals to the block size increment number. So to get our subnet mask, we need to write the address in binary and add all the numbers with the one below. That's why alien I keep on emphasizing that you need to be comfortable converting numbers from decimal to binary and binary to decimal. So if we look at our host ID, we are using the first three bits. So when we add 128 plus 64 plus 32, we get to 24. So our subnet mask is two to four. When you separate that from 256, we get 32. So our networks have a block size of 32 or increase in 32s starting from 0. So you have 032 before 1906, 12 and 8, 16, 192 and 224, giving us eight networks. Question four is, what is the broadcast address for each subnet? Broadcast address is the number right before the next subnet. In our example, the first subnet was 0, followed by 32. So the number of input 2 is 31. So 31 is the broadcast address for the 0 sub-net. 63 will be the broadcast address for the theory to subnet. And the last broadcast address is always to 55. I have put a line diagram to help us visualize our networks are increasing intelligence. So the first block is 0, 32, 64, 96, and the broadcast address is the address before the next subnet. So the broadcast address for sudden that one is steady. One for subnet 2 is 63, for subnet three is 95, and for subnet for is 127. The last question is, what are the valid hosts? These are the numbers between the network and broadcast address. So in our example, 0 is the subnet address, that one is the broadcast. So 1, 2, and the valid host in that particular range. For these concepts will become clearer when we look at examples. 16. Subnet Class C - (/25 Address) : Earlier on, we looked at the question that you need to answer in order for you to submit. This time around, you're going to look at an example. And we will give a little block of 192, 168 dot 1000 with a subnet mask of 255, 255, 255 dot 108. With this information, we need to go and figure out the rest. So to answer our question, we need to convert our decimal 128 into binary first. And 128 in binary is equals to 1, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000. So we only borrowing one bit from our host ID. The formula to calculate the number of networks that we can create. Two to the power x, where x is the number of borrowed bits. Any lowercase is two to the power one. So we can only create two networks. The second question that we need to answer is, how many hosts can we have a subnet? And remember, the formula was two to the power y minus 2. Way, why is the unborn bits? And in our case, we bought a one-bit and we have seven and borrowed bits, which are the zeros that we find in our binary address. So 2 to the 7 minus 2 is going to give us a 126 hosts. So we can only have two networks and each natural cool and a 126 hosts. The third question is, what are the valid subnet? This is the increment of your networks. And the formula was two to six minor, the subnet mask, in our case, it's 128. 256 minus 12 and eight gives us a 128. So our networks are going to be increasing in 128. So the first metric is going to be the 0 network, and the next one is going to be the one trading network. Those are the two negatives that then you're going to have. In this case. The fourth question is the broadcast address. Remember, we said the broadcast address is the number before the next subnet. And in our case, 127 is the number before 128. So the network address for the network, sorry, the broadcast address for the network is going to be 127, and the broadcast address for the 120 network is going to be 255. And the last question is the number of valued hosts. These are the numbers between the network and the broadcast address. So for the 0 network is going to be one to 126, and for the 120 network is going to be 129 to 254. So this is how we break down or subnet an IP address block. Get the different information to answer the five questions that we basically looking for. I've included a table. We tried to give the subnet the first cost, the last host, and the broadcast address. I've also included a logical diagram on how you depict this in electric. Separately, the subnets between the two particular literals. 17. Subnet Class C - (/26 Address): Let us look at another example, this time around same network address, but the subnet mask is 255, 255, 255, 19 two. The first thing we need to do is to convert our decimal 192 into binary. And if you remember, 128 plus 64 gives us 192. So we are borrowing the first two bits of the host ID, and we have six and borrowed bits. So how many subnets? Two to the power two, which is equal to four. So when we bought it to be recreated for veterans, how many hosts per subnet? What is the number of unburned bits to the bosses minus two is 62. What is the increment of our subnets or what are the valid subnet formula is 256 minus subnet mask in our case is 192. So 256 minus 192 is it goes to 64. So our networks, I want to start from 0 in the wage increases to 64, 128, and 19 and 22. What is the broadcast address? What is the number before 64? 63. What is the number before 128 to 127? What is the number before 192? 182, one. So those are going to be the broadcast addresses for our different subnets. What are the valid hosts per subnet? These are the numbers between the subnet and the broadcast address for the zeros subnet is going to be one to 62. For the 64 literally is going to be 65 to 126. A slash 26 master gives us four networks. And we need a layer three device, such as a router to connect between different subnets. So on our router, we're going to have four networks. So that is how you represent that as a logical network diagram. So I'm hoping that we're starting to get a picture on how we would submit an IP address when we are given the information and we need to break down and answer the five questions. These are the questions that you're going to be asking as you try to break down initial for different reasons. 