Learn Composition Rules in Photography | Toma Bonciu | Skillshare

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Learn Composition Rules in Photography

teacher avatar Toma Bonciu, Landscape and Travel Photographer

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (1h 19m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. The Rule of Thirds and Breaking the Rule of Thirds

    • 3. The S Curve

    • 4. Leading Lines

    • 5. Diagonals

    • 6. Intersection of Power Lines

    • 7. Separation with Light

    • 8. Get away from the edges of the photo

    • 9. The Frame inside the Frame

    • 10. Negative space

    • 11. Sunrise Compositions

    • 12. Woodland compositions

    • 13. Long lens compositions in the forest

    • 14. Conclusion

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About This Class

This course is addressed to beginners in outdoor and landscape photography who want to learn in just few videos what composition is all about.

I’ll talk about 9 rules of composition and in each video I’ll show you some of my photos to illustrate the concepts. After the presentation of the 9 composition rules, there will be 3 more videos in a vlogging style where I explore the landscape and take photos, while talking about composition and other tips.

Here is the course structure:
– 14 videos on the following topics: 
Rule of thirds and breaking the rule of thirds,
The S Curve,
Leading lines,
Intersection of power lines,
Separation with light,
Get away from the edges of the photo,
The frame inside the frame,
Negative space,
Sunrise Compositions (Practical example),
Long lens compositions in the forest (Practical example),
Woodland compositions (Practical example),

