Learn Coding From Scratch With Python 3 Step By Step | Mukesh Ranjan | Skillshare

Playback Speed


  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Learn Coding From Scratch With Python 3 Step By Step

teacher avatar Mukesh Ranjan, Learn Everything Step By Step

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

35 Lessons (6h 2m)
    • 1. Learn To Code From Scratch With Python 3 Course Introduction

      7:31
    • 2. How To Start Coding or Programming In Any Languages

      9:35
    • 3. Basic Building Block Of Any Programming Language

      15:57
    • 4. Mapping Basic Building Block Concept of Programming to Python Programming

      0:51
    • 5. PART II LEARN TO CODE FROM SCRATCH WITH PYTHON 3

      8:11
    • 6. Python Overview

      4:51
    • 7. LAB: Python Setup

      4:11
    • 8. LAB: Setup Spyder Editor

      4:38
    • 9. LAB: Write And Run Your First Program

      4:38
    • 10. CONCEPTS + LAB : Variables In Python

      5:59
    • 11. CONCEPTS + LAB : DataTypes In Python

      19:02
    • 12. CONCEPTS + LAB : Collection Types Dictionary

      9:08
    • 13. CONCEPTS + LAB : Collection Types Lists

      10:51
    • 14. CONCEPTS + LAB Collection Types SET

      9:11
    • 15. CONCEPTS + LAB : Collection Types Tuples

      6:55
    • 16. CONCEPTS + LAB : Arithmetic Operators In Python

      5:28
    • 17. CONCEPTS + LAB : Flow controls in python

      22:32
    • 18. CONCEPTS + LAB : Iteration looping in python

      21:07
    • 19. CONCEPTS : Tools To Convert From Requirement To Program

      15:10
    • 20. CONCEPTS + LAB : Functions In Python

      29:27
    • 21. CONCEPTS + LAB : Variable Scoping In Python

      7:15
    • 22. CONCEPTS + LAB : Higher Order Function In Python (Filter/ Map/ Reduce)

      8:40
    • 23. CONCEPTS + LAB : Curried functions In Python

      5:30
    • 24. PART III LEARN TO CODE FROM SCRATCH WITH PYTHON 3 OVERVIEW

      5:46
    • 25. CONCEPTS : Object Oriented Programming Concepts

      13:54
    • 26. CONCEPTS + LAB : Python Classes

      14:54
    • 27. CONCEPTS + LAB : Class Variables And Methods

      8:50
    • 28. CONCEPTS + LAB : Static Method

      3:03
    • 29. CONCEPTS + LAB : Class Inheritance

      11:44
    • 30. CONCEPTS + LAB : Overriding Methods

      7:45
    • 31. CONCEPTS + LAB : Access Modifiers

      10:10
    • 32. CONCEPTS + LAB : Error And Exception

      14:26
    • 33. CONCEPTS + LAB : Python Module Pacakges

      4:19
    • 34. PROJECT I : Snake Game

      10:38
    • 35. PROJECT II : IMDB Web Scrapper

      19:55
  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.

449

Students

1

Project

About This Class

This course for Non-Programmers who want to learn coding but don't know from where to start. So this course is enabler to those people who want to know how to do coding. I have taken Python 3 to teach Coding because Python is one of the best and mostly used language to solve many problem from Data Analysis to Deep Learning and it has very large community and support. In this course I have covered most of the concepts of programming in a step by step manner so that Non-programmer will get a complete prospective about programming.

What Will Student Learn In This Course?

Student Will Learn

  • Learn how to code
  • Programming Techniques
  • IT industry techniques , methods and tools to convert Requirement to Program
  • Python 3 Programming Basic to Advance Step By Step
  • Learn how to Manage Big Projects In Python
  • Two End to End Projects Implementation with Python 3
  • Learn the First Step to Start Programming / Coding Journey

Course Prerequisites

A computer with 4 GB RAM with internet connection

Target students

  • Non programmer who want to learn Programming
  • Beginners who want to Learn Python 3
  • Beginners who want to Learn how to convert requirement to Program Implementation
  • Who want to learn project implementation with Python 3
  • Who Want to learn coding in simple easy steps.

-------------------------------------------------------------

See You In The Course

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mukesh Ranjan

Learn Everything Step By Step

Teacher

I am Mukesh Ranjan. A Technical Consultant by Profession and Teacher By Choice. I have total 16+ Years of experience. In this 16 years of journey I have worked with Startup to IT Gaint. I have worked on various platform from open source to proprietary. My fields of expertise are Cloud Automation / Devops / Machine Learning / SharePoint. I am passionate about learning new technology and teaching. My courses focus on providing students with an interactive and hands-on experience in learning new technology that makes learning really interesting. I designed the course as per industry standard which you can apply in your day to day activities

See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
    Exceeded!
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.