18. Subnet Class C - (/30 Address): To reinforce this information, we want to look at one more example. This time we should now be comfortable. So you're going to try and do this much more faster. Are some that mass is 255, 255, 255, 252, or it's a slash 30. So the first step is convert the decimal to 52 into binary. And we're going to have 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 000. So we're borrowing six bits. First question to the POSIX is it goes to 64, so we're going to have 64 subnets. The second question, number of hosts, a subnet is two to the power 2 minus 2, which is equals to two hosts per subnet. So in this case, we're going to have 64 networks, but each with two hosts. What are the valid subnets? 256 minus 250 two gives us four. So our networks are going to increase in force. 048, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32. What is the broadcast address? This is the address before the next subnet. So in our case, for the 0 network, three is the broadcast address for the network. Seven is going to be the broadcast address for the eight. Neutron is going to be 11, for the 16, network is going to be 19. And the valued hosts are the numbers between the network and the broadcast address. So for the 0 subnet is going to be 12, for the four network is going to be 5 and 6. These subnets are used for point-to-point links in networking. The reason being that point-to-point links support only two IP addresses. So you don't waste any additional IP addresses. Now, if you're someone like me, you probably would have observed that there's a pattern between borrowed bits, cider notation, and the subnet value. When you bought a 1-bit, you create two networks. When you borrow two bits, you create for networks. So the more bits you borrow, your subnets increase, but your hosts per subnet decrease. If you're going to memorize this table, the next time we see a slash 25. In your mind, you're going to know that that is two networks, each with 126 hosts. When you see a slash 26, you want to know that it creates for networks each would 64 hosts. A slash 27 is going to be eight networks, each within it, two hosts. So the moment you see a subnet mask automatically in your mind, you're going to know how you're going to break it down. But this takes practice. Thank you for watching and I'll see you in the next one. 19. Subnet in the mind: Now that we're comfortable with subnetting on paper, we can now try doing it in the head or in your mind, make sure that you are going to be paper near you. It might seem impossible in the beginning, but with practice, you should be able to nail it and want to provide a link to the book for Elon wants to reference it later. Similar to previous examples, we are given the IP address and the subnet mask. And we need to find out the other information, such as number of hosts per subnet, broadcast address, ETC. So interest start with the information that we know. In our case, our IP addresses one line to 16, 8, 10 dot DDR3, and the subnet mask is 255, 255, 255, got 224. So step one, we need to determine the subnet and broadcast address. And we're gonna do this by answering question three of our five questions, which is looking for the valid subnet. And the formula is 256 miles or subnet mask. And in our case, 224 is the subnet mask. 26 minus 24 is equal to 32. So our networks are going to be increasing by 32. Now, I want you to encourage to draw a line chart or a line graph, or a lot of you want to call it and write your networks 0, 32, 64, 128, 160 called these are our subnet. And then look at your IP address and see where the fourth octet sits. And in our case, the fourth octet is 33. And 33 falls between 32 and 64. So the predatory IP address is going to be part of the 192 168 dot. Ready to submit. The broadcast address is going to be the number before the next subnet. In, in our case, it's 63. And the valid range is going to be from 33 up to 62. Very simple, right? Let us look at another example. 192, 168 dot 233. So the IP address is still the same, but the subnet mask is not different. We now dealing with the Dodge 247 mask, once again, draw a line graph, line chart. Answer question number 3. 256 minus 240 is equal to 16. So our metrics are going to increase in 16s, right? 0 Mach 1630 to 48648096 chord. These are our increments. And then we go back to the IP address. Where does 33 sits? It sits between 3248. Therefore, it belongs to the 32 subnet. What is the broadcast address? It's going to be 47 because the next subnet is 48 in this case. And our valid host range is between 33 and 46. Seems very straightforward. I promised you the moment you master this process, subnetting will be very, very, very easy for you. Thank for watching and I'll see you in the next one. 20. Subnet Class B - (/17 Address): Now that we have completed subnetting of a class C address, we are focusing on the fourth octet, and we're going to move on to the Class B address. And the process of submitting is pretty similar, except you're going to have more host bits. And you're going to start in the third octet, and the rest is the same. So let us look at an example. We have a little bit address of wanting to two dot 16 dot 0, 0, 0 and the sum of the Moscow 255, 255 dot 128 dot 0. And our interesting octet is going to be the third one. So how many subnets convert one to radiate into binary? And we are borrowing one bits and we're 15 and bold bits. So two to the power one is equal to two. So we're going to create two networks. How many hosts per network is going to be two to the power 15 minus two, which gives us the 2766 hosts. So you're going to have two networks, each with 32000 plus posts. What are the valid subnets? 