Meet Your Teacher

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Toma Bonciu

Landscape and Travel Photographer


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1. Intro: Hi, my name is tell Mom I'm a full time landscaping travel starboard, and I'm doing this for more than 10 years. And this course I'm going to present to you some rules of composition. They're gonna be nine rules of how to compose the landscape. But the thing that you need Teoh understand, is even if you're going to learn about these rules, when you're out there, photographing these rules should become the second nature should become like a reflex. So you need to practice them a lot in order to spot them right there in the landscape. Because whenever something interesting is happening, you can stay in the middle of name nature asking yourself, Okay, What composition rules Should I apply here? It doesn't work like that. It has Teoh come like writing or reading. It has to be, as I said, second nature. So this means that you'll have to practice now the more you practice and the more you're gonna be, um, tuned with geometry inside nature, which is some in some way is is ah, contradictory term because in nature there is no pure German. There is no pure straight line, but you will train your eye, Teoh. Kind of look at nature in an abstract way and see these lines, these shapes and all the other rules that I'm going to mention after I'm gonna present to you these nine rules, which every rule is gonna be presenting a separate video. I'm gonna have a small drawing in the beginning, off each video to talk about the rule. And then I'm going to show you some photos of mine, and I'm gonna draw on top of those photos. Teoh better depict that composition role. And after I will represent these rules, I'm gonna show you three videos which are done in a blogging type of video. When I'm out there in nature photographing, discussing, composition, discussing how I'm approaching the landscape now, I really hope you enjoy this course. And good luck. The course It's starting 2. The Rule of Thirds and Breaking the Rule of Thirds: the first rule that I'm going to talk about is the rule of thirds. And before I'm showing you some photos with each rule, I'm going to do simple drawing, just trying to explain basics. And then I'm going to do the same thing on top of some of my photos. Just Teoh prove the point and just to explain it better. So the rule of thirds, I think, in my opinion, is more a rule off placement than a rule of composition, but is the first thing that you should know. So basically, it says that if you divide your frame and three, uh, sides and you do this horizontally on vertically, then you have these these four intersections and these are called power points power places of of importance if you want. So if you place our subject in one of these areas, then your foot it it's gonna have a much more powerful feeling. Attash it now when do you place the subjects in lower part, and when do you place it in the upper part? Well, if you have something that is sitting on a hill close to you, any wants to emphasize the idea that you have a really big panorama in front of you, then you can play the subject in the lower part off the image. But if you have a composition that starts with an element and then lead the eye towards another moment, then of course you will position the elements in the background. It depends if it's not a rule that you should always use the rule of thirds. In fact, I'm going to show you a series of photos, but that used the rule of thirds to position the subject, but also a series of photos that break the rule of thirds, which, because this is very important, eso Let's let's start with this image over here. So if we very quickly divide the for like this, we can see that subject it's placed in this lower part. And why? Because I wanted to emphasize the sky, and because of that, I assigned on area off 2/3 oven image, and over here we have 1/3 of an image with the four run and the ground element. Whenever you want to emphasize something, you make it bigger in the feather, and this further was about the sunrise and Um, of course it had to be something like this again. I'm having a fellow. And there is also another thing that you notice have a darker area over here in the lower part which is pushing your attention up towards the house over here. And if I'm doing there's these square squares again. Then you'll you'll see very quickly where I'm going with this again. This is a vertical composition, and I'm having this mountain in the upper part, and it's placed over here now. I also have other compositions rules playing along in these feathers. But I don't want to talk about it yet. I just want to present a true with the core elements and ideas attached to it. I just don't want Teoh you to get confused. For the moment, I'm using the rule of thirds to place my subject in the photo again. I'm having this this house at the base off the hill and a ZAY said, if you're placing it at the base, you're making the story either about sky or about the beautiful panorama that would follow in this case. In this case, it's about the sky. Over here we have ah very powerful composition, and it's not on Lee due to the rule of thirds. But still we is gonna see it slightly off. If we would have to divide the federal, it will look something like this. But still, it's still the rule of thirds, and it's because of this diagonal that is in the frame that takes your attention here. And it's basically kind of like this area, but in some ways, in some occasions it can do a little bit off. Now let me show a few images that braid rule of thirds visibly, for example. Over here, I place this entire road in the middle. Usually, when you have an element that sits in, let's say, a sea off, other off negative space off something that it can be considered negative space. Then you can placed plays the element right in the middle. Over here we have only the forest, so I'm using the forest as a negative space. Teoh frame the road over here in with this federal and for me, it's clear that this peak and this house, it's almost like, ah, a human representation off nature. And even though on the horizontal I broke the rule of thirds. I'm positioning the house in the lower part off the federal, so you don't have the break to break the rule of thirds on both access, even though you can. For example, over here, it's it's dead in the center. We had the subject debt in the center. But here, even though let me just draw the access So we have the point of interest over here. But when we're looking at diagonals, we are splitting the federal in half with this reflection so you can play along as you can see with the placement. And another thing that is very important is not to think Onley in horizontal, where you're going to place things, but also in vertical, where you're going to place things. And both of these Andi, I mean, both of these judgments has to be in the same image again. I'm amusing the rule of thirds on the vertical because I'm having the subject over here but in the horizontal and placing it right in the middle between letting this line