Learn How To Draw The Head From Any Angle | Marvin Te | Skillshare

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Learn How To Draw The Head From Any Angle

teacher avatar Marvin Te, Cel Animator & Motion Designer

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

46 Lessons (8h 45m)
    • 1. Intro

      1:49
    • 2. Getting Started

      2:09
    • 3. Photoshop UI

      9:56
    • 4. Perspective: Mental Model

      2:14
    • 5. Perspective: 2d vs 3d

      5:29
    • 6. Perspective: The Horizon Line And The Vanishing Point

      4:45
    • 7. Perspective: 1,2,3 Points Perspective

      0:52
    • 8. Perspective: Anatomy of a Cube

      6:05
    • 9. Exercise: Front View of a Cube

      6:26
    • 10. Perspective: The Ellipse Method

      4:19
    • 11. Exercise: 3/4 View of The Cube

      15:36
    • 12. Perspective: Vertical Rotation

      1:09
    • 13. Exercise: 3/4 Look Up And Look Down

      16:40
    • 14. Exercise: Front View Look Up And Look Down

      7:29
    • 15. Exercise: The Other Side

      10:56
    • 16. Perspective: Other Perspective Rules You Should Know

      4:11
    • 17. Exercise: Box Character

      16:56
    • 18. Exercise: Nose Block

      13:52
    • 19. Exercise: Bottom Part

      11:48
    • 20. Exercise: Adjusted Bottom Part

      11:09
    • 21. Drawing: Head Structure

      2:10
    • 22. Drawing: Eye Planes And Ears

      2:53
    • 23. Exercise: Head Structure Front and 3/4 view

      22:48
    • 24. Drawing: How Foreshortening Affects Our Forms

      3:02
    • 25. Exercise: Head Structure 3/4 look up and down

      24:08
    • 26. Exercise: Head Structure Front View Look Up And Down

      12:56
    • 27. Drawing: Nose Structure

      1:47
    • 28. Exercise: Add Nose Structure

      17:40
    • 29. Drawing: Eye Structure

      2:15
    • 30. Exercise: Add Eye Structure

      7:59
    • 31. Drawing: Mouth Structure

      2:05
    • 32. Exercise: Add Mouth Structure

      13:23
    • 33. Exercise: Profile View

      8:04
    • 34. Drawing: Lighting

      7:05
    • 35. Exercise: Add Shading

      47:48
    • 36. Class Project

      0:30
    • 37. Stylize: Head Structure

      26:03
    • 38. Stylize: Eye And Brow Design

      34:24
    • 39. Stylize: Nose Design

      24:01
    • 40. Stylize: Mouth Design

      26:14
    • 41. Stylize: Ear Design

      7:17
    • 42. Stylize: Drawing The Hair

      24:56
    • 43. Stylize: Clean Up And Shading

      25:45
    • 44. Trying A Different Style

      17:16
    • 45. Export And Upload To Skillshare

      2:57
    • 46. What's Next?

      5:39
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About This Class

Does your character designs look a bit flat? Or do you have a difficulty in drawing the head looking up or down? Well, then maybe this class is for you. 

A little bit of background, I'm an animator and I own a motion design studio based in the Philippines and we've encountered a project where it involves lots of head turns. We finished the project and the client happy but me and the team felt like we need to upgrade our skills particularly in how to draw the head in any angle. So we tried to look for online classes, tutorials and turns out most people don't talk about this, about the different angles. There were bits of information here and there but nothing concrete, so we decided to go deep dive into this. After going through with much material, books, videos and anything we can find on the internet, we were able to piece through a working concept. We're no experts in drawing but the working concept was a game changer for us and we thought it would do the same for you. So we just had to make a class out of it. So here it is. :)

This class is meant for beginners.

We'll cover the basics in perspective. And we'll start from a basic model and build up from that. So basically this is the structure of this class

1. Make a cube

2. Create a box character from the cube

3. Create the head structure

4. Stylize

And along the way we'll talk about principles and concepts.  

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Marvin Te

Cel Animator & Motion Designer

Teacher


Hello, I'm Marvin. I'm the creative director and owner of Plainly Simple, a motion design studio based in the Philippines. I started my animation career way back in 2011. 

When I started, believe me that I was really bad at this and it took long before I understood the fundamentals of animation. I had to learn all of this on my own and over time I was able to get it. Even until now I'm still learning. And my goal with my skillshare classes is to share what I have learned with you. I will teach it in a way that my past beginner self would be able to understand. I hope this would serve as your starting point in your animation journey. 

 

 