256 minus 128 uses 128. So our Netflix, I'm going to be increasing in 128 with 0 being the first in 120 been the second one. What is the broadcast address? Earlier on we mentioned this is the number for the next subnet. But because we are starting from the third octet for the 0 network, the broadcast address is going to be 127 to 255, because that's the number before the next network. And the broadcast address for the 12 eight subnet is going to be 25, 50 to 55. What are the valid hosts? These are the numbers between the subnet and the broadcast address. And for the 0 network is going to be 0 dot one to 127 or to 50. And for the ones we need, network is going to be 128 dot one to 255 dot two-by-four. I have provided a table that helps to visualize the start address, last address, and the broadcast address, the respective subnets. And because this is a slash 17, if you want to draw the logical diagram, you're basically splitting the metrics into two or your router interfaces. And you're going to have either of the two subnets on one end of your router. 21. Subnet Class B - (/23 Address): One more example, network address 12 x dot 16 000 000, but this time around our subnet mask is 25. For the third bit is the interesting octet. So we need to convert to 50 to binary. And that is two to the possible because we're borrowing seven bits and two to the positive n is equal to 128. So we're going to create a 128 networks. How many hosts and network? Two to the power nine, which is then going to bits minus 2 is equal to 510 hosts. So you're going to have a 120 networks each with 510 hosts. What are the valid subnets that 256 minus 2 by 4, which is equals to 2. So our electrons are going to start from 0 To increase in twos. So 02468, what is the broadcast address? The number grow the next subnet. In our case, our broadcast address for the 0 dot 0 network is going to be 1 dot 255. And the broadcast address for the two network is going to be 3 to 255. What are the valid hosts? These are the numbers between the subnets and the broadcast address. So for the 0 dot 0 subnet is going to be taught one up to one, go to 50. And for the two letter is going to be two dot 1, 2, 3, 4. Once again, I have included a diagram to help you visualize. And I've also included the logical drawing that you would have if you're going to put this in a network diagram for your network, we have observed that, yes, subnetting a class B address might seem a bit tedious, but the principles are the same. It's just that we are dealing with more hosts bits because now we are dealing with 16 bits instead of eight host ID that we were, we were using a class C address. But the moment you learn and understand how to do a class C, Class B is always going to be the same. You can take the same knowledge, that same process and apply it onto class a addresses. Remember, you need to be able to master your cider notation table and how it increases. And also have an understanding of your binary increments. Because that is going to guide you and help you as you practice and become comfortable in subnetting. Thank you for watching and I'll see you in the next one. 22. Designing an IP Address Scheme: There are two sides to work with IP subnetting in an enterprise environment. Number 1, you have the operational view and you have the design perspective. The operational perspective is when you join an organization that already has an IP scheme that was designed by someone else. The design perspective is when you are hired to design the scheme based on the needs of the organization. In order for you to fully understand IP addressing and subnetting, we need to think about it from both a design in an operational perspective. Let us look at a design example. You have been hired as a consultant by acme Corporation. They have moved into a new office block in they're going to be occupying four buildings and they have the following needs. You've been given the following address, 192 168 dot 2700 slash 24. And it is your responsibility for you to submit the different networks. Now as you can see from our diagram, we need to ask ourselves the five questions or subnetting. In this case, we're going to need several networks for, for buildings a, b, c, and d, and three point-to-point links between the routers. The first question that we need to answer is, how many bits do we need to borrow to get seven networks? Remember, our formula is 2 to the power x, where x is the boring bits. If we borrowed one bit, two to the power one is equals to 2, 2 nitrous or not enough. If we bought it to bits, we're going to get two to the part 2, which is equals to 44. Networks are not enough. However, if we borrowed three bits, two to the power three is equal to 88 subnets meet our requirements of seven networks. Next, we're going to look at how many hosts can you have per subnet and if it meets our design brief, remember, the formula is two to the power y minus 2, where y is the and borrowed bits. In our case, we borrowed three and we have five and borrowed bits. So two to the power 5 minus 2 is equal to ten to minus two, which is Betty hosts per network. When we look at our requirements, Building D has the highest number of hosts at 28. So 20 hosts is going to be enough, but it will be very limited room for growth. Our block size is going to increment in 32s. The formula was 256 minus the subnet mask. In our case, it is two to four. And 256 minus two to four is going to give us 