and the main idea is very simple with this composition is just something that points up towards the sky , and I realized the cloud. So I thought it would be interesting to have only one element. One peak pointing up now here was I was photographing the sunrise at Lake Bled in Slovenia . And if we are looking in the vertical, I'm having this precisely what it should be. What? Still, if I'm dividing fed Oh, um, in horizontal. I see that I've placed it right in the middle. And I think this works whenever we have kind of like similar elements to both sides of the photo and also the reflection Kind of looks like the sky over here. I could have made it this photo even a full break off the rule of thirds and just have it right dead in the middle. But I decided to break only one access. And this one again, it's the same thing. I'm placing it like this and in post pressing. I'm gonna probably get rid of this tree. I'm gonna clone it. And finally, this final image where I have a really big storm coming over this island. Um, if we look in terms of vertical, yes, I'm respecting the rule of thirds, but on the horizontal on not I'm placing the island right in the middle, and I'm making the story on Li about the island that it's placed in this negative space. 3. The S Curve: we're talking about the s shaped or the s curve. And this means that inside your shot, you have a line that, um, kind of looks something like this. Right now, we're talking about the S shape and its importance in in driving the attention towards the sound. So let's suppose that we have a new element over here that it's our subject. It's placed using the rule of thirds. But how you get from here, which is the lower part of the federal up to this point, which is the subject, that there are number on a different different ways that you can compose the scene. But if you see something in the scene that looks like this, then you have a really powerful composition line, and the way to position yourself is to have almost entire fellow using the composition. This means that if you can have something like this, this would be perfect, because you're not too close to the edge of the federal in here in here. But still you're using the entire space. Let's let's take a look at some photos and that's this. Cast the composition. So I'm having a really, really big esseker so you can see the S doesn't have to look exactly like a NASA's. Just the idea of a wave curved that it's going through the landscape. And because we are used to reading from left to right, I think it's important to have it like this. You can have it Thea other way around, of course, but I think it works better in this. In this direction again, we have an S curve that it's a little bit complex, have a little bit much more complex, and over here I also dark in this area of deferred. It's a little bit of bonus tip, but it's a simple, a simple recipe. If you want, you use the road to get here, and then once you the attention of the view gets here, it will move to the element that has the most contrast. And that is the house over there again, I'm having is against you in positioning myself. I'm starting here. I'm going in this direction and then here and moving to the house. If you can see the ass. It's much more clear in this in this photo. This is the same version of that photo, but and color mode again, starting and going. And I'm going to the house. Usually when you have kind of like these this curvy line that goes to the house. That is the moment when you call it the ass checked s curve. You're going to see exactly what I'm saying. That's when we're going to talk about the next rule of composition. But for the moment, if you have something curvy like this, then you can You can think about this composition rule by using the S curve. This is the mother of s curves. If you want all this road, it's it's very obvious what it's happening. But whenever you have something like this, this will take you through the entire frame. This will give you perspective. This will give you a really beautiful and broad photo and photo dated. It will concentrate the I and will lead the eye on that shape against the same road. But I'm using a longer beginning part. And as I told you, even though it doesn't look like a s, did the thing that it's it's this concept off waving us, you can call it s shape again. A very simple one I'm taking you up to this point and then you're gonna move to the next, more most important element, which is the heart over here. So the reason for including the S shape is to guide the viewers attention from the beginning of the federal, which in this case is this point up to a final point. And the forest This is very easily to spot on trails. And you must position yourself in a way, as you can see the trail Azam positioning it goes something like this and then it moves in this direction. So even though that the trail, it's not that dramatic on positioning in such way that I presented to be in a much more powerful form And this final image which is a simple rolled it goes through the forest, but it guides the eye towards the ground. 4. Leading Lines: the next rule that we're going to talk about is leading line, and this basically means when you have a subject which is placed on here, the leading line can be, for example, something like this. We start in this part. I always recommend starting on the opposite side, where the subject is placed and we go a little bit like this. And then we moved here, and then we hear. And then, for example, we reach the subject. But it's a very thin line because considering this leading lines, you can also have a straight line goes to hear. But it, as I said, it's a very thin line between considering this leading lines or, considering it a nest skirt. But usually when the assets emits more simple something like this, it can be considered s because it looks more like ass. And whenever it becomes more complex, you can consider it leading lines. It's it's something that intertwines what? I don't think this is much important. The important thing is to understand how to use this. For example, in this case, the leading line is the trail that goes directly to the mountain, in the background or in this case, we have a really huge leading line and then it turns over here. Now this is the main leading line. But there are also leading lines that helped the viewer, for example, this one over here, which I consider to be secondary. And this one. And as you can see, this is this one over here. It's bigger than this one over here. And the reason for those lines is to hold kind like they are pushing your attention on the road. Once you get, you'll get the attention off the view Over here. This leading line will push the attention in this direction and you go two dimension over here in the background. Here we have a very simple concept, which is this. This is the leading line that gets you over here that in the in the very simple way you your attention will stay with Dimon first. Because you see more moonrise. It's bright. It's a very interesting area, but also you need elements of support in your photo. So that's the reason for having Tess longer leading