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Transcripts

1. Intro: Do you struggle with drawing the head? Or do you only draw one specific angle because that's the only angle that you know how to draw? Well, you don't have to anymore. Hi. I'm Marvin Te, and I am an animator and creative director based in the Philippines. I've been in this industry for about nine years now. In this class, I will teach you how to draw the head in any angle. Just a disclaimer, I am not an expert in figure drawing. But I think that would be a good thing because I could teach it from the perspective of someone who doesn't use to understand the concepts and through hard work just eventually got it. If you're like me, but the me at the beginning of my career, then I think I know why you struggle with drawing the head, and I think I know why your drawing looks a bit flat because trust me, I have been there. In this class, we will start with the basics of perspective, but nothing too complicated. We're going to start with the cube. I'm going to teach you methods on how to draw the cube in different angles. From there we will progress to more complex shapes until we would reach the basic head structure. Then we would add basic visual features like the eyes, nose, mouth, and hair. Lastly, I will teach you how to stylize the character from the basic head structure and the different styles that you could apply to the facial features. By the end of this class, you will learn how to draw the head in any angle. This is the kind of class that I honestly would want to exist at the beginning of my career, and Here I am teaching it to you. Shall we get started? 2. Getting Started: Hi, it's good to see you here. First, let's talk about what this class is and what this class isn't. As you go through the lessons, you will see that I have my own explanation, guides, and measurements of the human head figure. All of these aren't exactly accurate, but I have made them that way so that it's easier for you to understand and it's easier for you to use the guides in your own drawings. This isn't a figure drawing class and the goal of this class really isn't to make the most accurate human head. But the goal of this class is to help you understand the human head structure so that you'll be able to apply your own style to it, and then you'd be able to know how to draw the head in any angle. The goal of this class is more of getting you to understand the concepts rather than accuracy. The lessons in this class are divided into four categories: perspective lessons, drawing lessons, stylized lessons, and exercises. The perspective lessons are there to help you learn how to construct the cube and later on we will progress to more complex shapes. The drawing lessons should help you take what you've learned in the perspective of lessons in order to construct the human head structure and later on, we will add facial features to it. The stylized lessons are there to help you learn how to take the human head structure and modify it to your own liking, adding your own style to it. The exercises are basically me demonstrating what you will need to do in your exercises. When you watch that video or those video, you can follow along with me as you watch that video, or you can finish first the video and then, later on, do the exercises on your own and once you're done with exercises, proceed with the next lesson. I will use Photoshop in this class, but please feel free to use any drawing software that you are most comfortable with. 3. Photoshop UI: In this lesson, I will be walking you through the Photoshop UI. This is the first screen that you'll see when you first open Photoshop. I'm using Adobe Photoshop, Creative Cloud 2021. To create a new file, click the "Create New" button and it will open up this window. On the left side here are the preset resolutions that you could choose from. For this class, you will be using a 1,920 by 1,080 pixel resolution. Choose that resolution here or you could manually input the resolution on the right side, right here in the input boxes. On the Width, type "1,920." On the Height, type "1,080." On the right side over here, you could see Artboards. Make sure it's unchecked because we're not going to use artboards for this class. If you're okay with all of the settings right here, click "Create." We have a new file. Photoshop has preset layouts that you could choose from. If you click this button, you'll see different kinds of layouts to choose from. If I click "Motion, " this is a different layout. Photography, this is a different layout. So that we're looking at the same thing, make sure that your layout is on the Essentials. The one at the center, this is our canvas. This is where we'll draw. On the right side over here, this is our Layers. Currently, we only have one layer, the background. On the left side right here, these are your Tools. You have Brush, Erasers, Smudge tool, and other tools that you need. On the upper side right here, this is the Properties bar. If we click the "Brush" tool, the Properties bar, also changes depending on what tool is selected. If I select the "Eraser" tool, the properties also change depending on that tool. Now, let's first create a new layer. Let's make it a practice that we don't draw on the background layer. To create a new layer, click this button and then you'll have a new layer. To rename the layer, you double-click on the text and then change the name to whatever you want. For now, let's rename this to test. If we want to draw, let's click the "Brush" tool, which is this icon then let's test this by drawing on the canvas. To undo, it's CMD+Z on a Mac, and CTRL+Z on a Windows. This icon right here, if we click that, we'll be able to select from a variety of different kinds of brushes. For this class, we will be using a hard round brush. Click that and make sure that that is selected. Then right here, we can adjust the size. We could increase the brush size or decrease the brush size. We could also use the shortcut to increase or decrease the brush size. If we want to decrease, click the "Left Bracket" on your keyboard. To increase the brush size, click the "Right Bracket" on your keyboard. Now, let's explore the eraser tool. It's this icon. Just like the brush tool, you could also increase or change the eraser shape right here. The same with the brush tool, we will be using a hard round shape for the eraser. You could also change the size of your eraser right here or use the same shortcut with the brush tool. If we press "Left Bracket" multiple times, the brush size would get smaller or the "Right Bracket" multiple times and it will make the eraser size bigger. Now, let's erase this first. Let's go back to our brush tool. The shortcut for brush tool is B and the shortcut for the eraser tool is E. This is brush, E is erase. Let's go back to our brush tool. Now, what if we want to draw a straight line? In order to draw a straight line, you draw first on the canvas, and just hold your pen on your tablet, and then hold "Shift," and then draw in the direction that you want. For example, we're going to draw a vertical line. Once this is sorted, so I first created draw here, and then hold the "Shift" button, and then go down to create a vertical line. No matter where I am on the screen, as you can see, it will always be a straight line. Now, if we want to do a straight horizontal line, same process. Start first a drawing, and hold your pen right there, and then hold the "Shift" button, and then draw horizontally. Now, what if we want to draw a straight diagonal line? As you can see, even if my cursor is going diagonally, it will not allow me to draw a diagonal line. In order to create a diagonal line, let's erase this first. In order to create a diagonal line, first we tap anywhere on the canvas, tap and then hold the "Shift" button, and then go to the next point, and then tap. Then you release your pen, you lift your pen up, and then you release the Shift button. If you want to create another diagonal line, you first click. You're not holding the Shift button yet, so you tap anywhere to start the point of your line then hold the "Shift" button, and then tap anywhere you want to create the line two. What happens if we don't release the Shift button? This is what will happen. I click. I hold "Shift," then I click, and I don't release the Shift button, and I just click anywhere. This is what happens. It continues to connect my lines until I release the Shift button. Sometimes this is handy, sometimes it is not. For example, we want to create a cross and if we don't release the Shift button, this is what's going to happen. That's not what we want. In order to correct this, click then hold "Shift," then click, release the Shift, click, then hold "Shift," and then click. There we go. Another tool that I want to teach you is the Lasso tool. It's this icon right here. What it does is it would create a selection, and then with that selection, you can then morph or erase that certain part. Let me show you. For example, we are going to modify this part. First, I'm going to select this by using the Lasso tool. The shortcut for the Lasso tool is L. Now, once you have created a selection, you could use this icon, the "Move" icon, or "Move" tool, or the shortcut for that is V. The bounding box would appear. Once this appears, it means that we could now morph this selection. I could scale it down, or scale it up, or rotate this, or move this anywhere in the canvas. Now, let's deselect this. To deselect this, I click on the "Lasso" tool again and then click anywhere in the canvas. Now, if we want to delete something using the Lasso tool, you just create a selection, and then press "Delete." It's backspace on a Windows and delete on the Mac. Adobe has a lot of features that you could still explore but for this class, this is all you need to know. If you're ready, you can proceed to the next lesson. 4. Perspective: Mental Model: In this lesson, I'd like to introduce you the concept of mental models. What is a mental model? When we were still a kid, when we're still young, we loved to draw. All kids love to draw. If you ask a kid to draw a tree, you will most likely get something similar to this. But we all know that the tree actually looks like this. Why is that? Why is there a big difference? The reason is that the kids mental model of a tree looks like this rather than this. To some of us, as we grow older, our mental model of a tree improves and thus our drawing of the tree also improves. Well, in my case, my mental model of the tree actually didn't improve until I was about 20-years-old. The point is we all have mental models of everything in our heads. We have a mental model of a car, we have a mental model of a house. We visualize differently the human head in our head. Point is most of our mental models in our head are actually wrong. The point of the exercises in this class is to correct and help develop our mental models. Most of us also think that the visual representation of a human head is a sphere, but if you really look closer at it, the human head is more of a cube rather than a sphere. Understanding the concepts and developing the mental model are two different things. Which is why someone could say that they understand perspective and understand the concepts behind it, but still can't draw well. So we need both. We need the theory that goes behind it and the practice to actually develop the mental model. It's really different when you say that you really understand up, you really understand volume, you really understand perspective, that you can imagine it in your head as opposed to saying that you understand it only on paper. In my case, I had to draw the cube multiple times before I'm able to imagine it in my head correctly. 5. Perspective: 2d vs 3d: In this lesson, we will start with the basics. This may be obvious to some, and maybe some of you already know this, but only think of it as some recap because it's important we start with this. Let's first define what is the difference between 2D and 3D. A square is 2D while a cube is 3D. Circle is 2D while a cylinder is 3D. Triangle is a 2D shape while a pyramid is a 3D object. 2D simply means two-dimensional. Meaning that if we plot out the points of the 2D shape, it exists in two dimensions. The first dimension, the x-axis, which is the movement from left to right, and the y-axis, which is the movement from up to down. If we plot out a triangle, for example, it still exist in the 2D space. Even though there's a diagonal line in a triangle, so it's not horizontal or vertical, it still exist in the 2D space. Basically, a diagonal is just a combination of the left and right movement and the up and down movement. Take for example this diagonal, it's just a combination of going up and going right at the same time making it a diagonal. 2D has two dimension; the first dimension is the movement from left to right, and the second dimension is the movement from up to down. But how about the movement that defines the forward and backward? That's where 3D comes in. 3D simply means three-dimensional, meaning that it has three dimensions. First, it has the x-axis, the movement from left to right, the y-axis, the movement from up to down, and the z-axis, which conveys the movement from the forward and backward. Take a look at this, I have cut this out, this is a 2D shape. It's square, so it has the y and x-axis but it lacks the third dimension which is the z-axis, See you look at it's flat. It has the y-axis, the x-axis, but it doesn't have the z-axis. Now this is a cube. If it face straight at us it's flat object, it's a square, it has the x and y-axis, but if we turn it around there is a third dimension which is the z-axis. It also has a top plane and a bottom plane, and we can turn it around. It has the y and x-axis, but it has an additional dimension which is the z-axis. To recap, this is a square. It is a flat object, it doesn't have a z-axis. Now this is a cube, and it has a z-axis. You could also think of a 3D object as composed of various 2D shape. This is a square, so a cube is composed of multiple squares if you think about it. That's another way to look at it, that a 3D object is composed of various 2D shapes. So why are we learning about this? Why are we learning 3D? In art we're drawing on a 2D surface, note if we are drawing on a screen Photoshop is a 2D software, it's not a 3D software. Or if we're going to draw on paper, the paper is a flat surface so basically it's 2D. There's no z-axis in the paper, it's just a flat surface. So why are we doing all of this or learning all of this? The reason is exactly that. That is the challenge. The challenge is how are we able to convey that the object is 3D despite that we are looking at it in a 2D medium. Like for example our phone, it's a flat screen or on the computer screen it's a flat surface, it's a 2D space. So how are we able to convey the things that we draw, the face that we draw has depth and volume, that exist in the 3D space? That is the reason why we are learning this 3D concept so that we'll be able to draw exactly that. Take a look at this example. The one on the left seems like it's a flat object, the one on the right has depth and volume and seems like it's a 3D object. That is the goal. The goal is to turn our drawing from the one on the left to the one on the right. Also, if we understand perspective, if we understand the depth and volume of an object, it's easier for us to draw it in any angle, to rotate it in any angle. 6. Perspective: The Horizon Line And The Vanishing Point: In this lesson, we will be talking about the horizon and the vanishing point. First, let's discuss what the horizon is or the horizon line. Imagine yourself in a place where nothing is blocking your vision; no trees, and you're outside and you're looking just straight-front. You will realize that there is a line that separates the ground from the sky, that line is what we call the horizon line. Even if we are indoors where there is a lot of things that is blocking the horizon line, because we're indoors so we can't see the ground, we can't see the sky, the horizon line is still present but it's just hidden. But it's still there, it's present. When drawing in perspective, it is important to know where the horizon line is. If we're looking straight-front, the horizon line is at the center. If we're looking down, the horizon line is above. If we're looking up, then the horizon line is below. This is in Cinema 4D. Do not worry you will not be doing 3D, I'm just using this to illustrate those concepts. Look at here, this dotted line right here this is the horizon line. If we are going to look up, the horizon line goes down. If we're going to look down, the horizon line goes up. Take a look at this picture, we have the horizon line above. This is a bird's eye-view where we are looking from above to the buildings. It's like we're looking down at it from above. Now take a look at this. The horizon line is obscured by the buildings but if you could tell the horizon line is below. Now this is another example where the horizon line is at the middle. Take a look at this. We have the horizon line at the center, and this one is a cube but it looks like a square because it's straight from us and the depth is hidden, but if we turn on the skeleton mode we would see that this is actually a 3D object. Anything that is below the horizon line, so if we move this down, we would be able to see the top part of the object. All objects that is below the horizon line, we would be able to see its top part. Anything above the horizon line, then we would be able to see the bottom part. Now let's go back to our previous example. If we move these cube below, you could see it's the top part of the cube. If we move this above the horizon line, we would be able to see the bottom part of the cube. Next we will discuss the vanishing point. What is the vanishing point? It simply means it's the point where two parallel lines meet. These are two bars and they are parallel from each other. If we're going to look at this from above, as you can see, these two bars are parallel. Now if we're going to extend these to the infinity and also extend the other bar, as you can see that both of these would meet at a certain point in the horizon line and that point is called the vanishing point. Let's take a look back at this picture. We know that these parts of the building they are parallel lines. Now if we extend these lines they would meet at a certain point and that is the vanishing point. So we know that this is also where the horizon line is. 7. Perspective: 1,2,3 Points Perspective: You may have encountered the terms one point perspective, two point perspective, or three perspective. What do these really mean? In the previous lesson, we have discussed about the vanishing point. One point perspective simply means that we are going to use one vanishing point, two point perspective simply means we are going to use two vanishing points, and three perspective would mean we're going to use three vanishing points. You may have encountered a rule in perspective where the vanishing points are always on the horizon line. That is true when we're using one point perspective or two point perspective. But in a three point perspective, that rule is usually broken with some of the vanishing points going off the horizon line. 8. Perspective: Anatomy of a Cube: In the next coming lessons, we will be drawing the cube a lot, so let's first discuss the anatomy of a cube and some terminologies. Just a disclaimer, these terminologies aren't what is considered standard and to be honest, I don't know what the standard terminologies are. But these are just terms that I came up with so that you and I would be on the same page and that you will know exactly what it is that I'm referring to. Planes are basically the flat surface in any 3D object. A cube has six planes: the front plane, the top plane, the bottom plane, back plane, and the left and right side planes, to which I will just simply refer to as side plane. Whether if it's the left or right-side plane, I'll just call it side plane just for simplicity. If you look at the human head, it also has those six basic planes: the front plane, top plane, bottom plane, back plane, and the side planes. When we will be drawing the cube, think of the front plane as the front of the face. This is what will indicate if the cube is facing up, down, left, or right. Another part of the cube are the lines. A cube has 12 lines. If you look at it at this angle, we'll notice that some lines are facing in one direction and a different group of lines facing in another direction. Going by this, let's group the lines by direction, and we'll end up with three groups. Let's call the horizontal lines as x lines, the vertical lines as y lines, and the last group of lines as z lines. Take note that no matter the angle, we will refer to them as such. In this angle, these are the x lines, these are the y lines, and these are the z lines. In this angle, this is the x lines, this is the y lines, and this is the z lines. In the previous lessons, we have discussed about the vanishing points and multiple points of perspective. I you look at it at this angle, the x lines are converging at a single point. Let's call this point as the x vanishing point. If we extend the z lines, they will be converging at this point, which we will call the z vanishing point. The same with the y lines, they will converge at this point, which we will call the y vanishing point. Just to recap, x lines would converge at the x vanishing point, the y lines at the y vanishing point, and the z lines at the z vanishing point. Now for the fun part. We will now observe how these vanishing points behave as the cube rotates. At the start, let's have the cube face straight the camera, at us. We see that there is only one vanishing point and we'll notice that this is the z vanishing point because these are the z lines. The x lines right here are parallel to each other, the y lines are also parallel to each other, but if we rotate the cube to the left, we see that the z vanishing point is moving towards the opposite direction. We'll also see that the x vanishing point is now visible. Now, if we continue on rotating this, the x vanishing point would be at the center and the z vanishing point would be way off screen. From one-point perspective, it becomes two-point perspective and then back to one-point perspective. What does this tell us? It means that if an object isn't angled, meaning it's facing straight at us, it's going to have one-point perspective. It only begins to have two-point perspective once it's rotated. If you rotate it enough, it goes back to its original point of perspective, which is the one-point perspective. You can also think of rotating an object by moving the x and z vanishing points. This also tells us that if the vanishing point is so far away, the lines will be parallel, but the vanishing point is still there, it's just so far away, we can't perceive it. Now, what about the y vanishing point? The y vanishing point only appears when you rotate the cube vertically. As we rotate this vertically, you'll notice that the x vanishing point is in place, it doesn't move, but the z vanishing point moves up or down. As we rotate this, we'll notice that the y vanishing point begins to appear and it's aligned to this line, right here. If we rotate this further, we'll see that the y vanishing point would take the place of where the z vanishing point originally was. If we keep on rotating, it's going to be a loop. What is the point of all of this? Does this mean that we need to memorize the vanishing points, the measurements, the lines? No, not really. The point of this lesson is to help you visualize how perspective works and how a cube rotates. You could also use that information later on, because a cube and a human head, they're similar, so now we would be able to understand better when we discuss how the head would rotate, how the head would look up and look down. This information would be helpful to you. But you don't have to worry because you don't need to memorize all those vanishing points, measurements, and lines. Really, what I'm trying to do, what I'm trying to get you to understand and develop, is to help you develop your mental model of a cube. 9. Exercise: Front View of a Cube: You have reached the first exercise in this class and before we start drawing the head, let's start with something really basic first, like doing a cube. Then in the next lesson, I will teach you how to rotate the cube in any angle. In this exercise, the angle that we will be doing is the front view. When the cube is in the front view, you will have two squares. One square for the front plane and the other square, which is for the back plane. First, let's open up Adobe Photoshop and let's click this "Create New" button right here and you can select the preset or you can manually input the figures here. We're going to use, for the width 1,920 and the height 1,080. Make sure the Artboards is unchecked. We're not going to use Artboards. Then click "Create". Now we have the canvas and let's make it a practice not to draw on the background layer. Let's create a new layer. Now, let's create the first square. Choose any color that you want. We are on the brush tool, so it's this tool or the shortcut for that is B, and here are your colors. This is your color. You can click that and change any color that you want. I'm going to stick with the blue one, but you can choose any color you want. Let's now create the square. I'm going to start drawing. I'm putting my pen down and then I hold my shift button and go down so that it's a straight line and then let's do the horizontal line. Hold again, shift, and draw. Now we have a square. Take note that this isn't a perfect square. A square has equal sides, meaning the measurement of this side and this side and this side for a square is equal and they are the same. But since we don't really need to create a perfect square, we just need to make it as accurate as possible, and yes, if you have noticed by now, Photoshop has a shape layer right here and you can choose the rectangle tool to create a perfect square, but I would not want you to do that. I want you to draw this by hand because it helps with the visualization so that you could be able to visualize the cube, which would help you later on as we draw the head. Now we have finished the outer square. So let's go back to our brush tool. Click this or the shortcut is B and then let's create the inner square. We have the bigger square and the smaller square. Now we just need to connect the points. Either you could do that manually or so that it's a straight line you can tap the point like that, hold shift and tap to the next point and then release the shift and lift your pen up. Tap, hold Shift, then tap, release, tap, hold shift, release, and there you go. You have completed a cube. Now let's save this, click the "File", then click "Save", click "Save" on your computer. Name this whatever you want. We are going to use this file again in future exercises because we are going to build up from this. Make sure you save this. I'm just going to rename this to cube-rotation. But you can name it whatever you want. Then click "Save", click "Okay", and then we're good. You may be asking how big of a square should we make the back plane? Does it mean that if we make it smaller, it's going to make the cube longer? The answer is no, there is no right or wrong answers as to how big or small the back plane should be. Take a look at this. This is using a 36 millimeter lens. For those who doesn't understand the term, it comes from a zoom lens. If you look at the lens, there's a number on it. It refers to how zoomed in or zoomed out it is. So going back at this, if we're going to look at it from a camera, this is using a 36-millimeter lens, this is using a 15 millimeter lens, and this is using a 200 millimeter lens. As you can see, depending on the kind of lens that you use, that would affect how the cube is being perceived. If we turn the cube 45 degrees, it's going to look like this. This is using the 36 millimeter lens, this is using the 15 millimeter lens, and this is using a 200 millimeter lens. As you can see, the smaller the number, the more distorted it looks, the bigger the number, the more it looks flat. For this class, let's strive our cube to look like it's taken from a 36 millimeter camera, so that it's not too distorted at the same time, it doesn't look too flat. So for your exercise, let's make your front view of a cube look more like this. 10. Perspective: The Ellipse Method: In this lesson, I will teach you how to rotate the cube horizontally using the ellipse method. So what is an ellipse? Basically, it's an oval. A circle is a 2D flat shape, but when we look at it in perspective, it becomes an ellipse. A square is a 2D flat shape, but when we look at it in perspective, it becomes a trapezoid. A cube is basically composed of many squares. So when we look at the cube in perspective, the sides or the planes become a trapezoid. Since a cube is just basically composed of squares, let's see first how a square rotates so we would know how a cube rotates. A square is much simpler, so let's start with that. If we have the pivot at the center, you'll notice that the corners of the square are revolving around a circle. This is a rotating cube. Let's just focus on one plane, which is the bottom, so that it's easier to follow. Currently, it's a trapezoid because we're looking at it in perspective, but we know this is a square, just in perspective. If we rotate this, we'll notice that the corners will revolve around an ellipse. The concept still applies, we're just looking at it in perspective. Now we know that if we draw an ellipse on the corners, we'll know where to put the corner points when it rotates. Is that information enough to rotate a cube though? This one, is this still the bottom plane of a cube? The corners are within the ellipse, so is this still correct? I highly doubt that. Let's go back to our square and search for more clues. If we keep on rotating this square, we'll notice that the inner part will also form a circle and we'll notice that no line will go inside the circle. If a line does go inside a circle, if we intentionally move this to go inside the circle, we'll notice that it's not anymore a square. We can use that as a guide. We have an outer circle to know where the corners would revolve to and the inner circle to keep the lines in check. Now let's go back to our cube and focus on the bottom plane again. Since the perspective equivalent of a circle is an ellipse, let's have the outer ellipse to know where the corners would revolve to, and the inner ellipse to keep our lines in check so we can be sure we maintain its form. How big should we make the inner ellipse? Let's go back to our square. The inner circle is just about the size of the square and there is only one point that touches the square. We call this a tangent. It's not bigger than the square, but it also not smaller than the square. Let's make our inner ellipse just as big as our bottom plane with just one point touching the side. If we use this as our guide, the outer ellipse is where the corners would be and we just need to make sure that the line we would make would only touch one point in the inner ellipse. So make sure the line doesn't go in the inner ellipse, but that it's also not out. With this guide, we can rotate the bottom plane of the cube that looks correct. How about now the rest of the cube? If we rotate the cube horizontally, meaning left to right or vice versa, the planes that we need to focus on are the bottom plane and the top plane. Once we have finished the bottom plane, we just need to create the top plane equivalent of that. We can also use the ellipse method for the top plane, and once that is done, we just connect the corners. 11. Exercise: 3/4 View of The Cube: In this exercise, let's try the ellipse method. First let's open the Photoshop again, and let's open up the tube rotation file. I have it open right here. Let's first rename this layer, double-click that and you can rename it whatever you want. Let's just rename this as cube 1. Now, let's rotate this or let's create the tree forts angle of this cube. The first thing that we're going to do is, we're going to create our ellipse guide. Right over here, there's an Ellipse Tool and if you click this, you could select from a variety of different shapes. Then choose Ellipse Tool. Now, let's create the ellipse. Let's start first with the bottom. Let's create the outer ellipse. If you want to move your ellipse, you just don't lift your pen yet. Don't lift it up. Hold the space bar key on your keyboard and then you can move it wherever you want. Then if you release the spacebar key while still holding the pen, you can continue on resizing your ellipse. I think this is hitting the corners, which is what we want and then I release. Here at the top part, here there is a fill and a stroke, and this is the stroke width. Just in case if your fill has color, you click on that and choose this meaning it's empty, and for the stroke color, you can choose whatever you want. For the stroke width, three pixels is just about right. Once we created ellipse it's going to open this Properties tab, so just click this button to close it. Now, we have the outer ellipse. Let's zoom in and let's see. I think we could still adjust this. If I click the ''Move Tool'' to move this ellipse. I think something like that. Now, let's create the inner ellipse. Just make sure there's one point touching on the sides. I think we got that correctly. Now, let's do the ellipse guide for the top plane. What we can do is, we can duplicate this because the bottom plane and the top plane, they are equivalent, they're mirrored, so we can just duplicate the ellipse. Click the Ellipse that you want to duplicate on this layer and the shortcut to make a copy of that is Command J on a Mac, and Control J on a Windows. If you want to move this, make sure that you're not on the Ellipse Tool, you click the ''Move Tool'' or the shortcut for that is V, and now we can move this. I'm holding the ''Shift'' button so that it's straight. I think somewhere around here. Now, for the inner ellipse, I'm going to duplicate this Command J. Then make sure you're on the ''Move Tool''; I'm at the Move Tool. Hold ''Shift'' and let's just double-check if everything is correct on the top part. I think we can move this. I think that is okay. Now we have all of the ellipse guide. We should select all of this and group them together so that our layers are organized. Click the top layer and hold ''Shift'' then click up to what point you want to group, so all of the Ellipse layer, and then click this folder icon to group them together. Now, I'm going to double-click this and I'm going to rename this as ellipse guide one. This is the visibility. If you want to hide your guide, you just uncheck that. For our cube 1, let's change the opacity, because now we are going to create the three-fourths view. I think 16 would be about right and let's create a new layer and double-tap this. Let's rename this to cube 2. Now, we are going to create the three-fourths angle. Let's also change the opacity of our ellipse guide so we could focus on the new cube that we are going to create. Maybe around 50 percent would be okay. Now, let's go to cube 2, let's zoom this in, and let's first start with the bottom plane. Let's go to our brush tool or the shortcut for that is B. I'm good with this blue color right here, that's good. Next is we have four corners and we know that when this rotates, those corner would revolve around the outer ellipse, so think of them just one corner at a time. For this corner, when it rotates, think where it would be in the outer ellipse. I think it would be around here and now let's think about this corner where it would be when it rotates. Maybe around here. Now, let's try and connect both points. I tap, hold ''Shift'' then tap. It's a bit over. It's a bit inside the inner ellipse, so let's change that point. let's erase this. The shortcut for the Erase Tool is E. Let's erase this and maybe around here, let's try again. I think that's okay. Now, for this point, when it rotates, I think it's around here and let's check. That's okay. There you go. Now, let's create the top plane. Since we know that there would be an equivalent, for example, at this point there is an equivalent on the top plane, we can just hold the shift and create a straight line. We know that one point is right here. The same with the other side for this point would shift somewhere around here. Now, let's continue this. Now, let's connect the points. If you look at this, there's a little bit of allowance. It's not exactly touching, but it's just too small. That is just okay. There you go. This is the 3/4 view of the cube. When we did these cube, we made a lot of estimations in creating this specific angle. But there is a specific angle or specific 3/4 angle, which is if you turn it exactly 45 degrees, you don't need to estimate anymore the position. I'm going to show you. Let's go back to this model. This is a cube and a square. Let's think of this square as a top view of this cube. Think of it like we're looking at this cube from above. Now, let's observe again how a square rotates. If we're going to rotate this exactly 45 degrees, we'll notice that it's going to form some diamond. This corner is aligned horizontally to this corner. This corner is aligned vertically to this corner. It's like it's forming across. This is applicable to the cube and also to the square. So we could use that as a guide. Now, let's go back to our Photoshop file and let's create a new layer and let's try to apply that. So that we won't be confused, let's rename this layer, cube 2a. This new layer that we created, let's rename this to cube 2b. Now, I'm going to hide this 2a, and let's focus our attention to this new cube that we are about to create. Now, we are going to create an exact 45 degrees angle that is looking to the left. Going by what we learned, we're going to start by thinking about this point. If it's going to rotate, that's going to be here. We know that this one is horizontally aligned. There is a corner point also right here, so let's place that. Then we would now think about this point, where would that be when it rotates? If it's going to be an exact 45-degree angle, it would be somewhere here at the center. We also know that this point has a counterpart, a point also right here. Now, let's just connect the points. So tap, hold Shift, tap, hold Shift. There you go. With this you don't have to estimate much, just think of it that have an imaginary cross. Then you've got the points right there. Now, let's do this top plane. Should be somewhere right here, and then here, here, here, and then here. Now, let's just connect the top plane to the bottom plane. Take note that this line, see I'm going to change the color. If you want to change the color, you could switch between these two. Now, this one is the line at the back, and we also have another line at the front. Since the back line is covered, we don't have to worry about that anymore and just focus our attention to the line at the front. There you have it. This is now a cube that is turned 45 degrees. That we are not confused with which side this cube is facing, let us shade the front plane. Let's create a new layer and choose any color that you want, preferably not the same color that you did with the line. I'm going to switch this to red and choose any color that you want. Just shade the front. It doesn't have to be fancy and I'll just shade it so that we just could distinguish where is the front. Here, it doesn't look finished and that's just okay. This for our purposes, this is enough. Let's turn down the opacity there. Now, we know which this cube is facing. Let's just rename this as cube 2 front plane. For your exercise, what you're going to do is first open up your cube rotation file and then create the ellipse guide, both at the bottom plane and at the top plane. Then create a 3/4 angle. Now, for the 3/4 angle, you could either do an exact 45 degrees angle or not the 45 degrees angle. Just pick one. You don't need to do both. Just pick one. Either you do the exact 45 degrees angle or not. Then lastly, create a new layer and shade the front plane just so we'll know which side cube is facing. Once you're done, you can proceed to the next lesson. 