32. So our networks are going to increase in 32s, 0, 32, 1906, and 128. When we're done designing our IP scheme, is gonna look something like this. And this is how I would document my logical subnets in a diagram format. You can write them in a table format. There is no preference. Choose an option that works for you. Now, once this design works, you notice that we are wasting a few addresses. If you observed all subnets are using a slash 27. With equal number of host penetrate. We use the same subnet mask for each subnet to simplify the design process, however, it is wasteful because it is using more IP addresses than unnecessary. If you look at our point-to-point links, they only use two addresses, but we've allocated them a subnet with 30 hosts wasting 28 addresses. Building a and D have very little room for growth. This would be a bad design because the scheme is not catering for any future growth. In the next video, we're going to look at how we can solve this problem. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next one. 23. Variable Length Subnet Mask - VLSM: In the previous video, we covered office IP address scheme design. However, we noticed that our designers flawed and wasted IP addresses. Vlsi M, which stands for variable length subnet masking, is a subnet design that uses more than one muscle in the same network. We can divide an IP address space into subnets of different sizes and allocate them according to the individual needs of a network. This time of subnetting makes more efficient use of IP addresses. Let us look at our previous example. We have already established that we need seven networks. And because the hosts, the building are different, we're going to calculate the subnets, but building separately. Building a needs 25 hosts and the closest network that can give us more than 25 hosts will be a slash 27 network. We know that from past examples. That is left 27 network has got 500 borrowed bits. The bar 5 minus 2 is going to give us 30 hosts. And 30 hosts do exceed the 25 that are required in building a, the block size is going to be 256 minus 2, 24, which is going to give us 32. So it's going to increase in 32s. So our first subnet is going to be 19. Two of 16 is eight or 200 dot 0 slash 27. Building B needs to any hosts. So we're gonna use a slash 27. Would you give us 30 hosts? And our network address is going to be 192, 168, 200, dark they choose like 2007. Building C needs 15 hosts and we're also going to use a slash 27 because a slash 28 will be too little. So I need to address our network address is going to be 19 to 16, 8264 slash 27. So you will notice that now our networks by increasing in blocks of 32, however, Building D needs to need hosts, and we could use a slash 27 subject, but you only want everybody to free IP addresses. And that leaves us with very many more room for growth. So we are going to use a slash 26 so that we can cater for any future growth. In a slash 26 network. We're going to be borrowing to bits and we are going to remain a six and borrowed bits two to the past six minus two is going to give us 64 minus two is going to give us 62 hosts. We want to allocate Building D up to 62 hosts, and that block size is going to increase by 64. Therefore, our network for building these will be 18 to 16, 8296 slash 26. Our point-to-point links on he utilize to I could use. So we're going to use a slash 30 mask. Since they're a block size of four, we will use 18 to 16 H dot 200 dot 16 slash 30 between R1 and R2 and use 18 to 16, age to a 100 and once it before slash 30 between R2 and R3, and then 192 168, 200 dot 168 between R3 and R4. Now you'll notice that this leaves us with extra subnets for future growth. So when you use variable length subnet masking, it allows us to preserve or shrink and expand each subnet based on the requirements of that particular network. After we have completed subnetting are logical diagram is going to look something like this. We know not to have one subnet mask across all on interests, but we have adjusted the masks in accordance to the network requirements. Vlsi makes more efficient use of IP addresses. It is the de facto standard for how every network is designed. Today. We started this section by looking at what is subnetting. We then covered how to subnet. And we looked at the various techniques to subnetting. We then closed by designing our own IP scheme. Was the IP scheme. In an enterprise environment are more complex. The principles are always the same. So if you have an understanding of subletting or simple metrics such as this one. And you get a kid in the same principles and implement them in a corporate environment. Thank you for watching, and I will see you in the next one. 24. Network Troubleshooting Tools - Ping, IPconfig, Tracert: Earlier on in the course, we checked the IP address on our computers. This time we're going to be configuring the IP address. There are three ways that a computer gets an IP address. Number one is dynamic. These are addresses assigned by DHCP server. You get issued a nice for a period of time and the address changes when the lease expires. This is the default on Windows machine. The second one is static. This is when you hard code the IP address on the device, and this address doesn't change unless you manually change. The third option is known as automatic private IP addressing or APIPA. This option is not good. When you see yourself getting this address, then you know things are wrong. This address is only issued when the computer cannot reach the DHCP server. And it usually starts with 169 dot 254. If you want to change the IP address on your Windows machine, you go to Control Panel, network and Internet network