Transcripts

1. Learn To Code From Scratch With Python 3 Course Introduction : Hello, guys. Welcome to another course loan toe code from scratch with vital. If you're watching this screen, that means you have a strong desire to learn the coding. And I will make sure that you will get the best off the knowledge about the coding. With the help of this course, whoever in this world has become a great programmer or developer is a started their journey from zero level, and they haven't learned the programming in a single day. They learned the programming with step by step approach and with great practice every day. So, guys, this course will give you that perspective in a step by step manner so that you can start your journey off programming or say journey or for programmer in a more approachable manner . If any off you is thinking that it is too late to learn the programming, then I will tell that it is better too late than never, Trey. And some of you might be thinking that it is very tough to loan programming. Believe me, it is not that much ready. Tough. The one leading which makes the difference is that your attitude on the approach towards learning the new thing and I'm more than 100 was insure that you were having this attitude to learn the new thing, our programming that the reason you are watching this video on the other part off learning to court that is apples to learn the coding that I will give you in this course, you know, step by step manner. So let's look into the thing what we're going to do in this course. So this course is being divided into four parts. In the first part, we're going to discuss about how toe recording we will on the approaches. What are the things you learned according to in this aspect, we're going to cover out with start according or programming in any language, it is pretty much important. So here I will explain you all those details which is required to become a programmer. And believe me, this approaches is aptly cable toe. Any language? If we're going to learn by Tonio that will be applied to any language like nor Jay's in whichever which is going to release in the future on there. Also, you can apply these knowledge and once you understand the secret off, according then remove for them and looking to the basic building block off any programming language, believe me from outside, it looks every language is different. But if we're going inside that, then you will find that each programming language is very common. Or say having common building love to write any program. Once you understand that basic building block, then we will move for the and we will map those basic building block with bite on programming. And once you understand that, then we will proceed further and looking to that how many types are how Maney style or say how many Paradyne for programming we have And what are the Paradyne? We're going to falling in this course, so that is going to be very interesting. Once it is being done, then we will move to the part two. So this part one will give you a holistic overview about the programming language and how to get their start. Whenever you were starting a programming language or learning a programming language in the second part of the course, we're going to look in tow all those steps to longer basic vital. So here what? We're going to look into that we will get overview about bite Don't programming and we were looking toe all those good element where which we are going to use for fight on programming . Once we're comfortable with vital core elements, then we will move further than looking toe the flow control how many ways we can control the floor within the vital. Then we will look into that something called Loop. It is very much important. All these basic elements are really important in any of the programming language. So once we're looking to that, then we will proceed further and we will look into the tool. So how we can convert a requirement to a program if client is coming to you and telling that this is my requirements, what are the steps required to convert it into a program? That perspective helps you to write the better program. And once you understand that, then we will proceed for that and look into the functions. What are the functions? How we can define the functions within, fight on Once you are comfortable with that? Then we will proceed for dinner and looking to the variable scoping what is the scoping? We will look into that How do we can a school variable within, I thought. And once you are comfortable with variable scoping, we proceed for their and looking to something called higher order functions conservatives. It is pretty much required in the fight on programming. So we will look into that and we can also look into the current function or actually discourage fortunate on. This is not the final list in between, if required. If anything, which is very much important to known by told are too long. According I will provide that detail as but in the learning process. Once you have a good understanding about basics, then we will proceed for their and looking toe at once. So in this we're going toe, get the details about all those advance concert, which is required to know about the programming off. Bite on. So whenever we're learning any new programming language, you must follow the same prospective where you can loan for basic part than the advance part. So in the advance part of this course, we're going to look into that. What is bite on glasses? How do we can define a variable and method within classes? And then afterward we will own award water does is ecstatic methods. Then we were looking toe the inheritance concept off object oriented programming. Then we were looking toe operating methods. Excess modifier, understand exceptions. If you're not understanding any of this, don't worry. We're going toe over a step by step all these steps and I will make sure that you will own each and every concepts off advance bite on programming as well. And once you will done this thing, then we will look into the fourth part of the courts where we can design to projects and where we can. In the first project, we will design a game All those knowledge which you have been eating this journey. And after that, if you were comfortable with all those things that we will design or tool are really timeto which real Scrabble with this program. River strapping is nothing. But we captured the data from the website and massage it and use it for for the processing . So there are a lot of things to come and more than 100% sure that after completion of this court, you have a good prospective off programming how to do programming and you get an attitude or you get an approach. How to learn any programming language with the help of these tips water, whether tips which I will share with you. So that is what we are waiting for. Let's jump Scinto the course. Syrian the course Bye bye. 2. How To Start Coding or Programming In Any Languages: Hello, guys. Welcome to another station in decision. We're going to learn about the steps required to learn programming in any language or friends. Do you think that this a statement is a realistic a statement? As for you, on the first instance, you will find that No, it is not correct. It looked like it is not true. But believe me, this is the truest treatment. When we go inside the course or say when we learned the entire aspect of this course, then you will find that this statement is really true. So the question come here is how do we can start or say What is the zero to step, which I need to take to learn the programming. So without wasting your time, let's jumps into the discussion and we will understand it step by step, manner. So let's look into a diagram. So this is the diagram which I wanted to explain you that so basically, on a day to day basis, we are writing program intentionally or unintentionally. You must be wondering what I am saying that but believe me, yes, we're using or were writing a program on a daily basis without knowing about this. So let's look into this Dag around. This is actually a representation off. Ah, human is using calculator. So you must be wondering that why this guy is suing me the calculator or why is teaching me how to use the calculator? No, the thing is here, I wanted to let you know that whenever retyped in a calculator like two plus two, that means we're passing an instruction to war machine. And the instruction contains two input values along with one addition operation. So here it comes, the first definition off our course or say first question off our court. And the question is, what is a program? So if you go with this diagram, then the definition is program is nothing where Toby or stay mechanism by which you can communicate with the machine or communicate with their device. In this example, there is some instruction set which is already being feed within this machine, and we're passing the input value along with the operations and then it is returning some value on which is being displayed within the screen. But the uses off this device is very limited, and it has pre in store programs or pre configured program or instruction set which were using. And we can't for their customize and provide any custom actions which we want to apply in tow this device, we can't do it. But the reason toe So this example is that I wanted to let you know that we are communicating with the device with the program which has already been configured and where we're passing the values and that values is getting displayed. So that means we are doing programming. But we are going with the very limited set off instruction. We are just passing the operations and with the input value. But we can't do any kind of her father configuration off the custom instructions. If you were having any difficulty in learning these instruction, set words and all jargon, don't worry. Just walk along with me. I will make sure that by the end of the course you will learn everything. So now move for that and looking toe the other part off the diagram. So here there is other part of diagonal we can have where we're having a program which is communicating with computers. So what does this programme contains? We have to understand it. No, we have understand that what this program is program is nothing but a mechanism by which you can communicate with the computers. So now we understand that. Okay, because this is ah, Instruction said this programme contains the instructions that where we pass it to the computer and computer do the respective top. But before learning the things which exist within this program, let's understand the whole process. So basically. So when human writer program and prior to running this program basically compiled this scored and converted into the computer readable form it so that computer can understand that what is given in the instruction set. So here we got a new tone chord compiled. So what does this compel me? Compile is nothing but a process which will convert your program in tow by it good or to say which will convert your program in tow. Computer readable form it and then computer will execute that a specified commands are specified instructions. There is a direct equivalent program like compiler that is called interpreter, which, with bite on uses in the starting of the course. I don't want to go into the detail discussion about the compiler and interpreter difference , but just considered that there are two kind of a program. Anyone off can be used by any off the language. If we're using C or C plus plus language than it is being, the court is being compared. But if we're using bite on JavaScript, all these can be using interpreter. But their task is the same boat are compiling the court and converting into the human readable form it. So this is worth the intent off these two things. Once it has been converted, computer will execute those programs. So now we understand that the process off execution off the program. Now, let's understand that what this program document contains any of the program documents contained. The information which I am setting with you is applicable toe any programming language. So you must understand all these things totally so that it would be easy to a start. Your programming, Zarni. So let me draw some diagram. So let's look into this diagram. If you look into this diagram, then you can find that the things which belongs to this program and the things which we write in this program file is something like this and it is pretty much common for every programming language. So basically we are writing a user different function which we will discuss in the entire part of the course. Basically, we will discuss in the next part what is this functions. Then we will look into the variables. What is variable? Then we will look into a block. Then we will look into loops to all these things we can discuss and I will give you the over we revote all this thing in the next session off this part one on in part two, we will do the practical and we can create all those thing by our and for time being just considered that there is something called user different function. There is something called variable. There is something called each block conditional block. And there is something called groups which exist within this program. Once you understand that, then you can relate all the programming language together. Now looking toe this diagram So what? This representation is Basically all these components are all these elements is very common in each of these programming languages, so you can find all these blocks in each of this programming language. The one only difference is that how do you write? That means the sin text. The Syntex is little different in each of this, but the intent the same where you can define your functions and where you can define your variables within function. We can use the IV block if there is any conditions than we can use loops. If any reactivation is there on a collection off objects, if it is existing within the program. So we're going to use loops for that. So here I can say that at zero to step, you have toe. Remember this diagram on basically remember these things these Jagan's If you remember these four jargon, that means you have people sent down apartments. You have completed 50% off your journey. No, next is to launder Syntex and how we are going toe. Use these these things. That means any program. Whenever we right, we get the requirement about that program. So I want to build this thing. Plant is coming to you. They tell it like that. This is my requirement and I want to build this program. So we were looking toe some example. We will also look into some of the tools which convert your requirement into a program. So how we're doing it, we will learn that part in the later part of the course in the part two of the course so that you will get more confidence about how toe convert or requirement in tow program. So on this note, I want to a stop decision over here, and I will continue from here only in our next session and we will discuss that. What? Actually, these variables are each block Our look loops are on a higher level. We are not going to cover the fight on Syntex over here on a gender perspective, I wanted to give you in the next section so we will look into that in more detail. And what are the things pretty much common in a reeling languages. What are the common blocks? We look into more detail, so see in the next session, for the time being, bye bye 3. Basic Building Block Of Any Programming Language: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in this session. What we're going to do, we're going to learn about the basic building block off any programming language. So that means we're going to discuss about the common elements with reuse in all the programming language. Some of you must be having a question that why I am teaching all this and why I am not coming to the fore indirectly. Why I am not a starting teaching fight on the reason we ended that I want that whatever the time you have spent, you can use it. Or so you can use the knowledge in learning the other programming language in future. And these knowledge are not only applicable to Plato these knowledge you can a plane any off the programming languages. So without wasting time, let's jumps into the discussion and then we will proceed. So let's look into the overall picture. So this is what we're having. The elements within the program suppose that if we're designing any program, these elements comes into picture, I have given one little limited set off information which is applied toe any off the programming language. I haven't covered there at once. blocks like classes and all because I don't want to confuse you. I want that you can get all those information when I step by step, manner and later point. Of course, you will get the complete picture. So any program which is made off following components which contains a variable I will discuss one way one which contains flow control for the seasons, which contains loops, which contains some key words off that language, which contained some operator to perform some actions on the given number for any string Goretti. So there's a certain data types. We need to remember that some of the data type data type is nothing but a representation off particular date of it, then computer programming. So now we will also look in tow characters. How do any programming language use characters? Once we have comfortable with all this thing, we will look into areas also, it is a collection tape. Then we will look into some special collection tape that is a strength which is an area off characters, and once it is being done, there is some type. We're sorry for that, and then we will look into the functions. So how do you organize all this within a program with the help of functions. So these are some of the basic building block off programming. So before jumping into any of their discussion on all these elements, I wanted to show you one of the picture which I have drawn. So here I wanted to show you the hierarchy off the memory. So whenever you design a program and you want to run it so it will run from in any of this location depend upon the size of the program and what kind of cooperation we are going to perform for a time being just considered. That thes type of memory exists within the computers. If you look into the hierarchy, you find that it has various types of memory like register cachet, main memory, lamb are this magnetic and these memory can be used to hold the information about the executing program. So for the time being, you just considered that there is a memory block which contains the information about the executing program. So let's jumped into the discussion, which we left earlier. So in this we will understand that what is variable variable in nothing better name off the memory location, which holds the data. So let's understand, with an example to Let's jumps into the terminal right now, you don't bother about how this terminal came. I will let you know when we start the part two. So here we're having, for example, of variable and no, I print e. It will give me value 10 because I have restored this information seem very free right equal to 20. It will give me value 20. So where this information is the starting. So it is a starting in one of the memory block, so just consider that is the name of that location. And whenever I'm calling it So it is returning Amita value. So now let's look into the another element. So jump into the diagram. So here we will look into keywords work, actually, keywords. It's basically every programming language should have some results keywords. So we should not use for any of the variable definition. So what it means So considering an example, which I'm going to demonstrate now, suppose if you are trading, we have returned that equal toe, so it is allowed. But if we try to rate if equal to 10 it will give me every Why? Because we can't use keyword as a variable. So every programming language would have result keyword. So make sure that you know those keywords for fight on. I will let you know. What are those keywords are. So whenever you are defining any variable, you can't lose that keywords. So far, so good. We made good progress. Now understand that. Another element. One more thing. Which I wanted to let you know that this cell, if you are confused, Woodward, this cell is Don't get confused. I will let you know in the part two off the section. What? Actually it is and how it is coming. When we do the set up installation off by tone using Anaconda, then you will get this option to run the program. I'm using it because I wanted to give you a practical perspective off the programming language so that when you were start writing it, you feel comfortable that if you're getting such an edit, then you will not get confused. One type I wanted to give you over here that you get a practice of seeing all these syntax editor and other kind of feather Because in a programmers life, these are the things which comes on a daily basis, so get used to it. You can understand that. How you are going to deal with this syntax error. If it is coming, I will let you know. Although the steps, whenever you're getting such a how to debug it, how to look into the court and how to rectify it those chord. So get a practice off it. If it is coming, it is good. The sooner you get this error, so not you will learn the thing. So now let jumps into the diagram. So another element is Flo control flow current rules Just nothing better conditional statement within a program. So let's look into example what I mean to say Suppose that we have already defined equal to 10. This is the valuable we have different If you print it, it is coming tonight. Now suppose if you want to check that whether this value is 10 or not, so we need or the season and we can apply those decision in python or any of the language. There is a certain block called if block the sink. Syntex wise it is very different, but it do the same thing in each of the programming language to check the conditional statements. So, for example, in fight on what we will do, I just wanted to show you double equal toe these operators. I will let you know when we go into part. Oh, we're considering that it is a operator we used to check the value. And if you're writing equal to 10 and then here were telling that print Yes, it is 10. So what will happen over here? And you will run it. Then it will print. Yes, it distant. Why? Because our value is 10. So just take an example. Now, another example. If we put a value equal to equal to 20 and now we will run it again to do that we're defining over here equal toe tell. And here we're printing print. Yes, and then we have what else block. So this is a part off if block, this isn't flow control. So it is part of flow control inter. And then you can rate print? No. So it will check that whether the value off he's 10 or not. So it will print no So it prints? No. Why? Because we have checked, used the flow control and then we print it. As for the conditions to now, let jumps into the another elemental programming language. So we will be seeing your loops. So Loops is another one of the mostly used or one of the most important element off program and eat programming must have or say eat. Programming has loops, which we can use for iteration. But Prideaux learning loops. I wanted to give you a concept about a raise because we are going toe iterate these air raids with the help of group. So I wanted to give you understanding about it is so let's look into Aires. So at it is nothing but the collection object. This thing also exist in each of the programming language which is already existing. And this must stay whenever a new programming language comes in. Tow the market because all are these things are basic building block off programs, So let's jumped into the terminal. So here, suppose if we're defining equal toe 381 some values like this. So here we have restoring the collections off all these numbers, so that means a single variable were using to restoring this collection. So now if you want to access this, if you rate a and enter, then it will return the entire collections. But if you want to access a particular element, then you need toe access. The Indus is I will explain you in more detail. First, let's see this example. If I want to access three, I need to specify equal to zero as memory, a location or the Indus is. It starts with zero. So here it is, returning me three. So now let's look into this diagram. So basically, this is an area and collection off numbers. So what we're doing, the actual value is being is stored in a contiguous location and add a contains the information in a contiguous location, and when you try to access it, then it is returning the complete set. But if you want to access a particular in this is a particular value, then we need toe access. It with the Indus is so in short, there is nothing but a collection off object, and value is stored in contiguous memory locations. If we want to access complete Aaron, then we can directly call the variable name off very. And if we want to access a particular element, then we need to pass. The Indus is and in this is always a start with zero. So this is what on a raise. But if you have any doubts, you can contact me in my Twitter handle. I can give you the reference material. If you want a further explanation or further information on this, you can rate me on her twitter handle with the course name along with your questions. So I will respond. And my Twitter handle is this cloud property. So this is my Twitter handle. You can send your question along with the girl's name, and I will respond it whenever I see the message. So moving for the So now let's look into the loops. Soto under standard whether we will jump into terminal and we will look by example if you remember that we have declared and are variable and which contains 381 and if you print to it is printing all the value, but I want to access all the element one by one. So I have two options. Either I can go there call. The Indus is and in tow I get the first element. Then I page one. The NYT get second element. Then I typed the night I p 02 when he says, but it is very, very dread Garrett on start mince It is very laborious and nobody will rate like this if somebody want toe access, each elements. So here loops comes in tow Picture if we will use it. So how do we can use it? I will let you know. I have given a detailed information about loops in our fight on part two section. But I, for example, purpose I'm suing over here. Don't bother about the string text. Now just see that. What is the purpose off, Luke? That I wanted to demonstrate that so here. But I have created this is a loop. How we're defining a look. This is called for look And within that I'm finding amusing Gle invade function off by tone which is checking the lent off this area. That means how many element it has and then it is I iterating on. Each of the Indus is so irrespective off if it is three elements or if it is more than three elements are so many elements you can I decorate it, it will give you the reserve. So let's look into that. So now it has given all the elements by accessing those indexes. So this is one of the basic usurp loops. So this is what I wanted to shoot demonstrative or groups who let's move further and look into other things. Other element. We wanted to look into that the numbers, the numbers is nothing but representation off the data within the program. So, for example, if you go there and if you're writing week, we'll tow 10. So that means it is the storing numbers, so there is nothing much to discuss about numbers. So just consider that it is a kind of her data type within a program which represent what kind of date itis. So let's look into other topic. So here characters, characters doing the same thing but character values. So let's look into that. So here, if I'm storing sequel toe be so that means this season storing a character d if you print so it will return the so it is nothing but again over it with store their data off type character. One more thing which I wanted to point it out. If any off you is not understanding about all this concept, that's perfectly fine, because our journey is just started. So I request you don't leave the course in between because learning or program is a process which might take one or two months. But that is fine. If we're spending most time initially, then that will help later point of time in our career. So no moving for though. So it's drinks. I will discuss in second part off the course because there are so many things within this string, which I wanted toe let you know on it is one of the mostly used collection type within python or any of the languages. Same with functions. I don't want to confuse more with all this thing, and I don't want to overload you with all this concept in a single video. I want that you should learn step by step. So I kept this topic later point of time so that once we will practice as number off as programs, then we will go into function so that you can think about what actually functions is and how we are going to use functions and why we're using the functions. So that's it. Guys, this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in this lab. I hope I have given a holistic view about the elements off the program. And if in case if we're not understanding anything, just let me know your question on my Twitter handle, which is act cloud property with the court's name. I will respond you once I get time. Okay. Thank you. Bye. Bye. See you in the next session. 