12. Perspective: Vertical Rotation: In this lesson, we are going to use the ellipse method to rotate the cube vertically. We already have the three first angle of the cube. How do we rotate this vertically? How can we have the cube either look up or look down? Previously, we used the ellipse method on the bottom plane and the top plane to rotate it to the left. When rotating a cube from up to down or down to up, we need to use the ellipse method on the side planes. The concept still applies, but just on the sides. Think of the corners of this side plane revolving around the outer ellipse and the inner ellipse is just there to keep the lines in check. You can think of it like this, you can visualize it like this, that if you rotate a cube horizontally, meaning left to right, then you're going to use the ellipse method on the top plane and the bottom plane. But if you are going to rotate it vertically, you use the ellipse method on both of the side planes. 13. Exercise: 3/4 Look Up And Look Down: Now we are going to do the three-four look up and look down. We are going to vertically rotate this three-fours view of the cube. Since this ellipse guide right here that is selected, this is for the horizontal rotation, and so we don't need this yet. We're going to just hide this. We also don't need the front view of the cube, so I'm going to hide that. Now, let us first create the ellipse. Go to this and make sure you click the "Ellipse" tool. Then now let's create our outer ellipse. Now, you might be wondering because there are a lot of shapes that could come out of this, this one hits all the rules. The four corner points are hitting their ellipse, but so is this ellipse. I'm going to make another shape of ellipse. If you look at this, the corner points are hitting the outer ellipse. How do we create a more accurate ellipse? To do that, what we would need to do is create the inner ellipse first because there is only one shape that you could create for the inner ellipse. Now, let's make sure that it only touches just one point. Once we have done that, double check. There's a bit of space right here. I'm just going to adjust that a bit. Now with this done, let's duplicate this, Command J or Control J on Windows. Now go to the duplicate and then click the "Move" tool. Now let's just scale this up because basically the inner ellipse and the outer ellipse should be just the same shape. It's just that the outer ellipse is much bigger in scale. We just scale it up and make sure that we hit up the four corner points. Once that is done, let's click again the "Ellipse" tool and let's do the ellipse for the other side. Now let's do the inner ellipse right here. Make sure it just touches on one point or at least seemingly to our perception that it touches this one point. Then let's duplicate this, and then click the "Move" tool and then scale it up that it hits the four corner points of the other side. I think that's good. Now, select all of the ellipse. Click the "Folder" icon and double-click, and then rename this to ellipse guide 2. Since this front plane is a bit confusing for me, I'm just going to hide this one. I'm going to turn down the opacity for the three-fours of the cube, and now let's create a new layer. I'm going to rename this to cube 3. Now we are going to do the three-four look up. The same with the horizontal rotation when we rotate this vertically, you could also do an exact angle. Meaning we could think of the corner points aligning across. Let's do that. We have a point right here. Then from this point to this point, from here to this, there's a bit of a small gap, but that's okay. Just leave it be. Now let's do the other side. There's going to be a point right about here. Just make sure that it's almost touching. I think we could still change this. I'm going to do this first because this one has an equivalent right here. We know we have a starting point and then this one is a bit of a bigger gap, so let's redo that. I think this is good. Now let's just connect the points, and now we have a lookup of the cube, a three-fours lookup. Now, I'm going to hide the ellipse guide first and we could just look at this. I'm going to hide the cube too so we can focus our attention to this three-fours look up. Then let's create a new layer and rename this to cube 3 front plane. Now let's shade the front plane of this so we don't get confused which side this is facing to. That's the front plane and I just would like to change the opacity, maybe 65 percent, that's good. Now, let's try and check this. I'm going to create a new layer. I remember the previous lesson about the horizon and vanishing point; the X vanishing point, the Y vanishing point, the Z vanishing point. In this setup, I'm going to reveal the cube, the three-fours of cube. Our vanishing point here is at the middle. I'm going to just create that. This is the horizon line. Let me rename this to horizon line. I'm going to create a different layer now, and I'm going to hide the cube too. As you can see, this line, the X lines, if we're going to extend this, note, they are going to converge at some point far away. Those are the X lines, and we're just going to hide this. This line, this one is straight. This line right here, they are straight and not a diagonal because they are within the horizon line. That is the reason why they are straight. But if we extend this, all of the X line are converging at one point. I'm just going to change the color of this so we could see. If we're going to check this, you can see that they are converging at some point far away. Also, this our Z lines here, if we're going to extend this, see it's converging. If we're just going to continue this, continue extending this line, you know that it would be converging at some point far away. Looking at the lines, everything is in check everything is good. Let me delete that, and I just want to show that to you, how the previous concept still applies here. We could also use that to check our cube. Now, we have finished the 3/4 looking up. Now, we will do the 3/4 looking down. We could still use the same ellipse guide right here, this ellipse guide, to have this look down. You might be wondering, and you might be saying that, Hey, I could use this specific cube and just change the front plane to here, and now it's looking down. Yes, you can do that, but I would want you to do it again because when you did this 3/4 looking up, you had the visualization in your head that you want the cube to face up, not look down, although technically, you could still use this because the measurements are the same. What I want you to do is go back again to your cube 2 and then have the visualization to look down. Also, since we did an exact angle looking up, now for our cube 4, which is a 3/4 look down, let's not do an exact angle. Let's rename this to cube 4. Now, this is going to be a bit difficult because there's going to be a lot of trial and error, but it's a good practice. Let's do that. Now, let's think of this point, right? It's looking down, so it's going to be going in that direction. Maybe it would be somewhere right about here. Now, let's think about this point when it looks down, maybe it would be somewhere around here, and let's check the points. That is good. Now, this point looks down, so it's going to revolve around somewhere around here. Let's check the points. No, it's too far away, so it's going to be somewhere here. I think it's a bit too much. Let's move it back. I think that's about right. Now, let's do the last point. I think that's good. Now, the gap is too big. Now, let's just adjust that. Let's start from here, and then I think the point would be around here, and then now let's connect. Let's now try to balance both of them so that there's going to be a small gap here and here. I think this now is good. I think we could still balance that a bit further. The reason why it's not really exact it's because this guide isn't really entirely accurate and this is using only our estimation. We didn't use any computation. The 1st cube that we did was only using our own perception, mostly estimating so it's bound to have human errors. That's the reason why sometimes it doesn't exactly fit, and that's okay. What we need to do is just to make it as close as possible. Just adjust this. Now, we have a small gap here, small gap here so that's most likely the correct spot. Now, let's go to the other side. Now, when we do the other side, the amount of rotation that we did for the other side, let's try to do the amount of rotation for its counterpart side plane. This is the rotation that we did, and for the other one, you're going to change it to like this. It's already twisting. The amount of rotation that you did on one side should be applied to the other side. I know you can't do this accurately, but just try to estimate it. From here, see the gap? Let's now try to estimate. This point is the one that we're going to rotate. I think it's going to be somewhere right here. Now, let's do the other point. I think that's okay. This is our 2nd point. That's a bit too much. I think that's okay. Now, let's connect the points. I think this is a bit too much so I'm going to move this point because I'm trying to make it the same angle or the same amount of rotation as we did the other side. I'm just going to erase this. Still feels a bit wrong. This one would take a bit more trial and error. Let me use the Lasso Tool to erase this quickly. This is the Lasso Tool. I'm going to create a selection, and I'm going to do this again. Click "Delete", and I'm going to lasso it here. To deselect the selection you just stop anywhere. Now, I'm going to go back to my Brush Tool. We're going to try this angle so from here it's going to move down. I'm going to try it out somewhere here. Yeah, I think this is good. That's a bit too much. I think this is good. There's a bit of gap, but I think everything pans out because one thing that I'm checking is I'm checking this line if they are converging at one point. Now, we're going to connect the other points. This is our horizon line, right? Now, let's check the x lines. I mean, it's not entirely accurate, but it pans out. All of the lines are converging on one x vanishing point so I think this is good. Now, we have a 3/4 look down. I'm going to create a new layer, rename this to cube 4 front plane. Now, I'm going to shade this front plane and lower its opacity, and then we're done. Then, don't forget to save this. That's what you're going to do for this exercise. Using the 3/4 we've done in the previous exercise, do an ellipse guide, create the vertical ellipse guide, and then create the 3/4 look up using an exact angle, and then a 3/4 look down with not an exact angle. 14. Exercise: Front View Look Up And Look Down: Next what we will do is we are going to create the front view look up and front view look down. Since we already have the front view, let's hide the other layers, then let's go back to our front view, which is cube 1. Since we already have this, we just need to create the ellipse method or the ellipse guide on the sides of this. We can use the previous ellipse guide that we did here, because this is for the 3/4 vertical rotation, this isn't for the front view vertical rotation. We're going to create the ellipse guide again. Click the "Ellipse Tool" and then let's start first with the inner ellipse. I'm just going to adjust this, that it touches just one point. Then duplicate this, "Command" J, and then click the "Move Tool". Then scale this up and make sure it touches the four points. Yeah, I think that's good. Now let's create the ellipse on the other side. I have the ellipse on the other side, just about one point. Then duplicate this and click the "Move Tool". I'm just going to do this again. Let's duplicate this. Click the "Move Tool" and just scale it up. Try and make it that both of the ellipse are aligned, but since this isn't really accurate, right we created the front view it was estimating so there's a chance that it won't, but that's okay. Just keep that in mind that this isn't accurate, so we need to make a bit of some adjustments. I'm just going to arrange my layers and select all of the new ellipse, click the folder icon, and now I'm going to rename this to ellipse guide tree. Now let's put this on top. Now let's create a new layer. Let's rename this to cube 5. Cube 5 is a front view lookup. That's going to be the angle that we are going to create. Now let's do that. We have this, so same drill. For the front view lookup let's do an exact angle. For this specific point, let's have this look up. It's going to be here and this point would be here. It's going to be an exact angle and also for the other side. Since it's mirrored, from this point, I want to know where the points is on the other side so I could just hold "Shift". It's going to be here. This one would be somewhere here. This one would be here. There, we finished it. Now let's create a new layer, cube 5 front plane and now let's shade this one. Let's lower the opacity. Now we are done with this, so let's hide both of them and then create a new layer, rename this to cube 6. Our cube 6 would be a front view looking down. Now since we have done an exact angle looking up, let's not do an exact angle looking down. Let's try just estimating. This, I'm just estimating, I think somewhere around here and since this is a one-point perspective, I know that it's going to be here. It's going to be a straight line. Let's do the other point. It's still [inaudible]. Okay here, so we're going to shift, it's going to be here. The other line and the last. Okay, it's good. From this point I'm just going to shift. I know it's going to be here and then that's great. Now we have finished this. I'm going to hide our ellipse guide. Now this is our look down. Let's create a new layer. Rename this to cube 6 front plane. Now let's shade the front plane so we know where this is facing. Let's lower the opacity, I think to 65 would be good. There you go, you have finished that. For your exercise, you do this: you do the front view lookup using an exact angle and next you're going to do a front view look down by not doing an exact angle. 15. Exercise: The Other Side: Now we have finished six angles of the cube. What we are going to do now is we are going to do the other side. We're going to do the three-fourths facing right, the three-fourths facing right that is looking up, and the three-fourths facing right looking down. In order to do that, let's go back to our front view, which is the cube 1. Here we got a cube 1, and we're going to do the ellipse method. But since we already done it previously, we already have this ellipse guide and we could use the same ellipse guide to have this to look to the right. I'm going to create a new layer, rename this to cube 7. Now, if you did an exact angle for the three-fourths looking left, what I want you to do for the three-fourths looking right, don't do an exact 45 degree angle. But if what you did for the three-fourths looking left was not an exact angle, I want you to do the opposite in this looking to the right. Since the one that we used for looking to the left was the exact angle, now I'm going to try having this look to the right, not using the exact 45 degree angle. First, I'm going to think of this point and it's going to turn to the right. I think it's going to be somewhere here and then now we're going to guess where this point would be. Here, I think that's a good line. Now I'm going to think about this point. It's going to revolve, I'm going to guess I think around here. No, it's too much. Still too much. I think just about here, I guess, would be good one. For the last point, yeah, I think that's good, and now I'm just going to use the Shift key and find the counterpart and let's check. I think it's too much. I think it should be here. Now we have that, let's create a new layer, rename this cube 7 front plane, and now let's shade the front plane. Then change the opacity, 65 percent. Now we're just going to have this to look up and look down, so we could now hide the ellipse guide and then hide cube 1. We're not going to need that anymore. Now, because we can't use this, this is for the other side, it's not matching, so we need to create another ellipse guide for the sides to have this look up or look down. Let's do that. I'm going to start with the inner ellipse and duplicate this. Click the move tool, and that's good. Now let's do the ellipse for the other side and duplicate. Click the move tool and scale this up, and I think that's good. Now we could select the ellipse so that we have our layers arranged, group them together and I'm going to rename this as ellipse guide 4, and I'm just going to hide the front plane because it's confusing me. Now let's rename this to cube 8. What I'm going to do is I'm going to do an exact angle for this. I'm going to set the opacity low for cube 7. You may already have noticed by now if you're going to do an exact angle, so you're thinking that there is a diamond shape, and if you have that, you can do this really quickly even if you are going to estimate them. I'm going to do another diamond for the other side. It's only difficult at the start, but once you get the hang of it, it's going to be much easier. Now I'm done with that, I'm going to create a new layer, change this to cube 8 front plane. I'm just going to shade this, and I'm going to set the opacity down. Now we are done with that, I'm just going to hide this, and then create a new layer, and now let's just estimate this looking down. But it's not an exact angle, so let's try that. Exact angle is really a bit challenging, but this ellipse method is a good guide to make sure that you get it as accurate as possible. We have done that, I'm just going to hide this. Oh, we forgot to rename this cube 9. This is the last cube. Now let's create a new layer, rename this to Cube 9 front plane, and then let's shade the front plane. This is looking down. Then let's lower the opacity, and then we are done. Now let's arrange everything. You have completed the cube exercise, so now let's reveal everything. Let's unhide them all and just leave the horizon line. That's just okay and now our cubes are big. Let's select all of this. Let's hold Shift then select all and click the move tool. Now let's scale this down and what I want you to do, let's hide the horizon line. Let's hide that, and now what I want you to do is arrange this. I think this is still big enough, so let's select everything again. I think this is still too big, so let's scale it down further. I use the move tool. Now let's go to our cube 1. Let's hit the opacity to 100 percent for Cube 1, for Cube 2. Select both the cube 2 front plane and cube 2. Let's do that. Cube 3 and cube 3 front plane, and then cube 4 and cube 4 front plane, and then cube 5, cube 5 front plane, cube 6. All cube 6 and all the cube 7, it's going to be there. Just make the opacity for all of the cube to 100 percent. If you see some of this, we have changed the opacity, like also for cube 2, and let's change the opacity so that the lines of the cube is 100 percent. Now where were we? Seven, I think that should be where it is. Now for the cube 8 and then cube 9, let's just put it down. Now you have completed this exercise. Now we could see everything and that's what you are going to do for this exercise. First, create the other side, the three-fourths facing to the right, and then do a look up, three-fourths look up, and then do a three-fourths look down, and then once you're done, arrange your cube to something like this. 16. Perspective: Other Perspective Rules You Should Know: Now I'm going to teach you other perspective rules you should know. Rule Number 1, perspective center. The perspective center is not the same as the center. Take a look at this. This is a square and this is the center. Let's look at it at an angle and the square becomes a trapezoid. If we just look at the trapezoid and try to determine where the center is, normally, we would just place the center right here. But in reality, the center of this shape is right here. The perspective center is where the center would be when looking at it in perspective. How do we find the perspective center? If we have this cube and we want to get the perspective center of different plane, all we have to do is draw an X from corner to corner. The point where they intersect, that's the perspective center. Rule Number 2, rotating a cube is not the same as looking at it from a different angle. Take a look at this. This is a 3/4 view of the cube looking up. This is a 3/4 view of a cube facing straight, but just that we're looking at it from below. Notice the difference. They are similar in the sense that they have the same number of planes that is revealed to us. But where they differ is the y lines. If you take a look at the y lines of a cube looking up, it's a diagonal. Whereas if a cube is facing straight but just viewed from below, the y lines is straight. The x lines on a cube looking up straight, while the x lines when viewed from below is a diagonal. Take a look at this. This is a person looking up and this is a person facing straight, but we're looking at her from below. Notice the difference. Just keep that in mind that they're not the same. What we want to do in our exercises is to have the face look up instead of just having the camera look at the subject from below. Rule Number 3, the nearer an object is to the horizon, the straighter it gets. Let's take for example this cylinder. The horizon line is at the center. You can see that both ends are round. If we move this so that the one end is at the horizon line, it becomes a straight line. Now, if we have a cube, we have this line and this line on a diagonal. But if we move this cube so that the top line is aligned to the horizon line, we see that it becomes straight. How can this information help? Take note of this line? See it's a diagonal. If you rotate it, and it's on the horizon line, it becomes straight. The farther away it is to the horizon line, the more diagonal it gets. The closer it is to the horizon line, the straighter it becomes. Rule Number 4, the nearer an object is to the vanishing point, the more compressed it is. Take for example, these sticks. Let's just say that all of them have the same height. If we view them in perspective, and this is the vanishing point, we know that the height gets smaller, but aside from the height getting smaller, the spaces between them also gets more and more compressed as it nears the vanishing point. If we have a 3/4 view of the cube looking up and we divide it into four equal slices. We know that these lines would be more compressed because it's near to the vanishing point than these lines. 17. Exercise: Box Character: We will now build-up from your previous exercise and we are going to build some box character. You're going to open up your exercise file and let's save this as a different filename, just in case we mess up we would have something to go back to. In order to do that, click "File" and click "Save As", save on your computer and change the filename to whatever filename that you want. For me, I'm just going to name this box-character. Now, we have our new file. For this exercise, we don't need the ellipse guide, so I'm just going to delete that. We're going to create a box character for all of this angle, and we are going to start with the front view. I'm just going to hide everything and only show cube 1, which is the front view. Now, we have that. Now, I'm going to create a new file, and this is going to be our details. I'm going to change the color of my brush. Do something different. I want this to be different than the outline so that it's easy to see. Maybe I'm just going to go with black. But you could choose whatever color that you want. First, what we need to do is we will divide this cube. Let me divide this vertically and horizontally. I'm going to divide it exactly into half. Now, for this part right here, this, let's divide that into two. Let's find the half of this, I think somewhere around here, and the half of the bottom part. I think that's not the half, I think this is it. Again, it doesn't need to be super accurate, but try to make it as accurate as possible. Now, for this bottom part right here, we will now draw the eyes. When we draw the eyes, it's going to be circular. Let's try to make it at the center of this. Now, we have completed the details for this view. I'm just going to rename this layer to details 1. I'm going to select this and the cube 1. Then click this group and rename this to 01. Maybe I'm just going to change this. I'm just going to double-click and change this to box 1. This is our box-character 1 or the first view. Now, let us show the next side of this, this cube 2, and cube 2 front plane. I'm going to create a new layer on top. Just like with the previous view, let's now divide this first both vertically and horizontally for the front plane. Now, we are thinking of this in an angle and trying to get the perspective center of this because is this the right half? It could be the right half, but you always need to think about that this is in perspective. One way to do that, remember, in order to get the perspective center, you can do a diagonal, and the place where they intersect, that is the perspective center. But you don't need to create this diagonal, you can just estimate this. Just keep that in mind. We don't want to have too many guides, because sooner or later, it's going to make things complicated to us. Let's just estimate that. Let's just put that in our minds that if we are going to have a cross right here, I think the perspective center, I'm just going to estimate it. I think it's going to be somewhere right here. Now, we have done that, we are going to create a half of this part right here. In order to do that now, this is in perspective. What you need to do is first find the half of this part. Now, I think it's going to be here and find the half of this. The center would be somewhere right here and just connect both points and do the same for the bottom part. We have created the divisions for the front plane. I want you also to create divisions on the side plane. For the side plane, just extend this and create a half of that, and create another half right here. We didn't do that in the front view because the side is hidden. This part here, there should be a half right here for the side thing, but it is hidden by the different view, so we didn't do that anymore. We could do this instead, put a half on the side. But it's going to make things look complicated. Let's just not do that for a different view. But for the side view, we can do the divisions. Now, let's create the eyes. The same thing. Where do we put the eyes? Always try to find the perspective center. I think the perspective of center would be somewhere here, and I think somewhere here. In my mind, my thinking process is I'm making a diagonal across a diagonal and I try to estimate where the perspective center is. Now, this is done. We have created this box character. Let's rename this layer to details 2. Now, let's select all of this; details 2, the cube 2 front plane and cube 2 and click the Folder icon and let's rename this to box 2. This is our box character second view. Now, this is a good practice. If you can see what I'm doing is I'm helping you see how to estimate or get the perspective center when looking at things in perspective. Let's try and do it for this plane. Now, I'm going to click the new layer and rename this to details 3. Now, let's do the same. Half of the top part, half of the bottom part, and let's connect half of this spot right here. I think it's about here. The middle of this would be, I think somewhere here, and then let's just connect. For the upper part, this part, where's the middle point? For this part, where's the middle point? I think it's about here. Let's do the same for the bottom. I think that's wrong. I think this is about it. Now, for the side plane, now let's divide the side plane again. Again, try to estimate where the middle point is. Now, let's do the eyes. If you look at here, in this view, this is our center, this is the center of the face. Now, since it's looking up, the center becomes a diagonal. So when we also do the eyes, match it with the perspective of the center line in the front plane. So since it's a diagonal, try and get the perspective center. You don't have to draw that, but I just tried to visualize it for you. I think it's somewhere around here. If you look at the eyes now, I made it like it's a diagonal. It's not something like that, but I tried to match it with the perspective of the center of the front plane. Now, again, click all of this and group them together and rename this to box 3. Now, remember the horizon line that I did before? We don't need that now, so I'm just going to delete this. Let's go to our cube 4. I'm going to create a new layer and name this to details 4, and I'm going to do the same, half, then half. I could also do the side plane. The order of this, it depends on you, but just the final piece should be almost the same. Then I'm going to do the eyes. Group them together. This is box 4. Now we're going to go into cube 5. Create this, rename this to details 5. Now, we're going to do this for all of the angles. Sorry, that is wrong. It should be something like this. You can remember the rules that we mentioned in the previous lesson, that the lines would be more compressed when it's near the vanishing point or the closer it gets to the vanishing point, the more compressed the lines are. So this would apply, and you need to take note of those rules because that's going to help you with how you place the lines. So I think we got the first one wrong, because if we keep that in mind, the vanishing point is somewhere above. So these lines here should be more compressed than the lines below it, even just by a small amount. So this is only a small amount. Now let's do the eye. Group them together, name them as box 5. We're almost done. So we're now at the cube 6. Let's review them. Details 6. Now, here, where is the vanishing point? The vanishing point is somewhere below. So the lines at the bottom part would be more compressed than the lines in the upper part. Just keep that in mind. For the front view, because this is now the front view, but looking down, it's going to be confusing if I'm going to do the side plane. So for the front view, I'm not going to do the side plane because it's just going to make things more confusing. But for the tree forts, you need to do the side plane divisions because it's going to help you with the visualization later on. Now, this is done, group them together. This is box 6. Three more to go. Details 7. Again, going back to what we discussed before, the vanishing point, we always assume that the vanishing point is at the center of the cube. So this line, from here to here, as you can see, this is a straight line because it's exactly at where our estimated horizon line is. That is why it's a straight line. Two more. Now, if we're going to look at this, this is where our horizon line is. That's why these are straight. The center point C, now it changes because it's now looking up. If it's looking just straight front, this line, I'm going to change the color of this so you could see this line, see that's straight. But if it looks up, it becomes like this, because we assume that the horizon line is somewhere here at the center. Just keep that in mind. Just the last one. This is wrong. Always check your perspective, because I'm going to do this again, because if you're going to extend this line, we're going to extend this line and this line, and extend our center point C, they are not matching in perspective. So you have to check in order to make this more correct, find the middle point of this lines, I think somewhere out here and the middle point is, I think somewhere here, and now it's more correct. Again, the eyes, I am matching the orientations in the center line. See, the center line of the front plane is a bit of a diagonal. I also made the eyes a bit diagonal. Now we're done. For this exercise, this is what you're going to do. You're going to create divisions for the front plane and also for the side plane, and create eyes on the lower part. 18. Exercise: Nose Block: When we think of adding a block-like nose for this exercise, think of it like it's made of two parts. The first part is, do you know the one in a Tetris game, the stick-like figure? That is the first part. We're going to add one small cube and join them together and you have a block nose. We're now going to add this nose block to our box character. The first part, the one that looks like a stick in a Tetris game, you can also think of it like an elongated cube, it still has a front plane, back plane, top plane, and side planes. Let's start with one plane at a time. Once you have this shape on the box character, you can now visualize it like a drawer. A drawer has a rectangular shape on the table and you can pull it out. Think of it as something that is the same only vertical. Think of it like you can pull this out. Now this is the concept of extruding. How much you extrude is completely up to you. Now let's put that into practice. Let's start with our three-folds cube right here. Let's start with this, and that is on box 2 here. I'm going to expand the folder, and then I'm going to add a layer here. We're going to name this as our nose block 2. Because this is box 2, this is going to be nose block 2. Let's change the color so that we could see this. I think a good contrasting color would make this pop out. Maybe anywhere in the blue family would be good. Remember we already have the center line right here. Now let's add the first plane. Since this is our horizon line, so the block nose, this would be straight. Let's start with this plane. Make sure that it's on the center line. Now, think of it like you can pull this out, like a drawer. Now let's create the front plane or how much we can put this one forward. One thing that we could check is the Z lines here, because this is the extent of how or the angle that we could extrude the nose block. Look at this angle right here, this is how we're going to make this nose forward, take note of that angle. We're going to extrude this, something like that. Now if we are going to make this line here, we're going to check the X lines, so here, this is the X lines. Make sure that this one is consistent with the other lines. Now I'm going to create this. Since we're still at the horizon line, right here, this is the horizon line, so this one is straight. Now we have the first part of our box nose. For the second part, you can change the color of your brush to maybe something like anywhere in green or yellow so that you could easily see what you're going to draw. I'm just going to choose this, I think, an emerald color, and now that's going to add the small cube. If we're going to continue this, that's going to be the angle of our bottom cube right here. Now this is going to be one plane, and now let's add the other planes. Now we have completed the nose block. Just do this for the rest of the angles. I'm going to run through each of this and show you how to do it. Basically this is going to be your exercise. Now let's go back to box 1. I didn't start with this because it's easier to explain this on the three-folds angle. I'm going to go back to box 1 and create a new layer, rename this to nose block 1 because we are at the box 1. I'm just going to switch this to blue so that the two colors right here would be this two so I could just easily switch between them. Now let's start with the first block. Now let's look at the perspective. This is our Z lines. That's how it's going to move or how we're going to extrude this. I'm trying to keep it in perspective. We're done with the first block. Now I'm going to switch the color and we're now going to do the small cube. Let's start with this, and now let's extrude this. It's still going to follow the same angle, and then we're done. What I'd really want you to do here and this one doesn't have to be accurate, but what I'm really trying to help you see or visualize is the concept of extruding, the concept of putting volume to the things that you draw. Now I'm going to do this lookup angle, 3/4, so up. I think that's box 3. I'm going to expand this folder, click here, and click "New Layer", and then nose block 3. Again, keep this in perspective. See I'm following the perspective of this first plane and now that's going to extrude. I'm going to check the lines, I'm going to check the angle, this is the angle. That's how you would extrude these lines, and then just connect that. Now we have the first block. The small cube is going to follow the same angle. Another thing that I would want you to realize here that, because this is a 3D object, so depending on the angle, for example, here, the nose is covering a portion of the eyes. That is a good thing to note, that's a good thing to realize, that because this is a 3D object, there is this concept of overlapping. This one, it's okay that the other eye is covered because now we could see that this nose has a volume that exist in a 3D plane or 3D space. Now let's go to box 4. Again check the perspective of how you're going to extrude this. Now let's go to box 5. Now how are we going to extrude this? Think of this lines, and then draw the lines that extrude this shape, and then we draw the front plane. Now for the second block, I'm going to draw the back plane first and then the lines that would extrude this, and then just connect the lines. We're on box 6. Then think of the angle, and connect the lines, and then you have finished this block. Then the lines then connect and there you have it. Just three more to go. Again, because the horizon line is right here, this line is straight and the other line is also straight. Always think about the perspective of your drawing. We're almost done. Last one. If you're lacking a bit of a space, you can click the image at the top here, and then click "Canvas Size", and then change the height. Make sure that your color, right here, the Canvas extension color is white, and then change this to, maybe 1,300 would be enough. I'm going to click "Okay". I think that's good, or I think let's extend it a bit further to 1,600, then create the last cube block. There you have it, you're done. This is going to be your exercise; you're going to add a nose block to your box character. Once you're done, don't forget to save this. 19. Exercise: Bottom Part: Now we are going to add the bottom part of this. We're going to need a bit more space than what we currently have so let's extend our Canvas. In order to do that, let's go to our menu bar, Click Image, click Canvas Size, and let's adjust the height, do something a bit bigger, maybe 2000 would be good enough. Now we have extended this, and now let's give a bit more space to each of our cube. Let's go back to our box one and give it a bit more space. For the bottom part, there's a bit of line. I don't know where that is. Let me find that black line here. I'm just going to erase this, it's disturbing me. Let's just move this box 9, so click the Move tool and move it. I think we have now enough space to id the bottom part. Let me start first with box 2 because it's much easier to explain this, what I want you to do. Let's expand the folder and let's create a new layer, just one new layer and let's rename this as bottom part 2 because this is box 2. Now what we're going to do is add the bottom part and what I want you to do is add half of the cube. It's going to be this size. I don't know if I already told you, but if you want to resize this, the brush, there's a shortcut for that. It's the left brush to make it smaller and the right brush to make it bigger. Now what we're going to do is we're going to add this part to the bottom, so we will do that. We're going to add that and still keep this in perspective. This is our horizon line so this line I think would be somewhere around that angle. Now for the side part, let's also add half, not here, but here. Again, check the perspective. Now we have finished adding the bottom part and for the bottom part, let's create a horizontal center line. Let's create this, so now it looks like it's a mouth. We're going to do that for all of the box character. Going back to box 1, rename this to bottom part 1 and let's add the bottom part. Again, it's just a bit half. We need the half of the side plane after all, because where would we drop this. Where would we create this side? We should know where the half of the side plane. It's going to be here. Oops, and then for the bottom part, let's divide this so we have the mouth. Now let's do for the other angles. I'm on box 3. Again, take a look at the angle, check the perspective. If you're unsure, step back and