line over here Now is a bonus tip on this for you. See, I have reach one ridge to and reach three. I have three elements that suggest and help with, um communicating depth in the photo. You have a very simple winning line, which is this one, and it helps you. And the cable railway is just a counterpoint to the mountain Over here. The mountain kind of shows kind of tells the story off the destination off where this table and wait will take you over here we have this which looks like a nest shape, but I can consider it leading line. I don't know. I don't know exactly when you can say it's a nest shape. As I told you this this notion can I mean, I think we can present leading lines and s shape is one single rule under the idea that you have a line that takes the viewer towards a certain point or you have a set off lines. We have this line over here in the background that takes detention off the view over here. But we also have a small Hinde here in the forum. There were some small trails in the field usually interest Connecticut disparities. In Tuscany, usually thes trails are made by photographers. So my rule is to walk on trails that are already formed. But still, we have to admit that this is not that okay, again, we have a really simple leading line, a line that takes you up and then it takes you over here. Now if if this line would have turned another point, it probably would have become anus curve. But I can have 1.2 point and then the third is the subject. I think this is a very good combination for a simple fertile. And over here we have leading lines created by the movement off the clouds. And also we have a strong, really leading line here. And it's, um you kind of get the conversion like this. You have this this direction and you also have this horizontal direction and they intersect in this area. What? I pleased the subject. He'll have, ah, composition that is a little bit more complex. The main leading line that takes you from where you take the feather is this one. This is and you see, it's it's pointing down. And this is the element that connects you connect the viewer from the point off where the father is taken to the destination and it tastes you basically towards here and this photo , we have Siris of elements and usually when you get here what I'm doing here, this is not necessarily a leading line. This is on over here, that is this is the end of the journey. But from here you will jump to the element that is closest and has the deeper contract. You can consider this ridge a leading line, but it's not an important all. The heavy lifting in this photo was made by this area off leading lines, and it was very important to have If I'm having all this in this area to have the subject placed in this other part of the Pharaoh this way I'm keeping the fertile balanced. And this had over here sunrise. We have a very simple leading line over here. And then we have the point where the Fed oh, becomes really bright. And that is the point where I placed a subject that intersection on this final image, we have two leading lines. We have the ridge. It tastes you over here and then have the line of the clowns that takes you in this direction. Of course we can have way can talk about this one, which is support and can doesn't let you escape in that other parts of the federal. And now your attention stays in this area. 5. Diagonals: the next rule. We're going to talk about diagonals, and I'm going to show you the right way and the wrong way to use. Diagnosed. Basically, diagonals are a composition. Are lines that cut the frame and to it can look like this. Or it can be like this. If this is a diagram, if it cuts the frame completely in two areas, then the diagonal, then the line can be called a diagonal. Let's take a look at some good ways to use diagonals. Over here, we have a main area. Let me switch to white and we're cutting the frame in two. But it's This is a good good way Be why? Because here in the we can also dry draw the third area. We have the subject place here. This area is darker but still retains information, and it serves as a starting point. You realize that I'm starting here on moving up. I'm reaching this place from where I'm looking at all this beautiful landscape in the background, and the difference in column was Ah, decision to separate. To better separate these two planes because of diagonal, will separate the areas of the fertile over here we have again a really strong diagonal, and it cuts the framing T. But still, we have information over here and small hens. And the main thing is that from this area, you supposed to, um, start your journey as a viewer and ugo towards the main subject, which is placed using the rule of thirds. That's why I told you in the beginning that decided that the rule of thirds is more for me , a rule off placement, and I can use it as a placement. And I have mawr compositional elements that work together, withdrew all thumbs again. We're having a be diagonal over here, but it serves as a starting point. It it's your just to, um, show you the full run deters zero element. And then we are moving from this one towards zone one, which is the bedroom which holds the subject. This is a very simple case of diagonals, and here you have lots of diving bells, and what I'm drawing his dots is the virtual, uh, finish off that diet. But this works because it's repetition of the same element throughout the entire federal. This is another diagonal that goes from one side to the other. It's played to the area into, but it's OK. We have a reflection over here and you have the actual mountain over here. Now here are some bad examples. And let me tell you why this is a bad example. We have this really big diagonal and we have a subject over here. But in this area there is nothing interesting. This area doesn't contribute to the rest of the image. It doesn't support the federal. It doesn't support the subject over here again, a bad use off that this is the main diagonal and we also have a secondary. And because of that and then let's say 1/3 1 But again, this area, it's not interesting. You have a small tree over here, which is not enough, Teoh, be a counterpoint for these other trees. You should have had something like more trees in the Serra and then then it could be something interesting 6. Intersection of Power Lines: the next rule is talking about the intersection off power lines. So let's assume that this is the frame of the film and have a leading line that goes, like slide a strong diarrheal. And then another leading line comes from this area. Well, where you see this intersection, then you raise a vertical. And on this vertical somewhere, where where you want you place the subject now to be to be more clear, let's take a look at some photos. So we have really strong line like this. And then we have another one like this. Well, from this intersection, we raise a vertical, and on this vertical, I placed the subject. So search the way you do this is by searching or looking at the intersection in your federal because sometimes in the mountains you'll see these intersections and then you raise the vertical and say, Well, is there something