4. Mapping Basic Building Block Concept of Programming to Python Programming: Hello, guys. Welcome to another station Decision is going to a very short ization as I have covered all these things in my previous video. That means I have most all this thing with the previous video because it was making much sense. Toe show you all those basic building block or programming with the life example with bite on. So I have most that video this part of video with a previous lecture. So please go and see that if you haven't seen that But if you have seen that then it's good you can proceed for the Buddha. Another session. One more thing. I wanted to let you know. If you face any issue then you can contact me at Cloud property Twitter handle So you can drop me with the lecture name are with the course name and I will respond that whenever I see your message I hope you are enduring the course to see in the next session. Bye bye. 5. PART II LEARN TO CODE FROM SCRATCH WITH PYTHON 3: Hello, guys. Welcome to our two of the course loan toe code from scratch with Fight on three so far, you must be knowing that what are the core component or say basic building block off any programming languages, as in the part one off the courts. I have discussed you about these Top. It's if you look in tow that we have seen that how to start coding in any programming language. Along with that, I have also discussed that basic building block off any programming languages. And then we have also seen that mapping off those basic building block within fight on programming. Then we have also seen that programming paradigm there. We have seen that how many ways you can write the programs. So now, in part two of the course, we are going to look in tow following topics. But before going into detail off all this topic, I just wanted to let you know that I have created all these things you know, step by step manner, so that you can understand it very easily if you are non programming background. But if you were a programmer, background in both the cases, you can understand the topics easily, and you can easily relate each topic with each other because each of steps is related with each other somehow. So I scattered this topic in a step by step manners. So now, in a step one off the course, we will look into the fight on overview why we're going to use bite on water, the main characteristic which actually making fight on a great language or must know the language in the current title. In the Step one itself, we will set up the lab for python as well, where I can show you how you can easily install vital. And then afterwards we will also look into how to write your forced program. And then we can also look how many ways you can run the programs once you are comfortable with the piped on overview. Then we will proceed for the run looking toe the programming fight on programming core elements which actually provides forced to stepping stones to proceed further into the language. So in this aspect we were looking toe that what is variables, which I have already discussed in our part one. But here we will discuss more about right on a specific variables. And then we will look into data types, simple data types than we were looking toe collection types as well. Then we will discuss about the automatic cooperators and fight on. We will learn all this thing with the help of exercises. So the course I have designed it like that. You can do the exercises and learned the thing. It is theory last practical boat so that you will become for table and you will get a feel . Yes, I'm learning now I'm understanding it. We're doing it more on your domino. The more you will do, the more you will loan. So in the same aspect, I have designed the course so that you can do more hands on left. I have created so many hands on lap for this, I will provide mathematical exercises as well. With the help of fight on, you can solve those mathematical exercises so you can understand that. How do you can use variables? How you can use automatic operators collection, type all those things. You know, once you comfortable with the core elements, we will move other and looking toe the flow controlling fight on Flo control I have also discussed in part of the course and where I have used vital as well. But here we will look in tow in terms off exercises prospective year, we will do more labs and we will result some mathematical problem with the help of flow control. And along with that, what we have learned in the Step two, we can use that portion plus flow control within this exercise off flow controlling vital. So you can understand that how a step three is related to a steptoe and how we can write a program in a more meaningful manner so that you can understand all those things. So I have designed exercise like that way. Once you understand, we will proceed for door and looking toe the iteration and grouping concept. This is also I have covered in part one, as it is a part of basic building block off any language. The one leading different is the over here. Is that the Syntex? So here we will again do the exercises. We will look into four loop. We were looking toe, continue Looper statements and we will look into types off Luke. Then we will look into break, A statement went to use Break. A statement went to use continuous treatment. All these we will do within exercises so that you can understand that in Watson are you? You will use all these things and we can also try toe use the previous loan two steps into a step forward so that you feel comfortable with whatever you have loaned to Step two. Step three you will be using in step for so that you can relate each of the steps with each other and you can write meaningful program so so far, in less stable, we'll get a good feel about how to write program. But writing a program is more off art, I can say, and to make a good art, we need a good number of tools. I can say so in a step five, I will introduce you. What are the tools which we can use toe convert, a client requirement or a requirement to a program. So where we will look into all those tools which we will use convert or client requirement toe a program and the tools which we will discuss our functional decomposition, functional flow data flow diagram flow charts and date Arctic study. I will give you an example how to use these tools so that you will be called Table to use all these tools. Once you are comfortable with a step five, then we will proceed further and looking toe function, and it is very much important to understand that functions how to write functions. So to give you the detail, we will discuss about what? Actually it is how function works types of function we will discuss. We will also look into the Syntex to define the functions and fight on. Then what are the returning values from functions, water, the functions, perimeter and argument we will do. And we will loan all this thing with the exercises so that you will be comfortable after completion off this Step six and you can easily right functions within, fight on and write your programming more modeler manner. Once you understand that, then we will proceed for though and looking toe variable scoping as it is really important to understand the Were you able scoping when we are writing a larger program and where we have many functions and if you want to share the information within each of the functions. So how do we can use variables scoping while writing a program? We will look into that local variable. We will look into global variable, We will do exercises and then we will own all this thing. Once you are comfortable with this, then we will proceed further and looking to advance concept, higher order functions. So where we will discuss about how function takes another function as para meters with the example. So once you are comfortable with this thing, then we will proceed further and looking toe another at once concept that is called carried function. This is again somehow related toe the reusability off the court which we will discuss encourage functional session. So these are the topic which I have planned for part two and I hope you will enjoy the part two. And once you comfortable with part two, you become ready for part three. That is going to be advance level off part two. But one thing for sure is that if you finish the part two and if you understand everything , then you have loaned near about 70% off. Bite on and you're good to go to start your programming journey. So that's it. Gazed for this overview station See, in the next session. Bye bye. 6. Python Overview: Hello, guys. Thanks for joining decision. We're going toe a start. Our journey with bite on. So far we have seen in the part one. What are the core component for writing a program or, say water the basic building block off any programming languages? We have also seen that how many ways we can write the program in different different languages. We learnt about programming paradigm. Now here onwards, we will look into all the thing about the fight on programming. So let's look into the topic which we are going to cover in the session. So basically, we're going to cover the following thing. Within this session, we will look into some of the characteristic of fight on why we are using fight on and why it is really important to loan fight on in today's era. We were discuss about those characteristics and then in the next session we will install fight on in one moment and then afterwards we will write a program and we will look into how many ways you can run your program. So that means this a step is divided into recession or, said three videos. So this is forced Partovi videos So let's understand that why we have opted by tone to Pete programming promised scratch. That is because White own is very simplest language and which has many characteristics. So we will look into those characteristic one by one. So let's look into that as you already a really that by Tony's interpreted language that means by Tony's process that run time by Python interpreter. This is one of the reason by Tony is very popular within the community than Pie Tony's object oriented language. That means you can design your program by following object oriented paradigm, where you can represent your program subject as an object. You will come to know when we will design the classes and the object in the third part, just considered that by stunts, supports object oriented programming. Paradigm by Tony is an interactive programming language that means user can interact with bite on interpreter directly for writing program. Another reason why Tony so popular because it is very easy to loan language. That means you can write program very easily. If you low in certain Syntex Room, you can easily write your program in part on the python. Syntax is very much a straightforward, which is also make it very popular within the community by tone. Program is also very easy to read because their sin taxes very neat so that you can easily write your program and you can easily read the program if anybody has written the same. Another thing which makes it very popular, is that it is portable. So what does it mean? It means that bite on code can be run on a wide variety of hardware platforms. Having the same interfaces by Tony is also extended. Will supposed that, if any functionality which is not being existing within the court fight on you can design your own, so that's what it is telling their tickets. Extensible, as well by Tony's, also is scalable that holds this feature also makes bite on popular among the community as a scalability, provides fight on and improve the structure to support large programs. So, guys, these are some of the feature, which is making fight on very popular language within the community. One thing I wanted to let you know that if you have started your journey with quite on programming, I'm pretty much sure that after completion off this course you will be ready to a start walking in any of the bite on project. Believe me, it is very easy language on you will enjoy working with vital as well. The thing which needs from your end. Is that the effort? So this is what I wanted to share with you in this video. In the next part of the video, we will do the installation off Vital. So that is going to really lab for completion off that we will, right? Our first program that is in another lab. And then we will run that program. This course is full of exercises, so get ready with it. We're going to solve so many maths puzzles as well with the help of white on so that you will become for table. And you will also apply your thought while solving any problem. We will start with a simple problem at border than we will solve some complex problem. We will also do two projects at the end of the courts. Okay, guys. Bye bye. Then See in the next session. 7. LAB: Python Setup: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in decision. We're going to set up a lab for pie Country. So there are certain steps which we need to follow while doing this installation. So let's look into their steps, water their steps we need to follow. So basically what we need to do we need to goto the Anaconda site. And from there we need to download the binaries for respective operating system and then we need to install passport, the respective operating system. So let's jump into the Google and we can look into the and turned aside one thing I wanted to let you know that you will. We are wondering that word. This Anna Corn Diet Anaconda is one off the kind of a software which wrapped all the fight on packages within a single binary. And that is from contain IAM company. They have created it and it is one of the easiest way to install vital One thing I also wanted to share with you that by tone can be installed in the various with this is one off the way we by which we can install fighter. So let's jumps into Google site so no we're into Google site. We need to tape an accord. A pie tone. I have already source for it. So I come here on the first link we need to go. So we are into the and a condensate. And you can see you that it is one of the easiest way to install fight on and when you install it. So these packages will come along with this packages. So these are very important packages and mostly used packages. So they have put it in tow. This distribution. So what we need to do here, you can find that for each operating system they have provided the binaries. For example, I'm using when those way will go to the window system. And from here I will download the 64 bit one. This will give me the exit, which I need to run it. So it is downloading. No, it's the same with Mac Quiz. If you have Makris open system, you go into this tap and download it. You can go toe the lean extradition and abduct by 23.7 earlier learning fight on three. So I need to download through once it is meant to install it. So it is still downloading it. So I'm imposing the video over here. So no, the winery has been downloaded. No, no, we need to execute it. So we will run as administrator. You can do the same thing for other respective operating system and install the packages which you have downloaded. So that is a straightforward as well. So it is installing? No. So from here we need to click next applicant agreement and for all users. And here I want Oh, installing some other drive or which would drive you have. You can put it there. I'm going to install into the F drive. So I will mention over here f And if the folder is not existing there, it will create for you. So no need to Woody. So next no click on install. It isn't stalling now it is taking times were imposing over here. And once it is done, I will come back. So it is no completed. We will click on next, next and done. So we have installed Anaconda So now it's install vital. So here you can get the command prompt for Anaconda. You can click over here and this will open a command prompt. So now to check the wasn we need to write. Fight on when it's minus wasn. So now we installed Wasn't 3.73 So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in this lap. So see you in the next session. Bye bye. 8. LAB: Setup Spyder Editor: Hello, guys. Thanks for joining the station in decision. We're going toe know about Spider Editor. So in this course, we're going to use a spider editor to write the Python program. So far, we have done the installation off Fight on using Anaconda. So the spider is an offering from Anaconda. We can use that editor to write the fight on program. So let's look into the journey so far, how we have reached here, so jump in tow. So in this diagram, you can see that we have already discussed about the python overview. Along with that, we have also covered that some of the characteristic of fight on Wipe Eitan is so popular, which we have discussed. And we have also launched about that by Tony in war number and set up. So we have used Anaconda set up as a pretty much a straight forward. So and I want that you can easily install Python python can be in stolen Ovidius way. But we have used on a corner distribution from contain IAM. Now we are in a position to write the first program. But before writing a forced program, we need an editor where we can write the program. So in this session, we're knowing that word that a letter which we're going to use for writing our programs. So basically, we're going toe right programs in a spider editor. So how to open a spider editor? Let's look into that. As we have already installed Anaconda, so they have given us a problem. So this is the problem to it? We we are getting so what we need to do here. We need to come in tow This prompt anaconda partial prompt. That is for rendering for the Knicks. It is something different, but it will work for both the thing. So what you have to do, you have to come here and you can write that a spider and in tow the moment you can do that , it will call that despite their program. And that is going to be our editor. So, senior, it is opening now to see your spider has opened now. So this is the Spider editor. Fighter contains three paints where we have in the left side where we can write our program . So here we can write our program. And in this pain, if you look into rates aid. We have two paints in the first pain at the down that is coli python console, where you can write imperative commands. If you want to run those imperative Common Imperative Print Command, There's nothing better command with you directly. Want to run on test quickly within Python Interpreter, for example, If who you want to run, Parenteau Hello world and you will run it so it will print Hello Word. No need to read the program into a P way file. Generally, Brighton Program can be returning to dot the way file and that we can run. We will look into in all the upcoming exercise is how we are going to write program within the B Y file. So you must be wondering where this the pain is. So this is for object Explorer. For example, if you were creating a variable, for example equal to 10 and they want to know a world water the variable which is being created so you can check within this bean. So if you go here, you can look in tow. That variable exploded. We have defined ah valuable e with values 10 and be equal to 20. The moment you can define see equal to a plus B. So it will create that thing. So all those variable which is existing within the current context. But you will get over here. So this is the valuable explorer. You can use it. So this is quite handy editor, which I like it most so that the reason I have used it there are various ways or their various editors every level as well. But in this course, we're going to use those by the radiator. And you will also find it little handy and that the reason I'm emphasizing on used this editor as it is coming with the on a corner distribution to use it. This editor. So that's it. Gaze. This is what I wanted to show you in decision going forward. We're going to use this editor and we will write our program See in the next session. Bye bye. 9. LAB: Write And Run Your First Program: Hello, guys. Thanks for joining the session in decision. We are going to write program our first program and we will run it. But prior to that, we will look into the journey which we have done so far. So let's look into that. So so far we have seen that characteristic of fight on. And then we have also set up the fight on environment using an accord or distribution. And then we have also seen that despite er readyto. So we're going to write our programming a spider editor which I have explained you in our last season. So in this season, we are going to write our first program, or we will also look into water the ways by which we can execute our program. So let's jumps in tow. The editor and we will write our first program. So this is the editor. You are aware now? This is a spider editor where we can write our programs. The first program we're going to write as hell of old. Do you know that why we are writing hello World program on any language? This is because this is very useful. Addict ensures that our environment that is interpreter or any environmental setting like our editor, the Spider Editor are set up properly or not, as the hello World program is about the simplest program in any language, we are doing this without the complexity off actual language being used. So in short, hello World program. Help us to check that whether our set up is proper or not. So let's write our first program. So how do we? Right? We can come here and right that print. Hello, ball. So now we have written our first program. So how do we run it? We can run it. You can come here. And if you like this and breast sipped in tow, then it will run into this console. I bite on console. See you. The output were getting Hello world. This is one off the way by which we can run our program. So let's look in tow another way. How do we can run? We can save it and we will goto the location where this file has been saved. So let's go into the anaconda. Prompt. So here we are in tow. The location where we have saved our So now what? We need to do. We need to rate first. We need to check that. What? We have returned over here we are Great force program. Not the way it is already. Every level, toe What we need to do now Here you can write by tone and the name of the file. What is the name of the file were using? Great first program. Not be way. If we run it, then it will print Hello world. So this is one of the way. No. Suppose if we want to do any changes in tow that suppose if you have created a valuable equal to 10 vehicle toe 20 and now sequel to a plus B. This is a simple program. Were writing No. If you will run it, then it will print Hello world and the value off and output off a plus B So how to do that again? You can save it. Come to the tahmeena And here you can run the program again. So, CEO, it isn't giving us this out. So this is the two were You can run the fight on program. What is the first way? The first way you can come here. You can do it from the I fight on console and you can select your entire program and safety in tow so it will print the output. This is one of the way. Another way is that you can save this. Be way five. Go to the terminal and here you need to rate by tone and the name of the file which you want to execute it and run it. So once you run it, it will give you this output. This is the two way which we have learned that how to run your program. So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in this session. Seeing the next session. Bye bye. 10. CONCEPTS + LAB : Variables In Python: Hello guys. Thanks for joining the station in decision. We are going toe blown about variables and Peyton. But prior to that, we were looking toe water the things which we have completed in this journey. So let's look in tow that so so far in this journey we have looking toe the characteristics off Fight on. We have set of the environment with the help of an A corner distribution. And then afterwards we have written our first program using a spider editor which I have explained you. And we have also seen that how we have executed our program in the IAP Eitan console also with the P way file how we have executed the P wave right now in this session onward, we are moving to a steptoe Step two. We are going to discuss about variables. We will also look into the data types. What are the data types? We will closely discuss about the strings numbers, complex numbers, bullion values. So all these thing we're going to discuss from this station onwards. Once we understand the data, we will move further and look into the collection types. There are a variety of collection type which is provided within Python We will totally looking toe dictionaries lest set topples So these are the collection type which we using python and which is required whenever we are solving go large problem within Python Then afterwards once we are comfortable with collection time we've been looking toe automatic operators in fight on where we will discuss the warp each operator What is the use off each operator? How we can perform operations Automatic operations within Python once you're comfortable with that Actually I will explain all this thing with the exercises only initially with the dodo smaller small exercises so that you will become for table We will do all these exercises when I'm explaining you all this concept and once you comfortable with the Steptoe A step three flow control in python and iteration Looping concept a step for I want that you shorts all very a small a small problem with me Once you are comfortable with that , then we will start writing a complete program using all these knowledge which we have gained in this in these three exercises, from a step toe to a step for And then I will increase the intensity off problem so that you will get a feel off solving problem with the help of fight on. So in this session, we're going to discuss about variable. So So what is variables? How we can be fined variable or the clear variable within Britain that I will explain now. So far we have seen the variable in our part one off the course where I have explained you how to declare variables. Basically, in Piketon you can't declare variable whenever you can. You assign any values through the variable. It will allocate that type of variable. For example Let's understand this with an example. So jump other terminal now. So this is our terminal. We're going into a Peyton console. So, for example, if you're writing equal to then then the type of variable it created, we will look into the objective. If the type is I nt, see you now. If you assign beak were toe see then you can find that the type is str that is a string. Same with if you are assigning for example ce quarto see acquittal fold foreign zero something so see you. This is bite on has defined it as a flute so it depends upon how you are defining your or declaring your the type of variable depends upon the value of the variable within python. If we're defining a floor variable, it will be defined us floor variable within python. If you're defining an integer value, then you've become in teacher. So how do you can check the type of the variable with the spider? You were able to check with the variable exploder as it is seeing year, that if you're defining or an in teacher valley within a valuable A, then it becoming teach it. We have cleared a variable with the value, see? Then it becomes a string. And then we have assigned a value 4.0 that is floored variable. Then it becomes, see, become flowed variable. And suppose if I wanted to check it, then we can we need to write print day and then yet the valuable name. So it will represent that this is the type off into Egypt. Same with If you want to know about the variable type of for be, then it is a string. Same with see. Then it becomes float. So it is returning if we want to check that at one time. What is the type of the variable? Then we need to use that type function. So this is really a straightforward topic. There is no complexity. Just remember that whatever the value which