look at this and check the perspective. Check the x lines, check the y lines, check the z lines if all are still in check. For our y lines, I'm just going to change the color so you can see it better. This is the y lines, so make sure that they are converging only on one point. Let's check our z lines. This is the z lines. All good. Now let's check our x lines, so this is our x lines, this. All good. We forgot to draw the mouth at the center. Let's proceed to box 4. For this, just extend this, extend this by half and for the x lines, you can do it like this, but that's wrong. You need to check the x lines. I think somewhere around this would be correct. For box 5, then we need the half of this. I'm just going to create that quickly. We're going to extend this by half and for the other or the bottom part and then the mouth. We're halfway through or more than halfway. Let's go to box 6. Create new layer, bottom part 6. Then we need the half of this on the side planes. For the front plane, let's extend this by half, so I'm just only estimating. Just so the layers are correct like this, the bottom part it's above the nose. Let's just bring this down. The nose is the one on the front. Now, I think that's also the case for box 5, that's good. But for box 4, this is our box 4, we should put the bottom part below the nose block. Let's continue with, I think we're now at box 6. Now I'm just going to create a layer below the nose block. Where is the half of the other side? Somewhere there. I think that's a bit small. The size that I did, It's a bit small, so let's redo that. I think it should be a bit bigger. Yeah, that's about right. We're almost done. Two more. Let's go to box 8. The half of that is here, I'm just going to connect. I think it's a bit longer. Check the perspective. Check your x lines, z lines, and y lines if they are still correct. Now for the last angle. Now you're done. This is what you're going to do next, you're going to add a bottom part to all of the angles. Once you're done, you can proceed to the next exercise and don't forget to save your file. 20. Exercise: Adjusted Bottom Part: Now what we are going to do is we're going to adjust the bottom part. Because if you look at the human head, the bottom part from the jaw to the chin, it makes like a V-shape, and we're going to do that. We're going to adjust the bottom part so that it's going to be more like a V-shape. Let's go back again to our box number 2, the angle number 2. Now that I've looked at this, there are some angles here that we didn't really created the full transparent bottom part and we need to do that. Let's do that real quick. Let's do the other sides, we need that, and also what are some other here missing? What part is this? What box angle is this for? We're going to just add that to the bottom part. That's just complete the planes, the side planes, and the bottom planes. You just need to make that complete, and I think we've got everything. Let's go back to our box 2 or angle 2, and let's change the opacity of our box 2, or let's change it individually inside the folder, not be the folder itself. I'm going to first lower the opacity for cube 2, and I'm going to lower the opacity for the bottom part. So the cube and the bottom part is what you need to lower the opacity so that this is much easier. I'm going to create a new layer. Let me rename this to adjusted bottom part 2 because this is on box 2. What we're going to do is this is our sides. This side here, what we're going to do is we're going to make it narrow. This space here, we're going to cut that and transform it to only this shape and make sure that this one is at the center. How smaller you want it to go? That's completely up to you. This is what I'm going with, and now from this part to this part, it's going to be here. I'm just connecting the lines there and I have an adjusted bottom part. Now let's do the mouth. That's good. What I'm trying to do here is I want to help you visualize how to modify a shape in the 3D space. With these exercises, we were able to know how to extrude. Now, I want you to modify something to make it into this kind of shape, how to modify a cube into specific shapes that would look like the human head. Let's go back to our box 1. Again, let's lower the opacity so that it's easier to draw, and I don't think we need to lower the opacity of the cube after all. So we just need to lower the opacity of the bottom part. Let's create a new layer first, adjusted bottom part 1. Both of these lines, these are what we want to be closer together and we just connect them. That's it, and we create the mouth. Let's do the same for the other angles on box 3. The trick here is to do the bottom plane so that it's much easier and then you just connect. Just make sure that you are connecting the right points. For this, we forgot one plane in this for box 3 so let's do that quickly. We lock this one and this one. So it's now a complete shape. Because without that line, without the one that I added, this line without that, let me just undo everything. Because now, if we didn't have that, we don't know where to connect this point, either we could do a mistake that we're going to connect it here, that's why we needed that line. We're going to do that and there and the mouth. Let's go to box 4, go to bottom part and change the opacity, new layer, then rename to adjusted bottom part 4. So make sure it's on the center. I think the trick here is to find the center-right and equally balance your adjusted bottom plane and just connect, and let's do the mouth and we're good. We're now on box number 5. What this is, this isn't the guide for an actual human head, this isn't the right measurements, but this is a very good practice to help with your visualization of how to modify the shapes and how to draw the shapes in 3D really is what I'm trying to go here and what I want you to be more comfortable with. Now I'm on box 6, a few more to go. If you get confused with where the lines is, just step back for a while and just try to relax your eyes because sometimes this could be a bit confusing. It's like an optical illusion. There's a lot of lines and really just step back, relax and try to figure out about those lines, and then you could see more clearly. Now let's go to box 7 bottom part. We're almost done. Another thing here is you're also building muscle memory. As you draw this, your hand remembers how to draw it in angle. If you keep on doing this by repetition, keep on practicing this, even without the guides, you would be able to know how to draw anything in angle. It's always both of them knowing the theory and you should practice. This is the last one and the mouth, and we're done with our box character. This is what I want you to do, I want you to create a new bottom part which is adjusted to have that a bit of that V-shape. 21. Drawing: Head Structure: In this lesson, I am going to discuss the head structure. Just like the box character, the human head can also be divided into two parts. The upper part where the sphere is and the lower part where the jaw, chin, and mouth are. For the sphere part of the human head, you can think of the sides like they are being chopped off. On the front view it looks like this, but on the three forts, we can still see the full circle. But there's this ellipse that signifies it's being chopped off on the sides. How much of the sphere should be cut off? First, scrape a center line. From here to the right end, let's divide this into equal thirds, meaning this would be divided into three equal parts, and in order to do that, we need to add two lines right here. The outer line, that's where we cut it and for the other side, from the center line to the left end, we divide it into thirds again, and the outer line is where we cut it off. From here we need to create four horizontal lines, the brow line, the hairline, the nose line, the chin line. If we divide this into half horizontally, this line is the brow line. To get the hairline from the brow line to the top end, we need to divide it into equal thirds and the upper line, that's the hairline. To get the nose line, we need to divide the lower part, meaning from the brow line to the bottom end into equal thirds and the lower line, that's the nose line. To get the chin line, we need to measure the distance between the brow line to the nose line and then add it to the head starting from the nose line. Once we have the chin line, we can now draw the jaw and connect it to the chin. These lines are the guide placements on where to place the facial features. 22. Drawing: Eye Planes And Ears: How about the eyes? How do we find the eye lines? In order to find the eye line, we need to discuss the eye plane. I don't know what the right term is, so I'm just calling this as eye planes. If you try to feel your face, so I'm going to show you, if you're going to feel your face right here, see, the eye area, this area, you'll notice that it's going to go a bit inward. If you try to see the face in its most basic shape, it's going to look like this. The place where the eye sits, let's just call that as the eye planes. We have the upper eye plane and the lower eye plane. This overall structure, this is a very important structure to remember because this is a reoccurring shape, meaning you'll see this shape elsewhere in the face, which we'll discuss in the later lessons. Let's take a look at this model. If we look at it from the top, we'll notice that the front plane of the face is smaller, so the shape goes a bit inward. If we are going to look at the eye plane, the front view looks like this, because remember the face is a bit inward. The three-fourths view of the eye plane looks like this. Take a look at the sides, they are not equal, because remember the face is a bit inward, so the outer side is less steep than the inner side. This line at the center, this is the eye line, the one on top is the brow line, and the one at the bottom is the cheek line. From this structure, how do we draw the eye planes? From the brow line to the nose line, the half of that is where the cheek line is. From the brow line to the cheek line, the half of that is where the eye line is. Now we just need to create the sides and make it look like this shape, because again, we need to remember the face is a bit inward, and thus this shape is formed. Now let's complete the front plane of the face. The both ends of the brow line, let's connect that to the both ends of the hair line, and both ends of the cheek line, let's connect that to the both ends of the chin line. How about the ears? The start of the ears is about where the eye line is. It goes up and peaks at the brow line, and then goes down and we drop it off at the nose line. 23. Exercise: Head Structure Front and 3/4 view: Now, we are going to create the head structure. For the head structure exercise, we're just going to do seven angles, the front view, the three-fourths view, three-fourths view looking up, three-fourths view looking down, front view looking up, front view looking down, and the side view. We're not anymore going to create the other side of the three-fourths angles. Let's get to it. Let's go back to our Photoshop file, and we're not going to use this PSD anymore. We're not going to build up from this box-character.psd, and we're going to create the new file. Go to File, then create New. For the width, change this to 1920, the height 1080, and make sure the Artboards is unchecked. Click "Create". First let's create a new layer. We are going to use two colors for this. We're going to create two layers. The first one is our head structure, and the second one is our cube. I will explain later on why we need a cube guide. First let's create the head structure. I'm going to use the blue color for the head structure and the red color for the cube. I'm going to rename this to head structure 1. I'm going to start with a circle or a sphere. It doesn't have to be a perfect circle, but try to make it as a circle as possible. Now we have finished that, I'm going to create a new layer and this is going to be our cube guide. I'm going to rename this as cube 1. I'm going to switch to the red color, and think of it like the sphere is inside the cube. We're going to put this sphere inside the cube. This is the front plane, I'm going to do the back plane. We're done with this. Now, we are going to lower the opacity and go back to our head structure. Now what you're going to do first is we're going to cut off the sides. Remember the head is like a sphere but got off to the side. We need first the center line, and then think of it like we're dividing this into thirds. This should be your visualization. This part should be what we would cut off. I'm not going to erase this part, because we're going to use that later on, and for the other side here. Now you can see that the cube is useful because it's hard to find the thirds in a sphere. It's hard to visualize the sphere where the planes are, where's the front plane, where's the side plane. But if there is a cube, it would help us know where it is. Imagine that this is the thirds, and then this would be the one that we would cut off. They're not equal. Let me just adjust that. I think this one is correct, and this one I think would be a little bit to the right. Next, what we're going to need as the hairline, brow line, and nose line. The easiest guide defined is the brow line because that is the center of the sphere. So that is the center right here. This is your brow line. Now, once you have the bare line, now you can get the hairline and nose line. We're first going to find the hairline. From here, we divide this into thirds and this upper third, that would be our hair. It would be somewhere around here. Now we're going to do the same for the bottom part. Imagine that this line and this line, and then divide this into thirds. This lower third line is our nose line. Now once that is done, we can now get where the chin would be. I'm just going to create a new layer to illustrate that. What we need is, from the nose line, we need to add this distance. This one right here. We need to add that here. That's going to be where the chin would be. I'm going to delete this layer, because I just used that to illustrate that point. It doesn't need to be exact, just tried to estimate. I think it would be around here. Now decide how wide you want the chin to be. Is it this wide or you want it to be wider? I would leave that to you. How wide you want your chin to be for this exercise. For me, I'm just going to go with this. Now that we have this, we're now going to create the eye line. Remember, I mean the eye planes, so we can't get yet the eye line. Where is the eye line here? We still don't know. But once you create the eye planes, it would be easier to find the eye line. The bottom part of the eye plane would be the center from the brow line and the nose line. This would be the bottom part of our eye plane, and the half of this and this, that would be our eye line. The center of that would be our eye line. Now remember that the face is a bit inwards, so let's create this shape. Now that is done. From this point, we're just going to connect that to our chin. From this point, we're just going to connect that to the chin. Just to illustrate that the front face is a bit inward from this point to the tip of the hairline at the side, we're just going to connect that. From here, from the bottom of the eye plane to the chin, we're going to connect that. We are done with our front view of the head structure. Currently I have selected, see that dotted line? To unselect that, I don't know why that is the case, we're just going to click this lasso tool and just click anywhere to deselect that. Now we're fine. Now we are going to rotate the cube to a three-fourths view, because that would be our guide on how to create the head structure in three-fourths. You can do an ellipse here and create an ellipse guide. Let's start with the bottom, the inner ellipse, and Command+J, duplicate that and click the move tool. I'm just going to hide that Move tool, and then create our outer ellipse. I think that would be the outer ellipse. Then I'm going to duplicate both of this, Command+J, and then put them on top because it's mirrored, and just try to fit this because this one is for the bottom. Try to fit everything. I think that's it. Then just select all of this ellipse and group them together and rename this through ellipse guide 1. I'm going to lower the opacity for our head structure 1, I'm going to lower it. Now let's create a new layer and rename this to cube 2, this would be our cube 2. I'm going to use the red color. For this exercise, we're just going to do an exact angle, from here, here, here, here, and here. I'm just going to hide the ellipse guide because you're not going to use that anymore. Now I have the cube, I have two cube, cube 1 is a bit distracting now, so I'm just going to hide that, because now we're going to focus on our head structure and goal number 2. We're going to do that. Create a new layer, and then rename this to head structure 2. I'm going to use the blue color. Now you may be wondering, why is there a big space right here? Shouldn't that be when it's facing front, there is no space? Well, there is a reason for that. If you look at a square, for example, if we have a square right here and we have a circle, see this space, that is the space that you are seeing. Now, imagine that you are here. The circle is really like it fits exactly on the squared cube. But if we're going to rotate this, what you would see now is you would see an excess space on the sides, and that is what you are seeing here. This is what you're seeing those space. Now, what you need also to understand is the reason why I did not erase the circle or the full sphere in the front view because that could be used in our three-fourths. Because we are only chopping off the side when viewing it at a three-fourths angle, we could still see the fullness of the sphere, but only it would have an inner ellipse because it's chopped off. We could just trace that. That is the reason why we didn't erase it so we could just trace it for the next angle. Then now we are going to do the inner ellipse, the one that is chopped off. To do that, the height of the inner ellipse would be from here to the hairline, and then it's not going to go over this line, the half and for the bottom part, it's just going to be at the hairline. It's not going to go over. Now, this is our inner ellipse, I mean, the one that is chopped off, not to be confused with the ellipse guide or the ellipse method, because this shape is also still an ellipse. That's the ellipse, the one that is chopped off in our sphere for our head. Now, I'm going to lower the Opacity for our Cube 2. Now, let's begin creating the rest of the parts for our Head Structure. The easiest guide that we could find here is the brow line. This is what we're going to do. Because this is the horizon line. No matter where the face is facing left or right, it's always going to be a straight line because that is on the horizon line. I'm going to lower this a bit further, so we could clearly see the one that we're drawing on. Next, we are going to create or find the hair. Now, in order to find the hairline, let me go back to the Cube 2 and change this to red. Now, we need to divide this. We're going to divide our cube and then find the thirds. Remember the perspective rules that we tackled before? Since this is the horizon line, the further away it is from the horizon line, the more diagonal it gets. That's why this is the diagonal. This is a diagonal. We could also think that there is an x vanishing point somewhere far away. Now, let's divide this into thirds, with keeping all of those rules in check. Let's divide this into thirds. The upper third, that would be our hairline. Now the lower third for your front plane would be our nose line. Now, do you see why we need a cube? So that it would be easy for us to know where the front plane is. Without the cube, if you just have this, it's hard to tell or hard to locate where the side planes are, where the front plane is. Now we have that, we go back to our Head Structure, click this to Blue, and just plot that out where they are. Remember that this is a square and this is a circle and remember that there is a space in between. If this is the side and this is the half, this is the hairline, think of it like we're looking at it at the side view, you need to account for that space. Going back to this for our Head Structure, it's not exactly going to be there because it's a bit forward, there is this space, you need to account for that. The nose line would be somewhere right here. Then we're going to add the chin. Now for the chin, we already have created the chin for the bottom part, here. You could think of it like this one too. If this is going to rotate, this would have some ellipse too, when that would rotate. Now we know that it would be somewhere here. I have made this to be a bit a diagonal because this is the horizon line. This is a bit far away. It's going to be a diagonal. The shape would be a diagonal. Now that is done, let's create our eye planes. We already have the eye plane for the Cube 1, we could use that as a guide. The more that you do this, the more that you have information, the less estimating that you have to make because you already have a basis. Now we just need to match this in perspective. Because now, see this is the x lines. This is going to be the x lines. If we're going to turn this eye plane right here, if we were going to rotate that in three-fourths view, we need to also to consider the perspective. It's not going to be a straight line because this is the horizon and it's a little bit below the horizon, so it's going to be a bit a diagonal, but not too much. Let's drop it off here, this point. Then let's create the bottom plane. Then again check the perspective. Now, let's do the other side. Remember what we discussed before, the other side, because it's a bit inward, it's not going to be as steep as this. It's going to be like that. I'm just going to erase this line. I'm going to use the Lasso tool. Now, we're going to connect this line at this point to this point, and this point to this point. Now, how about the ears? What we need to do is find the perspective center of this ellipse, not the perspective center of the cube. Remember we have chopped it off and we need to account for that. I think the perspective center of the ellipse would be somewhere here. Now, we can create the ear. When creating the ear, it's going to be aligned to the eye line. We start off with that. Go up, go down and this, and in that direction. Now from where we stopped on the ear, a little bit down, that would be the start of our jaw and then connect it to the chin. Now we are done with the three-fourths view. Now we forgot to do the ear for the front view, so let's do that. I'm going to hide this and go back to our Head Structure 1, and turn the Opacity to 100 percent and let's turn on the Cube 1. Make sure you are at the Head Structure 1. To do the ear, this is the eye line. We start off here, go up. It would peak at the brow line, then go down to the nose line. You would drop it off to the nose line. Same to the other side. It would peak to the brow line, go down and then do this. It's going to be 1, 2, 3, then 4. It's up, down, down, then up. It's going to be in that shape. Now we are done. For the Head Structure 2, try and get the center line. We haven't done the center line. Just estimate where the perspective center is and I'm following the structure, as you can see, I'm not doing a straight line here, see, because we know that the eye plane is a bit inward, so I'm going to do that. Go in, out, and straight. Now we have created the Head Structure, the front view of the structure, and three-fourths angle of the structure. Save this As, Save on Your Computer, and I'm just going to change this to our Saved Files, and change this to Head-structure. 24. Drawing: How Foreshortening Affects Our Forms: In this lesson, we'll discuss about foreshortening. To explain that, let's take a look at this example. This is a cylinder and we know its length. You can see the top plane and we can assume that this is the shape of the bottom plane and both the top plane and bottom plane they're ellipsis. If we have this cylinder face at the camera at us, we can see that the length can't be any more determined. We don't know how long it is because the bottom plane is overlapping or the top plane is overlapping the bottom plane. The shape of the bottom plane and the top plane are now a circle. Foreshortening happens if you have an object face at the camera and we can't anymore determine the length. This is a 3/4 view of the head structure. Let's focus our attention to the chin and jaw. We are so used to the V-shape that sometimes we try and maintain that shape even though it's the wrong angle. But what we have to understand is the concept of foreshortening. Currently, it's facing straight. We have the V-shape. But as it looks up, you'll notice that at some point it becomes a straight line and if we continue, the shape would invert. It's not anymore a V, but an inverted V. This is because at some point, the chin is pointed at the camera and it's foreshortened. The same happens with the eye planes. Let's color code the brow line, eye line, and cheek line so it's easier to understand. As it looks up, we'll see that the cheek line overlaps the eye line, and if we go further, we will see that the shape would be inverted. If we have it look down, we'll see at some point the brow line would overlap the eye line. If we go on, the shape would be inverted. This is also applicable on the front view. As it looks up, the cheek line would overlap the eye line and then soon inverts, looking down, the brow line would overlap the eye line and then soon inverts. The chin and jaw is the same. This is what happens looking up, and this is what happens looking down. Here are the things to remember when drawing the eye plane. Looking up, the upper eye plane is normal, and the lower eye plane will be foreshortened. Looking down, the upper eye plane is foreshortened and the lower eye plane is normal. This is also the same for the front view. Looking up, the lower eye plane is foreshortened, and the upper eye plane is normal. Looking down, the lower eye plane is normal, and the upper eye line is foreshortened. 25. Exercise: Head Structure 3/4 look up and down: Now we are going to create the 3/4 look up and the 3/4 tilt down of the head structure. Let's go back to this file and let's create a new layer. Let's start with the cube. This is going to be cube three, and the cube really is not an absolute guide. You don't have to follow it exactly because it only serves as a loose guide because remember, you need to account for the space. The sphere is not really exactly fit. You have to account for that space. We only use the cube so that it's much easier to visualize that this is a 3D object because it's easier to visualize that where the front plane and the side planes are. Now we are going to have this look up, and we didn't really create this at the center, so I'm just going to reveal everything and select them all, then click the "Move Tool" and put this at the center. I'm going to hide our cube 1 and a head structure. Now we have a cube 3. Let's deselect this here first. I'm going to create a new layer and click this "Ellipse Tool". Let's create the ellipse now because we're going to have to rotate this. Again, don't be confused. If you're confused with the head just hide it when you're doing the ellipse method. I'm going to delete the ellipse and create a new one. Now we are going to create an ellipse here, it's going to start with the inner ellipse because we're going to rotate this. It's currently on the cube 3, so I don't want that. I'm going to create a new layer and then click the "Ellipse Tool". This would be our inner ellipse, and I'm going to duplicate this, Command J, and then click the "Move Tool". Currently, it's like that because we have this outer, this selection, so we need to deselect that and then click the "Move Tool". We'll just scale it up to meet all the other points. Now let's create another ellipse for the other side. We can't use this because as you can see, the other side is a different shape. It's not the same shape. If you look at the inner ellipse for both of them, for the right side and the left side planes, they are a bit different. I'm going to Command J and scale this up. We have completed that, now I'm going to select all of them and group them together. This would be our ellipse guide 2. Maybe we're going to lower the opacity. Let's go back now and create our cube 3. I'm using the red color, which is correct. This would be the point, so we already know the points. This is going to be the points that we're going to use, and for the other side, this would be the point, because we're just going to use an exact angle. Now we have that, we have this cube, and so we could hide now this ellipse guide. We're not going to need that anymore, and then create a new layer and rename this to head structure 3. Now let's turn back on the head structure 2 because we're going to base from that. This cube 2 is a bit confusing, I'm going to hide that because we need the look-up. We're going to start with the 3/4 look-up, and I'm going to lower the opacity for this and lower the opacity for our cube 3. Then I'm going to go with the head structure and I'm going to change the color to blue. Because the sphere part of the head is circular, no matter how you turn it, it's going to be in that shape. It's not going to be the ellipse, it's not going to be like that. It's going to maintain its shape no matter if it's looking up or looking down. What we can do is we can just use the previous guide or the head structure 2, we can use that and just trace the sphere part. We could use this for the sphere part. Let's lower the opacity of our structure 2 a bit further. Going back to our head structure 2. Let's go back to cube 3 and now let's divide or find the thirds, the 1/2 of the front plane. This is the front plane. This is the front plane of the cube, and this is our horizon. This is our horizon line. This is the reason why this is a bit straight. Now you're going to find the 1/2 of this, which is, this is going to be the 1/2. I'm also still considering the perspective of this, that they are converging on only one x point, x vanishing point. This is going to be our brow line, and somewhere here, the thirds would be, I think somewhere here. You're going to think, now this is the hairline. That's the hairline. It's over the sphere. Again, as I've told you, you need to account for the space. The hairline, when we draw it in the head structure, it's going to be around here. Just keep that in check somewhere around here. You need to account for that space. The nose line would be somewhere around, it's going to be on the lower thirds, I think somewhere around that. Let's go back to our head structure. Let me clean this up. I'm going to redo this. I'm using the Lasso tool, I click "Delete". I'm going to do the hairline last because the easiest one is the brow line. I'm going to change this to blue. This is the brow line. Let's account for the space. I think the nose line would be somewhere around here. Now we already have the brow line and the nose line. Now we could account for the chin. Where would be the chin? We're going to add this here. Now, because of this guide here, we know the front plane and we also did the box character. We already did doing the bottom part. Now, think of that structure. Think of that structure. You add the bottom part, right? I think it's going to be here. It's going to be a bit bigger because remember, the farther away to the vanishing point, the larger the spaces. I'm going to account for that, and we are going to check the perspective. I'm going to undo this. We're going to check the perspective because if this is our horizon and this is going to be our Z lines, I mean X lines, right? Now if we go below the horizon, the lines would be like this for the X lines. The chin part. If we're going to do that below, it's going to be in that. I think that's just too much, right? Because it's not really that far to the horizon line. I think it's going to be somewhere here. We are going to follow this. Remember, the difference between looking up and looking at it from below, that the Y lines, the orientation would be in this direction. The chin would not be here, right? It's going to be a bit forward because this is now the orientation of the face would be a bit diagonal. Now we have the nose line and the brow line, and probably the hairline would be around here. That is going to be our hairline. Now let's create the eye planes. From here, this point. Let's try a different approach. Let's do the top eye plane first, right? It's going to be here, from here, let's connect to that to the lips. Now from here, let's do this, right? Just follow the perspective. I'm still just following the perspective and then connect this. Now, this is the top part of our eye plane. Remember the angle that when it's looking up, the eye plane, this eye plane, if it's looking up, it's going to have this. If this is the side, the side of that is this one. If it looks up, the angle would be different. See it's more of an L, right? Here it's going to be straight. We're going to do that, right? From here. We're not going to the side as something like that, right? Because the angle is not looking up. We're going to have this through a bit straight like that, and we're going to do the other side too. We're just going to connect this one with this one. As you can see, looking up the eye plane, the top part is, we could see much of it, and at the bottom part on not so much. Now we are following the perspective. Let me just clean this up and erase that. Now that is done from this part, right? What we do is we connect it to the chin. If I'm going to compare the chin, this chin and here this one is a bit wider. Let me just adjust that, that it's almost the same to the one we did with the three-fourths view. Now, let me connect this, and then connect the other side. Now for the ear part, from this point, this is the end of our brow line, right? Draw a straight line that it would intersect this part, this one at the center, because this is the perspective center of our head. So we're going to draw a straight line that, that is the center. Now for this part, try and get the half of this. It would be somewhere here. We're just going to continue that down. Now we know where to put the ears. The ears would be in this quadrant. Let's follow the format. go up, down, down, then up. Now from where you last put the ear, go down a bit. Then from here to the chin, you just connect that. I'm drawing another line here, because now we know that the other part of the chin, right? Is somewhere here, but now it's hidden with the spheres, I'm just doing this line to hint that. Now that we have finished this, we're just going to draw now the center line for the head structure. It's going to be here, It's going to go, so follow the perspective, right? Try to follow the orientation of this, right? It's not going to be like that, right? Because it's too different from both of this side, right? Try to find the perspective center of this. It's going to be somewhere here. It's going to go a bit forward, or I think it's going to be forward here, and then the center right there. Now we have the center line. Now this is done, let's create the look down. I'm going to hide this, and we're going to go back with the head structure, and I'm going to click again the "cube 2". We're going to have this look down. We're not going to create a ellipse guide because you've already done this. Then I'm going to create a new layer and name this as cube 4. I know you may be wondering or you might be thinking, why don't we use cube 3? Well, you can, but you've already made specific guides for this, that it's looking up, right? Let's do this again, and also, I would really recommend repetition because we do this as a practice. This isn't the final product, right? We do this as a practice. As you make more cubes, it's going to make your drawing better. Now with this, let's have this look down. Again, we're going to have this point, point here, point here, and point here, and just going to connect to them. Same with the other side. Then just connect both planes. There we go. We have finished the cube 4. Now, we don't need anymore of the cube 2 because it has done its purpose. We were able to have this lookup. We're going to hide cubed 2 and focus on cube 4. Now, this is a look down. This is now the front plane. When you do this cube, you visualize that it's looking down. I'm going to lower the opacity and then create a new layer. Now, this is going to be Head Structure 4. Now, this is going to be a look down. I'm going to go back to my blue color, and now, let's just trace the sphere. This is where it cuts off. Now, let's go back to our cube 4, and now let's divide this. Let's divide this into half. Again check your perspective. Now, take a look at this. This is wrong, what I did, because it's a bit straight, and this one is also a bit straight. This one, we could still adjust that. Always check the perspective. Now, for the upper part, divide them into thirds. I think the upper third should be here. For the bottom part, the lower third should be here. Now, that's over the sphere, so when we go to our Head Structure, I change this to the blue color. This is our brow line, we could just use that. Because this part right here, there's a big space, so we need to account for that. I think it's going to be over here, so we need to offset that a bit. Same with the nose line. I think the nose line would be here, and we're going to draw that later. Now, let's create the eye planes. Now, if we're looking at the eye planes on the side, this is going to be the front view. This is looking at the front, and this is looking up. Looking down, it's going to be like this. Another way to think about it, is you can draw this on both sides, only that the other side is less steep because we need to account that it's a bit inward and then connect it. This is the shape of the eye plane, just looking straight front. Now, imagining this as looking up, just create another shape like that and just connect them. Just connect the points. Now, it's looking up. Let me erase this. For this shape, try for the other side, create almost the same shape and connect from this point to this point. Disconnect them and this point to this point, it's counterpart, connect them. Now, we have something that looks down. But this one, it's a 90 degree angle and it's not usually like that. It's just going to think of it like when it's looking front. Now, just imagine that you are rotating this either down or up. It's not going to be like this when you look down naturally. If you're going to look down, I think it's going to be like this. If this is the front looking straight front, looking down would be something like this. Let's do that. Let me erase this guides that I've made. For the eye plane, let's just have this go down a bit and now meet at the ellipse. From here, see I'm now creating this angle. Now, for the other side, let's create that too. Now, let's just connect the points. So this is going to be my eye line. Now with this, again counter check with your perspective. Now, this is a bit wrong because the one that I connected, if we're going to extend it, see, it doesn't match anymore our perspective. Let's redo that. It means this one's a bit longer. Now, let's adjust this, that it would match our perspective. I think that would match our perspective. Then, let's create the chin part. Remember, this is looking down now and we need to account again for the space. Since we already have the chin here, if it looks down, it's going to be somewhere around here. Again, I'm not doing a straight line, I'm trying to match it to the perspective of that. Why I am creating the chin too close to the cube, because remember the perspective rule, the closer it is to the vanishing point, the more compressed it is. Our view is like this. I'm just doing it in extreme. As you can see, the vanishing point is somewhere here, so this part here, it's going to get a bit compressed and we need to do consider that. Now, I think the chin is right here and then just connect the lines. Now, let's create the ear. From the brow, intersect the perspective center, and then from this part here, try and figure out where the center is and it should intersect the center line. Now, this