interesting in this area because you can't control these intersections? I mean, you can control, but in the mountains you may have to walk a lot to change the point of view. Sometimes you can Sometimes you can't What, um, just analyzed the intersection between these two major lines and then raise the vertical and ask yourself, Is there something interesting or something that can be called a subject in this area? And then you decide if you take the fertile we're here, have this main line and then had this other line on this vertical have my point of view over here. It was very easy to position myself. No, to have this, then I'm having this intersection is against you. I'm keeping this as dark elements in the foreword. Just because these are darker than the subject and your attention will go automatically. This is the vertical on this area. This is a very simple recipe for success. Take a look at the intersection and plays the subject on that vertical. It's a very powerful composition rule. Um, again, I'm having this line and then this line over here I'm placing the subject again. It was very simple, but I also I also used durable of thirds for this image. The case, and also this line can be considered a leading line, and this is also a leading line. But they the the intersection between these two leading lines. It's very, very important. Okay, Now you don't want to have a situation like this and another to be for example, I could have had a really big mountain coming over here in the background. That would have not bean that. Okay, because I have attention here and you have attention here. Now it depends if over here there's nothing over here. There's nothing that you can look in this area. But if over here on the ridge, you would have had, let's say a really huge buying treat and maybe that point you would stole the attention. So I have to think about all these all these things and let's take a look at this hour photo, which I use it to talk about leading lines. But we have a leading line like this and then a leading one that takes like this. Now we don't have the house exactly on this vertical, but we have it really next, Teoh. So you don't have to be exactly or 100% precise 7. Separation with Light: the next topic is about separation with light. So let's say we have a federal like this and we have placed the subject using her off thirds. Paying attention to light is extremely important. For example, we placed our subject over here. But if there is life in this scene and for example, light shines in this area, then it will draw attention from our subject. So the most important thing is to frame the scene in a way that the subject receives the most amount off light in the scene. And this way we can separated with light. So let's move Teoh looking at some photos and see how this is may. As you can see, I'm using, they're off thirds to place the subject. But also there is light shining in this area, and this is a very powerful way to draw attention to a point in the photo. Again, I'm having the rule of thirds over here in the upper part in the upper part, and the light that shines on the peaks is drawing your attention to that particular area here, anticipating there's a sunset and we have this, um, very thin area off light and we have subject now in the same frame. There is also another villa that it's under the light. But in my opinion, this villa doesn't dominate the scene. It's just a counterpoint off this one, if you want. And the reason is because the light in this area it's not that powerful. If the light would have been from in oldest area and then it would be a problem. But here we have only a hint off light over here. In this situation, we have beautiful light on Lee on the top part off these pine trees, and we have a darker area in the lower part. And then I'm using these these areas with no uh no of agitation to draw the attention more towards this area that has the light Over here we have first, a really strong bag. No, and this is darker and it serves as a starting point. And then we have the light of the sunrise catching Onley the top off, uh, on the mountain on, and it creates such a really such a powerful contrast. When you're having something like this having wide Onley and then on the element that you want, it's a definition off simplicity and subjects. You can look at them as elements in nature that are, um, so bright that they become subject and the light. It's actually the one that dictates that a seven point that element can be a subject because it has a light on it. And it's also interesting again, we're having this mountain over here. But because the light is in the background, we're looking at the Bagram. If the situation would have been reversed and we would have had light here, our attention would have been in this era. But it's not right now again. We have a strong diagonal, and we're having light on Lee on our subject. This is something that I'm always looking for. I'm always trying Teoh have in my fertile light on the element off interest. I think it's a very powerful way. And what you can, um, communicates to the viewer that this is the subject again light on here, and I'm I also waited until the sun went down and having this shadow because, uh, this shadow helps me emphasize this area over here. President, I think the shadows the shadow area plays a very important role, and it creates a separation inside the scene. Here we have a diagonal that splits the frame, and this area acts as a four room, and then we have some really powerful lines that are intersecting. All three off those lines intersect over here on this vertical, I'm placing the subject, which is also in light. So you see, and it's also using the rule of thirds. Many, many rules are used when we are composing this image. Over here we have light on this element in the background, but the contrast is not big. It's not soaps that powerful this a Redd's bigger. So I'm making sure that my point of focus dominates the other areas that have light on them . And this one, which is it's It's really simple. And all this this rock that it's behind the small peek at his own light. It was just there, Teoh. I mean, if you would have if if light would not be on this peak and you would not notice to speak this piece, this piece of rock would have bean another element in a rock wall, but just shone some light, and this becomes a subject so you always always, especially during sunrise and sunset when the sun goes lower, always paid close attention to situations like this. Here we have also a separation through color, and it's very obvious. It's a large tree. It's positioned by using the rule of thirds, but the separation comes in color. Everything. It's dull. It's dark green. But this element it's bright blue or the big bright bro Sorry, bright orange towards yellow. 