you will assign to a variable So it become that type of variable. If we're signing indeed your variable Thanet become into Egypt. We will do more discussion for data type when we will discuss able data types end up coming session. So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in decision. See in the next session. Bye bye. 11. CONCEPTS + LAB : DataTypes In Python: Hello, guys. Welcome to another station in this section. We are going to discuss about data types in Python. So let's look into that the topic which we're going to discuss over here. So basically, we're going to discuss about data types that kind of data today, which we're going to discuss a string numbers, complex numbers, bullion values. So first, we will start with discussion strengths. So how we can use the strings in fight on how we can manipulate strengths within python, how we can contact innate restraints, how we can check lent off the strength. So all these things we will first looking toe that then we will look into numbers. Then we will look into complex numbers and then we will look into bullion values. So let's a start discussing a string so string data type in fightin. So how do we define or declare string data type in pytorch? So let's jump into the terminal and we will discuss there. So we're going into a spider terminal. So here we will look into that to define any string variable. So how do we define for example, str one equal to Hello? This is Oneness String and again we want to define str to equal toe world So this is twisting variable we have defined So how we come to know that this is a string If we go into the variable exploder, we can find that we have to string variable if we want to check the type As I mentioned earlier, how do we can check the type by using type function? So here you need to write type str one So it will return us the type of the valuable So str one is a string variable So now how do we can concoct innate to a string wind fighter Concatenation means I think, to string variables So here we will define str three and where we can con Canton eight or add to a string together. So how do we can do that? Like plus, operator, we can use here now if we bring str three Then it is showing us the con coordinated the string CEO we can look into variable exploded as well and here we can also look into that. And if you check the data type, then how do we can check it? Type misty odd study for that there is type wearer. So str three No, this way we come to know about the concatenation operation. No next step. We need to know the length off our strength. So how do we can come to know that we can use land function to do that? Bring Len too young three So it will return the length Openess string. You can check the log off your work in the history log as well. Water the commander you have executed so far so you will get it from here. So I have hastily total year as well so that you can use it. So now we understand that how to get the length off a string with help off land function. One more thing. I wanted to let you know if we wanted to provide a comment. So how do you can ride the common in tow? That so we will be using for a single line comment. We can use hash, but type whatever the common Do you want to check length off a string if you want blocks off comment. So you need to use triple courts. So here you can write the length off the strength So this is another way off rating commenting toe fight on So no way. And this turned that how toe calculate the length off a string. But suppose I wanted to access the first character off oystering or second character off the string. How do we can do that? So how do we can do that? For example, I want to access the first character, so you need to write str three and the first character I wanted to access the first character. So you need to put the you need to put the position off that particular character. So it is a starting with zero. As I already explained in one off my video. No, if you execute its sip Tinto so you will get to know about this selected zip Gento and it will return at It's from Hello World. If you print all the completely string str three. Then what is the value we're going to get? We are getting hello world, but I want to print one leader full of character off that particular position. Then I need to access with the value zero. Why? Because the position off it is zero the same way. If I want to access the value e. Then we need to access that position. This is an area off character. You must remember that this is a natty string is nothing but the area off characters. So here we need to mention where the where is the petition? It is on the first character. So it is a starting with zero and then second, if we want we access the second value, then we need to weigh specify the index off that particular value that is here one because the values is starting with zero. So now you will run it. Then we will get value E So no, we understand that. How to access the particular character with indexes? No, let's move further and looking toe How do we can bring repeating off a string? So how we can do that? Suppose I want to print 10 time Ah character, for example, there is a character star which I I want to print like this. If I am going toe do this, either we need to write print on sprinted like this so it will print the character. But this is not the right way. So if we want to bring the repeated character we need toe do it like this and the character which I want to print multiplied way How many times we are going to print. So, for example, I want to print it 50 times And now if I will run it so it will print that 50 character. So this is one of the feature we can use in fight on. So the time, the number of times we want to bring the character we can use it like this will just remember it. Whenever we're doing any kind of for mating off output in upcoming programming exercises, we will use this handy character. So just remember, it is very useful when we are writing a program. And we were when we won't go for met it No move for the no, we will look into it splitting strengths. How do we split the strength? For example, suppose we have a string called Let me write it str equal one equal to And suppose we have wasting. This is good. I want to his plate the string after comma. So how do we can do that? So we will do that by a split function str wonder displayed. And here we need to mention from which character we want to is split it. To do that, we need to specify the character if you But I need no selected concept in tow Then you will get that it is being breaking toe these number off characters. So that means we are having three values and that is coming in to win Ari. So no If you access the first value for example, if you access first value is so, we will be a storing this a split value into one of the valuable first and then we will try to access it. What is into the little position off str toe So here we will see that it has a splitting on the first part it is keeping this is And in the second part if you will run again str do. Then you will find that we will be accessing good. So here it was earlier oneness string But after the spirit it is containing to value so in the first part it is containing this is and in the second part it is containing good no moving part of values Another function called count. So how to use current? I suppose I want you can count the number of hits pieces. So how to do that? So we will come here, Mystere. One not count. What? The thing which we want to can't become the number office spaces. So we need to pass it. So it has three. Espace is 123 So this is what it has returned. So this is one of the functions we can use it. So this is what I wanted to show, you know, moving for the another string function we can look in tow that replace so replace function how to use replace function. So suppose if you have ah string str one on which contains hello world and I want to replace hello with high So to do that what we have to do we need to write str one dot replace And here we need to replace with Hello it Hi. Now if you will run it first we need to donate Hello world Now we learn it So the hello world become no high world Because we have replaced Hello with high So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you So next thing we will look into that How toe Find us harvesting with the nice string for example here we will be finding Hello so helpful Find it so we need to pass str one dot find And within that they string which we want to find it So for example Hello here And we had executing it now So it what it has returned it has returned 00 means it is returning the starting character off that particular distinguished we're finding For example Hello is the first Hello is a starting from zero to index so that the reason it is saying bingo value zero That means that this is string is a starting from zero to location Ah, food given the string so that the reason it is if hello is not existing within that that then it will return minus one So look into that. For example, if we are having str one equal toe Hi aboard Suppose we have created this variable and we will run it now Now if you try to find hello within a string one which is not existing yet So for example, find it will return minus one so here If you write Hello Now run it. It will return minus one by because there is no hello exist within this is string. Earlier, it was having hello string over their listing there that the reason it returned the starting position on that particularly string. So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you. No, we have understand distinct type moving toe, the other data type that this girl number. So let's looking to number Number is very much a straight forward. So basically, if you type equal to 10 which I have already mentioned and if you execute it then it will return that it is an integer type So But if you want toe, assign afloat variable than you need us to assign 4.0 something like that and then it become float variable. So in fight on the valuable is getting their type passport, the value worth the value which you are assigning. So this is worth the number. Type is so number type is pretty much a straight forward. There is nothing much complex about it. If you have any question, you can contact me on my Twitter handle. If you have any questions about the data type number data type you can ask me else we will proceed further and looking toe the complex tape. So what is the complex type complex tape If you remember that mathematical notation than it has Ah, this formation. The first part is the real part. And second part is the imaginary part Invite on. If you were representing the number like this, it will recognize it. So, for example, equal toe P plus four z and you will run it. So see you if the type is complex type. So in spite on there is something called complex type where the first part is the real part . And second part is the imaginary part. No, I'm going to assign in another variable, be equal to five plus five g. No, we will run it. So this is again a complex type. If we will execute it a plus B, the answer would be this one. See you. So it is returning us this the the answer is eat less 90 as per the complex mathematical? No. Suppose you want to access the complex and imaginary part separately? So how do you do that? Print? See Dark really? This is the real part. If you want to access, then it will return it CEO. And if you want to access the imaginary part, then you need to see dark image. And if you'd run it, then it will return 9.0 over here. So this is what I wanted to show you in this demo. So moving for the we were looking toe another type that is gold bullion type. So we will look into bullion type A 1,000,000,000 can be represented with true or false value in python. So if you write sequel to true and if you run it then you will get that the type is full so hard to check it You can also check it will, like this type aren't see then here retreat under it is a type of bull invite. Only people has any value other than empty value. Then it become true. For example, if we're having a status equal to bull and they appear so it is asking for any value I should enter. For example, if I intel over here, that okay and if you check the status, the value off the status, the type off the street as I mean, So here type the state does. Then it will return bull and the value off the status is through is irrespective of whatever the value will tape. So it has converted that value into bullion value. Now, suppose we if you are executing the same line off court again and he this time we're not passing any value. And here we're coming year were passing are empty value. So what is the what is the value it will get false. Why? Because we have passed empty string. Empty string is equivalent to false value. So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in the bullion that type. So that's it. Guys, this is what I wanted to show you in decision where I have covered the string numbers complex number on bullion data type, which I demonstrated your indecision. So in the next session, where we will discuss about the collection type still then, bye bye ticket 12. CONCEPTS + LAB : Collection Types Dictionary: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in this session. We're going to look into the collection types in Piketon, so let's look into that. What are the collection types? Every level in python. So in Piketon we have following type of collections, so we will look into dictionaries. Work is dictionaries. How we can clear dictionaries, how we can add an item within dictionaries. How dictionary can be represented within python Once, Once we understand experience, then we will look into list collection time. Once we understand list collection type, we will look into set type what type it and how we can. Once we understand that, then we will look into topples type. So these four category we're going to look in tow in collection types, So let's start with dictionary. So what is dictionary? It's our dictionary is a set off association between a key and a value that is on order and indexed and that is changeable in fight on. So let's looking toe that the definition would cover the definition with which I told you so. Let's jump in tow this program. So in python, the dictionary can be represented like this are dictionary can be represented with keys and the value paid. So what? It means a key and a value should represent their dexterity within python. In this case here, the country and their capital representation is done with the help of dictionary. You must remember that he should be unique. Value can be duplicated but nor the keys. So this is the pictorial representation off their dicks. Unity. So let's look in tow The terminal How are dictionary can be created when then fight on. So let's jump into the terminal. So this is the Spider editor, you remember? No, we will use it and career Dictionary. So seem like the Dorial representation which we have given so cities equal toe and water The representation we have given that the keys He's the first keys. Waas Wells on where we have the capital offenses Cardiff Then what is the 2nd 1? There is England. We need toe create another key to make another entry over here. Make sure that you put comma after that. So it is England and the capitalist London. Then we have a Scotland was also there got land. So now you run it. So we have run it and he see you? The type is dictionary type and it is a collection type because we have. So this is the way you can create the dexterity. No. You want to access the value of for dictionary, then you can access it. Why are their keys? So how do you do that print name of their dictionary is cities and I want Oh, access the keys. X is the values study. To accept the welling I need to pass the keys. I want to access the capital of felt or to do there. Then it will return Cardiff. So this is the way by which you can access the value off a particular key within dictionary . So you should notice here that this curly braces if you provide for example, next one the quarto curly braces, then it is creating an empty dictionary. If we run it, then you can find that it created up empty dexterity. So by this way you can create dictionary within piped on. There is another way also by which you can create dictionary with the help off model. I will share with you once we will discuss the model. What are the more deals are and how you can create or dictionary with, like high performance container data types model, which we will discuss later. Part of the course. No, we have seen that how to create dictionary. Now we will look into how to add and intrigue within our dictionary. So to do that, what we need to do we need to write it like this. For example, we having our existing dictionary call cities and we want to add a new entry. For example, if we are right grating over here, that France and the capital of France is status and we will run it. And now if we will run cities again, so you will find that it hasn't sorted out regard. Cork, France. The Keys, friends and the value It's Berries. Now we have seen that how toe add a new entry within our existing dignity. So next we will look in tow. How to change your value for a particular key. For example, if we want to change value, for example, cities wells and if we want to change some other value, what example? Cardiff one. We can write it. This is just a demonstration, but I'm And if we will run it. Then you will find that you can again run cities. Then you will find that the wealth value has been changed. Here we have done one mistake over here that the blue is coming capital over here and the existing value we have w so we can correct it now. So how we can do it? Cities and the small Well, it's and we can write guardian to guardian to And if you filled, run it. And now again we will run it. Then you will find that the value has been changed Now to know we have seen that how to create dick study, how to add a new entry and how putting the values Now suppose that we have done a wrong in pre like earlier we have done with the capital of do we want to remove that? So how to remove an entry from more dexterity? To do that, we need to use a function called dot pop. So let's do it like cities dot for and within that we need to specify with the capital, the Blue Wells. This was the wrong entry, which we have made, and then we will run it. So it has removed it. Looking toe that to see you earlier, there was an entry. Well, Scotty of one. And now it is being removed. So this is the way you can remove any three Cromer dictionary. So this is what I wanted to show you in the demo. There is another topic which is called iteration Off Dictionary, which I'm not covering here. I will cover it when I will explain you the loops. How to wait aerator dicks nutty using loops as I don't want to confuse you with all the concept at a single time. I want that you should loan all these concept a step by step So that the reason I'm not introducing Luke over here and not introducing iteration off dictionary using loops for the time being. You just understand that how to create dictionaries, how to add an entry with interdiction Nitties, how to attain values off dictionaries and how to remove an entry. Pramod externalities iteration offer dictionary. I can explain you in Loop section Ordell obsession. So this is first part off collection type where I have explained dictionary. In the next part, I will explain list collection type. And then I will explain you set type said collection type and then I will explain You topples collection type. So that's it for decisions here in the next session. Bye bye. 13. CONCEPTS + LAB : Collection Types Lists: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in this session we're going to discuss about list collection type in vital but pride so that we were looking toe all journey. How we have covered till here. So let's look into that. So so far we have seen the fight on overview where we have looking toe the characteristic of pipe tone than we have set off the fight on environment. Then we have written our first programming Anaconda Spider. And then we also seen that how to run it. After that we have seen the valuables than we have cover data types, all these data types. We have covered the strings number, complex number bullion. So all these things we have covered and afterwards we have covered dictionary collection type In the last session, we have discussed this now in decision. We are going toe cover list collection type. So let's look in tow that So for that we need to jump into Spider. So this is a spider. So let's look into that so first thing, we're going to try that how to create list. So first off, all we all have to understand that what is Leicester? Leicester is nothing but a mutable ordered container off other data types. So what does it mean? So it mean that Suppose if you are having a list fun and if you want to create list first we will learn that how to create list. Then I will tell their definition What I would I have explained. So to do that you need to write. I don't want see you. This is the string were defining and within that we can also define any number as well, like 45. So this is what it is telling that by definition it is telling that lists army terrible order container off other objects. So that means in the list you can maintain string object as well. You can maintain a number as well And suppose if you are having a class that also you can maintain within a list, so it is order container off other objects. So this is the way you can create lists. So to create a list you need toe s specify the square bracket and within that you need to read the comma separated value, which is off any type off objects. So now suppose if you want to access the first item off the list. So what you have to do, you have to access the zero. Tell Ament, which is the first elements, if you if you run it no hell safe. Trento? No, we have created a list. And if yuks looking toe variable exploder, you can find that we have created a list with the name list. One on that is off type list and which contains two objects. So that the reason it is telling size toe. If you warned the forced element, you can run it so it will return that I don't want No. If you want to access second element, then what you need to do you need to write one. And once you run it, then it will return the second element. So this is the way you can create a list. And by this way you are accessing a list accessing list. So it is pretty much a straight forward. When we work on actual programs on that time, it is very useful to use list. If we have collections of values, then on that time we can use list as well. Right now I'm not explaining the iteration off list because I haven't explained you loop yet Once I will explain you the loop. Then I will also show you how toe iterate the list using lobes. So when I will explain you loop, I will explain you know. So I will be explaining you first. We will look in tow flu control after that. Once we understand the collection type currently we're discussing list. Then we will discuss about set. Then we will discuss the work happens Then afterwards medic operated there is another station and after that we will understand that flow control using if fills a statement and then afterwards once you understand and then we will look into loops All these things you will understand that that means you will have completed 70% off fightin. Then we will start solving problems. So for a time being, you just remember that how to create list, how to access element within list. So those are the thing you have to remember that. So now we have seen accessing off less. Now we can look into how toe add item within a list. So add item toe a list. So how to do that? It is pretty much a straight forward. What we need to do. We need to rate list one and there is a method called happened. And here we can add item toe. No, you will run it. So see you. It added another item. If you run later here, list one, then you can find that it has added 38 times. I don't want 45 attempt toe. So here you can print like this print list one. Run it. So you will find that it has printed three items. So this is the way you can happen. Or you can add an item within the existing list. No, this is adding Gle item at the last. But we want to in certain item with in between some item. So how to do that? In a particular position? I want to insert. So to do that, there is another function we will use list one door insert and where we want to insert it. Suppose that are the second element we want toe. Add it. So here I don't 30 now. If we run it, then you will find that. Run it so see you. Item three has been placed in at the second position. Why? Because we have mentioned it fun. So we start with zero, then want zero number item one hand at number one. The second position is represented with value Index one So that the reason it is inserted over here. So this is the way Insert, insert art. Particular position. Okay, so now we will look in tow. Concatenation off. Coolest. For example, if we have a list to one, which has some value item one item, one item toe night. Um, three. And there is another list list too, Which has another list off items. So, for example, for I don't four item five and I dumped six. And suppose if we want to add, give it a name list to and suppose we want to contact innate both the list. So how to do that? So it is pretty much a straight forward. So list three. Suppose we have created a list. Three equal toe list. One plus list toe. No. Run it. It will. Can't get in it. Print less. Three. Then check. What is the value we're getting? So now you can see you. It has concurred in a tid. Although would the list list? Wondering List too. So this is what I wanted to show you. Now moving for the now we have seen the concatenation. Now we will look into how to remove items from a list to do that. What we need to do. Suppose if we want to remove So it is pretty much a straight forward. So here, from less three, I want to remove item. Last item, Item six. So how to do that? We will use a method called removed. And here we need to specify which I don't We want to remove. And here we're mentioning Item six. And then we were executing it. And once we are executing it now printed, I will copy it. Pay street here and run. Then you will find you. It has removed last item Item six as we have mentioned to remove this item. So this is one of the way. Another way is that we can specify the podium if we want to remove an item from a particular position. So how to do that? We will use a function called Pop. So how to do that? I suppose if you want to remove the items to which existed Index number one. So to do that, how to write? We need to respect. If I list three dart bark and we need to press, specify the position. So you will run it now and then you will print it, so copy Paste it over here. Run it then you will find here the item to is not there. Why? Because we have mentioned that removed the item which is a exist within this index. So this is one of the way you can removed item. There is another way by using Dell keyword. So how to do that? I suppose that if you want to remove item zero toe so hard to write it if you want to remove it, So right tell and then you need to rate list three. And from where? Zero to to You want to remove it? So now you run it. Now, if we will run sprint list three now printed, then you will find that these two items has remained now. So this is another way to remove the items. So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in this session to see in the next session. Bye bye. 14. CONCEPTS + LAB Collection Types SET: Hello, guys. Thanks for joining the session in this session. We are going to learn about set collection type in Piketon. But prior to that, let's look into that what we have learned so far in a collection type. So let's look into the diagram. So so far we have seen their dictionary collection type list collection type? No, we're looking into sex collection type. So first off, all we will look into that. How to create set collection type in Python's What A status Cities again and on order collections off immutable objects that doesn't allow any duplicates value. So how do we can idiot said to Let's look into that. Let's go to the spider. So now we will define set. So how do we can create sect? For example, if we have ah, basket and if we want to create a set, then you can use curly braces so curly braces and within that we need to define the items within set. For example, apples, oranges, Orent, grapes. So this is the way you can create a set within pie tone. So now when you execute it, so let's look in tow that what fight on will create for that. So let's looking toe that. Let's run it. No lefts looking toe the type. So here