is going to be our ear. From here, drop it down, that's going to be our jaw. Now, from the jaw, we just connect it to the chin. Now, we are done. One more thing, let's create the center line, but try and find the perspective center. Now, we can also do this. This would be the nose line, so that. When you try to find the center line, try to make it balance between both sides, and you have to consider that we need to put the center line in the perspective center. Now, we are done. We have finished with the 3/4 look up and the 3/4 look down. This is the 3/4look up and this is the 3/4 look down. Don't forget to save your file. 26. Exercise: Head Structure Front View Look Up And Down: Now we are going to do the front view look up and the front view look down. In order to do that, just like what we did with the cube exercise, in order to get the front view look up and front view look down, we need to go back to our front view. Let's hide all of these and let's go back to our front view. Just to continue with the numbering right here, let's go to the top and create a new layer. I'm going to rename this as cube 5. Before that, I almost forgot, we need to create the ellipse guide for this. Let's check what we have for our ellipse guide. This is for the tree forts and this is for looking left or right. We don't have the vertical ellipse guide for the front view, so let's do that. Let's create a new layer and go to our Ellipse tool. Let's create our ellipse. Let's start with the inner ellipse. Let's duplicate this. Click the Move tool and adjust. I think we can use the same one for the other side. Let's just adjust this, so we can make sure that it all fits. Let's group this all together. Click the Folder icon and I'm going to rename this as Ellipse Guide 3. Now we have the ellipse guide. I'm just going to lower the opacity for this, and I'm going to lower the opacity for the head structure, so we could focus on the thing that we're drawing on. I'm going to go back to my Cube 5 layer. Then now, let's create our cube that it looks up. We're going to do an exact angle, so it's going to be here, here, here, and here. That's going to be our points. For the other side, we could just hold Shift as there are equivalents. We have finished the cube looking up. Now, we don't need anymore the cube 1, because we don't need two cubes as our guide, we only need just one cube. I'm going to hide that and create a new layer. I'm going to rename this as Head Structure 5. I'm going to switch to my blue color and I'm going to lower the opacity of my cube. Now, let's create our head structure. We cut this one off, so we could just trace this part, this whole head shape, this. That's all we need. The center line would also be the same. Now, let's go back to our cube 5. This ellipse guide is already confusing me a bit, so I'm going to hide that. We don't need that anymore. Let's go back to our cube 5,and let's do the divisions. First we're going to create the half, so this would be our brow line. Then this is going to be, let's find the upper thirds. This is going to be the hairline and the lower thirds for the bottom part, that it would be our nose line. This one, the hairline is a bit over. Again, we need to consider the space, so meaning the hairline would be somewhere here. I'm going to go back to my head structure and draw that in, switch back to blue. The hairline would be here, this would be our brow line, and here would be our nose line. Now, we are going to think where the chin would be. This would be the distance that would add. It would be somewhere here. That's going to be where the chin would be. Now, let's create the eye planes. Now when we are drawing the eye planes for looking up or looking down. It's going to have this shape. The bottom plane is now straight at the camera. If I'm going to change that to red, it's going to be here. Now, this is going to be the front, if it's not looking up. If it's just looking straight at the camera, it's going to be like this. For the bottom part, I'm just going to change to this thread, so you could see. It's going to be like this. But when it looks up, it's going to be like this. Going back, let's have the eye plane in that shape. Now, the bottom eye plane is facing straight at the camera, so we don't need to draw that anymore, just this. This is the chin. Let's connect this part to the chin like that. Now, let's do the ears. Now, the ears, you can just use this. This is going to be where our jaw is. Now, we're just going to connect the jaw to the chin. We will have this shape. With this method or this sequence that we are doing, we are forcing ourselves to see this in the correct way. See now it's inverted. We have a preconceived idea that we want to maintain this shape of the face, but when in reality, when you try to look up at some point, the shape of the V-shape of our face would be inverted, it would look like this. Now, going back. This is done. Now, let's just hide both of these and now let's create a new layer and rename this as cube 6. Now, we will do a look down. I'll review again, our head structure 1 and cube 1, and let's go up and let's create a new layer. We already have the ellipse guide. We could still use the same ellipse guide. This ellipse guide to have this look down, so we don't need to create the ellipse guide again. Now, let's do an exact angle. Let's connect the points and just hold the Shift because they are equivalent. We have finished the looking down. Now let's hide the cube 1, we don't need two cube guides at the same time. For cube 6, let's lower, the opacity to 20 would be good. Let's hide the ellipse guide, you don't need that. Let's create a new layer, rename this as head structure 6. I'm going to switch to blue. Again, trace this head shape, the head shape doesn't really change when it's looking up or down. Now, let's go back to our cube 6 and let's do the divisions. The half of this plane, the half of that would be somewhere here. That's where our brow line would be. The upper thirds, this would be our hair line. The lower thirds here, this would be our nose line. Now we are all set. Now, this would switch back to blue. This is now our brow line. Now, I'm going to discuss how the eye planes would look when it's looking down. Imagine this shape. The same concept is with looking up, but it's just the opposite directions. I'm going to change the color of the brow line to red, so that you could see. When it looks down, it's going to have this shape because the top part of the upper eye plane, it's going to be like this. It's going to be straight at the camera. That line, it's going to be hidden. This is what it is when it's front view and looking straight at the camera. This is front view that is looking down. Now, going back to this, we're just going to have that shape for our eye plane. For our chin, let's just have this go down by a bit. If you really want to add this part, to find the chin, this, you add it here. It's going to be somewhere here. Now, for the ears when it's looking down, the ears would go a bit up and then just a little bit go down for the jaw. This would be our jaw and then connect this to the chin. From this part, you connect this to the chin, and don't forget your center line. Then this would be our hairline. Because we know that this is now the brow line, this is where the tip of that. Let's just connect. Let's create this right in the front view. See, we have this part. Let's draw that when it looks down too. Starting from here, let's just connect that to the edge. Now, you are done. This would be your exercise. You're going to create the front view lookup and the front view look down of the head structure. 27. Drawing: Nose Structure: Now let's discuss the nose structure. The structure that we're going to use would be a simplified one. It's just going to be composed of two blocks. A realistic nose would have way more, but for this class let's just use two blocks for the nose. The upper part is what we call the nose bridge and its direction is going to go a bit inward. The lower part is the rest of the nose and the direction is going to go outward. Think of the nose structure as having two cubes. We just modify those two cubes to fit the nose shape. It has a front plane, side plane, and bottom plane. Where does this fit our head structure? So from the browline, that's where we put the start of our nose bridge. I'm going to start with a front plane and where we drop the nose bridge would be a little bit above the eye line, not on the eye line, but a little bit above it. Now let's create the side planes. We need to follow the form of our eye planes, so it would be this shape. Be careful not to do it like this, because if we think about it, it doesn't follow the form where it sits. It should be like this. Now let's do the second part of the nose. The nose line, that's where we should drop the bottom plane of the nose, so let's do that first. From there let's just connect the lines and we have our front plane. For the side plane, let's look again at the structure and let's draw it in that form. 28. Exercise: Add Nose Structure: Now in this exercise, we are going to create the nose. Before we do that, let's clean up our file. We don't need the ellipse guide anymore because we are done with creating the cube for now. We're just going to delete this. Let's group together by angle. For cube 1 and head structure 1, let's just hide everything and just reveal cube 1 and the head structure 1. Select that and click the "Folder" icon. This would be angle 1, so I'm just going to name it 01. I'm going to hide this. Now, let's go to cube 2 and head structure 2. Select both of them, click the "Folder" icon and rename this to 02. This should be our second angle. Now for cube 3, head structure 3, just do the same for the other angles. Now, let's start with our angle 1, so this and let's expand the folder and let's create a layer inside of it. Just above the head structure, I was just meant to add just one. Add one layer. We name this the nose 1 because we are at angle 1. I'm going to use this red color and not the blue so we can separate the head structure from the nose. It's easier to see. Now, let's do the nose. The nose bridge is not in the eye line. That's going to be above it and the shape would be a bit inward. I think this would be the front plane of the nose. It's going to go in then we're going to do the bottom plane of the nose, which we're going to find where our nose line is. This is the nose line, so that's going to be the base, the bottom plane, and then have it like that. If you've noticed, we also did the nose block, for the box character. How we did that wasn't like this. Here, it goes a bit inward and then we do it out. It was looking like this. The reason why we're doing it inward, it's because the bottom plane of the nose is more of a triangular shape than a box shape. It's because of this. We account for that shape. That's why we're going to do this. Now, we just connect from the nose bridge to the bottom plane and then let's do the side planes. I'm doing the side planes of the nose bridge and we could think of the nose bridge like this structure. It's like a cube. I'm going to switch to blue here so that I could show you that the side planes need to have four sides. Right? That's what we did, so 1, 2, 3, and then the last one is to connect it. That's the fourth, same with the other side. We really need to think about the structure right from here, and then let's just connect this to our nose and we're done. We're finished with our nose structure for a front view. Now, let's hide that and let's go to our second view, which is the 3/4. Let's add a layer inside the folder, rename this to nose 2. Now, let's begin. I'm going to show you a different way of doing this. The first way is to do the front plane first. From here, we need to figure out where the end or the bottom of the nose bridge. Then we did the bottom plane, and then we connected it, and then we did the side planes. We did this first. Notice the movement of the drawing. Go in, out, then in. So backward, forward, backward. That's one way. There's another way to visualize this. The other way is to do it plane by plane. Like we did with the nose block, the cube-like nose structure, we did for the box character, you can think of it like you're extruding. Let's start with this. This is our first plane. See, it fits the eye plane. Now, we're going to extrude this. We're going to pull that forward. It's going to be something like this. Then we're going to do the bottom plane and then connect. If you've noticed, I didn't do here a straight line. It's not like that. I made it like this. One then two. The reason for that is I'm considering the structure of the face. If you look at the eye plane, see it has this movement from the forehead, forward, back, forward, then down. I'm accounting for that shape because this is a 3D object. If I'm just going to put it straight, it's not part of the structure. That's another way. Some of the people I teach this to, some of my students, some of them are more comfortable with the thought of extruding the nose bridge. For me honestly, I prefer doing the front plane first like what we did with the front view. Whatever works for you, you do that but the principle still applies no matter the method that you're going to do this with. Either you do the bottom plane first or the front plane, that's completely up to you but the principles would still apply. Now, that's one way. Now, I'm going to introduce to you the concept like sculpting your drawing. Let us create a new layer for this. Let's lower the opacity of the nose. What I mean by sculpting, when we design, think about the shape of your nose. Think about the shape of the things that you draw. For here, there's not much in-movement, in and out for the nose. We could actually edit this. We decide this nose bridge, how deep it is. We could change it to something like this. See, I'm making it more down and I'm thinking of that structure. For our nose, you can also extend this if that's your design and then just connect this. Now, we have a different looking nose and that is up to you how you design this. You could also have the bottom plane of your nose bridge, so we have the top plane and then the bottom plane. Now, we could also have it like that if that's what you're going for. It's now a bit forward, not inward. It's weird, but I just want to show you that you can break the rules later on in the design phase or when we try to stylize this. You can push and pull different areas of your drawing. This is just one of them and that's when you try and design. Think of it like you're sculpting the structure. If you do this, if this is your design process or your character design process, your characters would look more real. Or at least the viewer would know that this exists in the 3D space. Now, let me delete that because I'm already good with our nose here. Let's check this with our front view. For our front view, the front plane is a bit thinner and it's more thick in our [inaudible] angles. We could change that. When you do this, always check with your other angles and try to make it as consistent as possible. I'm just going to create a new layer and have the nose 2 in lower opacity, and I'm going to rename this nose 2b. Now let's try and make it our front view. It's a bit thin. For this, I think it's going to be something like that and the front plane is a bit thinner. I think this one is already good. Let us hide the previous nose. I think this is better. Now we're good with this, let's hide this. Now we're going to do the same for the rest. Rename this to nose 3, lower the opacity for your head structure. Another thing I'd like to discuss here is, this is our nose structure, and if you take a look at this planes here, this part, it looks familiar because it's similar to the eye plane. See, it has that movement in and then out, in then out. The principle of foreshortening also applies to the nose as well. If it's looking up, the eye plane looks like this. The bottom plane is forshortened, the upper plane is normal. It also applies to our nose. This one would be normal. I'm going to do the bottom plane first, so this is our nose line and this is the bottom plane. For the bottom plane of the nose, check with our perspective. This is the Z lines, this is a bit forward, so the angle should be consistent with our other lines. Just make sure of that, and then we just connect this. As you can see, this part of the nose, this part, follows similar principles with our eye plane. Looking up the bottom plane is foreshortened and the upper plane is normal. The same applies with the nose, this part of the nose is normal and this part is forshortened. Let me just delete this and go back to our nose, and let's do the side planes. Again, I'm considering the structure of the face. I'm considering that. We're good with this, now we are going to go with the lock down. This would be nose 4, and let's lower the opacity. Then same with the eye plane. If the eye plane is looking down, it's going to have the upper plane, it's going to be forshortened, the same with the nose. The nose bridge would be forshortened here, so just take that into account. Then we're going to do with the bottom plane. The bottom plane of the nose here, it's going to be inverted, and then we connect, and then let's do the side planes, and then we're done. The same with the chin, if it looks up, it would be inverted, the nose is the same. If we're just looking straight front, it's going to have this structure. You can see the bottom plane a bit. But if it looks down, this one would be inverted, and when we're looking down, we couldn't see anymore the bottom plane of the nose. For this, if we're going to color it, right now it looks like it's transparent but if it's not. If we erase this, we can't anymore see the bottom plane of the nose. Now let's proceed to a different angle. Front view lockup, rename this to nose 5, lower the opacity for our head structure, and then the nose bridge. Then I'm going to do the bottom plane of the nose and then just connect, and then the side planes. We are good with that. Then for the lockdown, rename this to nose 6. Again, the front plane of the nose bridge, that would be foreshortened. Don't try and force this for the nose bridge because you know that that would be foreshortened, and this would be our nose line, and the shape would be inverted. It's going to be like that, not anymore this. Then just connect, and then let's do the side planes, and then we're done. So that would be your exercise to add nose to all of the angles. 29. Drawing: Eye Structure: In this lesson we will be discussing the eye structure. You can think of the eye as a ball or a sphere and the eyelids are just covering it. Just like this and now this is the eye shape. If we simplify the eye shape we get this. This is the basis of our eye structure. Remember the eye planes? The eye structure looks the same. The way the eye planes behave as we look up or down is the same with the eye structure. When we look up take a look at the angle of the side. Because of this we can see much of the upper plane and the lower plane is foreshortened and does look thin to us. The eye structure behaves the same way. You can also just use the shape of your eye planes for your eye structure. When we look down the angle of the sides is like this. The upper eye plane is foreshortened and we can see the shape in full for the lower eye plane. We can also use this for the eye structure. This is the eye facing up and this is the eyes facing down. How about the iris or the colored part of the eye? Let's just say that the iris would follow the overall angle of the eye or overall angle of the face. So a three fourths face that is looking straight-front would look like this. A three fourths look up would look like this and a three fourths look down would look like this. Notice the look up and look down the shape of the iris would be a bit slanted to follow the right perspective. When we design the eyes later on think of the structure of the eyes and how it works. You can think of it like there should be a hinge on the sides that would allow the eyes to close or open, and that hinge is on the eye-line, and when we close our eyes it's the upper eyelid going down to meet the lower eyelid. 30. Exercise: Add Eye Structure: Now in this exercise we're going to add the eyes. Let's do first the front view, so let's go there. There's a trick I use when doing the eyes structure. Let's create a new layer and rename this to eyes 1 because we are at angle 1. I'm at my red color, it's what I want. The trick that I use is you can just simply copy the shape of your eye plane because basically the eye structure is a miniature of the eye plane. If this is our eye plane, that's the shape of our eye plane. I'm just going to use that for the eyes and just add the iris to it. It's going to be like this and just add an iris to it. We're done with that, let's proceed to our second angle. Rename this to eyes 2. I created a new layer and renamed it to eyes 2 and now this is our eye plane. Just copy the shape and that is our eyes. But of course, try to fit it and try to observe respective rules. Still try to find the perspective center of this plane. This is the center, so try to find and put the eye at the center of your plane. There's also an anatomy rule that, let's go back to our front view, the space between both eyes is one eye width apart. The distance between here, I'm just going to change this to blue so you could see, that it's one eye width apart. Just keep that in mind. Here we have a little bit of overlap and actually I would encourage that, so that we could see that this is a 3D object. There will be a little bit of overlap and the iris should be now here. Again, try to look for the perspective center and most often people are going to put the iris at the center. But really what you should be doing is try and find the perspective center and place it there. This is going to look a bit robotic, but this is a good exercise. What we're really doing is this is some visualization exercises. For the look up, rename this to eyes 3. Let's take a look at the eye plane. See it? We can just copy that shape and that would be our eyes. The top plane is normal, the bottom plane is foreshortened, same with the other side. One of the common mistakes for here, since we already have this nose and when you draw the eyes, we don't want it to be covered. Sometimes we adjust that or put the eyes here so that we could see the full eyes, but it would make it wrong because it already ready has the wrong perspective. Think about this plane here and that's where you would put the eyes. Of course, there's going to be some sort of overlap and that's all right because this is a 3D object. The nose would at some point overlap the eyes or the eye, this one part of the eye. Then let's draw the iris. Since this is looking up, this is our center line now. It's a bit diagonal, so would our iris. It's not going to be like that, it's going to follow the perspective. Same with this eye. For our look down, rename this to eyes 4. Again, you could just follow the shape of our eye plane. The upper plane is foreshortened, the lower plane is normal. Upper plane is foreshortened, lower plane is normal, and then just draw the iris. Our center line is like this and so our iris is also like that. This is a bit wrong and let me just change that. I didn't really think about its placement. Let's correct that. Remember the distance between both eyes should be just one eye width apart. It's going to be something like that and just add iris to it. Yeah, that looks better. Now two more. I could just copy this shape for the eye plane. Let me move this so I could use the lasso tool. I'm considering the eye width apart, I think this is too far away. Let's move it a bit closer. Now for the last angle, I'm just going to copy the shape of the eye plane. That would be our eyes. Then we're done. This is going to be your exercise. You're going to add the eyes structure, the eyes for all of the angles. 31. Drawing: Mouth Structure: In this lesson we will be discussing the mouth structure. This is the mouth structure. Looks familiar? That's because it looks similar to the eye plane shape. It's also similar to the eye structure. The mouth has three parts. The mouth opening, which is in this case it's closed. It's just a straight line. The upper lip and the lower lip. If we simplify the shapes, we get this, and this is our mouth structure. We'll also include the other parts connected to the mouth as part of our mouth structure. If we look at the human head on the side, we get this repeating pattern of forward, backward, forward, backward, forward, backward, forward and backward, and forward and backward. This shape is being repeated multiple times. From the bottom of the nose, it goes forward to the upper lip. From the upper lip to the mouth, it goes backward. From the mouth to the lower lip, it goes forward. From the lower lip, it goes backward. That's the mouth area. To create the chin, from there you go forward and then backward. Did you ever wonder why it is perceived that the upper lip is much darker than the lower lip? The light is usually above us. If we are outdoors or outside, the sun is above us. If we are indoors or in a room, the bulb is also above us. Most of the time the light source is above us, most of the time. Let's look again at the side view. If the light comes from above, you'll see that the upper lip doesn't get as much light than the lower lip. That's why the upper lip is much darker than the lower lip. 32. Exercise: Add Mouth Structure: In this exercise, we're now going to add the mouth structure. Not only the structure, but we're also going to do the chin, the thing that goes forward in the chin area. Let's go to our first angle, front view, this number 1. Let's create a new layer and rename this to mouth 1. I'm just trying to have a consistent naming system. For the mouth, so where does it sit? In this area, right here. The mouth is a little bit over the half from the nose line to the chin. If this is the half, the mouth is a bit up by a little bit. It's not at the half, it's a little bit above the half of that, so it's somewhere around here. How long should this mouth will be? One thing that you could also consider is that the half of the eye, if you put that straight down and the half of the other eye, that would be the length of your mouth. But in this case, doesn't really need to be super accurate. If we follow that rule, the proportion rule, and the mouth would be around here. It's going to go over our structure. It's going to go over the front plane of our structure and I just don't want that to happen. Just try and fit that rule as much as you can, but just don't go over the different plane. This is what I'm going to end up with. This would be the mouth. Now let's do the lips, and just like with the eyes, for the mouth, we could also follow the structure of the eye plane. This shape, you could use that for our lips as well. That is what I was referring to in the previous lesson that this shape is a reoccurring shape. It happens, it's like a pattern, and for the lips, we could use that. Have it a bit forward, and for the lower lip, also like that. Now just connect from the tip of the nose to the lips, just connect them so that in our head, you could see that it's now a bit forward. This is like forward, and then here it goes back, forward again. Now for the chin part, we're going to go back and still follow the structure, back, and then forward, and then back. When we shade this later, when we're going to do the shading, it's going to make sense. This would be our lips, and this one would be in shadow, and so is the chin. Later on, as we go into shading, this is all going to make sense why we need to do that. For now, I'm going to switch back to my blue color, so that we just could separate, because right now it's hard to tell where the mouth is. It's a bit confusing. I'm just going to take my blue color and do something like this, so that we could see where the mouth is, and I'm going to shade the upper part. Because as I've mentioned in the previous lesson, it's not going to capture much light. It's going to be darker than the lower lip. We're done with that. Let's go to our second angle. I'm going to rename this to mouth 2. We can show the first angle so we could see where we place the mouth. If we straight this down, that's going to be the length of the mouth. It would be a bit over half, so it's going to be something like this. Again, I I what I need for the previous angle. I'm going to hide that and go back to this. This is our mouth. Now when doing the lips, again, you could just copy the shape of our eye plane. It's something like that. I'm still trying to keep the perspective consistent. As you can see, I'm not doing this like it's a straight line, because it's not within the perspective. If we're going to follow the perspective of this, see, it's going to be a bit of a diagonal. We're going to do that. We're going to try and keep this in perspective and just connect. I'm on my blue color. Let's go back to red. I'm going to switch back to red and make this red, and we're just going to make it blue later. Connect this to this. As you can see, now we could see that it's a bit forward, and if you try and feel your face, that part is really going forward. Now for the bottom part of the mouth, we're going to go back, forward, and then from here, you connect that to the chin. That's going to be the shape. I'm going to change to blue, change our lips to blue, and I'm going to shade the upper part so you could see. We're done with that. Let's go to our lookup. Create a new layer, rename this to mouth 3. I'm going to go back to my red color and I'm just going to copy the shape of my eye plane. This is going to be our mouth. For this, when you try and do the rule, that the half of the eye and just go down, you don't go down like this. Because remember the center line is now a diagonal so when you do that rule, if this is going to be half, half a diagonal down, like that, to find where the mouth would be. It would be somewhere here, and then I'm just going to copy the shape of the eye plane. The upper part is normal and the bottom part is foreshortened. Connect this, and then we go back, then for here, see it's a reoccurring shape. So here when we go forward, that would be a bit foreshortened. When we go down, that's going to have a normal shape. I'm going to change the blue and highlight our lips, and then shade the top part. We're good with that. Let's go to our angle 4, change to my red color again. The lips here, I'm going to draw the mouth. If we're going to try and find the center of the eye and just go down, it's going to be in a diagonal, same with the other side. You could now figure out where the mouth would be. It's going to be somewhere here. Still follow the perspective. For the lips, it would be a bit inverted. For the bottom part, it's going to be normal. You could see the lower lip, and from here, you connect. Doing the forward, backward, forward, backward, again, always keep in mind the planes that are foreshortened. The going backward would be foreshortened, and the going forward would be in a normal shape. This part is foreshortened and this one is, you could see much of that. Now this is the lookdown, so two more to go. Let's go to our fifth angle and rename this to mouth 5. I think we have forgotten to change this to blue. Let's go back to our fourth angle and I'm just going to shade this to blue. As you can see, the upper lip is a bit inverted, because we're thinking of it like it's 3D. Now, going back to our fifth angle and we already created the layer, so let's go to that. The lower lip is foreshortened or let's just reveal a bit of that. For here, I'm not going to anymore do this because it's foreshortened, it's somewhere already here. Then let's changed our lips, let's highlight it to blue. I'm going to shade the upper part, and then for the last angle, rename this to mouth 6. The mouth would be somewhere right here, or I think it's a bit down. The upper part would be foreshortened, and the lower part is normal. Then this would be foreshortened, and we're going to draw this because it's going to be foreshortened, and then normal, and then foreshortened. There you have it. Before we forget, let's highlight the color of the lips to blue, and then let's shade that, and then you are done. We have finished all of the angles. This is the front view, this is the three-fourths. Three-fourths look-up, three-fourths look down, front view lookup, and front view look down. This is going to be your exercise, you're going to add mouth structure to all of the angles, and once you're done, don't forget to save your file. 33. Exercise: Profile View: So in this exercise, we will now do the profile view or side view. So in order to do that, the closest angle to a side view or a profile view is the three-fourths angle. Let's unhide the zero two because that's the three-fourths angle and let us lower the opacity for the mouth, the eyes, and the rest of the details, and also the nose. I'm going to create a new layer, not inside the zero two, outside right here. I'm going to rename this to zero seven. We're not anymore going to draw a cube for this. We could just go directly to drawing. I'm going to pick the blue. I have switched to the blue color. If you look at this, we have this cylinder. I mean, we have this ellipse, but when it is on a profile view or a side view, that becomes a circle. We already have this guide. This is how big the circle would be. So let's trace first the outer circle, the wholeness of our sphere. Now let's draw the inner circle, the one that is chopped off. The guides would still be the same. If we split this into half like that, this is the brow line. To get also the ear line, we have to split this into half vertically right here and this quadrant here, that would be where the ears would be. Since we already have this face, this three-fourths phase, at the bottom layer, we don't really need to guess that much anymore where the position is because we can just use the guide from our three-fourths angle. This is our eye plane. If this one would go into a full side view. The only thing that we're able to see now is the side, this side. The length is now foreshortened. You can't see it anymore because this is the side view and this is the only thing that we could see the side. From here we go down. I was holding the Shift button so it's straight. Now let's draw the ears. It would start from this, from here, go up, then go down and down, and then go drop it to where the nose would be. The nose would be somewhere in this area. Since we already have, if we take a look at the three-fourths angle, this is the nose, so most likely our nose would be right here for the side view. Now from the ear just go down by a bit. Right from here, we connect it to the chin. Now let's change our color to red and let's now draw the details. Same with the eyes. See we have this for the eyes, but when we turn this to like a side view that the more that it goes to the side, as you can see the more that this one would narrow until it would go to this shape, that both sides would overlap. This would be now our eyes. Since the eye is a bit round, let's draw that. We could now see the roundness of our eye. Then let's draw the iris. Now let's draw the nose. This would be the nose bridge and this would be the bottom of the nose. We go forward. Again we could use the forward, backward, forward, backward. This is forward, back, then we go forward, then go back. Also, if you look at the face, the summary or the silhouette of the side view of the face would somehow form something like this. That we have this first part and we have this second part that goes a bit forward. Something like this shape. It's not going to go from nose and then straight down. It's going to have this kind of shape, this diagonal. If you look at the silhouette of this. That is the summary shape of the side view of a person. From here, I'm not going to drop it to this because if you look at this, this one is already big. I'm just going to drop it somewhere here. Then for the mouth, we're going to go a bit forward, then back, forward, then back, forward, then back. Let me redo that. I'm just checking it right here to see the length of that. From here, let's go forward. I'm trying to match it. Then back, forward, then back, forward, then back. Now if you look at this, see it has this shape, a bit of a diagonal. From here we can draw the mouth. There we go. We have finished the side view or the profile view of the head structure. Let us just highlight the mouth as we did with other angles with this blue color. This is it. So this is what you're going to do with this exercise. You're going to add one more angle, which is the profile view. 34. Drawing: Lighting: Now we are going to discuss lighting. For this class, we will be using a two value system, meaning that we'll only use light and shadow and nothing in between, no midtones. Let's just keep it simple, if a light touches a surface that's on the light family, if it doesn't, it's on shadow. I have here a drawing of a pen and a cube. Let's just say that we're looking at this side view. Let's make it a rule that if the surface hits the tip of the pen, this one I marked red, it would be on the light family, if doesn't it would be on shadow. No matter how little it touches, as long as it touches it would be on the light family. Here, see it hits this side. This one would be on the light family. Here, it also hits that surface. This part would be on light family. For this part C, it doesn't hit here, so that would be on shadow. See, it doesn't for the other side too there's no way that this pen is going to hit this side. So this one would be in shadow. If we're going to illustrate that, this one would be on light and also this one while the rest would be on shadow. Now how about if this cube, we're going to rotate this one to have it look up like that. What would happen with our lighting? Lets go back again to our pen and let's test this out. This surface here, because it touches the tip, that would be on light. But on the side, see here, the tip doesn't touch the side, so that would be in shadow. In this angle, the only part that would have light would be this part. This part would be on light. There rest would be on shadow. How can we apply this to the human head? Lets have the side view and a top view to illustrate this. Let's just say that the light comes from the front and is above the head. On the side this is where it is, and on the top view this is where it is. Now let's use the pen analogy. For the side view, we have two layers here. This is for the head structure and this is for the nose and mouth. Let's start first with the head structure only. This part hits the tip of the pen, so that's on light. This part also hits, so it's on light, but this part isn't hit so it's on shadow. This one is also on light. Now let's do the nose and mouth. This part and this part is hit by the pen, so it's on light, but this part isn't, so it's on shadow. The bottom of the nose is on shadow. This part is hit, so it's on light and so is this but this part isn't so it's on shadow. The upper lip is on shadow. The lower mouth is on shadow. The upper chin is on light, and the bottom chin is on shadow. How about the side planes? Let' use the top view for that. The front plane is on light and the side plane is on shadow. The ears is a bit slanted so the edge would capture a bit of light. How about the nose? The front plane of the nose is on light and the side planes is on shadow. Next, I will discuss cast shadows. For extruded forums like for example, our nose see it's extruded. Our lips are also extruded. It's a bit forward. Those forms, those are part of the face, would have some cast shadows. What are cast shadows? Going back to this again, to this model, we have our pen and same rules. Anything that touches the tip, the one I mark red would be on light. If it doesn't, it would be on shadow. What happens on the cast shadow if this is the direction of our light, in this direction. This part, see it touches the tip, so that would be on light. Also here that would be on light. Now, what would happen if we continue this see here? The next place that this it would touch would be here. Also the other part but this area right here would be in shadow. The length of that at the bottom, to let us illustrate that, what hits the light is here. This one would be on light, and this one would be on light too and also the rest here. The other part that the pen didn't touch, this part, would be on shadow and also this. Now this is our cast shadow. There's going to be cast shadow. If we move the light a bit to the left and let's use again depend analogy. The left side planes would capture light, so it would be on light and the nose would have a cast shadow, so let's add a cast shadow. Take a look at this model, the source of light is on the side. What lights up on the side planes? The side plane of the nose is also on the light family because it can capture some light. The side of the lips too. Now watch how the shadow behaves as I move the light source. Once you understand this concept, once you understand everything in this lesson, even just the basic stuff, you will know where to put the shading or the shadow in your drawings. You don't have to guess anymore and I'm girthy with that that before, I don't know where to put the shadow and I just randomly draw where the shadow would be. But now that you understand light, you understand the forms, you know where to put the shadow. Now you could read lighting. You can analyze where the light source is coming from and how that would affect our forums. 