8. Get away from the edges of the photo: Now we're talking about getting away from the margins of the further So, um, if you have a federal frame that looks like this, then if you're placing the subject, for example, in a place like here, it's very close to the margins. And this draws too much attention. And in fact, it droves that much attention then that the viewer is looking directly to this era and not paying attention to the entire composition and your your effort to create a compelling, an interesting image. Also, you can use this in the wrong way, and you can have your subject place okay in an area. But you have other elements are really close to the border off the first thing. Whenever this happens, the attention of the viewer girls straight in this area. Now, let me show you a few photos just to prove my point. So we are having basically here we have a line which can be seen as a leading line and a strong diagonal. We have this point over here, but then we have this other small house which is too close the margins of the foot. And because this house is so close, it becomes, Ah, a point that tries to take away the attention from the subject, mainly because this is close to the to the edges of the fertile. That is what creates the contrast over here. We have, um, a very powerful line that goes in this area. But again, this area is too close. It's almost like you're getting outside fellow, and it's not. It's not a good thing. The viewer has to be contained inside the for not outside and another image. It's very clear that we have a leading line look. We have also like, ah, triangle. It goes in this direction and have a point of focus. But it's too close to the edge. We should have positioned that in there somewhere. Let over here and have a lot more room to the right. Yes, the viewer will look where we want, but it creates too much emphasis to this area, and the federal is not balance old. Is this composition over here? Doesn't, um it doesn't support the subject. It's there for nothing in the in this situation. It doesn't matter that you have this line, which is that strong and it least exactly over here. because it doesn't matter. The attention of the viewer goes here from the start and all this. It doesn't matter. It's not important in the federal. 9. The Frame inside the Frame: Now we're talking about the frame inside the frame, and there are different situations and I will show you. But let's say this is the Faeroe and this is our subject. The frame would be, uh, other elements. Announcement over here in a moment. Over here rocks, for example, stone walls. Or you can have a tree. But whenever he had to use trees, my opinion. It's best not only to have the top branch that is connected to something, but also have the trunk of the tree to have it, um, to kind of like having the top part. And also the the union would horizontal so it can be used in the wrong way in a good way. Now, a wrong way would be to have, for example, all sorts of vegetation, something like this, that it's karate kick and you're framing it like this. If this vegetation is a complete blur and it will not look, I prefer very clear frames inside the frame, as you'll see in the examples and inside the forest. It's the easiest way to create a frame inside the frame and what I'm using our trees. I just use the white collar so I'm using trees, Has the sides off another frame inside my friend. So trees the are very important. Of course, there are important when you're photographing forest. But let me show you for example another photo. This one I'm using these trees. These are this is the first This is the bigger frame and then if you move closer, you have another frame inside the frame. So I'm having different um, frames inside the frame. But very important on our thes two trees, they are offering some space from the sides and the margins of the federal. And their role is to keep your attention going over here. Of course, you'll be drawn to the light which is also framed by another frame that is darker. But these trees are very important. Teoh to have your journey very clear. Over here we have this piece off the mountain and also these this piece of rock that it's framing this area off life even though this it's much closer than this it and in the photo work that both thes elements were as a frame inside the frame also, and another rule that I'm using here is the intersection off powerful lines and Rothley on this vertical. I'm positioning the subject again. I'm having this really strong intersection and on this vertical and positioning the subject . But I'm also using, uh, these two elements. I'm calling them stop elements because they stopped the fuel from looking or escaping. Different it. The viewer is forced to stay inside the boundaries off this frame. Over here, I'm using the frame inside the frame that is created by the clouds. Oh, here I'm I've seen these really impressive rock formations. They almost look like a gateway. And when you're passing through your seeing the mountain in the background, I would have preferred to have this really huge What? I have to take it as it is now when I'm for wrapping inside towns. I like to use arcades to frame it. Now, thing that you've noticed, probably There are lots of our kids over here, but you can see the sky or light between them. This is very important. If, for example, here there would have been a gap, this composition would would have not worked. In order to work, you need a very clear area, which is this one the only area that has like and then this works is a progression that builds up. This works as a leading line. It builds up, and you also have this oldest darkness. And this is the frame that, um, surround the main subject the same way. Over here we have two lines of trees pointing to the subject in the background. Over here, I'm framing with darkness, and it's another thing that you can do. This is the same concept I'm using darkness on Duh. I'm using it to take your attention towards the light When I'm inside towns. I'm always looking for areas off darkness and I'm walking in that area of darkness until it ends. And when it when it ends, that is the place where light is born. And that is my point of focus. That is the point of interest that you will look at over here and I'm framing that this subject by using these two stairs. This is, ah, stage for in the idea in the sense that it was raining and I've waited for the perfect silhouette again. Over here I have the same concept on framing the light in this area with old darkness that will push your attention towards that point. And this image when I'm having the tower in Sienna. If I would have photographed the tower in another way, I don't think you would have noticed the tourists that song. But in this case, first you have these two buildings and you have the frame that frames the tower now because we also have some people over here and you can see the scale, you see how big these people are and then small and over here in the distance, these are really, really small. Now you have a true feeling of how big this tower is. So the federal also has different elements. It also braced the rule of thirds. It's composed exactly in the middle, so I'm having the tower exactly in the middle again. These are, as you can see, multiple multiple, um, elements included in just one fiddle 10. Negative space: negative space Has the name implies? If this is the frame of the photo, it means that I'm using a lot off. Um, a lot of either. Nothing. If we