I have returned that toe print the type of what kind off later type it is If you run it, then you will be to get that it is off tape set. So this is one of the way by which you can create Set another way is we can you said constructor. So how to do that? For example, if we're going to create another sex with help off set constructor So we need to write set and within that we need to write for example Fruit One, this is another set. So now if you will run it, then it will create another sect for you. See you. And if we will check the type of this set this set one. So look into that water to sprinting, said one. Run it, then you will find that to the Taif set. Now we know that how to create set, But suppose if we want to insert another record or another item within sex, so how to do that? So let's look into that. Add on items toe existing set So to do that again, we're going to use. For example, we have basket dot add There is other method called ad and we will God that pretty court and run it. And if you will bring, then you will find that sprint basket. Then you will find that it has added Africa. So this is the way you can add an item toe or set. This is create says add now moving for though I don't suppose I want toe get the length off or set. So how to check it? So we will use again Len function over here. Check numbered off items number off items and said How do we can check? We will check with the help of Len. And here we need to expensive very basket. Now run it. Then it will return the number off item. So how many number off item If we will run it, then you will find that it has four right up that there is any returns for right. Number four were here. Now we know the know how to wear an item toe a sect? No. Let's look into how to remove an item. I don't promo set so how to do that again? We're going to use remove function. For example, if we want to remove grapes Now run it, check it So see your grapes gone Now suppose you want to remove all items where you need to use another method Court Clear. Remove all items All items from said So how do we can do that? We will use clear method or clear now you will run it so no If you print it then you will find basket see year. It is an implicit. Now let's look into the set operations. So we will start with union operation set operations set operation and we will start with the union operation So hard toe So that the first we need to create two sets, for example s one and we will keep apple or ranges grapes. Let me posit and liberate it so no, we have this sect. If we want to perform union operation how to do that? We will write drink union as one and pipe operate that with as to so run it now so that we haven't defined yet So was defined This one. Now run it. Then you will find that it has done the union operation so a year it has combined. That's one sectors wondering this to boot. So no, we have seen union operation. Let's move for the than Buddha intersection operation. So how to do that? We need to Lou Intersection with the sections Who will use intersection Operator that is and operated in tow that so he had put in place and with Bip operator, run it. Then you will find that there is nothing common within that for intersection. So what we will do, we will add a common element. I will add banana again over here. So banana is a common element. So we need to find the intersection sort first. Run it now again, we will run this one. Then you will find that banana. It has returned banana because banana exist within both the set. So no, we understand intersection. Let's move for the no. Let's look into their difference operations. So what? Whatever the thing which is thought common, that will return differences. It's hard to do that again. We will use minus operate that over here and here, said one minus As toe, it will return their differences. See year it has returned apple oranges and grapes. So it has returned, though uncommon element from the set. One if suppose if we will reverse it lets looking toe that what? It will return as to minus s one. Then it will return this two sets. See you. So it has returned That Richard the uncommon element from set to With this it is returning from certain one. And with this operation it is returning from sex too. No more, further No last operation symmetric differences. That means whichever is the unique value on each of the set. So how to do that? We will use the hat operator for that. So right here and we will use hat operated. Where is the hat? Yes. Now run it. So what? It returns So it has returned the unique elements. CEO Banana is not existing over here because one on eyes existing within both the search. So that means it is not unique. So all apart from banana, everything is unique in both the sex. So it has returned that So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in decisions in the next session. Bye bye. 15. CONCEPTS + LAB : Collection Types Tuples: Hello guys. Welcome to the session in decision. We are going to know about topples collection type in Piketon. But prior to that, let's look in tow our journey so far in the collection type. So so far we have already seen that how to create dick study how to use dexterity. Then we have also seen how to create list and what are the operations we can perform on list? We have also seen set collection type where we have seen the set Operation intersection, union differences all those things we have seen. Now we will look into topples type topples collection type. So how to create a pulse? Let's jump into the spider Editor. So before creating couples, let's understand that what is top pulses so topples is seem like a list and probably one of the mostly used container type or collection type in python. They will be used in almost any off the programme, which you will write in python. You can use topples or list topples are and immutable ordered collection off objects, that is, each element in a couple has a specific position. That means it has an index, and that position doesn't change over time. But there are certain operations which you can't perform on topples like hiding on element and removing an element. It is not possible to add and remove element from topples. So just remember that it is not like less too, as they are immutable. So let's look in tow that how do we create topples to create topple? It is pretty much a straight forward. So what we have to do we have to follow the syntax for example top one equal toe. We need to a specifying this bracket parent kisses and within that we need to specify the elements which we want to create. So now if you run it, then it will create a couple. Go there. Here you can find that the type is toppled and it has four elements you can access topples element with their indexes. So how to do that? Stop one supposed that If you want to access zero to element, then us specifies it'll inter CEO The first element you have access the same way you can access the second element third element and the fourth element. So this will return though individual in this is off the topple so this way you can access the element. This is one off the way. Another point. You can also remember that you can keep different type of object within topple as well. Keep different objects what it means. Let's look into that. So topple To suppose that my Topol contains one think is number. Another thing is ah, string and we can kill create an object within that we can keep object Also, when we will discuss classes Then I will show you that also for the time being, just considered that you were having one in teacher value one string value and you can also keep that complex number as well. Three less three plus four j something like that in tow. No, run it So three elements You are having CEO so you can hold different different objects within topple. So just remember that you can do iteration off coupled with the help of loops in the loop section. I will explain that, but for time being, I'm just explaining that I suppose if we want to iterate each element, how do you can do that, For example, be in whatever the thing which existing topple de to top two. And here we can print that. Now you will run it. Then you will find that it has printed all the three elements within the top. So this is the way you can access. All right? Every 30 apple. Another point we can have duplicating three within topple what it means if stop to equal toe, we can. Or top three. We can have top three. We can have duplicating three. So we're having four elements with the same information. So run it now looking toe that So here it has four elements. We can count the duplicate as well. With the help of count function top three dot count what we want to count. How many number off? 17 topple. So we can print as well and run it. So it returned that how many duplicate items we have. So we have 43 41 So that the reason it returned for that means four ones we have. We can verify Dart as well. Suppose if we are going to have we will do little changes over here. Run it. And here you run it again so it will return toe. Why? Because we have to in tree off one we can have nested topple as well. For example, top four is there and I want to nest. Stop but to earn couple three as well. So now if you will run it then you will find that in the view. Print topple for print dog food. See there to see you. It has nested couples. So this is what I wanted to show you in this demo. See? In the next session, Rabbi. 16. CONCEPTS + LAB : Arithmetic Operators In Python: Hello, guys. Thanks for joining the session in this session. We're going to look in tow automatic operators in Python. So let's look into that. This is one of the easiest topic in Python. So here, if you look into that, we can see that So far, we have covered all this thing variable data types, collection types, where we have seen dictionaries list topples. No, we're looking into arithmetic operator in Piketon. So basically these operators can be used toe do the calculations within fightin. So here. If you look into that, then you will find that these operators were using Plus is used for additional position than hyphen is used for minus operation. Then we will use a strict for multiplication, then slashes for division doubles. Last is foreign teacher division and which will ignore the remainder model is's usedto returned. The remainder on this double district is used to provide the exponential. So let's look in tow The examples The decision is going to be one of the sort it decision, but it is very informative. So you should remember that sum of this plus the Siphon District's last. This is pretty much a straight forward there is no confusion about it. So you'd just remember it. The thing which you have to remember is that why we use doubles last? Why we use this person to sign which is called as marvelous and why we use double districts . So these are the some of the tricky operators. You have to remember it. So let's jump into exercises. We will do some exercises so that you will become for table to use it. Let's jump into the exercises to here we will perform the same exercises for addition, what we need to do a tradition if you remember that. So, for example, equal to one plus toe. So here we have that operator pretty. So if you run it, then it will do the addition. Now, the second operator we are using is the iPhone that is four minus minus operated. It is pretty much a straight forward. But I wanted to show you so that the reason I'm suing you so here to minus one. So just run it so it will return. We will all suffering the value off it so b you can print it. It will return one. So this is the street forward. Another one is the multiplication that is we had using Verity play multiplication operator , so C equals two. Pour into three prints c only, if you will run it. Then it will multiply the retreat on the result. No. Another operator. We're going to look into that, that it's last that is used for division. So no, here, the equal to it will divided. Wait three. So it will return you the remainder Roswell. So we will print it as well. So the if you will run it now then you will find that it returned the decimal value as well . So better example would be we can keep it well, the waited way five so that it would be more next example will make more sense. Now if we will run it and you will find there 2.4 no next example. We're going to use that double slash? No, Let's look into their difference. What? Is there difference with that? So to rule that equals two. Two will doubles last five now print. So here you will find the difference. What? Is there difference between singles? Last center doubles last. So run it, then it will you will find that it's the year one returned 2.4. That is the remainder here. It hasn't returned that one, so it won't leader tone to So this is the difference. No moving to mortal s operator. Borderless operator is used for returning the It will return the remainder. So how to use it? Africa Quito, 13% of three print. See what it will return If you run it, then you will find that it returned one because it returned the remainder No one cities than we can no look into exponential next. How to create hell to find this The exponent in Brighton. So we will use Novelist Rick three to the power for So what is the value we will get? We will get you will print it and get G. And you will look into that. So a history to de power for is 81. So this is what written port? A trick tones. So this is the thing which I wanted to show you in this session in the next session by 17. CONCEPTS + LAB : Flow controls in python: Hello guys. Welcome to another station in this session. We are going to learn about flow controls in Piketon. So let's jump into the discussion first and then we will do some exercises. What we're going to do in the session in this session, we are going to know about the comparison operator which is one of the basic building block or flow controlling python. So where we will look into all those operators, what are the operators which we use for comparison and on the basis off that we will for the right, the programs. So these are the operator which will return bullion value. So once we understand that comparison operator, then we will move further and looking toe the logical operators. What are the logical operators so logical operators we will use and or And not once we understand it, then we will use this thing in the EUFA statement and their families. So there are a variety off the face treatments available but didn't flow control. So we will look into one by one. What are those? We will look in tow in the family. We will look into a block. Then we will also look into Ifill's block. Then we will look in tow. He fells ladder and then we will look into mysteries. And then, at last we will look into, if expressions. So let's jump into the Spider Editor. And then afterwards we will understand each of the operators and the if s statement and their families and the expressions. So let's looking toe this by the radiator. So before, if a statement, we will look into the companies and operators. So what are those are corporation? Operator is an operator that perform some form off best and return and returns true and false value. So let's look into the operator one by one. So we really start with equal to operators so double equal to means for equals. So that means to values are equals or not, It will return that. So let's look into that to suppose if you're writing three cool to three so what will it return? You can run it safe Pinto, so it will return true. That means these two values are equal. If you try three equal to four and try again, then it will return False. So this is one of the operator. You should remember. So now moving to other operator that this guard not equal toe that means to values are equal or not that it will return true and false. So how do we check that if we write three not equal to three then what? It should return Correct. It will return for so here if you run it selected. So it it has returned falls No. If you again run it three not equal to four then it will return. True. So see? You know, moving toe the other operator, We will look into less than operator. For that we need to write three less than four. So it will return. Yes, True CEO. And if it will? If you write three is less than to what it will return exactly. It returned. False. Correct. So no moving further. We will look into greater than equal to know. So what is that writer than sign? So it will return three is greater than to what it will return. Tell me exactly. It really turned true because three is greater than two. Same with you people. Right toe is greater than three. What? It will return No food return faults so these air this ball A small example. I'm showing you right now because you should become for table with these operators how to use it. We are not going to use it like this way. We are going to use it with if a statement. But I won't that be prior toe using that with if a statement I want that you should become for table and know about all these operator so that you will use it for actually use it Then you can be very comfortable with these operators. So moving for them now We were looking toe less than equal to sign So we'll check for equality as well. If three is less than equal toe three tell me then so true will return True because three is equal to three. So if you will check that three years less than equal toe, it will return false Same with better than equal to sign we will use So what is the sign? This is the sign Now if we will write again three is greater than equal toe. Tell me the answer correctly. It will return through now again three is greater than equal to four. Tell me the answer. Yes, it will return faults. So now these are the operators which falls into comparison category E So you should remember it. Have a count off it. Harmony these operators are It has total six number off operators. You just remember it. No moving for the We will look into the logical operator. So so far we have seen the comparison operator No moving further and we will look into the complete logical operator. So what are those operators like? Alerts Looking toe that so the logical operator falls into and or and not so we will look into that. First we have to understand that basically it will be used to compare more than one condition. If you see you, then you will find that it it is comparing two conditions. One condition is checking that pre is less than four and second condition is checking that five is greater than four. So, instagramming, sometimes what happened that we need to check more than one condition for a given situation . Then on that time, these logical operators comes very handy. So you should remember that when to use and operator and went to use or operator So let's look in tow One example and later point off the course. We will look into how we can use it with if s statement and family office treatment with all these operators. So let's move further and look into editor now. So now here. I suppose that if you want to compare two conditions so far we have seen one condition only . Now we are warned that we want to look into three years less then to and we will use a parent. This is over here on and hear this operator we will use on three years less than one. So what is the answer? It will return false collectively. See you the same way. Here we are You using and operator were stand operator example Now here we will look in tow are true case we're three is less than four on threes, less than five. So both the condition is true. Then it will return proof If anyone off the condition is false in the end, this treatment it will return false For this case, it will return true. Now we will look into an example over here That three is less than four and we will check. That is three years less than two. So one condition is false over here, so it will return False. That means that means true and false become false. We both are true. Then it become proof. So you should remember it. So you should remember this thing like this. Prue. Plus true is always true. Remember it. I'm just giving an example. Prove plus false is always false. False plus false is always false. So such scenario If you get a situation toe checks a scenario, then you have to use and operator. So this is the example. You should remember it. It will return why it is returning. The last values violated returning falls because one off the value is false and one off the values true and drew plus false is always false. So moving for the now we will look into the our operators. So what is our operator? So now in in our operator, it will be anyone off. The condition should be true. So for example, I'm taking this example One off the values true and another values falls. If we will write like this and run it cept in tow then it will return through. Why? Because one of the condition is true that the reason it returned true. So in your case, you have to remember or scenario you should remember true plus faults equal to through true plus true anyone off the condition is true. Then it will return True. If it is both our faults then it will return falls so anyone condition should be through. So you should remember this one. This is very important and sometimes we use north operator, for example nor three is less than two. The work is then said it should return exactly true. Why? Because it negatively to it Return false on then it applied Not over it not off false is true So you should remember it North is used to negate the value Whatever the value it return, it will opposite that. Really? If it return true, then it make it false. If it returned falls, then it will make it through some in certain scenarios or programming we will use it. So let's move further and looking toe the if s statements. So so far we have seen the company is an operator and logical operator. Now we are moving further and we are going to look in tow if s treatment and their family There were 80 off way we can write the statement. If it's treatment, will go without tails block as well. So let's look into that. First we will understand the Syntex What is the Syntex Off Reppas statement or it will be like this. So let's look into the spider Editor So we're going to look into effect statement. So here you, for example, so single if we're going to use, for example, if we're going to grab and input from users so how to grab it? Come in. And the input there is a function called input. If we will write it, then it will ask for input from users Enter the number, for example. And then after that we can check that whether number is less than zero, that means it is negative or not. So we're going to use the if statement over here and see year were using comparison operator And now, as per the input from the user, it will return. That number is negative. We need to check the negative numbers. So this program you are writing to check the value is negative or not. If it is not negative If it is not less than zero then it will not go in tow this thing and later point of time. We were looking toe the else part off it. We will write else block off this program as well. So run it if you will run it so it will last for input. So here it is asking for input CIA inter number If we are writing minus one then it will go into this loop. So what It is telling that minus one is negative. That is true now. For example, if you will again run it and you people write one then it will No not going toe this condition See your it haven't gone because now, in this program we are not handling what will happen if you work providing in positive number. So to handle such cases, we are going to introduce and else block. So how to write else block now here we will write the same thing. And here we will write that if number is greater than zero then it will return. It is a positive number. So we are going to use else block. So this is the way you can use the else block positive. So that means now, if you will run it so it will handle earlier. It was not handling the else block. If we are having if we're providing the value which is greater than zero then it was not printing anything. No, we're handling that. So here. Now we will run it again. And if suppose if you're writing again one then it is returning. One is positive numbers. So this is the way you can use the fells block now moving for the So we have seen two things. No. If without else block now we have seen also else block as well. No, we will look into else if ladder block So we will use the same example. And we're here. We can write else if and here number is greater than zero on that. The last we will check that equals two. So to do that else block over here and we will check else block. We will keep some I don't know. So I intentionally I'm keeping this example so that you can know about this thing. I don't know. So here know what will happen. We will run it and we will pass three examples. I will show you three examples over here. So first I will write my next one. So it returned. Minus one is negative. Now again, I will run this example. And this time I will pass positive value. So that is one So it written. One is positive. CIA. We have used it. A lift ladder. Now again, I will run it. And this time I will part zero and zero equal to zero. And I haven't handled in this program. So it will tell that I don't know. So see, year at last it returned? I don't know. So this way you can use else if leather. So now we have seen that else. If ladder no moving further and we will look in tow. The state. If so, these are the example. I'm using his dummy example over here right now. But when we will do the assignment, this is going to be very handy. I want that you should practice and you should know about how we are using it so that at the time of doing assignment, you feel comfortable with all these Syntex. So in the E fills the sturdy feels we need to take an example. For example, we are going to check whether it is snowing or not. And on the basis off that we're printing some information. So if it is, temperature is equal to minus one. And if temp is less than zero, then we will print that. It's freezing. So right here it is freezing because it is less than zero. Now we have checked one if a statement, and within that we are going to check that, whether it is snowing or not. So this is hell if you check there in the if we are going to use another. So this is guard nested. If so, in certain scenario, we are going to use estate if and we have to remember the Syntex. So here we will print some message but wrong sports? No. We will bring some message for the force defense treatment time for her chocolates. And then, at last, we will print some common message print So message by or something whatever you want. No, we will run it and see what it is. Printing CEO. It first went toe though Asper we have provided snowing is true. That means this is of William Value. It is going to check and then here we have given the value minus one so it will check that minus one is less than zero. That means it will go in tow this condition and once it is being true, it will check that whether it is snowing or not. So we have provided through value. That means it will check this one as well and it will print put on boots And then afterwards it will print that because we are in tow. This is this if it the statement so it will print that time for hard chocolate on that last it will print by. So this is the way you can use nest ready. We will look into in our real example as well, When we do the assignment or when we do our projects, we can use it. So, for a timing, you should remember that with the small example how to use nest, Eddie's moving further for his next. We will look into that. So we have seen that basic UFA statement without else than we have seen with pills and then we have seen Elsie Bladder And last we have seen Mr Leave. No, we are going to see that if expression What? Dizzy for expression. So that means we are going to write within a single line the face treatment. So this is the Syntex. You should remember that if this is the way you can read the condition If the condition is true, then the result will be written first. And then if condition is falling in tow else block, it should be written after else G word. So you should remember that the desert off if condition will first written and the very beginning than if condition then else block And then afterwards we need to rate the else result. So you should you should remember it. So now write the same thing within by the radiator. Let's jump in tow that So now we will write the if expression So we're going to use a low status variable in here. We will check the entire we will write the entirety of expression So we are going to check if age is greater than 12. That means the person istea need share so resulted should return Teenager. No, we will check that and to condition. We