35. Exercise: Add Shading: Now, in this exercise we will now add shading to our figures for all of the angles. Before we add the shadow, and in order to know where to place the shadows or which planes are in shadow, we need to know where our light source is coming from. I have prepared three positions of where the light source is coming from, but for this exercise you only need to choose one light setup. But I'm going to show you all three. First let's add a new layer for our light. I'm just going to rename this as light a. This is going to be the first direction. Let's start with our front view, not with our tree forts. For light a, it's going to be at the front and it's going to be above. I'm going to illustrate that, and it would be better if you would also follow what I do, that you create where the light source is coming from so that it's easier to visualize. It's going to come from above and it's the front of the subject right here. This is what we'll call as our light set up A, it's going to be in that direction. Now let's go back to our front view angle, which is this 01. Let's expand this folder and let's create a new layer, and let's rename this as shading a1. It's a because it's light setup a and it's 1 because this is the first angle. So it's shading a1, that's how I named it. Let's change the blending mode of this, it's currently normal. Let's change this to multiply. I'm just going to change my brush color to red. The reason for that is so that it's going to look like this. See that? Because if this is going to be normal, if I'm going to click normal, it's going to look like that. We want this blending mode. Now let's study the direction of the light., and let's study the shape of our figure. I'm just going to create a new layer, not inside this folder. I'm going to create a new layer just to illustrate what we're going for here. Because this is in 3D and it's hard to find the actual position, let's try and look at it like we're looking at it from the top view. Let's just say this is the top view. Instead of an actual sphere, let's just use a cube just for simplicity, and then this would be the nose. We are looking at it from the top view. The light source is coming from here. Using the pen analogy, I'm just going to create a new layer for the pen analogy. For example, this is our pen. If the light is coming from the front, the front plane are the planes that are going to capture light and the side planes are not going to capture light. The side planes of our head and the side plane of the nose are going to be in shadow. I'm just going to keep this. You don't need to draw this, because this is only for my demonstration. I'm not going to delete it because I'm going to still use that later on. Going back here and going back to our shading a, and since we know this is at the front, we're going to put the side planes in shadow. This is the side, and let me just increase my brush. This doesn't need to be super accurate. What I just want you to do is you just need to understand the concept. This one would be in shadow because this is the side plane. This one is also the side plane, so they would be in shadow. The side planes of the nose would be in shadow. We need the side view of this. Let's just say this is the side view of our head, and let's draw really the side view of our head. It looks like this. It's back, forward, back, forward, back, forward, back, forward, back. This is now the shape of our head. Let me create a new layer. It's going to be above. This is going to be my pen. It's going to be like that. Now using that analogy, this plane, the forehead, it's going to capture some light and here, this part, the upper eye plane is not going to capture some light, it's going to be in dark. The front plane of the nose, it's going to catch some light. But the bottom plane of the nose, it's not going to capture some light. The upper part of the mouth here, see, it captures a bit of light. But the upper lip, now we're at the upper lip, see, it's not in light it's in shadow. If we're going to follow that analogy, we can say that this part is in shadow, this part is in shadow, this part is in shadow, this is in shadow, and this is also in shadow because they're not going to capture a bit of light. Let's do that. Let's go back to our shading a, and let's go back to our red color. This part would be in shadow. I'm just going to increase the brush size. The bottom plane of the nose would be in shadow, the upper lip would be in shadow, and this part would be in shadow, and the chin would be in shadow. How about the ears? Let's illustrate that. Let's hide this and let's go back to this. For example, this is our head and the ear is not really flat like that, it's a bit outward like this. It's going to capture a bit of light at the end part right here because of that. So with this, let's go back to our shading. The inside of the ear is going to be in shadow, but the outer part is going to capture a bit of light. Now we are done with our Light Source A, this is Shading A. Let's try a different light source now. I'm going to hide Shading A, I'm going to hide that, and I'm going to hide this Light A, and let's create a new layer and rename this to Light B, let's change the color to blue. What I plan for the position of Light B, it would be a bit to the side, if this is going to be A, B you move it to the left a bit. So it's going to be like this. It's like it's rotated in a 3/4 angle. Imagine this and you rotate it in 3/4 and position it a bit to the left, this is going to be our Light Source B. Now let's hide Light Source A. Now let's try and do Shading B. I'm going to create a new layer here and rename this to Shading B1. It's Shading B because this corresponds to our Light B and it's one because we're still at angle 1, the front view. Now let's change back to red. What happens if this is going to be our angle? Let's go back to our top view, this. Let's change this, now it's moved a bit to here and it's rotated 45 degrees, something like that, and if this is going to be our source, it's going to be here, and let's use the pen analogy. This part right here, it touches this part right here, it's going to capture some light. This part of the nose is going to capture some light, but the other side, see not going to capture some light and there's going to be a cast shadow. Just to illustrate that, this part right here, it's going to be in the light, but this part, there's going to be a bit of cast shadow. So this one would be in shadow and this one would be in shadow too. This ear since it's really far away from our light now, it cannot reach, this part of the ear, this whole part here, it's going to be in shadow. Let's try and do that for our Shading B1. Let's change this to red. So this one now is going to be in the light, and this one is also going to be in light and this part is going to be in the light. Before I forget, let's change this to multiply, going back this part of the nose, that's going to be in shadow and it's going to cast, since this is the direction, it's going to have some cast shadow for the nose. Since this is also above, we can use the same principle. We shade this part because this is a bit inward. We don't shade this because that's going to capture some light, and we shade this part. Same with the nose, this is the direction. The upper lip would also be in shadow. The bottom part of the mouth, not the bottom lip, the bottom lip would be in light, but the bottom part of the mouth that's going to be in shadow. The chin would also be in shadow. What are other things that are in shadow? The side plane, this plane right here that's going to be in shadow, and also this part of the ear. Now this is Shading B1, and also this part is a bit extruded, this part of the mouth. So we can just place all of this part right here in shadow. Now that it's done, Let's proceed to our Light C. So it'd be Light C, and I'm going to hide Shading B1. For Light C, Let's place the light to the side but still above, it's going to be right here. This is going to be Light C. Now I'm going to hide Light B and let's focus our attention on Light C. On the top view, it's going to look like this, it's going to be right here at the side. This would be our light source. If it's coming from here, this side is going to capture some light, but the front plane is not going to capture some light, but the side plane of the nose would capture some light, so it's going to be like this. For Light C, this part is going to capture some light and this part is going to capture some light. The planes have to be in shadow would be this, and the rest of them would be in shadow. This one would be in shadow, this one would be in shadow. Now let's apply that to our drawing and let's create a new layer and rename this to Shading C1 and change this to red, and then let's change the blending mode to multiply. Now let's apply that. The side plane, this part is the side plane that's going to be in light and this side plane of the nose, that's going to be in light. The rest would be in shadow. Let's do that. I'm going to increase the brush size again so that it's faster. The front plane of the nose is going to be in shadow and the rest of this would be in shadow. This part of the ear in shadow. This part here, that's going to be in shadow. The only plane that is in light is the left side plane of the nose and of the face. It's going to be like that. This one would be in shadow. But also take note that the mouth is a bit extruded, so the side of the mouth would capture a bit of light. Let's go to our eraser tool, or the shortcut for that is E, and then erase a bit on the side of the mouth. This part here, that's going to capture a bit of light. Now, this is lighting or light source C. We have now finished this. Maybe I'm going to use this figure. This top view, I'm just going to hide it. I'm done with the front view. Let's take a look again at our shading. This is shading A1, this is shading B1, and this is shading C1. Now, let's proceed to our second angle. We're already good with our front view, so let's do this. Let's create a new layer. Let's increase first the opacity because now it's hard to see. Let's increase the opacity or you could make it 100, if you want. The head structure, let's increase the capacity. I think that's good. Now, let's create shading A2 because now we are at the second angle. Now, let's turn on light A. It's going to come from here. From this, let's now try and guess where the shadow would be. This one, let's first change this to Multiply, this one would be in shadow. This one would be in shadow. This part of the nose, that's not going to be in shadow because that's going to capture some light. The bottom plane of the nose is going to be in shadow, the upper lip would be in shadow, this part would be in shadow, and also here. Now, because we are on the side, this is also going to capture some light. Same with here. But the nose, see, it's a bit blocking, so it's going to have a cast shadow. Since the mouth is a bit extruded, it's also going to have some cast shadow. This is our light A. This is it. Also, if you take a look at the ear, it's going a bit in. This part right here, that's going to be in shadow even though the light is coming from here. There's going to be a portion that's going to be in shadow. Now we are good with this, I'm going to hide this and I'm going to create a new layer. Let's go for shading B2. What happens if this is our light source? Again, now, we could somehow guess, or not really guess, but we would know based on the structure and based on where the light source is, we know the parts that would be in shadow. Now, this one would be in shadow, this part would be in shadow, and also the side planes. This part, this would be in shadow. Just to illustrate that, just in case you're a bit confused, why that is the case, for example, this is our diagram. Our light is rotated on a 3/4, or 45 degrees angle, or 3/4. Just imagine we're looking at this from above, from the top. It's going to be like this. The head is also facing 45 degrees, so it's going to be like that. This is going to be our light source. It's going to touch the front planes but not the side, so the sides would be in shadow. The ear part here, see, it's going to capture some light on the side. Now, let's hide that and let's go back to our cube to shading B2. This one would be in shadow and the ear is going to capture a bit of light, just a little bit of light. This one would be in shadow. Since this is above, the bottom plane of the nose would be in shadow, the upper lip would be in shadow, this one would be in shadow, and also this part would be in shadow. We're all good now. If you want, this one would also cast a bit of, there's going to be a cast shadow, if you want to be really detailed about it. Because if we look at the side view, let's go back again to our diagram right here. For example, we have this pen and this tip. If we're going to go here, this part of the nose won't be hit. The part that where it would hit at the bottom part starts around this. This part here, that would be the cast shadow. Going back to this. That's the reason why we added the cast shadow for that. We're good with this? Now, let's see what the shading is for light C, if our light source is at C. Let's rename this to shading C 2 and this would be our light source here at the side. Going back to our diagram right here. This part now, this is going to be like that. What part would be in light? This part anymore can't be seen. See we can't see the other side, so that's not relevant anymore. This one would be in light. This part, this part, but there's going to be a cast shadow. This side right here, that's going to be in shadow. Let's do that. Let's do the easy part first, the things that we are sure of. This one would be in shadow. This one would be in shadow. The lip, this part and this part would be in shadow because the light is above. The side planes would be in shadow. This one won't capture anymore light because the light it's completely blocked now, so that's going to be in shadow. The bottom part of the nose would be in shadow. What else would be in shadow? This part would be in shadow. It's not going to capture some light and it's going to have a cast shadow. The nose will have a cast shadow. Since the mouth is a bit extruded, it's a bit forward, it's going to have some cast shadow. This portion right here, it's going to have some cast shadow. That's for the three-fourths angle. Now, let's hide this. Those are the three setups. I'm just going to hide all of this. We have three setup. We have lighting A, lighting B, and lighting C. You only need to choose one. You only either choose if you want to go with lighting A, lighting B, or lighting C. For lighting A, if you turn that on lighting A, that's going to be the light setup that you are going to use for all of the angles. First, the front view, do the shading for front view. We've already done that. This is the shading for light A. For the three-fourths view, it's going to be this. Now, for this one let's create a new layer here and I'm going to rename this as shading A 3. Set that to multiply. Now, the light is above. Let's try and analyze this. This part of the face is not anymore going to be in shadow because it's directly to the light. The nose could be in shadow and the lower lip, but this part of the upper eye plane, it's so near to the light that it must be in light and not in shadow, but this part, this could still be in shadow. Since the light is right here, the side planes would be in light, but it's going to have a cast shadow. There's going to be a cast shadow right here. This would be for the three-fourths looking up. Let's do first light A, and then we're going to go back to the angles and do light B, and then go back to do light C. For the three-fourths Lock down, it's going to be shading A 4, change this to Multiply. This part is going to capture some light. This part is going to capture some light. This part probably not, so I'm going to put that in shadow. This part of the nose will and it's going to have a cast shadow and this part probably would. I think this is it for this angle. Now, let's go to the fifth view, which is the front view Lock up. Rename this to shading A 5. Change this to Multiply. The side, since it's directly at the front, the side planes. We know that would be in shadow. For the ear, it's going to capture a bit of light. The ears are going to capture a bit of light. The bottom planes would be in shadow. This one would be in shadow. The lips would be in shadow. The bottom plane of the nose would be in shadow and the side planes would be in shadow. The nose side planes would be in shadow. Now, the upper eye plane, I think would capture a bit of light, because I think it's on angle with the light. We're good with that. Let's go to this sixth view, which is the front view Lock down and let's rename this to shading A 6. The same way the side planes are going to be in shadow, It would be in shadow. The upper lip would be in shadow. This part would be in shadow, and also this part. I think this is it for this angle. Let's go to our seven angle, which is the side view. For this everything is in light. Let's just create a new layer and let's rename this to shading a 7. Then let's group this together. Now we have a seven folder. Change this to multiply. The upper lip would be in shadow and the bottom of the nose would be in shadow. This part of the face would be in shadow, but the rest would be in light. Remember our ears, a portion of that would be in shadow. This one would be in shadow and also this, and that's about it for this. Now let's go to light b. We already finished the light b for our front view. It's going to look like that. For the three-fourths, we've already done it. You have this shading b. We already have done that. Now let's do this. I'm just going to hide this, create a new layer. This is going to be shading b 3, finish this again to multiply. I think this part is going to capture some light. Because it's the front, the side planes would be in shadow. Let me increase my brush so we can go faster. I'm trying to do the fastest that I can. It's not really that clean. Because I don't want this video to be too long. But when you do it, take your time when you do this. This one is going to capture a bit of light. The bottom plane of the nose, I think would be in shadow. Same with the upper lip, and this part, and also the chin. We're good with this. Let's go to the fourth. This would be shading b 4. This part would be in shadow, and this part would be in shadow too. The side planes would be in shadow. This part of the ear that would be going to capture a bit of light, and the chin. This part would be in shadow, the upper lip would be in shadow. I mean the front view lookup. This is now shading b 5. This side plane would be in shadow. This side plane of the nose would be in shadow. The bottom plane would be in shadow. This part would not be in shadow. That would be in light. It's going to capture a bit of light. The upper lip would be in shadow, this part would be in shadow, and this part would be in shadow as well. I think there's going to be a cast shadow right here. It's going to form like that and also for the mouth. This is good. Let's proceed to our six view. Now this is shading b 6. Now if this is our light, this part is going to be in shadow. This part is going to be in shadow. This part would be in shadow as well, and this part would be in shadow. This one would be in light. That's going to pick up some light, and the nose is going to have a cast shadow, as well as the mouth. This part of the mouth is going to cast some shadow. Let me erase those dots that I previously made. This is good for that. Now let's go to the side view. It's going to be shading b 7. I think with this, shading a and shading b would be the same. Yes, it would be the same. Let's just skip that. I'm just going to delete this. Shading a and shading b, they're the same, so I'm just going to duplicate this. I'm going to rename this to shading b 7. Now let's go to lighting c or light c. Let's go back again to front view, we already finished that. If you want to review, this is what it looks like. For three-fourths, we've also done that. If you want to see again what it looks like, it's like that. Now let's do this, the three-fourths looking up. This would be shading c 3. It's at the side, so this part would be in shadow. The bottom plane of the nose would be in shadow, and this one would be in shadow, as well as this one. This one is going to capture some light. This one is not going to capture some light. The side planes would be in shadow. The ear would also be in shadow. Because this one is a bit in. Let me show you again, this is the three-fourths, there are difference, right? C is a bit inward. This part of the face, this part is not going to capture some light. It's going to be in shadow. Again, we're doing simplification here. Just for the purpose, so it's easier for us to understand. As you improve your skills in drawing, and if you really want to capture a more accurate light, try and observe how it does on portraits. Lots of photography, you could see a model and there's like a light source that is a good way also to study lighting. But for now, since we're just starting out, let's do this simplification of the lighting. Going back, this is going to have some cast shadow. Something like that, and also the mouth would have some cast shadow. Yeah, I think this is already good. We're done with this. Let's go proceed to angle four, and this would be "shading c 4". This one would be in shadow, the side planes should be in shadow. This part of the nose should be in shadow. The upper lip would be in shadow, and the chin would be in shadow. It's going to have a cast shadow for the nose because it's extruded, so as the mouth. We're done with that, let's proceed with this. This would be "shading c 5". Since this is directly at the side, all of the front plane would be in shadow. This part would be in shadow. Spot right here in shadow, and everything here would be in shadow. The only thing that would be in light would be the side plane, and the side plane of the nose and also the mouth. We're going to erase some part of this. This one would be in shadow, the ear would be in shadow. The side part of the mouth, we're going to erase that a bit. It's going to capture a bit of light. We're good with that. Let's proceed to our sixth angle. The front view look down, and let's rename this to "shading c 6". It's from here, from above. I think that's right. But for for the front view, look down this part right here. Let's not make that into a shadow, because if we look above. Let's make it that this plane, the top plane, is going to be in half but the front plane, would be in shadow. Same concept. All of this now would be in shadow. This one would be in shadow too. Again, the mouth part, I'm going to erase this a bit because that's going to capture a bit of light. Let me clean this up a bit, and now we're done. Now let's do the side view. Let's create a new layer. This would be, shading c seven. Let's hide the shading b in the previous shading and let's change this to multiply. Now let's start to analyze the structure of this. Let's give this a little bit of allowance because this is the side planes and it doesn't look that much interesting. Let's give this a bit of allowance that this would be the side plane, and it's going to look like that. This would be the one in shadow and for the ears, the edge would capture a bit of light. Since the light is on the side, the side planes of the nose, this part, that's going to be on shadow. This part here that's going to be on shadow. The upper lip would be on shadow. The lower mouth would be on shadow, and the chin would be on shadow. For the nose, the same with what we did with the head structure right here, we gave a little bit of allowance, we should also do that for the nose. Let's erase a portion of this, like that so we could see that a portion of the front plane. Is already for shortened right? But let's just give this a little bit of allowance to make this shot. This angle, a bit more interesting. This is now shading c. This is going to be your exercise. If you choose light a, do a light a shading for all of the angles. If you choose light b, do light b for all of the angles and if you choose light c, do light c for all of the angles. 36. Class Project: Now for your class project, we will be drawing the stylus head in seven different angles, and with shading. In the next videos I will be demonstrating how to modify the different structures, the head structure, the eye structure and I'll be trying different styles. But for you what you will be doing is you only need to decide on one style to apply to the seven different angles. 37. Stylize: Head Structure: Now I'm going to show you how to stylize the head structure. There's a lot of ways on how to do this. To start, think of it like you're starting with the default head structure like the one we did in the previous exercises. Think of it like you're just pushing and pulling your proportions. For example, you want your eye planes to be bigger, this would in turn make the lower part smaller. Or if you want the lower part longer, this would in turn make the eye planes shorter. If you want to make the upper plane longer but keep the lower eye plane as normal, this would in turn make the forehead shorter. There's a lot of different combinations; you can go with this. But no matter what you do, always think of the structure that there's the brow line, eyeline, and the eye planes and et cetera. Now we're back on Photoshop and I have created a new file. Before we begin, let's save this and I'm going to save this as stylize. I think I'm going to go with the red color here. To start, let's create our structure. We start with a circle I'm going to do the front view, and then let's find the center line because no matter what the style is, this vertical center line would always be the same and then let's chop off the sides. Because this is a stylized version already, we're trying to apply our own style so it's completely up to you how big or how much you're going to cut off. Just make sure that they are symmetrical that the amount that you're going to cut on the left side on this side, would be the same on the amount you would cut on this side. I think I'm going to do something like this. I'm going to erase this, and now let's find the brow line. For the brow line, again, I'm estimating and in our previous exercises the eye planes which composed of the brow line, eyeline, and the cheek line, looks something like this. It's straight lines so that it's easier to find the planes, but now we are going to do the stylized version. Since the brows or our face is a bit round, I'm not anymore going to do a straight line, but instead, I'm going to do a little bit of curve here and then have this direction, and then for the eye plane, I'm not going to make it straight, I'm going to make it a bit curved so that it's more organic. Now for the bottom plane, again, think about pushing and pulling your proportions. You decide if it's going to be like this, this one is a bit narrow, so if you're going to go with this, the bottom plane or the bottom part would look like that, or you could go with something a bit wider like this. So for this I think I'm going to go with somewhere in the middle. Then based on our structure right here, you could either put the chin here making the face longer or I'm going to put it here, this is now like a cute character or maybe I think it's too much. I don't want this to look like a child, I want this to maybe in the age of 20-30 years old. If I'm going to do it like this, see it looks like this person is 10 years old within that range or five years older within that range. I'm not going to do that, I'm going to make it here, I want this to be an adult but still a bit stylized, and then I'm just going to connect this. So I have that shape now. This is now the nose line. Again, we have to identify where our lines are. I think I want my nose to be somewhere here and the hairline to be here. This would be our ears. I'm just doing like a default shape for the ears and later we'll explore different styles. This would be where my jaw is. See, I'm still thinking about the proportion is going to be also do the hair so for the hairline I'm also going to make it a bit around, and then I'm just going to connect this. What I plan for my character right here is this is going to be female, and for the chin, I'm not going to make it straight, I'm going to make it a bit round like that. Now we have finished the structure, so this is the structure that I'm going for. For the eye planes, the reason why we are not doing a straight line because later, I'm just going to rename this as head structure one and I'm going to create a new layer here, lower the opacity and I'm going to show you. The reason why we don't want the brow line to be straight, because when we are going to design now the brows or add in the brows, because the brow would follow what we have designed for the brow line. If you're going to feel your face and try to follow through your eyebrows, you'll notice that they sit at where the skull is, or they follow the form of your skull. When we are going to design the brows now, they should follow the design of your brow line. It's going to be something like that. Now if that's not what you want and you want a different shape, what you need to do is change the design of your head structure. For example here, if I'm going to change the upper plane instead of looking inside of this going a bit down, so I'm going to put this to 100 percent, let's go back to this. Instead of going a bit down, we can also change this to have it still round but a bit upward like that, and that would affect the bow design later on. So if that is our structure, the brow design would be something like this. Now let me just go back to this. Now we have our head structure 1. I'm going to turn down the opacity. We'll go into more detail with different styles with the brows, the eyes, the nose, the mouth and ears. But for now we are going to do the stylized head structure. Now that I have this, I'm going to rename this to head structure 2. We're not anymore going to use the cube and hopefully the exercise that we did before was enough to help you to visualize this in 3D. For the tree, for it's angle, I'm just going to copy the sphere, and let me lower this a bit further. This is my hairline here, this is my nose line, so the inner lips would be somewhere around like this. Now same with the front view, this would be the end of my brow line here. Instead of making it straight I'm making it round. Again, we're going to consider the perspective center. So I'm not going to make the roundness of my curve here to be like this, because it's like the center of this line is here, what I'm going to do is I'm going to consider the perspective of this. It's going to favor a bit to the left. It's going to be something like that the center is right here. I am taking into account the perspective center. I think our brow line is a bit low, we have to consider this point. So it should be around here and I'm going to make it a bit round like that, and I think that's good. Then the eyeline a bit rounded. Now let's think about this. I think it's going to be around here. For the chin. Even if we don't have the cube, it's like in my mind there is a cube like we did in the previous exercises. Now, I'm just going to connect this. Then, the ears would be, I think, somewhere here. It's going to make that. This would be where the jaw. Then, the hairline would be somewhere here. Then, let's create the center line. We are done with that. Just going to hide this, and now let's lower the opacity for this. I think we could lower it a bit further. Let's create a new layer, rename this to head structure 3. Now, I'm going do a [inaudible] lookup for this. We could just trace our sphere. Then, let's think about this. It's now going to look up, and take note, there's a chance that the chin would be inverted. About the eye planes, remember this shape, when it looks up, there's going to be foreshortening that's going to happen. Always consider that. Now let's decide, if this is now the sphere, at what point it would look up. We are so used to an exact angle, 45 degrees. I think it's going to be somewhere here. Since we've made our brow line to be a bit rounded, what you also need to consider, again, this curve, at some point, if we have it look up, there would be a time that it would be straight, and there will be a time that it's going to invert, the curve would be inverted, so just take that into consideration. I think I want the brow line to be here, and now I'm going to do a curve. I think it's going to invert a bit, but not too much because the shape is a bit like this. So if it looks up, it's going to invert a bit, but not too much because of the shape. It's going to be here. For the eye 2, I'm going to make it that it's brown, but it's a bit inverted and the bottom eye plane. Then, the chin would be, I think, somewhere here. Then, let's connect. For our ears, it's going to be something like this. This would be now the shape of our ear. This would be the jaw, and I'm just going to connect this. Let's find the center line. We're done with that. Let's create a new layer and rename this to head structure 4. Now I'm going to hide this structure 3. Now, the next angle that we're going to do is the [inaudible] look down. Again, we can copy this sphere. Then, let's think about this plane looking down. Remember, the eye planes looking down, it's going to have this shape. Some parts of this would be foreshortened, like the upper eye plane would be now foreshortened, it's going to have this. But we're not going to do a straight line, we're just going to do something a bit rounded. I think it's going to have this shape. I'm going to do this first. Then, since it's looking down, it's going to be a bit rounded right here. The eye planes would be rounded too. Considering, again, the shape of our starting, I think that's going to be something like that and the chin would be here and disconnect them. If you see that your drawing is wrong, don't be afraid to erase and make the necessary adjustments. For our ears, this would be where our jaw would be. I think it's a bit wrong, so let me redo this. I think it's going to be somewhere here. Yeah, I think this is more correct. Once you're okay with the shape, let's now draw the center line. Once you are good with that, let's do the head structure 5, which is the front view look up. I can just copy this shape. This is the centerline. We're now going to the brow line. I think it's somewhere going to be here. One common mistake that I see from some of my students is that when drawing the front view look up, the tendency is you're going to make the eye plane a bit smaller. That it's going to be smaller for its width. But what you need to consider here is this line should be maintained whether if it looks up or looks down, it would be foreshortened, true, but its width should be maintained. Now, so let's do that. One thing that you could do is to check this. This is where your brows should be or this is the length. If I'm going to make it a bit rounded and a bit inverted because it's looking up. I'm going to make it like this, and here, that should also be maintained. So this is going to be the side. Now, this is now my eye line, a bit rounded. So let me redo that. Now the bottom plane, this length, see that length should also be maintained. It's going to be around here. See I'm trying to maintain the length of that. But this one, since it's looking up, I can just do a quick Lasso Tool, click the "Move Tool", and move it up. The bottom part is going to be foreshortened because it's looking up. So it's going to be something like that. Let's clean this up. I am just going to do the eraser tool and just erase this real quick. Now, let's think about the chin. I think it should be around here, so it's going to be in that shape. The hairline would be, I think somewhere here, that's going to be our hairline. Then the ears, it's going to be something like that. This would be our jaw, and now, let's just connect. We have drawn a different layer, so let's just merge the two. I didn't realize I created a layer and I drew under that. So let's just select both of these and let's merge them together. To do that, we go to our menu bar in the layer, and here "Merge Layers". Then double-click this and rename this to head structure five. Then I'm going to create a new layer, and this would be head structure six. This would be the front view look down. So we could just copy this. Basically, the process is the same with our previous exercises, the only difference now is we are bending some of the rules. So this is now our brow line, I think this would be a good brow line. Since it's looking down, the upper part would be foreshortened, while the bottom part is not, it's going to be normal. The chin would go down a bit and then just connect the vase and the ears would go up a bit. This is looking down and this would be our jaw. Then just connect, and we're done. We still lack one more angle, which is the side view. So let's rename this as head structure seven, and the closest to a side view is the three-fourths angles, so let's do that. Let's create the sphere and the inner circle. Now, this is on the side view, so let's just divide this. We know this part would be the ears and here is our eye planes. You can just copy, I'm going to change my color to blue and show this to you. You can just copy this shape, that would be what we are going to use here, and then connect this, and then we're done. What you're going to do is for this exercise, is to create a stylized head structure. You could follow along with the style that I did. But you could also think of other unique ways on how to modify the head structure. Either you could follow my way or the way I stylize this, or you could completely think of a unique way on your own, on to do the head structure and you do the seven angles: the front view, the three-fourths view, the three-fourths look up, the three-fourths look down. The front view lookup, front view look down, and the side view. 38. Stylize: Eye And Brow Design: Now, let's add a stylized eyes to this. If you look at the Resources tab at Skillshare, you will find that I have uploaded a stylized sheet for you. This would contain various different eye styles that you could choose from. I'm going to go over some of them in this video. Let's first create a new layer here and let's rename this to eyes 1. Let's just group all of these angles together. For our front view, let's create a new folder and rename this to 01. This is going to be our front view. Let's go back to our eyes. Now, let's add eyes to this. In this video, we'll do the eyes and also the eyebrows. The easiest style, or the stylized eye we could add here is the dot for the eyes. That's a no-brainer. Make sure that you're going to put the eyes on the eye. It's going to reside here. Not here, or not below it. It's going to be on the eyeline. Make sure they are symmetrical. If you plan to put your eyes so much apart like that, you can, but make sure they are symmetrical, that the distance here to the center is the same to from here to the other side. I'm just going to place it here and make this look normal. Then we're going to do the eyebrows and I'm going to create