shaving, Change Adapter Settings, Find the network interface card that you want to change when you have located, right-click on the network card and go to Properties and you select IPV4, and you are going to find the configuration that you can make to change between static and DHCP. If you want to allocate a static IP address, then enter your IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS settings. Click Okay. And you have assigned yourself a static IP address on your PC. Make sure that you have your settings correct. Most network issues are due to misconfiguration of static configurations. Putting the wrong mosque or the wrong default gateway or pointing to the incorrect DNS server. Later on we're going to look at the IP config command that allows us that visibility to see if our settings are correct. A good llama or electrician carries with him all the tools necessary to do the job. Every metric engineer or administrator has a set of tools that they use to troubleshoot network issues. These tools are very important because they help us to quickly establish root cause to our energy problems. The tools come with the operating system and you'd not need to store anything. The following are the three most important tools. The Mu1 is pin. This is probably the number one utility that nearly every metric professional uses on a daily basis being, is a utility that is used to test for its ability of a host or an IP network. The command works by sending packets of data to a specific address and then lets you know how long it took to transmit the data. And if we got a response when you get it apply, it means that these connectivity between your device and the remote device. But when you get a request timed out or destination host unreachable, then they're likely problems on your network. When ping returns data on how long it took to transmit, it returns that information in milliseconds, also known as latency. Latency can be an indication of your network performance. High-latency could mean that your leaky saturated or your wireless network is good, weak signals or maybe experiencing a bent metro cable. So there's a lot of information that we can collect from the ping command. So how do we use the ping command? Holly introduced going to command prompt on your Windows machine. I think we covered that in the ion. And then you can bring the destination address. You can either use the IP address or the host name. And you should be able to get a response by default, ping sense for packets. And it gives you the statistics based on that. In my case, I said for analysis for 0, so my network is working a 100 percent. We've looked at this command area, but this time around we're going to look at an extension of the command that gives us a whole wealth of information. We can get the make and model of a little cut. We can get the MAC address, also known as the physical address. We can get our IPV4 address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS. We can also find out whether we are getting our IP address via DHCP or static. In the case of GCP, you can get information on the leases and when they expire. All this information is very crucial when you're troubleshooting issues. And depending on the nature of the issue that you're troubleshooting, the information that you get from the IP config command is going to be very vital. So the command that you type is IP config space forward slash or a double L. And you press Enter. The last tool that we're going to cover is trace route. Trace route is illiterate diagnostic tool that is used to track in real time the pathway taken by a packet, what an IP network from source to destination and reports the IP addresses of all the routers along the path. Trace route is a useful tool for determining the response delays and routing loops present on your network. It also helps you locate any points of failure that might have been encountered in route to a certain destination. Most of the times we use the command to try and establish where we're experiencing latency on our network or along the path to our destination. We can use that information to benchmark and try and establish in these any issues on the network. You type the command in command prompt. And you can trace, once again based on the IP address or the host name. I want you to practice this on your computer. Art. You to trace the path from your PC to the IP address H dot, dot, dot, which is the famous wilderness. There are many tools that you can use to troubleshoot issues, but these three are the most important and will help you narrow down your problems. We started the course by looking at IP addresses, structure of IP addressing. We then looked at the different types of IP addresses as private and public addresses. We covered how to subnet. We looked at the different tools that we can use to troubleshoot network issues. If you can master the content that we've covered in this course, then you're on your way to mastering IP addressing. The fundamentals are always going to be the same. Despite the size of a network. The formulas that we've covered will apply to a 100 host network. And we'll also apply equally to a 65000 hosts network. So the size does not matter because the principles are always going to be the same. I hope you found this course. I want to thank you for watching, and I will see you in the next one. 25. Outro: So that's it guys. We've come to the end of the course and I want to take this opportunity to thank you for taking time and going through the content. I trust that the content that you've covered will help you in a positive way as you grow your career. And once again, thank you for watching. And I'll see you in the next one.