need to check and ages less then 20. Then the person is teenager else we need to rate north Teenager. So here. Now we will print the status Sprint status. No, run it. But we need to also define age here 15 for example. So now we will run it and check that word. The status it will print. Actually it bring teenager. So the intention off this example is that the entire if a statement or if expression is written in one line so sometime it is really very handy to write such if expression. So see you. We have forced right that condition and the output off this condition will be returned forced you. You should remember that Andi. Then here else block is having their only statement own expression after this. So you should remember that the first step. You have to remember that forced you write the ifa's statement and then thou put off this. If it is true, then you have to write the value off reserve value over here and then you write else and the result off else you will write you. So this thing you should remember that So this is what I wanted to show you in tiles, flu control example. I know that it is very long session, but it is really very important to know all this in a step by step manner so that you can use it in your program journey. And this is going to be one time learning once you loan this almost it is same in every programming language. So if you are getting difficulty in understanding this thing, let me know On my Twitter handle, you can write the courts name and the ah portion where you are having the doubt. You can write me in my twitter handle. I will respond back the moment I will see the Russians. But I tried to give you best off the knowledge when I step by step manner so that you will not face any difficulty and you will not face any difficulty while learning flow controlling fight on. So on this note, I'm closing decision seeing the next session. Bye bye 18. CONCEPTS + LAB : Iteration looping in python: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in this session, we are going to look in tow iteration and looping concept in Python. So let's jump into the discussion What we are going to cover in this session. So so far, we have gone through all these topic. We haven't started with the Python overview and where we have seen the characteristic of pie tone. And then we have seen the python in one number and set up. Then we have also set up a spider. After that, we have written our first program than we have seen that how to execute our program. After that, we have seen the core elements off any programming languages. We have seen all these thing where we have covered the data types, collection types, where we have seen dictionary list set topples automatic operators, all these things. And then we have seen the flu control where we have covered all these topic comparison operators, logical operators if Reese treatment families, if expressions, all these thing we have covered in our last session Now we moving in tow another topic that is iteration and loop one of the important topic off Eitan. So if you grasp this knowledge off iteration and looping concept along with flow control. That means you have completed 70% of python. Because most of the logic and most of the programming language is based upon these two concepts, it is very much important if you understand looping concept along with flu control, that means you have understand almost any programming language. So let's look into the topics. What are the topics were going toe cover. So we are going to look in tow. That were Pittis. What is loops is, Then we will look into how many types of flu we're going to see in Python. Then we will look into break a statement. This is one of the very important concept. Then we will look in tow, continue Lupus treatment. After that, we will look in tow for look with else block and we will do all this thing with the exercises so that you will be very comfortable at the time off using it. So what is loop? So loop is nothing. But I suppose if you want to execute a block off court with the number off time, so how do you can achieve it? So this can be achieved with the help of looping concept. So every programming language all first concept off looping same with fight on by tone also offers the same thing. So let's look in tow that how many types off loops we have in fight on So basically in Piketon, we are having Why loop on the far look So we will look into why Look what is the same text ? You have to remember this in text whenever you are writing any looping thing using why Look , then you have to remember the Syntex sin fix is nothing but a way. How do you write? Or how do you use the loops within Python? So let's look into that. What is the sin fix? It has. So you have to remember that the same fixes the vile and the condition. We have to use a keyword cold while and then afterwards it This loop will execute till the time this condition is true. And once it will be false then it will exit from the loop. We will use it, Vince. We will movinto those spider. We will use it. So let's look into that. How do we can use loops. Why? Look, let's jump into the spider and we will write a program so that you can easily understand that. So we're in tow. Fight on Spider Editor. This is an anacondas spider Ritter we have been using from very long. Now, this is our ninth example. We're doing it. So let's right it now. The simplest program we will write in Python is the right A program which will bring 1 to 10. This is the simplest program we're going toe. See the how we can use loops. So for that we need tohave a variable cord count. We will in the slides with zero and then we will write something called the starting. We will write something that means it is We're telling that we're going toe start and he'll if you remember the Syntex. If you go there, you will find us intel. Or is this in text this in Texas key Wild keyword And then afterward. Condition. So what is the program we're going to right now? You will start applying the thought. Okay, while I'll have returned a keyword whenever you will get a keyword, then it will be highlighted as a blue. So You should also remember that this is going to be the key word and key would you can't use for variable. So now we're going to count is less than 10 Still the time my court will execute. So here we are telling that no print count. Okay? What? It is printing It will bring the value. And then here we will pass another string and at the end and the Quito he'll And then afterwards we will tell that goal plus equal toe one. So remember this What it is doing were telling that it is same equivalent like this in Texas equivalent like go on equal to count plus one. That means in the very early stage it will be NHIS lies zero, and then it will light a rating. So this a statement and this below a statement, a say mistreatment. But it is a sort of wasn't so. We will use it. So you feel using it like this? That means we're telling that you sure do like count equal to count plus one. So we will first use this one and then we will use this one. So now it is being done. Then we will come out from the loop and we will print here and then bring done. No, you you can write. Done. So now we will execute it. So let's look in tow the output. What is the output it is going to print? So here you will find that it has printed from 0 to 9. Why? Because we have given a condition that it will execute till whenever it is less than nine. Until that time, it will print the values over here. So that's what we're telling. No, we have seen that it is doing the same operation. Now here I can remove it and I will come into this one. So CIA, The beauty off this court is that it is very shorter on it will do the same. Reflect. So if you will run it now, then it will print the same thing, whatever it has printed. So remember that this Syntex, if you're getting over in your account plus sequel toe one, that means it is count equal to count plus one. So this is what while loop is to you must be understanding now how to use. Why loop and going further. You should remember the same text. What is the same text and how we are using it. So when we are going to rate long program on that time, it is very handy. Remember this in Texas? No moving for the We will look into other loop that discord for Luke, four Loop is the same thing it is doing, but it has difference in Texas. So what is the Syntex CEO? It has a keyword card for on then the variable. Namely, we can keep it. And here we are using a method called Range and from where to where we have toe print. And then what are the thing which you want to perform within the loop? You should write within that. So let's look into example so that you feel comfortable with that. So let's jump in tow the spider. So now we have seen why Look, now we will going to use for look, this is going tobe a for loop example. So let's look into the example. What example we're going to write. We're going to write the same program. So whatever we have returned over your we will write the same thing. But CEO in four loop It is going tobe a little different in for love. We will write for I We're going to define a variable and in and range arranges a function on in build Functioning here were telling that you should print from 0 to 10 Now we're going toe print the value I so CEO I coma. We will keep some MySpace and then here Andy quartile at then we are also printing this and then later point of time We are coming out from the roof print and then here at last we will print done the same program Whatever the program which we have returned over here with the use off while we were using Ah, for look, it will run it CEO the same output you will get But this time we are using for look So you should remember the for loops in Texas the key word for than a variable name and then a function range When it is a numerical there is other variation off for look, We will discuss when we will use the actual program for time being My warned that you should remember this one Now there is another example which I wanted to show you. For example, if you take the same example and suppose that you want to perform to a step right? No, it is performing oneness. Tip zero after zero, it print one, then two, then three. But I warned that it should jump through. Twisted 0246 Something like that. So how do you do that? Here. You need to specify another Param Eter off this function toe. Now, if you will run it, then you will find you. Then it is printing. The two were steps. That means it is hopping from not only single stem, but helping to airstrips toe here zero than two than full, then six the net. So this is what you can use it like this? No, Let's look into what is done. Other topic. So we have seen year we have seen why low for look? No moving further? No, we will look in tow. Break a statement example how to use it. We were looking toe that so when to use Break a statement whenever you want to exit from a loop at certain conditions on that time, we will use break a statement. So let's understand with an example a simple example. I will show you so that you will feel comfortable. So here we will look into the example of breaking statements. So let's loan with an example over here. So here what we will do, we will rate a program that suppose that So let's understand with the previous example suppose that if we have a loop which is printing 0 to 10. But I warned that this loop will break if I provide an any input. For example, if people warned that I should break the loop after printing six So how to do that? So we will take a number input that after this number it should break. So here I will take an input from user and he had I will pass the number inter the number to break you. So after that I warned that my bloops would break. And so what? We have to rule the changes within that we need to right over here that if I equal toe the number which you have user will input equals then it will break. If this condition is north meeting, then it what will happen that it the loop will continue. So let's it run. Run this So if you run it, it will last for the number. So here you can pass the number for example seven so that it will pay print ill seven. It will print till six. So our requirement is that the loops would print till six. So we have we have given seven and it is checking this condition that if I equal to numb So that means we have given work number seven So when it is going inside that and when it is finding number seven on that time it Brexit so till six it has printed it. But the moment it is going toe the number seven then it is finding that now this condition is meeting. So let's break the look so sometime in certain program where we need to use this break a statement. So it is very useful in certain scenarios. So remember that how to break a loop with the break? A statement. So this is the same text. You should remember that So this is just an dummy example. But it is going to be very useful when we are writing on actual program for the Now we have understand there's no let's looking toe the other topic. What is the other topic? No, we will look into the continue Lupus statement, so this is also very useful. Now we have seen that break a statement sometime. In certain scenario, we have to check that if certain condition is meeting till the time we will continue the loop in certain scenario, what is happening that we were checking the condition? If that condition is meeting until the time condition is meeting, the loop will continue. If the condition is not meeting than loop will exit. So let's understand, with an example, solar jumping toe the spider editor. So here we we are going to use the continuous treatment so that we will use the same example. But with a little twist this time, we're going to check the even number from 1 to 10. So let's write a program for that. So to do that, we will write for than the valuable name and from range here. You need to remember that in the word and then range. So we want to find the even number from 0 to 10 and then afterwards we need toe print the value So we're going toe print I and then we need to form it it a little bit and equal to hi. And then here we will use the model s operator to find whether it is even or not. And we will check that If we did the Quito one in particular in that is one. Then it will continue. So it see here we have used continuous statement. If this a statement is true and then on that time it will continue. So we will print output over here. So we need to write print. That means it's an even number. And then we will come out off here and right print done toe here. So now we will run it. So let's run it and look into that. What is the output it is giving? So see you. This ren built in Andi. It has checked that whether the number is even number so it to see you it is giving the corrector for two is an even Number four is an even number, sixes and even number. It is uneven number and that the last of the loop it is printing. Done so, See you At the moment it is finding the even number. That means it is continent. It is moving for the So this is one off the example of Continue. You should remember it how to use it. No, let's jump into the another topic or topic we have. We will look into four whip else for Ludwig tells So Inp Eitan there is else block every level with four loop, so we will look it in tow. That and we will do one example with that. So let's jump in. Tow the spider and let's do an example. So here we are going to write program. So we are going to take this example the same example and we will try toe understand the else block off for for Luke. So how to do that? We will paste it. And here we will provide our else block. So let's look right. It so what it will do. So it will. Either it will, Whatever the number which we will pass over here, it will bring still that number. It will check that for example, we have looping it from 0 to 10. Suppose if we're past 11 on and the loop will run all the conditions till 11. That means it is successful. We can write that all condition ran successfully So that means it doesn't break. But what will happen that if we will print Oh, suppose if we have given an input six. So that means it haven't run all the conditions and it will break in between. So what it will print it will print from zero to suppose we have Inter seven. So it will print 0 to 6 and it will break them. It will not fall into this condition. But if free provide value 11. So what will happen that it will execute entirely. And at last it will print this condition. So let's look in tow by example. First we will break the loop and then we will understand that. So here we will provide a number seven. Run it sweet break It haven't gone into this condition. So now we will pray with other examples. Run it. And this time we will provide 11. It's running. So here you will find that all the loop has completed all the thing it has printed and that lasted print that all conditioned ran successfully so it has executed else Block. In certain scenario, it is really important. So you should remember that we have an option off else Block with four. Generally, it is not so It is a python IQ, way off writing loop which has else blocked in most of the programming language else. Block is not coming with for look, but with bite on, it is really good. So as Block is coming with for Luke, So remember that. So this is what I wanted to show you in this session. See you in the next tension. Bye bye. 19. CONCEPTS : Tools To Convert From Requirement To Program: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in this session, we are going to look in tow tools to convert from requirement to program. So far, we have seen that following things. So so far we have seen fight on overview by tone programming core concept, where we have discussed about data type collection time and with various retail's about bite on. Then we have seen that flow control and bite on. Then in the last section we have seen about the iteration and duping concept, no decision is going to be more of theoretical position because from decision onwards you are going to write a program in a structured manner so that you need a tool which will help us convert the requirement in tow a program. So these are the tools which falls into system analysis and design method. So let's look into the tools tool, which will help us to design a requirement into a program. So basically, these are the tools which we're going to use whenever we're writing a program. For example, suppose you get a requirement that requirement you want to convert in tow program, so we have to force decomposed into functions. So prior to introducing functions in the next session. I wanted to introduce all this thing so that whenever you will write a program, you will thought it as a function. So what it means. Let's look into an example. For example, if we're talking about one of the tool called functionally composition, so what does it mean? Suppose if you are going to design a system for pretty card applications, credit card application is based upon various functions. So when we rate program, we will not rate the entire program in a one go. We will chunk that program into a smaller pieces and those pieces, we will write it in any off the programming language. This is applicable. So, for example, if you're writing credit card application, that means we it contains following function just to demonstration. Purpose I have used were only these number of function. For example, if you would writing a program than it contains of MIT Application Function contends review application. It contains sue. Credit Card Review application is also containing two different functions that is for tech data provided and review for complaints. Review for complaints is also for the chunked into two functions for form credit check and review against internal routes. So this is the way you can be composed the functionality into different different functions . When we loaned functions, it is quite easy toe right program when we were writing it in tow, functional structure. So here the question comes that why do we convert it into a functional decomposition structure? So the reason behind it is that it is. It's really very easy to understand by other developers. If any other developers is working with you, it is really, really good. While testing and it ensured that it does, what is it is intended for? This is one off the reason that another reason is that it should be maintained easily in case if any change is coming into the system than it can be easily go along with the existing program. Another important thing, which is very important reason toe convert The programming toe functionally composition is that it's easy to people if any error we will get to know. We understand that why it is good toe. Have programming to functional decomposed for now let's look in tow the don't we know lawdy , you should remember these times we know large, even reiterating the functions. What are these terminology? The terminology is functions. So what does it mean? This is a task that is performed by your Ross's. So you just remember it. Another Thomas decomposition. This is the process by which higher level processes or say higher level functions broken down into lower level function. We're each function represents part off the functionality off the higher level functions. You know, another Tohir we're getting is the higher level functions toward Does it mean so basically , this is a function that has, or more so function that depends on the functionality or the lower level function for its behavior. So, no, this will give us a further tome called Cell Function. So what it means This is a function that provides some abdel behavior off the higher level function to let's looking toe example. So here the review application is further divided into so function, so that means it is a higher level review application is a higher level function. Check data provided review for complaints is a cell function. The last unit is the basic function. If you look in tow that perform credit check, it doesn't contain any off the furthers off function, so that mean it is the basic function and it provides some functionality within the program . These other terminology you should remember. Now we understand that functional decomposition We will go further and look into other tools. So what is the tool we have? We have functional floor, so let's look into that water test. So functional floor basic deals about the data flows between the functions when they are invoked, the let's looking toe that what are the things given in the functional flow? So basically, we have three types or functional flow capturing tools or these other pseudo code we need to rate a pseudo program Oro algorithm, Mr. So we can say that which will describe that whenever any function is being involved. So what will happen and Vince, that function execution is being completed, then what will be the next step? Any other function need to be involved to search thing. It will help us to design it. So the tools which is going to use in that a pseudo code data flow diagram and the sequence diagram. So these are the tools which help us for designing the end toe and aspecto for program where we will convert first, converting toe functionally composition. We will define that. Okay, how many number of functions we are goingto have. And then afterward it will be decided upon when How this function is being arranged sequence silly so that it will give us the information for which it is being designed. So no, we have understand that you do cold if you have haven't understanding. So in short, I will tell that So do cord. We will use prior to writing any program we will post converted into algorithm where we will trade the steps, water their steps, a program will perform and then we will write it in tow Function snow moving for the we will look into data flow diagrams award Those data flow diagram consists a data flow diagrams consists off set off input output processes, processes means functions, functional floor details, stores and the Terminator's. So let's look into on example off data flow diagram holders data flow diagram looked like So this is the example of data flow diagram off a calculator here we're designing a calculator And what does this diagram look like? So do you believe it looked like something like this. So let's understand this Dagenham first. In this diagram, the hierarchy of data flow diagram is indicated by Levels CEO, which expands on how the function in previous level is implemented by the functions at the next level. So, basically, friends data flow diagram only present the data flow of the situations were users select some functions. So what will happen in this scenario? It is representing that the user has selected add operation in a calculator, and for that it has to inter number two numbers, the first number and the second number at the level two and then the further processing will happen. So what will happen if any programs get executed? So this is the example off calculators calculators one off the operations called ad when user interact with calculator, What will happen in the level zero? What will happen and when it is moving for the the same functionality. So it has expended that if users selected the ad operation than what will happen at the level tow, it has shown that when further the program will get executed, furthers then what will happen at the level toe so This is the way we can represent the flu off, though. Functionality off a program and then for those we will write it these diagramming tour programs. So this is is one off the way by which you can convert your requirement client requirement into programs. No, let jump back. So after that, we will also have something called sequence diagram. This is again another tool with which helpers took on water program from requirement. No moving for though. So we have seen here that get upload diagram. No, Now we will look into flow charts. This is one of the important component or tool to convert requirement into programs so fluttered basically used to convert or requirement into work program. So there are certain notations we should remember that whenever we are reading, approach are so such notation, you will come to know about that. So let's look into water. Those notation is so basically So these are the notations. You should remember that how the processes get started, how we are representing the terminal like a start in the stop of the program. What will happen so it was represented by a start, then the process is is represented way square record. If any decision is coming in, tow the program, then that is being represented with this Damon ship box. And when it is coming for any input output operation from users or from machine, then we will be representing that with this record, this parallelogram. And then afterwards we will be throwing the flu off that thing with this ad. Okey. And if we have redefined processes that is being represented with this body, want to represent any store data and then we are going to use this same bull. And if we have long flow chart, then we will use this connector that I suppose if you're a tingle for designing off launcher, that is going to be very begin. That is not coming into a single page. Then we will use this connector to represent that there is further definition off the program. Our definition off the flu charities also exist there. So these are the notation you will get. So let's look into one of the example at complete holders. It looked like so basically, we're looking toe that flow chart calculator. So here you will see that the start of the program is replay, then killed way this book, then he'll the user input operation input output and then users select two numbers. It will decide the which of the task user has selected. So it is a decision operation over here. So if you they're selected are to number in the calculator, we're going to design this program. We're going toe tried the program for calculator perform these four operations arts abstract multiply number, divide number. So these operations, we will performing our calculator and we're going toe convert the requirement from a program. So let's understand that this is the flu chart which help us to design our program. So basically, here it is taking the decision whether the user has selected addition, subtraction or multiplication, or the reason if any off one off them is being selected as but that the operations need to be performed by the program and then afterwards it will print output, and there then it will stop it. So this is really very important. You should remember these notations when you were going to write your program so pride so that you have to convert the requirement into flow charts so that it would be really easy to rate any program, so this is very