a new layer and rename this as brows 1. One easy style for the brows is it's going to start as thick and then taper it and follow your structure. That's one style. Let me just group these together. I'm just going to rename this as style 1. This is going to be our style 1 and I'm going to do another layer here. Let's hide this style 1. I'm going to show you, what if you want a more Asian eyes, because I've told you that you should always be on this eyeline. You shouldn't go over. What if you want to do Asian eyes? That's going to look something like this. That's a very stylized eye. But if you look at this, it goes a bit over the structure. Does that mean we can't do this? You can. I'm just going to duplicate this just to show you and hide this. What you can do is you need to change your head structure to accommodate that design. What you can do is you can do this here and it's going to look something like that. Now, it fits. Now, everything fits. Of course, this is only some guidelines that I'm trying to teach you, but once you've already gained the experience at this, you can break any rules that you want. But always remember that the rules are there because they are effective. If you're just starting out, be bound to the rules. The eyes should always sit on the eyeline. If you want that kind of style and the brows, because we've adjusted now the structure, the brows would be something like this. If you follow the rules, what happens is it would make your drawing proportional. Now, let me delete this. Let's go back to this, the dotted eyes, and that's not our structure. Let's go back to this. I think this is the first style that we're going to try and we're going to hide this. Now, let's go to our three-fourths and I'm going to create a new layer. This would be eyes 2 and it would be a dot. Make sure that they are symmetrical. Create a new layer and this would be brows 2. It's going to start as thick and it's going to taper, thick and going to taper. This is the style that we're going to use here. I'm just going to erase this part. I'm leaving room for the nose later on. Let's group them together. This would be 02, this would be the three-fourths angle. Now, let's do the look up. I'm going to lower the opacity for this, create a new layer. This would be eyes 3, so it's going to be a dot. Create a new layer. This would be brows 3 from thick, then taper, thick, then taper. This is one style you could go for. Select all of them, group them together. This would be 03. Now, for the look down, I'm going to need to lower the opacity, create a new layer. This would be eyes 4, just a simple dot. This would be brows 4. Let me redo that brows 4. From thick then taper, thick then taper. The brows should be on the brow-line 2. Group this altogether. This would be 04. Now, for the fifth structure, I'm going to lower the opacity. This would be eyes 5, just a simple dot. I'm going to turn on our angle 1 here and I'm just going to lower the opacity of this. I just want to make sure that it's consistent with my front view that I'm not going to put the eyes here. I'm just going to make sure that I place it on the right place and create a new layer. This would be brows 5. I'm just going to make sure that the length or where the eye is, is consistent. That's good. Select this and this would be 05. I'm going to hide this now and go to our head structure 6, create a new layer. This would be eyes 6. The eyes would be here and here. I'm going to create a new layer. This would be brows 6. Let's lower the opacity of our head structure. For brows, just make sure that it's on the right place, the same with our front view. I'm going to turn this back to 100 percent again and hide this. For the structure 6, all of the number 6, we're going to group them together and put them in a folder. Lastly for this, it's just going to be a dot. Let's lower the opacity, create a new layer. This would be eyes 7. Actually, it's just going to be one eye because the other eye will be covered. It's just going to be a dot here. It's going to be this now thick, then thin. Because you have to consider this is just the side view and select all of this and rename this to 07. Let's take a look what we have made. This is the front view, tree forts, look up, look down, front view-look up, front view-look down, and then the side view. Now let's go back to this front view and let's try a different design. We already have here the style 1, I'm going to hide that and create a new layer and this would be eyes 1 still. I'm also going to create a new layer. This would be brows 1 and then select all of them and group them, and I'm going to rename this to style 2. Now we have two folders inside the style 1 and style 2. This one is empty. So let's start with the eyes. The next style that I'm going to use, it's a bit more realistic. It's going to have this shape. From here, it's going to go up and then from here, go down. You have a break right here, and from this point down, and then there's a break here, and then you just connect. It's a bit simplified. Remember the hinges, the one that we discussed in the eye structure, the hinges are always on the eye line. If you want to change the shape of your eyes, change their head structure. Now let's do the other eye; up, break. It's going to go down, try and keep it to be symmetrical down. There's a break right there, going to change in direction, and now it's going to be like that. Now let's draw the iris. Let's just put that at the center and make sure when you draw the iris, It's not like that. There's a big white space. Make sure that it's a bit relaxed, that a portion of the iris, there's an overlap. I'm going to add some eyelashes right here, make this one thicker, because I'm planning this drawing to be a female. Now, let's go to brows. The style that I'm going to introduce now, it's going to be like this. For the top part, it's going to be straight and this one is going to go down in that direction, and then go up and then from here to the end, you follow the brows structure, it's going to taper. Let's do the other side. Down, the upper part will be straight. It's not a bit symmetrical. We're going to move it. This one's going to be straight here. I think this is good. I think we got this eye wrong in its position. There's too much space here compared to the other side. Let's make them symmetrical. I'm going to click the Lasso tool, select this part and click Remove tool. Let's go to our eyes layer and then adjust this. I think it's going to be the right one. That would be our next style and let's apply that to the rest of our angles. This one, let's select this and group them and rename this style 1. Now let's do the style 2. So this would be eyes 2. Let's hide style 1. Let's do that now. Go up and we can reveal this, go back and forth to this or change the opacity of this to a bit smaller because it's always good to refer back to your design so that you could get the right shape correctly. I'm going to hide that now. Go down and there's going to be a break and the eyes would be in this part, it's going to favor here because it's 3/4, and it's not going to be circle. Because remember perspective, it's not going to be a circle, it's going to be an ellipse, something like that. Then let's add some eyelashes and now let's do the other eye. Now for the other eye, naturally, what we want to do or what you think is correct is something like this. It's like it's skewed due to this shape. But you have to consider again that the eyes is round and so instead of that, that you're trying to maintain this form. Instead of that, some portions of this would be foreshortened and there is going to be an overlap because we have an eyelid. So it's going to be in this shape. The hinge at the other part can't anymore be seen, we are going to see the eye now. Now this is the eye, this roundness of the eye. The hinge is somewhere hidden because the eye is brown. From here we just connect that. We can make this a bit more round and eyelashes would be here. Now, you see that this is more correct. Let me just show that to you again. I'm going to lower the opacity for our eyes 2. Let me just trace this because this ones already correct. Now naturally, if you tried to follow the design, it's going to be like this. This would be the eyes and it's going to be right here for the iris. But it's going to look a bit wrong and you don't know why. The reason why is, again, it's because of the eyelid and there's going to be some overlap. That's the reason why it's going to look like this. Instead of this, this part right here, there's going to be an overlap of that. So this part would be like hidden. It's going to have that shape. Let me delete that and let's go back to this. Change the opacity to 100. Let's create a new layer and let's go with brows 2. Let's select both of them and rename this to style 2. Let's go to the brows layer and let's do the brows then taper. This one, the tapered side is hidden. Let's just cut that off, so it's just going to be like that. Let's go to angle 3, this one let's group them together and rename this to style 1 and let's create a new set of eyes. This would be eyes 3 because we are at angle 3. The same with the eye plane, with this kind of style, remember that the foreshortening, the structure, the eyes structure, remember, if it's looking up, it's going to have this form. The rules would still apply no matter what the style that you're going to go for. So it's going to start here, it's going to go up and it's going to go down. Now for the bottom part, let's make it less pronounced. It's more of a straight line now because that part is going to be foreshortened. The iris, I'm not going to do it like that, but a bit slanted. Remember because of the angle, it's going to have a diagonal like that. Let's do the other eye. The same principle with 3/4. So it's not going to look like that, but instead, something like this. The bottom part would be foreshortened a bit. Take a look at this. The line here is a bit straight. Let's revise that, that it looks a bit slanted. I think it's too big. Let me erase that. But we already got the angle correctly. I think that's good. Then let's add the eyelashes. Then let's create a new layer, this would be brows 3. This one, we're not going to show the taper anymore because it's hidden already. Let's go back to our eyes. I think this part right here is a bit big, so let's erase this. Let's make it a bit straight. I think that's good. Let's adjust this a bit further. I'm going to select both of these and name this the style 2. Now let's go to our fourth angle. Group this together to style 1. Then this would be eyes 4. Let's hide the style 1. Go to eyes 4. Again, take a look at the angle, the angle for the eyes of this, if you remember correctly, it's going to look something like this. The upper part would be foreshortened. What's going to happen is the upper part it's not going to have that shape anymore. It's going to be foreshortened like that. The bottom part would be more pronounced. I think we could push this back right here, make it balance. The bottom part C, we can make that a bit more pronounced now because it's looking down. This is now the eyelashes, and the angle for the iris is have it look like that. For the other part, let's draw the other part. Let me just erase this. It would look more slanted, more of a diagonal and add the eyelashes. It looks a bit cross-eyed and let me just fix that a bit. I think that's good. Now for the eyebrows, create a new layer. This would be brows 4. Then taper, then the other side. This would be style 2. We're done with that. Let's hide this. Let's go to our fifth angle. Let's group this and rename this to style 1. Let's create a new layer. This would be our eyes 5. Let's hide style 1 and go back to our eyes. This one would go up, then down. The bottom part would be like for shortened it's going to be like that. The iris would be here and for the other part, up and down. Let me just check with, see it looks a bit wrong, but let's just check with our front view and we could now adjust this. Also we could check, I'm just going to delete all of this. It's always good to check with your previous angle to make sure that you get the size correctly, that it's consistent. It's going to be like that, and here, up and then down. I think it needs to be a bit bigger. Then the eyelashes. I think we could still use this. We're good with that, now we could hide our front view, and have a look. I've placed the eyebrows and eyes on one layer. Let me Lasso this part and cut this, the shortcut to cut it is Command x on a Mac and it's Control X on Windows. Then I'm going to create a new layer and I'll do a paste. The shortcut is Command V, Control V for Windows. Now I'm going to click the Move tool and put that on the right place and rename this to brows 5. Select both of this and rename this to style 2. Now let's go with the look down here, front view-look down, select this and I'm going to group this to style 1 and create a new layer, this would be eyes 6. Let's hide this and let us show the front view again. We need to get the left correctly. For the eyes, the upper part of the eye would be a bit foreshortened and the bottom part would be more pronounced. It's going to show because it's looking down and this would be our eyelashes and this would be our iris. Here it's going to be like that. Let's create a new layer and this would be brows 6. Straight, go down, then taper. Straight or just follow that, go down then go up, then taper. Select this and group them together. This would be our style 2. Let's hide our front view and see what we have made so far. Now let's hide this and let's go to our seventh angle. We group this as style 1. I'm going to create a new layer. This would be eyes 7, hide style 1 and go back to style 7. Now for the eyes, let me turn on this angle 2 because this is the nearest to the side view. Take a look at your design. I'm going to change the color to blue just to demonstrate and take a look at the edge part right here. See that, that style, that structure needs to be seen in the side view. I'm going to hide this, let's just lower the opacity. I think that's good, we could still see that, but we could still at the same time focus our attention on the layer that we are going to draw. It needs to have this. But the length should be small because now it's on the side view. From here, I'm going to maintain that angle or that shape. I'm going to maintain that. For the front, I'm going to make it round, because the eye is round. It's not flat, it's a bit round. Now let's do the eyelashes right here. Our iris, something like that. Then let's create a new layer and rename this to brow 7. Then let's maintain this part of the brow. From here it's going to have like this shape. I think it's going to be a bit smaller, or it's going to be, I mean, more narrow and not smaller. But it's going to have that shape. Let's group these together and now rename this to style 2. Now let's take a look at what we have done so far. Let's put this back to 100. Now this is, again there is two, let's put it to 100. Now this is what we have made. This is the front view, the tri-folds, tri-folds look up, tri-folds look down, front view, look up, front view, look down, and our side view. Now there are still a lot of styles that we could do. You can look at the stylize cheat sheet that I uploaded in the Resources tab, and take a look at that and try different eye styles. 39. Stylize: Nose Design: Now we are going to do the nose design. Again, for your class project, you only need to do one style. What I'm just doing is I'm just trying to help you with some starting point on how to design the facial features like the eyes, the eyebrows, the nose, and etc. But for your class project, you only need to do one style for all of the angles, not multiple styles. This is the front view angle. If we're going to do the nose, it's a bit hard to start with the front view because the nose would be foreshortened. Let's start with the 3/4 angle, and let's expand this. I have renamed the folder to eye style one and eye style 2. This one was the dot eyes, this one was what we did. Later on, we're going to mix and match the different styles. I'll just have it like that, and I'm going to create a new layer, and this would be our nose. For the nose, the style of the nose is tied to the nose structure. Remember our nose structure is something like this in the previous exercise. But here, the nose structure is tied to the design of the nose. Let's create two layers. We'll have the nose structure. Let's rename this to nose design. Let's start first with something basic, I think that's going to be here. For the base of the nose, we're just going to have this as a triangle. It's going to be something like that, it's a bit of a triangle. For the front plane, let's just have it as a line and then we'll have the base of the nose bridge right there, and that would be our design. Since this is a very basic structure, the structure is going to look like this. I'm just going to place this on top so I can draw over it. This is going to be something like this. The front plane is so thin. This is going to be the design, this is going to be so thin, and then this one would spread out. This one is going to be like this, and we need the structure. You may think that maybe we don't need the structure anymore. But we need that because when we are going to do the shading, we need the structure to be able to know where to put the shadow. That is the structure for that, and let's just lower the opacity. I'm just going to select all of this and group them in a folder. This will be nose style 1. For nose style 1, let's go to our front view and how to do that, and create a new layer and let's start with our nose structure. I'm still on my blue. Let's just make the blue as the structure. How do we structure that for our front view? What we can do is we can start with the base. That would be the easiest, and we're going to draw the triangle. We're not going to make it like this because it's facing front. It's a bit forward, so it's going to be like that. Now for the bridge, the nose bridge is going to be here. This part, this here, they are going to connect, that would be the structure. The front plane of this is so thin that's going to form that line, so it's going to look like this. This is the structure of our nose. It's going to be like that. Now let's create a new layer. Turn down the opacity for this and this will be the nose design. Let's go back to our red, and let's draw the base of the nose. Then draw a straight line, and then just pick one of the sides for the nose bridge, it's going to look like that. This is a simplified design. This is the front view and this is the 3/4. Now let's do that design for the rest of the angle. Let's start first with the nose structure. It's going to be like this, and the base of the nose, I think would be somewhere right here. Then zoom out now and take a look at the angle so that you know how to extrude this, it's a triangle. From here, we just simply connect. Now let's do the side planes of this. Then now this would be the nose design. We're just going to do this nose bridge in just one line, and then the base. Let's hide it. It looks like that. Now we're at angle 4, the 3/4 look down, and then I'm going to rename this to nose structure, change to blue. Then let's make our nose structure. I'm going to start with a base, and again, this would be inverted. It's now going to be inverted. The base won't show up anymore. It's going to be hidden. Now, from this part, this would be our nose bridge. Then from here, we connect. Then we're going to do the side planes of the nose. I'm going to create a new layer, rename this to nose design, and then switch to red. Let's lower the opacity for this structure. We'll see how that would work. I'm not anymore going to draw the base because that's already hidden, it's now inverted. That's just what I'm going to draw, and looks like that. Let's group these together, and this would be nose style 1. Let's do the same for the other nose style 1. We already have done that, and now let's go to our angle 5. Let's expand this and create a new layer, and let's start with the nose structure. Do you really need to do the nose structure every time you draw? Of course not. In most cases, once you have a good grasp at this, you may not need to do the nose structure anymore, but starting out, it's important to visualize the nose structure so that it doesn't look flat when you draw the nose. I'm going to start with the base. Since it's looking up, we're more likely going to see the triangle shape of the base of the nose. This one would be foreshortened. No, it's not going to be foreshortened; the thing that's going to be foreshortened is this line. Then let's do the side planes. Then let's create a new layer. This would be nose design. Let's lower the opacity for nose structure. Let's go back to our red color. That's what it looks like. Let's select both of them and rename this to nose style 1. Create a new layer. This would be our nose structure. Change again to blue. Let's start with the base. I think the base would be right here. This one would be inverted. This would be our nose bridge. The nose bridge would be foreshortened. Let's rename this to nose design. We've create a new layer for the nose design. Let's lower the opacity for the nose structure. Let's go back to the nose design and straight line. Remember this is now inverted. We can't see anymore the base of the nose and select both of these and group them together to nose style 1. See that's how it would look like. Last side view angle and let's just turn this on, or I think it would be better if we turn on the three-fourths. Let's lower the opacity so that we could just barely see the nose. Let's create a new layer. Let's go with the nose design. Because this is the side view, we don't need the structure anymore. It's not foreshortened. It's going to have the nose bridge. It's going to be here. The tip of the nose would be there. It's this one would go forward and then like that. Let's not place it here at the structure because we're still going to draw the mouth later on. It's still going to have that forward, back, forward, back, forward, back. But that's going to be later. I'm just going to rename this since it's only one layer to nose style 1. Let's take a look at what we've done for this style. This is the front view, the three-fourths. The three-fourths look up, the three-fourths look down. The front view, look up, the front view looked down and the side view. Now let's go back again to the three-fourths angle. Let's hide the nose style 1. Let's try a different nose. This one would be our nose structure. The next nose style that we're going to do is still going to be a bit simplified. But we're going to add the nostrils now. This style will have the nostrils. Let's create first the nose structure. For the nose structure, let's make it similar to the one that we did in the exercises. Let's have this structure, the nose bridge, the base of the nose, maybe somewhere here. Then it's going to go forward a bit like that, let's zoom out. Let's connect this. Now it's going to have a bit of the front lane for this part, for this style that we're going to do. It now resembles the nose structure that we did before. Now I'm going to lower the opacity of this. Let's create a new layer. This would be nose design. Now we're going to use the red color. Instead of making it sharp at the edges, let's make it round. We're still going to follow this nose bridge, but for here, let's do this shape. It's going to be a bit rounded like that. Our nostril would be around here. We're going to add that. Let's just make this shape. This is another design that we could go for. Let's have the other nostril here. It's going to look like this. If it's on the front view, we have two nostrils. If it's three-fourths, the other nostril would be here. That's going to be somewhere here. In-between, if this is the front view, we have this and this is that. That's what we are going for for this. Let's select both of this. This would be our nose style 2. Now let's go back to our front view and let's do that. Let's hide our, or let's first group this together and rename this. I'm going to rename this nose style 1. I'm going to hide that and now let's do the other nose. This would be first our nose structure. Let's hide the three-fourths and focus on this. It's going to be like this. That would be our nose bridge. This would be our base for our nose. I'm going to look like that and connect. That's going to have some side veins. I'm going to lower the opacity for this, create a new layer. This would be the nose design switch to red. Then this would be the start of our nose. It's going to come down, right that. Then we're going to have the nostrils, which we're going to do that and the round part, we're going to do this now, that round part. It's going to be something like that. Just draw this shape. This would be our second design. This is the front view, this is the three-fourths. Now let's do the three-fourths lookup. Let's start with the nose structure. It's going to be around here. Think the base, let's do the base first. The bottom plane of the nose, that's where the nostrils would be. Connect this. I think we could still make this a bit forward because I want to have a bit of overlap for the eyes right here. It's going to be like that, and I'm going to lower the opacity, create a new layer and this would be nose design. I'm going to switch the red, and it's going to make that shape, that round shape. The nostril would be here, and also here. and then just draw this. Again, this is not the realistic take of the nose. This is more of a stylized nose and a realistic drawing is not really also my specialty. I'm going to select both of these and group them together. This would be our nose style two. Now let's do for the look down now, so let's hide this and create a new layer, should be nose structure. It's going to be like that, and let's start with the base. Now let's create the nose design. Let's lower the opacity for our nose structure, and then for this layer, let's rename this to nose design. Let's go to our red color. Our nose bridge goes down, Again, this is inverted but let's try to show that our round part. The nostril can't be seen anymore because now it's inverted, so you need to take that into consideration as well. Let's group these together, put them in one folder. This would be nose style two. For our front view lookup, let's hide this, create a new layer. Let's start with the nose structure again. If you can see I have a certain pattern. I start with the base because it's just easier for me to visualize the foreshortening. Then connect this and then this is our side planes for the nose. I'm going to lower the opacity, create a new layer. This would be nose design. Go back to red, and this would be our nostril. I'm just going to create that round shape that separates them and do this shape. Then we're almost done. Now, this is the front-view look down, so let's just hide that and this is going to be nose style two, I mean this is going to be nose structure. I'm going to start again with the base of the nose, is going to be inverted. This is the bridge then connect, and then let's do the side planes. Lower your opacity now for the design, and then it's going to have this shape. Now for the last angle, let's hide nose style one, and let's create a new layer. This would be nose style two. We don't need the structure anymore because this is the side view. I'm going to just lower the opacity for this, so that we could just barely see it, so that it's easier to do. Now, this is going to be the nose bridge and then it's going to go up. Then it's going to have this round, that round shape, and the nostril would be here. We need also to make this style consistent. We have this form. Now we are done with this, and let's try to mix and match those two styles that we have. I haven't grouped this together, so let's do that. This would be nose style two. We could either go with this, with that nose, or with this, or this nose but with this eyes or with this. Both of them could work because they have the same structure. I mean, they have the same head structure. Now for this, we could go with this eye and this nose, or this nose. Or this eye or this nose, or this nose. If you take a look at the Stylize cheap sheep, which I have provided, you can try various different nose styles, and try to think of the structure of that nose style and try to do it in all of the angles. 40. Stylize: Mouth Design: Now we are going to add the mouth to our drawings. Let's start first with the front view and for the various different styles that we're going to apply, we can use the same mouth structure so let's do the mouth structure first. Let's start with our front view. Let's change the eye style, I'd like to use this one. Now I'm going to create a new layer and this would be our mouth structure. I'm just going to make this very basic. That would be the mouth, this would be the lips, it's going to go a bit forward, and the lower lip also forward. Then the lower mouth is going to go back and I'm going to make this a bit round or let's just make it straight. When we do the actual style, that would be the time that we're going to choose any style that we want. From here, it's going to go forward for the chin and then back. Let's do the mouth structure for all of the angles first. We're done with that and now for this, let's create a new layer, rename this to mouth structure. Let's start with the mouth and then the lips it's going to go a bit forward. The bottom part of the mouth going to go back and then goes a bit forward for the chin and then back. Mouth, upper lip. Then take note of the shape of this. Take note of what portions would be foreshortened and then the chin. Just be careful when you draw the angle for the lookup or look down. There's a tendency that you're going to make your mouth a bit of a diagonal. But remember this is like a cube. Always take note of your perspective. So the mouth, it's not going to be like that, it's going to be like that. This is going to be our mouth then the lips, so we could have the lips of it inverted or just for shorthand, a bit inverted I think would be more appropriate one for this. Then this would be our chin there and the bottom part of the chin you can't see anymore. Now we're going to go to our fifth angle. This is just the mode structure. We're not creating a stylized mouth yet. Again here take note which parts would be foreshortened, since it's looking up, the bottom left is foreshortened. This one would be renamed the small structure. Then for the lip, this would be inverted, or let's just make this foreshortened not really inverted and the lower lip is the one that we're going to see. For the last one, side view. From here, forward, back, forward, back, forward, then back. Then that's create the lips. Let's check what we have made. This is for the front view, three-fourths, three-fourths lookup, three-fourths look down, front view, lookup, front view look down, and the side view. Now let's create dividers different styles. Let's start with our front view. Let's lower the opacity. Now I'm going to create a new layer. When you design the mouth, the chin is not technically a mouth, but are we just group both the mouth and this chin together. Now when you create the mouth design, you decide if you want the whole complete structure or simply if you just want a straight line and you don't want to draw the lips, that would also be okay. Let's do that, this would be our mouth style 1. It's just straight line. I'm going to lower the opacity first for all of the angle. We forgot to name one layer, so this is the mouth structure. We have finished lowering the opacity for all. Now let's start with the most basic mouth design. So this is mouth style 1. It's just going to be like that. Here I made it a bit round upward because of the angle. It's looking up so it's going to form that shape; just small amount. You might say that this shape, if it's like that, its a sad face. If you want to make this smile, just pull this up on the edge. See, now the person looks like it's smiling and it's on the right perspective. Let me go back to that. For this, should be our mouth style 1. Let's go back to our structure here. Because I think this one, this part there's a bit of big space here, which I'm not really liking that. Let's just adjust this and put this up a bit like that. I think now it's correct and let's just pin this up. For the mouth style, let's just put it here and let me lower the opacity a bit further so you could see. So it's going to be like that. Again, if you want to make this smile, just put this at the end. This is good, and let's go to our fifth angle and this would be mouth style 1. Again, I'm going to make this a bit round, so it's looking up. Then for the sixth, this would be our mouth style 1, and then where's the mouth? Its here. For the last one, the side view would be mouth style 1. Let's just have this, just a line and for this style, let's not add a lip. Just connect this and that could be the first style. Let's take a look at this again. This is the front view, the 3/4, 3/4 of up, 3/4 of down, front view look up, front view look down, and the side view. Now let's try a different mouth design. I'm going to create a new layer and rename this to mouth style 2. Let's hide out this style. Now let's try a more traditional route where we would add the lips but make it a bit stylized. When we draw the lips, from here, it's going to form a curve. Just connect this and then that would be our upper lip, this would be our mouth, and then from the bottom part, just make it a bit round. It's going to have this curve going in. It's going to have that shape. The same with also the upper lip, this one would be better if it's going to have something like that. Let's make this as our second style or second design. Let's make the upper lip darker because, again, the usual light setup, it's above, so the upper lip would be darker. That would be our second design. Let's go to our 3/4 angle. This would be mouth style 2 and let's do that. Now let's try to draw the correct perspective. When you make the curve, don't do it like this, always think of the perspective. Make this one a bit round because it's on the 3/4, and same here. Always consider the perspective, and then we could shade this part. For the structure, in the previous style, we didn't consider the structure, but here, let's try and add a bit of the structure. We don't need to make this or draw that, we can just add a line like this and it's hinting that there is a plane already. Same with the bottom, you don't need to draw this. We just need this one, and this part, it's going to hint that the shape. Since I'm doing a female for this, I don't want the chin to be that big so I'm just going to make it more subtle like that. This is for the 3/4 look up. It's going to have that curve, same thing, it's going to have that curve, that rounded here, and round also at the bottom. Let's shade the upper part. Let's hint the planes, there's going to be like a hint. Then for the chin, I'm just going to make it round just a subtle plane change there. Now let's go to our fourth angle, which is the 3/4 look down. Again, we're going to hint. Since it's for shortened, I can just make this just a line. We're going to make it in detail in the bottom lip, get a bit round. Again, just hint this direction and just a subtle bulge for the chin. Now for the fifth angle, it should be mouth style 2. Since it's looking up, it's not going to have much of a curve, but you could still see that curve. Again, this is a case of foreshortening a bit. Then, make this one round and I'm going to shade the top part. Here, I'm just going to add these lines just to hint. For the chin, I'm trying to see how can we make it a bit subtle. I think we could just leave it out for this angle. Now for the three-fourths look down, should be mouth style 2. Since it's foreshortened, we could just make this just a line and just make the bottom lip more clear like that. For the chin, we can just leave it as is. Now for the side view, this now is mouth style 2. Actually, this is already good so let's just make this one a bit round and same with the bottom lip and let's shade that upper lip. Then for here, I'm just going to make it more subtle, not this. Just make it more subtle. So we're done with this style, let's take a look what we've done. This is the front view, three-fourths, three-fourths look up, three-fourths look down, front view look up, front view look down, and the side view. I think we could still do one more style for this. So I'm going to hide that and create a new layer and name this to mouth style 3. You could always look back to the stylized cheat sheet and you could also try out if you don't have any idea on the style that you want, you could try out the different styles that I have provided. Now for this part, for the style 3 I'm going to do this. Here I'm just going to make it just one round like that so the shape is a bit of a triangle but just rounded, like that. For the bottom part, here, this is the bottom lip. We're not anymore going to draw this, but just hint this bottom part here. For the upper part, let's shade this. Now let's do this style. There's a lot of ways to draw the mouth and these are only some of them. So let's start with the mouth and create that round part like that, shade this, and for the bottom part just hint that. This would be for the look up mouth style 3. Mouth, and then just round, and here. Still, always think about are we still going to apply the foreshortening and also the perspective. I'm not making the triangle like this. It's not going to be this, that would be how I would make it for the curve. It's going to be that the triangle it's going to be something like that and just make it round because of the perspective. No matter what style you choose, always consider the perspective. Now for the bottom lip, it's just going to be here. Now for the three-fourths look down, should be mouth style 3. I'm going to modify this a bit, this structure, so that we could apply the design and it's just going to be like that and for the bottom part here. For the fifth angle, the mouth, and then round, and then just like that for the bottom. We're on angle six, so this would be mouth style 3. Just make this round and then just hint it for the lower lip. Now, how do we do that for the side view? So let's create a new layer here, mouth style 3. How do we do that line? Make this round, and for the bottom part we're not going to continue it like that, but we do need to create this because it's going to look like it's floating if we have broken lines. So let's just make it like that and just connect this. For here, you decide if you want to add chin or you just going to do something like that. Because in the previous angles we didn't consider the chin so I'm just going from here. So this mouth style, let's just make it that from here, just going to go straight down like that. Now let's take a look what we've done. Front view, three-fourths, three-fourths look up, three-fourths look down, front view look up, front view look down, the side view. We forgot to shade the upper part, so there. Now, let's try and mix and match what we have so far. Let's try the other eye, this. We could go with this nose or this nose. Let's try this and have that. This combination is good, they all fit in terms of style. This one could also work. Those are the different styles that you could choose. Let me change the eye to this, this, and the nose to that. Let's look at it at this three-fourths. Let's try this eye first and nose, something like that. All of them could actually work well because they have the same structure. So that's what you're going to for this part of your class project. Now you're going to add a mouth to your drawing. You start first with the structure and then decide what style you're going to go for. 41. Stylize: Ear Design: Now, we will add the ears and the ear design is very much straightforward and since we already have the structure, let's go directly to the design. Let's create a new layer here, rename this to ear style one and the first style that we're going to do is a bit closer to being realistic but it's still stylized, it's not really super realistic. For the ears, I'm just going to follow this structure, go up, down, down, then up. Same with the other side, up, down, down, then up and we're going to add this part. If you tried to feel your ears, there is bulge and then let's have this shape and then some details inside of the ear. That would be our style 1. Let's go to angle 2 and this would be ears style 1, up, down,, down then up, then have this and then this and still keep the perspective. I'm going to make this thick and as it goes out a bit thinner, so you could feel that it has volume. I'm just going to connect to this ear style 1, so now we are in angle 3 up, down, down then up. Ear style 1. Ear style 1, we're now at angle 6. For the side view, up, down, down, then up. Just a recap up, down, down, then up. That would be our first style. Now, let's go back to our front view and hide that and this would be our ears style 2. Now, let's make this a bit simplified. Now, this would depend on you if you want this to be in this size or a bit bigger or a bit smaller, or a bit more round. Right now, that depends on you. There are different combinations that you could go for. What I'm going to do is, I'm going to make this a bit smaller and a bit brown, something like this. We're going to make this very simplified. Actually, this is just easy and we're going to have this shape and then we have our ears. That's going to be one. Still, I'm considering the perspective, see here it's thick and then it's like tapering because of the perspective. This would be ears style 2. It's going to be a bit smaller and then like that, very simple. The advantage if we have the structure already, as when you are going to make the style, you don't really have to worry about the perspective because it's already finished, already done that before. Now, you're just thinking now of the style. Now we are on the 6th angle, it's a bit smaller and round and for the side view, it's going to be like that and we're done. Let's take a look at what we haven't finished so far. Front view, three forts, three forts look up, three forts look down, front view look up, front view look down, and beside view. This is what you're going to do next, you're going to add ears to your drawing. 