have the sky, for example, we can have the earth really small. Let's say a small tree, okay? And then we have over here described above it. But we can also have inside the forest a different tree, for example. And the force becomes the negative space. The thieves compositions are usually minimalist compositions. These are more demanding compositions there is it to make but they're not easy to appreciate. It takes a train eye to spot on interesting image if you want. So for example, we were into skinny. I saw the silhouette off these cypress trees and also the cross, and I kind of like it. I was forced to have all this sky above. There isn't It's the cross, the cross. It's a religious symbol. And because of that, it takes you with the idea towards the sky. So, uh, I just I I was I was, in a way, forced to use it like this. We're here. I really liked the cloud and hand the cloud and its connection with the ground. So I framed the house over here. Now the cloud gives perspective to the house. You realize how small the house iss again? This is a very simple weight to frame elements when have nothing in the sky. Usually I don't like a sky that has no clouds on it, but sometimes it can. It can convey an idea. For example, this house was in the middle off this field and there was nothing in the field. And in a way you you kind of feel the loneliness because there is nothing here. There is nothing here. There is just the house. It is floating in this space. This is the absolute negative space. When you presume I was for roughing in the village and there waas I really think fall and I only saw the street and it was obvious that two for wrap this tree in in the middle off basically nothing. This negative space can be really, really powerful. And over here we have a really powerful leading line that takes your attention over here, which is placed on by using the rule of thirds. But I'm using the negative space around it to emphasize it again. A powerful leading line. And these elements, because there are so few elements in the federal like this, the simplicity of the photo. It's what makes it that interesting toe to look at. Here is the case when I used the forest as a negative space. So inside the forest I was on the hill and I saw this really beautiful church. I placed it by using the rule of thirds, and I surrounded the church with this beautiful vegetation. 11. Sunrise Compositions: It's time for a sunrise. It is going to be a tricky sunrise. Let me show you why. See, oldest massive clouds. I have only one window, one one opening. So the sunrise is going to be extremely short. But because of the clouds, I think it's going to be extremely spectacular. The light. I expect that it will come. It will reflect from the clouds going to the rocks and create a beautiful sensation. The only thing is that I have also some kind of haze. Far Gore's Mogg, whatever the horizon line. So the son I was going to be completely visible a few minutes after sunrise. But when it does, it will rise. I think it's going to be excellent. It's going to be great. What I need to do is set up my equipment as quickly as possible, because with sunrise you don't know what is happening. You may have light. You may have clouds bouncing the light Red Cloud's You never know exactly what it's going to happen, so you need to be repaired. That is why I'm here 45 minutes before the actual sunrise to have time to prepare myself for the special moment, so get ready for E. I always try Teoh start for roughing before the actual sunrise. It gives me time to accommodate with the place to get used to the entire feeling, to see compositions. And right now what I want is to capture not only the silhouette of this pick that there is called TWalker. So it's talk a pick but a little bit of detail in it, just as I see it with my own eyes and then the clouds that are above and the shred off red and magenta that is going on the horizon, that it's a beautiful tint off magenta. I didn't seem sunrise that looked bad on the mountain. I never saw that. I think this is one of the most beautiful moment, and it's happening every day. What almost everyday days when I when it's cloudy, it's not visible. But in the days that is visible, it's a It's a true spectacle. I will sweet you telephoto lens to capture some details. - Way . Question. What? It's the sunrise moment in landscape photography. In my opinion, nothing. Not even the sunset. Not anything in the world. The sunrise light is the most spectacular like the most interesting light that you can possibly find nature. The only thing that you need to do is to find a good and interesting subject, toe Billiton by this wonderful and beautiful line. Fast way that first time I don't sound right. Shots do some drone shots. I gave you some tips, and now it's time to do some more photos. I will switch again to you the telephoto lands to capture some more details. My luck is the clouds are on the sky and that reflect to this beautiful light. So it's a longer sunrise than usual because of this of these clouds. The light looks interesting again. What I'm doing right now as moving from wide shots too tighter and tighter shots. I can't call them really close up because these close ups are off entire mountains. So I'm just moving closer and closer. It's a thing that I like to do it starting wide and then use the telephoto. Of course, then, if the opportunity appears switchback toe wide, don't don't be. Don't be lazy. If you need to switch Lance's 10 times, switch it. Don't worry that it's going to get dust inside your Zo or on your sensor. It will eventually anyway. So switch lances as often as needed, not not just for for the sake of it, but if needed, do it that first. - That way, with main aspect off, the summer sun rises is that are very short. The sun is rising really fast, and the light tends to get harsh very quickly. Today was a lucky because of the clouds because the light was filtered by the clouds in our soul and also reflected by the clouds above. I'm ahead of lack of having a longer sunrise, but now it's over, and it's time for me to pack my gear and move on and descend the mountain and go home. 12. Woodland compositions: drain the entire morning. But looking at the forecast, I knew exactly that between 10 30 12. Terrain is going to stop there on several moments when it's best for you to be out there in the landscape photographing it. One of those moments is right when the rain stops and you are in the forest or up in the mountains. Now this particular mountain where I am right now and if assured and in a situation like this is gonna have heavy fog at the top. But at the bay from the four is that it's around. The mountain is going to be clear now. Wide get to be in the forest wide when the rain stops. It's because the saturated colors and clean atmosphere did you get. And that's the best way to explore a forest. After the rainy day, Robert boots right near the poise, Worst of the car. So this massive fallen tree. And it's an interesting scene. It's an interesting aspect of the forest, this idea that something's die and some other things live from the things that die and this continues cycle that goes