handy tool. You should remember it. So we are going toe convert this flow chart in tow program. When we learn about functions in the next section, then we will do this exercise no moving further. Let's look into other tool called a tragic story. So another tool we were looking toe This aspect is that data dictionary So data dictionary is another tool for structure, analysis and design. So basically it just shows the description off all the data flow diagram data elements, that is it records, details and definition off the data floor they taste and the data that distorting detest oh , and the detail aboard the processes and the structure of the data dictionary varies from project to project. Some project maintained their day. Traditionally with in excellent spirits eat some project is stored the information in some other third party software like summer internal, so it varies from project to project. So this is what I wanted to explain you in this session. It is quite long session theoretically, but it is really important when we're designing or when we're going toe rate functions than it comes very handy. Go on this north. I'm just a stopping decision. See, in the next station, Bob, I 20. CONCEPTS + LAB : Functions In Python: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in decision. We're going to look in tow functions and fight on. So let's look into the topic. What are the topics we're going to cover and decision? So in this session, we're going to look into following topics. So we were looking toward actually function says then how function works. Then we will understand that how many types of functions we have. After that, we were looking toe the Syntex to define the function within fight on. Then we will understand about the returning values from function. And we will also look into the functions Param Eter and arguments. And we will do all this with the help of exercises. We will do some exercises over here. We will design some function and we're going to write some calculator program that contains four functions like additions, abstraction, division and multiplication. So we will design that function in the last station. We have shown you that drew chart about the calculator program. So we're going to implement in this session. No, let's understand the function. So what is function? So basically, functions can be defined one place and gold or involved by other functions So what is the benefit Off rating of functions? So actually function will help us to provide the modularity within the program. So whenever the size of the program is getting increased, we will chunk it into a smaller functions so that it would be really easy to maintain easy to rate. And we will particularly focus about the functionality within the program. So if you go away, formal definition, let's looking toe that. So this is the same thing which I have explained you invite on functions. Are groups off related a statement that can be called together that typically perform a specific task on which may or may not take a set off perimeter or eternal value. So this we will discuss border in detail about So don't confuse about these terms like perimeters returning a value. We will look into that when we will discuss about returning values from function in the same station. Another beauty off the function is that you can write it once, and whenever you want to use it, you can call that function and you can use it. We will look into our project where we will write or where we will raid the functions once , and we will call it many times whenever we want. So this is one of the beauty off the function. So no, we have understand that what function is we will look into how actually functions will work . So let's look into one of the diagram and then we understand that how actually functions works. So let's jump into their diagram. So let's look into this diagram. So here, what a Actually, it is representing that we have defined a function with the name called Function on the School. Name on it is doing some functionality and here within the program, it is here we're calling many times first, when we are using it here, the first s treatment, you can find that we're calling it functions on the school name. So and second, we are also calling function renders good name. So what? Actually it is representing in this diagram. So basically east time, the call is made toe the function. The program flu jumps to that particular For east time. This function is being called. Then it will jump through this function body and perform that activity than perform the task which is being defined within this function and was the execution off? This function is being completed. Then it again returned back toe that particular location off the program. So this is the way how functions work? No, let's jump into other topic. What is the topic? We will look into that. So now we have understanding what dysfunction is. We will move further and we were looking toe types of function. So how many types of functions we have, So basically two tapes we have. So for one, is the baiting function within fightin like print function we have been using from very long. Then we have used input function. So these are the functions. Is Britain function toe? My town is offering some of the functions by deport whenever you are installing bite on. Then they are offering some building function which, which is performing some activities like print. If you're writing print and we are one rating, some message or so value want to print than Prentice printing those things. That program, the print program, is for forming their activities, so we haven't written it, so it is by default when we haven't started. Fight on it is coming with vital so that disk orbiting function, the other four type of function is user different function. When we do some exercises in decision, then we write some user different function. For our program, we're going to design a calculator program and within that reveal rate the user different functions for additions, obstruction, multiplication and division. Now we understand that types of function we will look in tow the Syntex how to rate functions. So the Syntex is pretty much a straight forward where we can use a keyword core dept and the name of the function you should rate. And here the Param Eter list. So where does perimeter means so basically, sometimes whenever we want to call a function and we want to pass some value on the basis of that value, the a statement will be executed. For example, if we want to add two numbers So we're going toe past two numbers number one and number two and then we perform some operation like addition so that number will be passed over here and that number is called para meter. We will look into in more detail when we do the exercises. So let's look into this for example, for this function is not continually para omitted. It is a simple function which is doing a printing off for hello world. So how discussion with perimeter will look like so it will look like here we're printing a static message called Hello word. But suppose that if we warned toe message, we will pass by calling this function. It will bring that message. So this is a perimeter raised function now, Once we understand that, let's move for though, so what is returning value from function? So, basically, what will happen that whenever you call a function so it performs some activity or it performs some task and it don't some reserve that desert, we want to use it on that time, it'll function will return the value and which will be a sign do the valuable, which called it. We will look in one off the example how we're going to use returning value from functions were not understanding with their definition. That is perfectly fine. When we do exercises in decision, you will understand it. No, let's look into the other topic function Param, Eter and argument. So these are the things I will explain you an example. So let's jump into the spider dominant. And first we will create a program called Calculator and then we will create the functions for different, different operations. And then I will explain you all these terms if you were having any confusing. So let's jump in tow this spider terminal. So here we need toe rate, a program for calculated. So for that we're going toe forced. Define off function for addition ad and which contains two values. For example, we're going toe. Tell that A and B or say input one. Put one and input to And here we are performing to task here were performing a tradition. So we are going to return input one plus input to So this is a simple function. We have different If you look into this dysfunction contents to Param Eter, Input one and input. We will look into that How toe call this function. So let me first define it and then we will discuss about all the thing which we have discussed off No river define. We will copy paste it. We will define other function. So basically our calculator contains addition. It's obstruction or reply and division. So here you need toe minus or position. And here you need to do where a duplication of oppression. And here you need toe the reason operation. So this is the thing that you have defined over here. Now you want to call this function so how to call it? For example, if we want to perform addition, so you will call it add Now you here you will call addition. Suppose that if you want in addition And here you were going toe past the argument. So, for example, you want to wear to value toe last three. So what it will do, it will return to how it will work. Now let's understand it. No, we're calling the additional and passing this value. So what? This values car. So let's understand. No. So here we are talking about the para meters. The first s treatment. We talked about perimeters so worthless perimeter into a function. So Param Eter here, when we're defining a function, were telling that we're going to use to values input wondering Put the input one and input to his gold. Param Eter for off function now moving further. Another definition. What is argument So whenever we're calling this function and we're passing the actual value so this actual value is called argument clear. OK, so moving. Put No, I'm going toe print the ad So let's look into that. First, you should select completely incidental. No, it came into the memory. No, you will run it except in tow. Then it will return. Fight. So see you. We have defined a function called addition and we're calling this function, bypassing the argument within the function. And when it is going over here, it is during the edition and returning the result over hell. Same way we can use substructure in. So let's look in tow them substrate act. And here we're going to use substructure in. You can write so abstraction and we're going toe pass three coma to and we will bring the value substrate. No, Once we understand it now, we will do the same thing for Marty. Play Marty play. And here we will call the multiply Function. And here we will past the value three com a tree to really we have month and then we will print it. So, Marty, now we will use the division divide and here we will call their division function and we were past the value. And now here we will print it. Divide No. If we will run it. Suppose if you're running all this functions, then it will return. See you first. Word it will. It has done the addition off these two numbers which we passed as an argument. And it accepted that Well, you And then it had added that value. And when we call it after doing this operation, it returned it. So this is what we have explained over here that whenever we are calling a function how functions work So this is what we have explained it When a function is going, the floor for control program jumps from where the function was going toe the point where the function was different. The body of the function is then executed before control returned back to very test. It was called from. So this is what it is telling that what is happening that here we are calling this function it performed the activity. Whatever we have told that and wants it perform that activity. It returned the results, but the broke down from where we have Kordic. So this is work. Their definition is telling. Know whatever we have returned over here, that is a user different function. And the print is a very thin function. No moving for the we have. Understand perimeter argument. Know what? More to perimeter function. So the thing which we had using over here, if you go here, we're passing to Williams to perimeters. So this is called Marquis perimeters. Some function except single perimeter. But here we're going to use were commuting a calculator were using multiple para meters. So this is what it is telling No moving for them. We will look into different parameter values. So what it'd sometime we need to pass the default value, for example. Let's look into that. This is interesting. So suppose if you have input value and if I don't want to pass any value and input to equal to fight And suppose if I am not passing the value over here single argument, I'm goingto pass. If I will run it, I can either use like this. So see you. It has a Deford value. So this is what it is refering that so what? It is telling that default perimeter value. If we don't pass any value within the function, then it will consider that number five is the default value. I suppose if we posit like seven, then it will accept the seven. So no, you again run it. See you. It has accepted the number seven and added with two and then it returned the desert. Once it is being done no more further and understand the other definition Now we have understand the default perimeter value. No, let's looking toe the named argument. So what is named argument? Let's look in tow that so basically in the same context, we have defined the named A perimeter same way we can define named argument. For example, if we're calling this edition, we can call it input, equal toe input, one equal toe and input to equal to seven. So here we are exclusively telling that we're going toe past the value to to input one and seven Budo input to So this case it is called named argument. So what is the benefit out off it? So if you're not passing the named argument, then you should pass in the order. For example, if you're passing the input. One should go through the input one only. But suppose that if you want to change the order and you want to pass input to rarely first , then you need to use named argument. For example, if you are using input, go. And I warned that input, who should go first and then input one. I want to send input one equal toe. So in that case, what will happen if you will run? In that case, it executed. It is very handy when there are huge number off para meters within the functions. When we're designing some data analysts or data signs, so I'll go with them or when we're designing neural networks on that time. Neural network has so many parameters. So that means we need to pass the argument for those perimeters on that day. We don't know the order for which perimeter we're passing the value in that scenario. We use this named argument or named para Meter when we're defining the default value for the name barometer. Then we had using name barometer, and when we are passing the value for those perimeter, we are using the named argument. So remember that if this example, doesn't making sense for you. That's fine, because it isn't a small example. But we if we have more or number off four arguments when we want to pass the argument without following orders than that we are going to use named are women. So remember that no moving for the So let's look into that so arbitrary arguments. Where does it means? So let's look into an example. No, this is very interesting. A calculator. So here a calculator is not only limited toe two inputs. Suppose that if we want toe ad and if you want to add more than to input and how many number off input people passed Oharu the function, it will accept it. So just an example so that you will understand it. For example, I'm defining Go another function for Marty value addition Marty Edition. That means it contends in number off argument. And here we're passing e R. G s. No, we will define here that so here I have designed a function which contains arbitrary argument. So how do we define arbitrary argument so arbitrary argument? First we understand that what is our poetry argument? So as you our calculator was very limited earlier. With two inputs, we pass one the two input and we will do the addition. But this isn't Nordo. Actual case off calculator we want and number off argument I want to add more than to visit are more than three or a number off calculation I want to do so. How do we can achieve it? Either we can define. We don't know how many number we are going to pass it so by tone offer. So RB three argument in the form off like this where we're going to represent our betray argument with a strict air G's. So what it means. We don't know the argument we're going to use or we're going toe pass and number off argument in this function, and then afterwards I want to add it. So here what I'm doing, I have written this function so we'll hear what I'm going. I'm going to add all the value which is coming in this argument, which we don't know when home. Any argument we're going toe passing or whatever the argument, we will pass it over here that needs to be iterated. We have seen the loop how toe looping in fightin. So we're going toe. Grab this argument and we will. I tolerate it. And what he here? What we're doing? We're doing the same operation, if you remember that I told you totally Quito total. Plus I this is the same operation were doing. But it is a sort of version so that the reason I'm using it and then afterwards it's once it is being iterative, it added all those value and then it will. It is returning. So let's look in tow. How we're going to do that. For example, we're going to use Marty Addition And here, for example, ad and value. Something like that. And here, Marty addition. And here we're going to pass toe 3456 How many number off value want to pass it? You can pass. And now first you have to stew so that it will be loaded into memory and now you will run it. We need to print it. I'm sorry for that. We need to bring the value. Add and value. No, it will give us the return result. So 35 It's a pretty oneto. Add another number nine again. You will run it, it will accept that number. So this is called arbitrary. Article meant. So this is the way. If we don't know how many off argument we are goingto pass within the function. So pi tone off. First, something corner. Arbitrary arguments. So, no, we have seen that arbitrary argument. So let's move further than looking toe the Protestant and keyword argument. So, guys, this is going to be a little tricky. You have to understand that something like this, we have all something guard Protestant and keyword arguments. So this is one of the way. By reaching, we can define function. So when it is very helpful when we don't know exactly how many off either Polish or keywords argument are goingto be provided. So in that scenario, we are going to use positional and keywords argument. So how do we define its alert? Let's look in tow the example now. So this time I'm going to explain with other example, so traditional and keyword argument will suits in that take that so forced to understand that how to define it, so to define it when there is a specific way we can define it, we need to use keyword death, the name of the function. And here you need to define double a strict and use this one. Give what kid of Leucadia Lewis turn for keyword e r d a cistern for argument. So that means it is goingto be arbitrary Number off keyboard arguments we are going to pass . That is goingto be lake a dictionary. So now suppose that if we paused it so and we want Oh, drink it all the keys, whatever the keys were going toe, get over here. So this kid of Louis RGs has a value Court has something Corky's and this is a mid third within gate of Louis RGs. So you should remember it whenever we were using traditional keyboard argument. Then we use gate of loyal GS. You should remember it now we will bring those argument which we're going to pass. And that argument is the key, which we are right aerating No. And this key has some value. So we will print that value, which we will pass in the form of key value pit and dad value is going to be you were going to grab that you're a genius and here you need toe. Get the value with the help of this in text. So you should remember it now. How do we were going to use this function? We will use it like this for sipped in tow. No, named. And here we're passing. We don't know how many argument we're going toe. So here, equal toe one be equal toe to sequel toe four or three. Now you will run it. And here we will print he year We're printing already, so you can print it. So this is the way it is, extracting the value from the traditional and keyboard argument. Now suppose if we want to call it again and this time you warn toe pass five values instead of three. You want to pass five value the equal to four equal to five. So this is is the key which we're extracting. And and this is the way we are extracting this value? No, you will run it again so it will print five value so you can do it for any number off arguments, keyword arguments. And this is called keyboard argument. So you when How do we represent keyboard argument in python? With the help of double a strict hang something called Key walks, which were passing over here, and key works is actually exposed. Method Gorky's, with the help of that were actually a greeting that keys and the value were grabbing with from that key. I know decision is going to be a little long, but I want to cover as much as possible with all the functions concept, because it is really, really important that the reason I wanted to cover were an almost end of the session. So let's look into the topic or topic, which is being remaining. Now we have understand it. No, an enormous function. This is really important. So let's understand it. Sometimes we want to create a function on a flight without a name. So what does it mean? Well, let's look into that. So basically fight on our first to create an enormous function on a flight. So let's look into that. How to create an enormous function within python. They're jumping toe the editor first, so an enormous function is being created with the help off key word lambda. So how to do that? For example, I want to create a function which will double the value. So here I will use double and the key word we're going to use to create and an almost function is scored. Lambda, you still remember it? Leme die I to All right, this is the exempt. No. If I want to double the value how we can use it Bring double and we will pass. Whatever really we want to pass, we will run it. No way we're going to use this lambda function So it filled returned their double value toe here We haven't defined this function like the way function is being defined within the fight on. Instead of that, we have used the key word lambda And here we are not defining any name. So what it is doing, it is performing the action without any name. And then it is a signing The value toe this variable double And whenever we're calling this double variable So it is executing. So this is worth an enormous function. Working pytorch So an enormous function doesn't have any name CEO, we're not having any name over here. So to create an enormous function in pipe when we are going to use Lambda keyword, So you should remember it. And then whatever the operations, which we want to do, we can need to pass it. So the basically this is the Syntex Lambda arguments and the expression. So you should remember that this is those Syntex you have to follow. So what we're doing, we're following the same thing we have used Lambda argument is I and the expression we want to Bill. So that's it, guys, This is what I wanted to explain you in the entire functions, model or function session I have. I hope I have covered all the things but deep in case If you have any question, you can drop me. Your question on my Twitter handle. That's it for decisions in the next session. Bye bye. 21. CONCEPTS + LAB : Variable Scoping In Python: Hello, guys, Welcome to another station in this session. We're going to look into the valuable scoping and pytorch. So let's look in tow. The what are the topics we're going to cover in this station? So basically, we're going to look in tow that what is variable is coping types of variable scope. We will look with help off example. We will understand all this thing with the help off example. Then we will also look into the global keyword. It is pretty much a straight forward. This topic. It's so let's understand what is variable is coping. It's so let's look into the former definition post. Then we will understand with an example. So basically, ISCO proposed toe the visibility of variables. In other words, which part of program can see or use it? Normally, every variable has a global scope. Once defined, every part off your program can access a variable. It is very useful to be able to limit a variable, a scope to a single function. So what does it means? So basically ah, variable within a program has some my scope. Either it will fall into global scope or it will fall into local in scope. So what does it mean? So let's understand the valuable scoping but pride toe that forced to understand that what is local variable the scope and what is global? Very telescope. To understand that we will design to function. One is guard there, fund one and he'll we're going to use We're going toe create a variable equal to one and we will print this Variable it So this is very simple function where we have having a variable and we're printing the value of that variable. So this is and again we're going to define under the function for into and here we're going to define another variable be equal toe to and we're printing the value. So if you look into that, this e is one Lee known to dysfunction If you try to access clean if you trade to excess this variable in this function. So it is CEO. It is telling that it is undefined. Why is it so? Because the scope of this variable is local, which is local toe the function one only. So it is not known over here, so if you will run it, it will throw in that so here we will find that it is undefined. And if you pray to print it now, if we will call this function, you have to find it. No, Call the functions. Let's call the functions Now I want to If you will call it he'll then it throws. Edit war terror it throws is nor different Why? Because we have defined it in this function Norton dysfunction. So that means this is local variable. This is local toe the function one this variable to remember that it is a local variable is is local to function one and here b is local to function toe be is local to function toe. Now the question is then what is global Variable so global variable We can understand it now So here I suppose that if we have another variable d we have defined over hell and that the value is 10. No way Want to use this d variable in this function if we will access it Geek was little and we will try toe print, toe de print de and we will remove it And we will also try toe print over here. No, Run it. See you If he will run it. Then what will happen over here now, if you call the function and run it, it drink then why C g is not defined over you. But it has an access to this way because the scope for Fergie is global. So this is one off the way by which you can define the global variable? No. Next we will understand that global keyword, so we will use other example and we will understand the global keyword. So now we have understand the local and global scooping. So let's understand that global Cuba, For example, if we have defined Max equal 200 and he'll we have the point of function print Max, bring Max some value over Hill now the user different function. Andi here we're going toe print the value off, Max. So to do that, Max. And no, when we are calling over Hell, that max equal to Max plus one. No, Once you run it, it will through an editor. So you loaded it? No, you trade to execute it. It will give you an editor. Why? Because local variable max referenced before assignment, so there is no reference is being done so how to resolve this thing. So to resolve this thing, we're going to use something called global keyword. So here were telling that Max is a global variable. So this way the issue will be resort. No, you will run it once you will run it and no trade to execute it. So it it executed So what It does whatever. We have a signed over here. It incriminated that value and it printed it on the issue of variable s coping, which