42. Stylize: Drawing The Hair: Now we are going to add hair to our drawing. Take a look at this. I have downloaded this picture. When we draw the hair, think of the hair as a 3D object; that there is a side plane, front plane, top plane, and a back plane. When you go to a barber and you want a haircut, the barber would most likely ask you, how much of the sides are they going to cut off? Is it one-inch? How thin do you want the back part? How thin do you want the top part? Do you want the bangs to be cut off? Those sides, you can consider them as planes. So the bangs, this, is the front plane. This is the top plane, and this is the side plane. The back plane, you can't see anymore because it's on the back and it's covered. But that's how we are going to look at the hairstyles. We're going to do only two hairstyles for this class. I'm going to start with this and then I'm going to do this next. Think about also where the half, this part. On some people that's the center, on some people it's on the side. That's really important when you try to draw the hair. Now let's get to it. This one is a bit easier to do, so let's start with this. This is the top part and her half is at the center. This is her bangs and this is going to be our front plane. Then for the side, we just drop it off like that. It's a bit curly, so we could also add that in. I'm not going to teach you how to render a hair realistically because, to be honest, that's not my specialty and my rendering skills also need some work. But what I'm going to teach you is to be able to create the line art of the hair that it looks like it's in the 3D space and that fits our drawing. Let's do that. Let's start with the front view. Now let's create a new layer here and this would be our hair 1, and let's do this style. First the half, since we already have this, that is why it's important to know their hairline. Because if we're going to look at this, her hairline is here and this is her top part. I'm just going to break this down. This is the sphere. This is her brow line, this is her eye line. Looks something like that and her hairline is something like that. From here, you have hair. This part, that is the hairline. I already have it here. We split this to half and then let's add the hair, the bangs. Sorry about that. We'll do this later, don't worry. If you notice that her bangs, see, it's forming a bit of a triangle, this part. Let's do that. From here, let's have this kind of hair. Already finished that. Then from here, we just drop it off like that. She has curly hair. Let's do that. I'm going to modify this a bit because the ears is covered. What I'm going to do is like going to have this over the ear, much like this. See? It's over the ear. I'm just going to modify the hairstyle. It's still going to be the hairstyle but think of this part of the hair we're putting it over the ear. From here, it's going to be like that and it's going to curl. We don't need to finish this anymore or this is still the front plane. See? Then this is the back. This part, this is still the front and this one is the back. Now, you might be confused about what I mean. Like here, see, this is still considered the front of the hair, and this part here that's considered as the back of the hair. On the front view, this is the front and this one is the back. Let's clean this up later, but we're good for now. Now let's do the three-fourths. Let's split and then let's do the bangs of this character. From here, it's going to go like that. But the hair, we're going to make it go over the ear. This is also another important thing to think. When you think about designing the hair, think about you're the hair stylist and how you're going to cut the hair or place it over her ear, and those things that you need to consider when you do the hairstyle. Also, when you're doing now the hair, don't draw it. Because this is the skull and the hair has a bit of thickness, so don't draw the hair exactly where that sphere is. It's going to be a bit over that. Let's make sure we also did the same for our front view. Yes.. See? What I've done here, there's a bit of volume. I didn't draw exactly here. From here we drop it down and it would have a bit of curl and same with here. This one would be, since we haven't done the neck yet, which we will do later on. The neck could be somewhere here. The back part is already covered. Now we need to do the other side of the hair. This is still the front, this one is still the front plane, and then we're just going to do it like that because we still don't know up to where the neck is so we'll do that later. For now, this is good. Then let's do this, hair 1. From here, think about, since we haven't done the hairline, let's just estimate, I think the hairline is a bit here. When you think about this now, there's also a preconceived idea that sticks with us that we want to draw this top plane. But remember this is 3D and sometimes when it looks up, the upper part, here the upper part of the head can't anymore be seen. This part, this line, that half would not, only a portion of it would be revealed, see, only a portion of it would be revealed. Rest it would be covered with the hair. This is going to be the half of that. Now, this is the hair now. From here, let's draw the bangs and from here I have the hair go over her ear, and let's add a bit of volume for here. Then let's drop this off and have this a bit of curl right here and this too too. For the other side, it's going to be something like that. This one's already good. Let's proceed with this. Let's estimate the hairline would be somewhere here. Let's create the bangs. I'm now considering the physics of the hair movement because she is looking down so the hair, it's not going to be in that direction, but because of gravity, it's going to go down and have this one over her ear. This is going to be the half. Here, since it's looking down, you could now see this line whereas, when it looks up only a portion of it could be seen because it's the half of this. Let me just illustrate this. The half of this is here, see that would be the half, but now it's on the top plane. It can't be seen. It's covered with the hair. Going back to this, have it like that, and here have it curl down. This is the front plane of the hair and this would be the back. That's good for now and let's proceed with this. The hairline, this is the hairline, only a small portion of the half of the hair can be seen. Now let's start with our bangs. It's going to be like that and from here we make it go over the ear and that's good. Now let's proceed to our sixth angle. This is hair 1. The hairline I think would be here or I think would be above and then let's create the bangs. This is that half. Here, when you draw this, try to follow through the shape of the head. Then we have it go over the ear, then have this inner curve. Then last, for the side view. Let me just rename this as ear style 2. Forgot to rename this in the previous exercise. Now, this would be hair 1. The half can't be seen. The hairline would be somewhere here so this is, I'm just estimating this would be the half-line and this one would be the actual hair. This would be the bangs. Here is the side and we have this go over here. Now it's very clear what the hair design is. We're done with our first hairstyle. Now let's see what we have finished. This is the front view, the three-fourths, three-fourths look-up, three-fourths look down, front view lookup, front view look down, and the side view. Now let's try this. Let's try this and first let's analyze the hairstyle of this. Her half, this part of her hair is a bit on the side, not on the center and we have this part of the hair go to the left side. She has straight hair and just have this go over her ear. This one is a bit of a curve. Now let's do that. Let's go through our front view. Let's hide this and create a new layer. We're going to do hair 2. Let me just make this closer to our file. Her half is a bit to the side right here. Then half the hair, this, go over to this side. This part of the face, her ear is covered with the hair. This one is, would have a bit of curl and here, have this go. Since we don't really have the full information, we can turn this around. We just estimate what the side here would look like. Then for the other side, this just go over her ear like that and then have this straight. We are done with this or we can still complete this hairline. We're done with that. Now let's go to our 3/4 angle and rename this to hair 2. I've created a new layer and renamed it to hair 2. Now, the half part is a bit to the side, not on the center, it's going to be somewhere right here. This part of the hair, I don't know the term, but it's something like that. From here,t his one would have a bit of curl or this one would have a bit of a curl. From here, have it curve over the ear, and from here, we just go straight down. I think I would want it to have a bit of a curl too. We're done with that, let's go to our look-up. This would be our hairline, so her half of the hair would be somewhere here, and since this is looking up, the more we could see this part. From here, have it over the ear. Then this, I'm not going to make it like that because we're having it lookup. So it's going to be like this, the other side, this side of the hair, if we continue this, it's going to have something like that, so let's do that. Now that's done let's go to this 4th angle, new layer, and rename this to hair 2. Hairline and her half would be somewhere here. Here, since she is looking down, maybe this part here can't anymore be seen, or maybe we could see a portion of that. If we have changed this here, see, we could see this one because we're looking up. If we look down, maybe there's only a small portion but only a small amount like that and have that in like a curl too. From here, have that straight. We're good with that. We forgot to rename this, this is hair 1. Now let's create a new layer, and this is hair 2. Her half is right here, and it's going to go like that. We could see more of it, I think. I'm not an expert in hairstyle, so I'm also just simply guessing, and I stutter because I don't know the terms of the hair. It's going to be something like this. For the other part, have this over the ear and just have this go down straight. Now, we're almost done. Now, I'm going to rename this to hair 2. The hairline somewhere here, I think. That line is on the side, and it's going to have something like this, a bit of curl. Same for the other side. Here, have it over the ear, and then this, have it go down. You can add these additional details. Then for the last one, our side view, this will be hair 2. This one would be the side, so this is the center. Now, this is a bit to her side, and the hairline would be here, and you're going to have this part right here. This one would go here, and from this part, have it over her ear. From here, have it straight, and this, have it straight. You could add a bit of details to that. We're done. What you could do is you can search for pictures for what kind of hairstyle that you want to add your character, or you could picture yourself and apply your own hairstyle to this drawing. Let's see what we were able to come up with, starting with our front view. This is the front view, the 3/4 angle, 3/4 lookup,3/4 look down, front view look up, front view look down, and the side view. That's what you're going to do next, you're going to add hair to your drawing. You can also use Pinterest and search for various different hairstyles. You can do either male or female. 43. Stylize: Clean Up And Shading: Next, what we are going to do is we're going to clean this up a bit, and then we're going to add lighting. For this, since I have made various different styles for the nose, eyes, and others. Let me just decide first what I want to use. For the ears I would want to use that. Just something simple. For the mouth, I think I'm okay with that. But for the nose, I think I'll go with the more simple route, which is that nose. For our three-fourths, let me change this to this. I just want a simple design. I am more favored to simplicity because I'm an animator. I always try to make the design simple so that it's much easier to animate. That's the reason why I prefer a more simple design. This as an animator, we need to draw lots of frames, and it's better if the style that we're going to use is a bit simple. That's the reason why I'm picking this. This one would be much easier but it is just to simple. I want something like that for our final design. Here our mouth is okay, for the nose I want to go with style one, like this. Let's clean this up. Now I have decided what I'm going to use. I'm going to use this, and click this folder, and lower the overall opacity of this. Hopefully, you could still see the structure but if you can't, you can go inside the folder, to your head structure and increase the opacity. I'm going to collapse the folder and create a new layer here. Not inside the folder, outside the folder. I'm just going to rename this as clean up one. I'm going to use a black color, but we can choose whatever color that you want. I'm just going to trace this and clean this up without those guides. This would be the hair and the ear, this part can't get be seen so that's covered. I'm not going to draw that anymore. Here, just make it simple. For me, I'm going to make it simple. But if you know how to render the hair, feel free to do so, and then I'm going to do the jaw. If you look at this, this one's tangent. I'm just going to extend this a bit so we can clearly see which one is over. Here the ear is behind, we know know it's behind. Now let's clean up the eyes. For the eyes, there is a different style that I actually would want to use and it's similar to what I have done here. Another style that you could go for is have the complete eye for the top part. But for the bottom, you don't need to complete the lines, just something like that. Have the eyelashes, the iris. This is just my preference. I don't want to complete the lines for the eye. Basically, that's just what you're going to do for all of this. We're just going to clean this up. For this, just have this in straight line, and then we have that triangle and that's okay. Here I'm just going to shade this one too, and then add the neck. I think that's a bit too wide. I'm going to make it something like this now. I'm going to fast forward this video because basically that's just what we're going to do. We've finished just one angle and we're going to do the same. We're going to clean up the rest of the angle. Now this is what it looks like. See you in a bit. I'm now back and this is what we have finished. This is the front view. Three-fourths. Let me zoom out a bit. This is our front view, three-fourths, three-fourths soak up, three-fourths soak down, front view look up, front view look down, and our side view. Next what we're going to do is, we are going to add shading to this. Just use one light source for all of the angles. If you need a recap on that, you could watch again the the shading video on the different light setups. What I'm going to use here, is I'm going to use light set up B. If you have forgotten what that is, you could always go back to our previous video, which is the lighting video. I'm going to use red for our shading, or for the shadow. I think I'm just going to use some and let's use Multiply. What I'm going to do here is I'm just going to do a big brush that and then just erase it, so that we know where our light source is, I'm going to draw that. It's going to be here. This is the light source B, if you could remember. It's at this angle, it's above and now let's start shading. It would be best, if you have your cleaned up drawing, and turn on the structure so that it's easier for you to know where the shadows are. I'm going to rename this to shading one and now I'm going to do that. See this part here would be on shadow, this one would be on shadow. This one too would be on shadow. This part here, that's going to be on shadow. Same here. I'm looking at my structure. It's a bit rough because I'm using a big brush. But I'm going to use the eraser to clean this up a bit. This bottom plane would be on shadow because our light is there. This part here would be on shadow. Let's add a bit of bottom plane here. The cast shadow for the face, it's going to be like that. I'm looking at the direction of the light. Since it's above, this one would be on shadow or a bit darker here, but the nose, this part of the nose would be on light. We're good with this and now let's proceed to our second angle. Since this is done, let's group this together. I'm just going to rename this as one finish. This is already done. Let's hide that. Let's go to this. This one, and I'm going to rename this as shading 2. Set this to Multiply. If your guide is too light you can see it, just make the opacity a bit higher. It's easier to do the shading if you could see the structures. If the light is there, this part here would be on shadow, this part here would be on shadow, as well as the side plane of the nose. This one would be on shadow. The bottom of the nose would be on shadow. Almost forgot. Let's go back to our, this part. I almost forgot that the nose would have a bit of a cast shadow here. Let's do that. We're good with this. From here, this one would be in shadow and let's add a bit of shadow here. The side plane of the face of the head would be in shadow. The ears would capture a bit of light. There would be a cast shadow for the neck. How about the hair? We forgot about the hair. How do we do this shading for the hair? Think of it like it's a 3D object too. Let's do this. Let's go over to our shading. If the light is here, so this part of the hair would be on shadow, so this one would be on shadow. Here try to estimate which portion would capture a bit of light. Here it's going to capture some light but at the bottom part, maybe a few strands would capture a bit of light here. This part, this is the back plane of the hair that would be on shadow. I'm going to just extend this a bit so that it's more hair-like. Now, let's proceed to this here. Now, how will we do the hair? Again, think that this part would be the one that's going to have some light, this one would be in shadow. Here would be in shadow. This one would have a bit of light. This one would be in shadow, here to here, from here to below, I think would be in shadow. I think this is going to be the lighting for this hair. I think that's already good. Now, let's proceed to our three-fourths look up. I'm going to rename this to shading 3. This part would be in, we forgot to change this to Multiply, shadow the side plane would be on shadow, but the front plane, the bridge would be on light and also the eye, since it's on top, I think this part would not be in shadow. I think it's only going to be something like that. This part here, it's going to capture some light. Let's add that. This one here would be on shadow and this one would be in shadow. I'm just going to make my brush bigger so that it's faster. For the ears, the top part would catch a bit of light and this would be my cast shadow. Now for the hair, this part would probably in light and the shadow would be around here. Same with this. I think it's going to have this lighting for the hair. If you can, the best reference is yourself. If you have a mirror, and you have a bulb or where the light source is, try to take pictures. Ask your friend or your family member to take a picture of you. Try to observe the light. Try to observe how the light would react on your hair. Because here, right now, this isn't 100 percent correct because I'm only estimating. This is an educated guess. If there's a reference, we could make this to about 80-90 percent correct. Right now, I think this is 50 percent, right? I'm not sure if that's correct, I'm just assuming that that is where the shadow is. Let's proceed with the other angle for the look down, and this one would be shading 4. Change this to Multiply, and the shadow would be here. This one would be in shadow, and the side plane of the nose, but the nose bridge would catch a bit of light. The front plane of the nose will catch a bit of light, so let's erase that a bit. The side plane of the head would be on shadow. For the ear, the top part is going to catch a bit of light, and neck would have a cast shadow. For the hair, I think it's going to be something like this, right? That's going to be where the light would hit. Here, I think, up to this part and this bottom part, that's going to be in shadow. This part here is going to be shadow, and this would be in shadow all the way. This one's a bit rough. I'm trying to do this as fast as I can. I'm not turning this into a time-lapse because there may be something that I'm going to explain that is important, so that's why I'm just keeping it at normal speed. I'm just making it as quick as I can. It's a bit rough, but when you do this for your class project, try to make it a bit cleaner. We're almost done now. We're at the fifth angle, look up. This would be shading 5. Change this to Multiply. The light is here above, so this one would be on shadow. This side plane would be in shadow. This one would be in shadow and, of course, this part of the nose would be in shadow. This is going to have a cast shadow for the nose. The top plane of the eye is on light, but the right side, I think we could have a bit of shadow here. But this part, I'm sure that it won't have a shadow. It would be on the light. Then the cast shadow for the head, right, right here, so it's going to have this cast shadow. It's going to be like that. So this part, I would enlight. I think there's going to be some shadow, a little bit, but going to capture a bit of light. This part would be on shadow. Here, the remaining parts would be in shadow. Now, for the front view look down, so two more. This would be shading 6. I'm going to change this to Multiply. This part would be on shadow, this part would be on shadow, and also this, and the nose will have a cast shadow. The head would have a cast shadow to the neck, something like that. This part here, since it's looking down, it's going to be on shadow. For the hair, I think it's going to be something like that. This part would be the one in light, and some on the other side would also capture a bit of light. I think something like that. I think that's good. We proceed with our last angle, which is the side view. So create a new layer, this would be shading 7, the last one, then change to Multiply. This one would be on light. I'm going to do the hair first because there's a lot to do for a shadow here. But on the face, it's like everything is light up because the light is here. Let's do the cast shadow for neck, so it's something like that. This one would be in shadow, and I think that's it. Oh, I almost forgot, this part would be in shadow, and you could also add a bit of shadow here, here, and here. Let's hide our light source. Let's hide that, and let's reveal everything over them, and now we're done. Now select all of the layers, excluding the light source, select them. Click the Move tool, and now make this a bit smaller. Then let's arrange this angle to angle. All of this zero, one, let's move it. I think it still won't fit, so let's make this a bit smaller. It's not going to fit. I think that size would be good enough. Click the Move tool, and, yeah, I think this is good. All number 2, you select them. All number 3, it's going to be here. All number 4, all number 5, so the shading, and the guides, and the cleanup, all number 6, all number 7, and we're done. Let's hide the guide. I'm going to hide the guide and only just reveal the shading and the cleaned up lines. There we go, we have finished this. Click "File" and "Save as" to export this as a JPEG. Click "Save on your computer", and then you can choose the format here, and then select JPEG, and then click "Save" and click "Okay". What I want you to do is upload that JPEG to Skillshare because I would really love to see what you're able to come up with. 44. Trying A Different Style: In this lesson, I'm going to show you how to apply a different style to the same design. Here, this is my stylized BSD. What we are going to do first is we're going to group all of this together. I'm going to select this, up to this, then group them together, and I'm just going to rename this as group one. Let's change the opacity because this is now going to be our guide. If you have photoshop, there are a lot of options, there are different brushes that you could use, and I'm going to use Kyle's brush. It's going to be at the megapack and it's going to be here at the ink box, and this one, I'm going to use this brush. I'm going to create a new layer. I'm going to use this brush. Now, if you're wondering how to get this, this is a free brush. First, go to Google and type Kyle brushes, and it's actually being offered at Adobe. This is a free brush. If you scroll down, you can see the different brush that you want. There is a dry media water color. What I'm using is this megapack, so download that and to import that in Photoshop, click this arrow down button right beside the brush, and click this gear icon, and then click "Import brushes." Then what you have to do next is to locate the file and that is in.abr, so click this and click "Open" and that will import your brush. I'm not going to click Open anymore because I've already imported this and it's going to create a duplicate if I do, but that's how you import the new brush and there's a lot of brush that you could choose from. Now, let's start. The style that I want to go for here, let's just put the guide above our drawing layer, so this is going to be our drawing layer. The style that I'm going for is that the face, the head, it's not going to have an outline, but the inside of the face, like the eyes, the nose, and the mouth will have an outline or a stroke, so the hair and the head will not have a stroke. You will understand more what I mean once I demonstrate the two. First, let us select a skin color, so I think somewhere around this color would be okay for me. Let's try this out. That's good. What I'm going to do, as I've mentioned, is that the head will have no stroke. I like this because it has that traditional feel, this brush. You could use a different brush if you want. There's going to be some that goes over here. You can just use the erase. Let's try a different eraser tool. You can just erase if it goes a bit over, but what I want here is I want to have that texture. If it goes over a little bit, I'm just going to leave that as is, and I'm just going to fill this up. Once that is done, I'm going to rename this to skin color, and I'm going to create a new layer. Remember, the guide is still above, it's not below, because if we put that below, you will lose the guide, so I'm going to bring this back up again. For this layer, this would be our details. I'm just going to rename this as details and we're going to choose a different color for the details. I don't want to use black, I want this to be a bit more stylized, so probably, the skin color, but a bit darker, somewhere around this or I think a bit darker would be great, and I think a little bit of adding pink to this. I think this is the color that I want for the details. I'm going to lower the brush size of this. I think I'm going to make it a bit bigger. Different brush would have a different effect on your design. Basically, this is just the same design, but a different style that we're using, because it's rendered a bit differently than the previous one, so basically, it's just the same design. Let's try something different here. I'm not going to draw this because this triangle looks a bit too geometrical for me, so I'm just going to leave that. For the mouth, let's give her a bit of a smile because she looks angry here, so let's make the expression a bit neutral, a bit of a smile to counter her eyebrows. This is what I meant. I'm going to hide the guide. This is what I meant that the face, it's not going to have some stroke, but the details would have an outline. Because the head and the neck, they're connected it's for short and you're looking at it at the front and you can't distinguish it. I think this design would benefit to have this separator of just something like that. It's not too thick, It's just a bit thin. Now I'm going to create a new layer and let's rename this to hair, this is going to be our hair. What I'm going to do here is, it will have a very simplified color, so I'm going to use this as my hair color. See, the hair doesn't have any outline, so it's going to have this solid color. Let's have it like this so that it's not a straight line. Now we're done with the color here. For the eye, the eye has that white part, I'm not sure what that is called, but we could also add that in. We can just place it here at the skin color and that's changed this to closer to white. But let's not use white, maybe just a bit closer to that so that there's more human feel to it, that it looks more natural that way. Do not use white for that part of the eye. We're just going to add that here, and also for the other part. If we're going to hide the guide, so it's going to look like that. Now let's add the shadows. I'm going to create a new layer here and rename this to shadow, and let's change this to multiply. Since our details, our stroke, and our skin color is a bit warm, let's try something a bit cool here, a cool color, or maybe something that is cool and warm at the same time, something in the purple range, somewhere out here. You could just trace your guide. Now we're done with the shadows. I think that's a bit too harsh, so we could lower the opacity of our shadow, maybe 50 percent. Forty percent would be good, I think. Let's try and hide our group 1. I think that's already looking good. There's another thing that we could also add. I'm going to create a new layer here and rename this to highlights. Basically, think of it where the light source is coming from and add a bit of highlight in the eye and in the hair, and maybe in the mouth, the lips, I mean, it would also capture a bit of highlight. What we're going to do is let's eyedrop or click the Eyedropper tool to this, or the shortcut of that is when you are on your Brush tool, so in B, if you hold the Option key or Alt on Windows, you could click this and then you have that color and click the color and then make this to something a bit lighter. Now, I'm going to add a bit of highlight here, so it's just going to be something like that. I think somewhere here would also have a bit of highlight. Now for the eye, let's also create highlight for the eyes. I'm going to eyedropper at here. For this one, I think we could use white. The light is going to come from this direction. For the lips, I'm just going to eyedropper it there and then click a much lighter color, so something like that. Now we're done with this. It's the same design but it's rendered differently. Now I'm just going to apply this to the rest. Basically, there's some new information, so I'm just going to fast forward this video. See see you in a bit. This is it, we are done. I have placed everything in one layer, so all the highlights are in one layer, all of the shadow in one layer, the hair in one layer, details in one layer, and skin color in one layer. We could also add a background color to this. I'm just going to create a new layer here and click this Paint Bucket tool, and then just click anywhere. Here we're using black. Then let's just choose any color. I think I'm liking this color. Again, this is using the same style, but we have rendered this. I mean, this is the same design but this is using a different style. The different color choices that you're going to make is going to make a different effect on the illustration itself. For example, if I'm going to remove the skin color, it's just going to be like that. It's going to have this different feel. It's now a different style. We could just change the color of this background color to, let's say, this color or this color. That's also another way, or if we remove the shadow, so it's going to have a different style. Let me just group this together. This is our original. I'm going to this to 100 percent. This is what we made before, and this is with using a different style. Both of them have the same design but they have different style. This one is more of a line art and with shadow, and this one is with color. It doesn't have a line art on the outside, for example, the hair and the head, and the outline or the stroke is only in the inside. That is also another thing when doing your class project; you can apply different styles. There are different designs that you could do for the character. Once you pick a design, there are different styles that you could do. This is just one way. 45. Export And Upload To Skillshare: First, I would like to congratulate you for finishing your class project. Now let's export what you have done and post it on Skillshare. What I would want to see from what you have done is the box character, the completed head, and the stylized head. Now let's export what we have done. Here I have created a different pic by using a different set of designs. So let's click "File" and let's click "Save As" and save on your computer, and then change the format to JPEG. Click "Save", click "Okay" and we're good with that. Now for the other files, just make sure that they are lined up like this in any order that you want. Go to "File", click "Save As" save on your computer, and then change the format to JPEG, and then choose whatever file name that you want. I'm good with that. I'm just going to click, "Save", click "Okay" and that's already exported. Now we need also to export this box character. Click "File", click "Save As" save on your computer, change the format to JPEG, and then click "Save", click "Okay". Now on Skillshare on the class page, go to the Projects and Resources tab and click "Create Project". Here for the cover image, choose the final project. Locate your file. For me, this would be the class project. I'm good with that, click "Submit", and then change a project title. Then you can type anything here that you want. Then you could add more content. This is where we would add the other images. Click here and then locate those files. I'm going to start with the head structure, or I'm going to start with the box character and then add another. Click again the image and then the head structure. Here you can enter your thoughts or what you want to say. Once you are done, click "Publish". 46. What's Next?: What's next? At the start of this class, I have mentioned that I'm not an expert in drawing and I've never really tried to pretend to be one because I'm not. Although in my line of work, I animate, I do animation for client work, and that involves drawing as well. But I am by no means considered an expert in character design or illustration. With that, said, I know that the things I have taught you in this class, the concepts, the methods, they are not without flaws. They have flaws. I know that and I admit that there are, and in fact, I know that they are not 100 percent entirely accurate. I've made it that way so that it's easier to remember, it's easier to understand and most importantly, it's easier to use. That's what I want you to do next, to continue to learn, to build up from what I have taught you, to continue to study the human head and the human figure. Being able to understand volume and form was a game changer for me, it helped me in my animation work, it helped me with drawing as a whole, and animation involves lots of drawing and it helped me a lot. Prior to understanding this concept, I have enrolled in a lot of other online classes taught by expert, taught by artists that I admire. But while their classes are really amazing, somehow nothing really sticked. It's not that their classes are hard to understand or it's bad it's good it's amazing, it's just that I just don't get it. I really took the time to understand the basics, to understand perspective, to understand form. I've read perspective books, I have watched and rewatched again the videos in those online classes and I've watched countless of YouTube videos, and slowly I was able to get it. Once I understood, really understand, and I could see form and volume, I could understand it, I rewatched again the online classes and they all made sense to me. They all made sense now, and that's what I want this class to do for you. I don't expect that you become an expert by taking this class, that after this class, you'd be really good at character design, I don't expect that. What I do want this class to do for you, is to be able to understand volume and form, so that you'd be able to understand the basics. So that when you do take more advanced classes in drawing, that you would be able to get it and that's what I want this class to do for you. What you do with this information is up to you. You can enroll in online classes, you could take other classes here at Skillshare that are more advanced and hopefully because of this class, you would be able to understand them. Like any skill, this would need a lot of practice, a lot of repetition to really develop this. If you're up to it, I have a recommended routine for you to follow. Considered this as a four week challenge. On the first week, you would draw the cube in nine different angles every day. In the second week, you will draw the box character in nine different angles every day. In the third week, you're going to draw the head structure along with the eyes structure, the nose structure, the mouth structure, with shading with the light source of your choice in seven different angles everyday. On the fourth week, you're going to do the stylized head with shading, with a light source of your choice everyday. I know this may sound like a lot of work because it actually really is a lot of work. But if you really want to be good at this, you would really need to take the time to practice. It doesn't have to be every day, it can be every other day. You do your own pacing, what works for you. But no matter what goal you set for yourself, either you want to do everyday or every other day, or you can do three times a week, just make sure that you try to finish your goal, to stick their goal. Because this would help you develop discipline and improving your skills would take discipline. I think that's it. I hope you enjoyed this class. If you have any question, please feel free to reach out. Or if you just want to say hi, just reach out. You can reach me on Instagram and on Facebook and I think that's it. See you around.