on and on and on. I will try to capture this essence in a simple photo that will present the for one tree, and I hope that I will do justice to it. The most difficult thing in a situation like this is framing, finding a composition that seats the place then that presents this massive fallen tree, uh, somewhere in all its glory. There's almost a politic beauty to this entire scene because, as I'm photographing, I realized that the sensor of the camera captures the origin off the tree, the place for where it fallen. It captures in darkness. And then because over here there's much more light than it's like the tree has fallen into the light. Now, before I leave, I will take another one or two shots. Who the texture off these really big leaves. And after that, I'm going to move along and such for another place to photograph it. As I was walking through the forest, I found the Mountain Creek. The water is pure, even though it was a rainy day, usually in days like there's the water is pretty mighty. But today I'm putting like it now the small water for it's really small. It's about 30 40 centimeters high now This means that I had to be real owner to emphasize the dimension of the water, to make it look bigger. Basically, besides sitting very low in order to emphasize the size of the water for I'm also using this clearing conceive. From here there's a loaded off life and here there is darkness. And here there is darkness. And this way I can focus your attention on the water. I didn't use any nd filters. I didn't want to make one of super soupy smooth if you want. I wanted to capture a little bit of texture because the foam of water for wars was pretty interesting. It looks good. I'm also waiting for the sun to put from life on the leaves in the background because I think they can under exposed more this way, I can really have a dramatic shot. The whiteness off the water is gonna be visible anyway. But having that light on leaves behind the waterfall, I think it would create a powerful. Now the sun has come up behind the clouds and there are spots applied all over the forest, which is not a good thing for me, but I learned over the years that there is a particular type of subject that works very well. In a situation like this, it's just a matter of finding e need to change lances for the slush shot e think have found a new rare that suited my type of subjects or the type of subject I'm looking for and some of you may guess it's about until it shot. It's about using these leaves, for example, or the branches of the trees or whatever to block some light and to have life Onley on an element that it's interesting, a flower surrounded by all these big leaves. 13. Long lens compositions in the forest: wear used to photograph with wide angle lens because this is the way we see the world. But what if we think different? What if we use another type of lands and we capture the world in a way that we don't see it ? When we think of using a long lands to for grad landscape, we usually think at vast spaces with things that are really far away from us, and we can't rigid on foot. This is the obvious way Teoh use a telephoto lands. But today I'm going to show you how I use long lands in the woods. You know, once gave photography long lands usually means 7200 millimeters. I personally have the F four version with image stabilization, because the price and the wait is half of the 2.8 version, and the quality of lance is a really good one. So I stopped hiking. Hey, I found the first shot for today and let me tell you a few things about hand thinking that shot. First of all, I'm going to set the camera on middle lock. This will reduce the shake when I use the trigger. I'll also used a two second remote trigger. But the way I'm thinking the shot is in that direction, and I will use these trees as an interest into the frame. And of course, I would use the darkness from this area and then have a little bit off light towards the end of the photo photographing from darkness to the light. Because I really want to have depth and separation between planes. I'm constantly paying attention to the woods and two textures to s curves trails that kind of leads the eye. And right now I saw a fallen tree. It has a really beautiful bark on it and also some green moss. And I'm pretty sure I'm gonna make some good photos as intimate shots. Long focal length means that depth of field. It's not going to be that big. And this also means that you need to be absolute sure that your focus point is right on the subject. Just look at all this vegetation that is growing from the trunk of this death tree. Minter never waste photograph the bark off a tree over here. I'm staying at F eight because it's pretty flat, and I'm pretty sure that everything is gonna be in focus. Also, What I'm searching for is patterns where places where there is bark. And also there is a mosque where where there is light also in this area. Over here the mosque is really thick. It's almost like a bear, four or something. And after photographing some textures, decided to also for Ralf the life that has grown over here on top of this, the trunk and it looks really great for this shot. I was at F 5.6 just to blur the background and have a little bit off feeling of a world is suspended. It gives you a feeling off retails, if you want. Also found some leaves that are growing around this trunk over here, and I decided to go important moored. Just have a feeling of believes, climbing on something. But again, I have the great texture of wood and then those green leaves that are blending gin. I think I'll always be connected to the words. No matter if I'm photographing, get or not always explore it, really love the way the plans go in the ground. And I'm asking myself how the world don't there looks like and whosoever like the trails like trees. Like how sometimes it's like in a fairytale. You get 1/4 of a beautiful three and oldest experience older, all the solitude, the sound of the birds just walking around home. You, I think it's really, really great. E just found, I think, another shot. And again I'm using the same technique. I'm having the shot starting from darkness and going towards the light using F 16 for this shot. And the reason for that is because I want to have in focus. The trunks in the background are in light, but he also sees him rocks on the ground that formed a trail, and I want to have a little bit of clarity on that, heading for a waterfall right now. And this is my final point of this hiking. But I'm really concerned if I will manage to get there in time. So I reached the war four and this is a good thing that it was worth four. It's right over there, so let's go get close to it. Let's see how we can for reference 14. Conclusion: Congratulations. Now you finished the course on composition in outdoor photography. I hope that by now you have a better understanding off what you need to do and what you need to follow when you're out there in nature. So best off like when you're photographing and make sure to check out other courses of mine . I think I have good array of interesting tutorials and post processing videos. Thanks again. And bye bye.