was But that is not being bounded and it given unbounded local area how we have result issue. We have resolved the issue with global cable. So this is all about the variable scoping. This is a small topic, but it is very important to understand the global and local variable a scoping. If you have any question about this topic, you can rate me the question in my twitter handle. I will answer that. So this is what I want to take over in the stopping seeing the next session by 22. CONCEPTS + LAB : Higher Order Function In Python (Filter/ Map/ Reduce): Hello, guys. Welcome to another station in this session. We're going to learn about higher order function in fight on. So in this aspect we will learn about what, actually higher order function. It's and then we will look into some of the important IRA. It'll function off pipe on like filter map and reduce these functions, one of the mostly used higher order function in Python. So let's jump into their discussion. What? Actually higher order function is on higher order. Function is nothing were to function which accept another function as a perimeter. Whoa, understand that. Let's jump in tow the a spider editor and we will read some example so that you can better understand it. So basically supposed that if we're going to have a function or a program which is going toe find order, even number from range 0 to 10 toe to raid their let's write the program, I suppose that if we have a numbers from range 0 to 10 and we want to, I didn't defy, though even number. So how to do that? So that's what we're writing over here. We are creating a list over here which will hold up even number sotto dough that we're going toe a traitor and we rely to read the numbers which we have generated. And then we can apply the formula to find order. You've been number, would you? So this will return us or even number in which we will upend it in tow list which we have created at top. So this will give us the even number so we can check it now. So if we will run it and if we will print the even number, then it will great under even numbered list. So here, to find out the number we need to write so many line off good, we can achieve all this thing in just once in the line off court. So for that first we will define our function and then we will use by tones higher order function called filter, where we can pass that function and then we will find the even number. So let's look into that. First, we will define the even number function to do that. So let's write off court for that we will define a function again that is going toe find they even number. And here we will parcel value and that will return the even number. Whether the number is even or not, it will check it when we will written on that. Now we will use the higher order function of Eitan. So here we are using a predictive function and he'll were passing as another function as perimeter. So this behavior with is scored higher order functions. Here we're passing the this function is even within another function as a perimeter. And then we're telling that we're going to send the numbers which we have generated over you so that this number will be passed in this function and then it will check that each number is even or not. We can give some different new, even higher order at your I know we will run. It will also print the return value so that it would be easy for us. Now we will run it so know we will. So here we have to do one thing. We have to write list function so that whatever the value which will be returned So it Willis told, over here. So now you know, we have used this higher order function in built higher order functions off python where we're passing the function, another function which we have created, and then we're passing the list as well, so on. Each values off this particular number from range from 0 to 10. It will go there if you really will go there, and it will check that whether the number is even or not. If it is, even then it really store it into the list. So let's look into the example. If we run it and then we will print it to see you, it has returned the even number. So you just remember that what is I rather function and higher order function is a function with takes, another function as a perimeter. This is the same in bite on this three majorly used to higher order functions, which we have seen one that is free to function. No, we were looking toe other higher order function called map that is also very important. So let's look into that and understand with an example. So map is a function which applies toe every element within the list. So let's understand. With an example, I suppose that if you have a number from rangy Roto then And you warn toe Esquire. These number and that is falling into a list. So how to do that? No. With the help of malfunction, we will do that. So let's straight. So here. We're going to use Squire on Dhere. We will write list too. And we will use map function. And this time we're going to use an enormous function. You remember that in the last session? I have I told you about the Lambda function. So we will use Lambda function, which is an an enormous function. We will create the function on a flight and we will esquire the number, whatever the number which we're going to pass. So here we're going toe past the number. So here what we're doing, we are grabbing a function over here. That is Oh, an enormous function. And where we risk wiring it, whatever the number which we will get in tow this list. So now we will run it and we will print it so it will take the each value off from this range and it will a squad it. So run it now and if you will print it, then it will give you that list. So see you 0 to 90 trend and it has a squared all those number. So here map is another higher order function, which is taking another function as a perimeter. This time we're taking an enormous function, and then we are taking the numbers range on disquieting goes number. So this is one of the example of man. Just remember it. Why am telling all this thing is because it is really important to understand the higher order function because by Tony's having so much off higher order functions. But filter map and reduce function is mostly used by higher order function within pytorch. No, we will discuss able to reduce function. We have seen Peter No and no. We have also seen map. No, we were looking toe. Another higher order function called reduced so reduces a function that consumes a list but returned a single value. So what it means, let's understand with an example. So to use reduce, we're going to import reduce. So for that, we will use phone too. So this is one of the model which you need toe import reduce. We will turn it now it is being loaded. No, we will use the reduce function over here. So for that again, we're going to generate some number. And we will do the more duplication off those numbers. So from range, I won't pretend this time. We're going to generate number from 1 to 10 and then we will use reduce function. And here Then we will create a lambda function and enormous function which really take two parameters and we will multiply it. Now we will pass the list off number which we have generated over here. So we will call it numbers on, then reduced to value something. And we will you We will print that reduced value. So here we will bring that. No, once he will run it so it will return a single number. See you. So by definition, it is what we have. Understand? That reduces our another higher order function which take the list and return on single value. See you. It has taken a list off numbers, but it has returned the reduced value a single value. So these air the some of the important higher order function which I wanted to discuss with you. I hope you enjoyed decision to see in the next session. Bye bye. 23. CONCEPTS + LAB : Curried functions In Python: Hello, guys, Welcome to another station. In this session, we're going to look into current function. But prior to understanding, cut it function. Let's understand that what is guarding technique is so let's jump into the discussion. So basically, cutting is a technique which allows new function Toby created from the existing function by binding one or more perimeter who were specific value. So what does it means? Let's jump into the spider Editor and understand with an example. So basically supposed that if you have a function called where reply we were the final function multiply Call Moby and it will multiply the first para meter with second perimeter . So no, we will write it like this in Toby. Now what we want to do, I suppose that if we want to use it So how do we use it? Marty Quarto And we will use Marty play. Come on, fight. This will return the Marquis. Well, you. Now if we want to make it as a current function So what we have toe? We will create another function which will take the perimeter function as a para meter and then we will apply the number. So let's understand it with this one. Supposed that it is taking a pedometer function as a perimeter which we will pass. No hell, it will return. Alarmed the function There is an enormous function it has created. And it has Ah, perimeter. And we're what it is doing. It is so taking the perimeter over here and providing the reference off this function, whichever were passing over here. Now CEO, how we are going toe make another function with the help off these two functions. Let's look into that. So basically this technique is called cutting technique. No looking toe that supposed that if we want to generate a double function which will double the number So how we will create with an existing function So looking toe that so here we are using marked by a function. And then we're passing the multiply function Merkel play which we have created hell and then we're passing that whatever the number which your passing over here that will double it. So this is what it is doing over. You know, we have created a function which will Devolder number, which over the number we will pass it. So let's use it first. No, you will Ronald This? No. Let's use their double function. So he'll we will use Sprink Double five Print. So I see you. It has doubled. No, we want No, we want to. You pass another number. Supposed, act. If we want to pass that, then then what is the number? It will return 20. So that was the number. Why? Because we have carried it with the help of these to function? No. Suppose that if we want to create another function called triple So how do we can do that with the cutting technique? So it is pretty simple. No. We will create people function and take the reference off these phone kill more clay. And now here we will keep where dee ply the same function which we have created. And here we're passing the value three. Now run it. So we have created another function which will people the value, whatever the value we will pass to. For example, if we will do that, people and then we're passing a value five, so it will cripple that value. See you. So see, it is quite easy. With the help of cutting technique you can generate as number offer as function with the existing function, we will reiterated what is going take me occurring is a technique which allow a new functions to be created from the existing function. So here it it's suiting their definition. Cutting is a technique where we will create a new function. CEO. We have created a new function double on existing function like Marty play and the murder play way. So we have created a new function on top of existing function. Here we have created another function triple as well. On top off other function that is existing function like this Marty play and multi play by . So this is worth the current technique. It is important and it comes very handy when we want to reuse the function with changing some of the basic functionality off that particular function. For example, we use the multiply function to make a function for double the same function. We will use and created a function for triple where we're changing this Param Eter. But we're using the existing function. So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in decision Decision is very small session, but it is very important. I wanted to make you understand all this thing you see in the next session by 24. PART III LEARN TO CODE FROM SCRATCH WITH PYTHON 3 OVERVIEW: Hello, guys. Welcome to part three of the course loan toe called from a scratch. It bite on trees, so we were looking toe some of their advance topics, which will be required to learn any programming language. So these topics are not only a specific toe fight on these topics are all of all Tinto some other programming language as well, like C plus plus Java, where the major difference, you will find that the Syntex the reason behind it, telling all these things because I warned that once you finished the schools, it should be work as an enabler for you to learn any programming language. And you can apply the knowledge which you will gain from here who loaned any programming language. As I mentioned in early off the scores. Every programming language has some common elements. We understand that that means we have covered 70% of any programming language and the remaining 30% varies from the Syntex prospective. So let's jump into their discussion and looking toe water, the topics which we are going to Kabul in this part off the course. So far, in this journey we have seen in the part one and launch about how toe right good and where we have discuss about how to start coding programming and any language. We have also seen that basic building block off any programming language. Then we have seen about how to map the basic building block concept of programming language , toe the fight on programming. And we have also seen the programming parody where we have seen that process doodle programming How to dry toe program. Then we have also seen that functional programming D clarity programming where I have given you an example and functional programming. We have returned some functions in our part two of the course now, once we finish start one. Then we moved further and looking toe, though Part two of the courts where we have learned about all these topics, which we have discussed in detail where we have learned about fight on overview, fight on programming, core elements, flow control iteration tools to convert requirement to program these topic we have discussed. Then we have seen functions. Variable is coping advance concept where we have seen higher order function like foot of map and reduced. Then we have also seen that how to use existing function and create a new function with the help of curing technique. We have discussed this thing. Now we are moving for that. And now we are looking into Part three, where we will be discuss about object oriented programming in the Part three. So what are the topics which we're going took over here? Let's looking toe that. So basically, first I want to make you comfortable with the Juergens, so these topics are very much important. So I warned that you should learn about all these Jagan's, the types of jargon you will get over here Is that what is? Classes were tells object and what are the pillars of object oriented programming. So we will look into all these things and from the next session onward, once he will comfortable with these Jagan's, we will look into that. How toe convert all these jargon in tow, fight on classes where we will look into that whole pro define of fighting classes. We will look into some of the key words, meaning we will look into how toe print our the object, Harpo, adding an instance method. Then we will look into del key word how the automatic memory management is happening. We will discuss about Intrinsic actually wields. Once we're comfortable with that, then we will move further and looking toe the classes and the variables method where we will discuss about how in Piketon we can raid the class Very well. We can use the class were able how we can raid the glasses and the method didn't fight on. Once you are comfortable with that, then we will look into that water is ecstatic method in object oriented programming and how we can write in Beit on. So we will look into the static method details. Once you feel comfortable with the static method, we will look in tow one of the pillars off object oriented programming. And how do we can achieve within bite on that is inherit and how we can achieve inheritance within python. Once you're comfortable with that, then we will look into the over rating method that is also again one of the pillars off object oriented programming core polymorphic how we can achieve this thing with the help of overrating method. Once you're comfortable with that, then we will look into some of the access modifier. This is really important topic way to use access more different. What is access for the fire and how we can achieve within Python. We will look into this topic once you feel comfortable. Then we will move further and look into how we can handle the error and exceptions within pie tone. So because whenever we write any program, it really necessary toe handle the others, if any other is coming at the turn time so that user will get record experience off using your program in studio Off. Some happens are added or system clerk Terry message off. A user will get instead of that. We can handle that matter if you Nick Aaron happening, and we will give a proper information about why he is getting the other so that we can understand that how toe hand the letters and exceptions once you feel comfortable, then we will look into that. What are the models and packages every level in Beit on, and we will also look into that how toe packet more deals. So these other topics coming from the next session onwards to see you in the next session Till then, Bubba 25. CONCEPTS : Object Oriented Programming Concepts: Hello, guys. Welcome to another station. In this session, we're going to look in tow, Object oriented programming concepts. Decision is not limited toe fight on programming. This can be applicable to any off the programming language with supports, object oriented programming. So let's look into the topics which we're going to cover and decision. So basically, we're going to look into the class objects, and then we will look into the pillars off object oriented programming like abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance and Polly Moffett. So, before understanding, these jug and sluts understand a scenario where I want to represent a real world thing into computer programming. Supposed that if I have a car and I want to represent in tow programming language, so how old were represented? So in object oriented programming language, we can represent a real world thing as class and objects. And let's understand the difference between class and object first. So basically, a class is a template which we can use to create an object. So let's understand with the diagram. So in this diagram, we're representing a real world example called Khar. As a class to here, I will ask some questions to you how do you define a car or say were thing makes a car is a car. A car has some properties, and some behavior, which makes a car as a car like car, has four wheels, staring size four doors and some other behaviors as well. So to define all these properties and behavior within programming language, we need a mechanism by which we can t find this thing. So this thing will be provided by Tom called Class. It can be used to create the template, and once we define the template, we will create the object off that particular template, or c the instance off that particular class is gold objects. For example, if we want to represent this diagram in a programming language, so hold, we can write it. So let's jump into this by the editor. I will show you how this diagram is being represented within programming so that you will better understand it. So let's jump into this by the editor. So, no, I'm going to write some of the cold. If you don't understand, nobody's. We're going to discuss all those things in the upcoming session just for understanding purpose. I am writing the school for you so that you will understand that how real world objects can be represented within programming language so that you can get a better idea about what these classes is. What is object is how we can create class, how we can create objects, toe all these thing. I wanted to explain with this example, and once you were feeling comfortable with that, then it would be really easy for you in the upcoming stations where I'm going to discuss about all these things in details. So let's right the court. So here we will use plus give word to create the temperate car. So here we're creating class. Now we are going to use. So if you're not understanding, that's fine. We're going to win in its function that is really important to any slice. The values which we want Oh, sponsored the time of creation often object so he'll river does that self and we want toe parcel and it's late the value your window car is being weird. And then which is the make which guarantees only these two things? I want to represent it, for example, purpose. So here I will tell that no make off. The card is passed to you, which is being enslaved over here. And then I will also in the sliced make when it was made. So these are the what it is. These are the properties which we are in its lazing toe to represent it. I'm just creating a class template and when we will instance, see it with this class when we will create the object, Then we will pass the value off year And make to suppose that this is the class we have created. No, we have created the template. We will create the object off this template. So to create it, what we need to rate we need to rate, for example Beetle Karamira goingto idiot. And we will call the car and the year and make for example, we will pass 20 in 19. And when is the make it the make? It wasn't making 2019 and name of the card it beetle to look into the diagram. What other car is mini and polo? So let's create it to be to another car. Is mini in polo So year, Many, many polo. So this is the way we have created all car class template. With the help of class keyword, we have created a template gold card. And after that we are creating the object off that particular template. So now run it. Select all on September, toe in, if you will looking toe that, then you will find that it is a type off car class. So this is the way we can create the class and the object. So plus, is nothing but a template on On the basis off this template, we can create the object. So this is what I wanted to represent over here. And if you look into the diagram, So we have converted this diagram into a programming language into a programming language. So how do we have represented the real world thing with the help off this class template and with the help of the object which is being instance c ated from this class template? If you're not understanding all this thing, that is perfectly fine because we are going toe discuss all these things in upcoming session. So how to create classes? What is class keyword in the upcoming session? But for a time being just considered, that class is nothing but a template which we can use create objects. So on this note, we're moving for the and looking toe the pillars off object oriented programming. So let's jump into that. No, we were looking toe the forties abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphic. No, let's looking toe the pillars off object oriented programming. So let's jump into a diagram to understand it better. But right toe that Lex looking toe the definition First, we will discuss about abstraction first. So basically, abstraction is the fertile, providing only the sensitive information to the outside world and hiding their background details. So what does it mean? We will look in tow with help off example. So here we will look into the example toe. We're talking about the abstraction. So where does the abstraction means? So it is telling that hiding the owner wanted details and providing only days since it'll information. So where does it mean? Let's understand it. So basically, suppose that if you are a user and using your phone, you are using some of the functionality like home button. When you're clicking a home button, you're going to your home off this cream. But what is happening internally. What are the function being called? Suppose if you're clicking on Volume Burton, then volume is getting increasing. But how it is increasing behind the scene with the help of for function? What are the system called happening behind us in you are not aware about? So that means it is hiding the unnecessary detail and showing only whatever the required information and whatever the information you want and you were using it. So this is worth abstraction is all about. So let's jump into the another pillar called encapsulation and understand their definition forced. So he'll encapsulation is a process of binding data members, variable properties and member function methods into a single unit. It also away aphoristic access to certain properties or components. Or let's understand you now. So let's jump into their diagram again. So basically here we have created the guard class and we're there. We have certain properties and certain method which we haven't implemented. What in this diagram I'm representing that where we have method card, if we will get, we will set speed. So these are the details, these air, the methods and these are that tribute which actually represent a car so by definition, what it is telling that encapsulation is a process toe bind the methods and the properties thes air the methods and the properties into a single unit that is called Khar, which isn't encapsulated within ah, car class. So what? It means that we are not bother about word. The method inside of this car class. What is the attribute? It has were border only about the car. So that means if we want toe use this attribute we first need to create the object of this car class and then we will call this property. And one more thing. Some of the property often capsule. It'd classes not accessible. If it is defined as private access, modify it. So access mortified. We will discuss in for the session. So on that time you will come to know that what is access mortify ther. So just consider that it is one off the way by which we can restrict some of the methods and we can allow some off the method to be available Method and properties. Toby have a level outside world. No, no, we understand that encapsulation. Let's move further and look into other. We live that is called inheritance. So let's look into definition forced. Then we will learn this kind it so inheritance is the ability to create a new class from an existing class is called inheritance alerts. Understand it what it means. So let's look into this diagram to hear we're representing two classes. One is called animal. Another one is called off. So basically, dog is an animal. An animal is a parent class for dogs, and dog is a subclass off animals, so that means it has inherited some of the properties off. Animal like animal has four legs, so it has inherited that properties. But dog has their own property, like oak and bark. But not all animal can bar so this property, or say this behavior is belongs to only dog class. But it has inherited some of the property off the animals, which makes an animal as an animal. Like every animal has four legs, so it has inherited that properties. So how toe create inheritance in Piketon, we will look for the in the upcoming session, so for a time being, you just considered that inheritances one off the pillar by which we can use existing class to create new class where existing class behavior can be induced in tow. Those inherited class. Now we understand the inheritance. Let's move further and looking toe the other pillar that is called Polly More Freeze. So what is the polymorphous? So let's look into the definition first, and then we will jump into their discussion. So what is Polymorphism? So polymorphism means that that have many forms. That means polymorphism occur when there is a hierarchy of class and they are related by inheritance. We have discussed about inheritance. No, no. We will understand that how polymorphic comes into picture. So let's look into the diagram. We're taking the same example earlier. We have seen that our dog is inheriting some of the properties off animals and which has some off his own property, which doesnt belongs to every animals like bark. But dog has some of the property, which is available in other animals, but there is certain differences within the behavior like move. For example, holders can got removed, but the way how Congo removed and that the way dog moves is very different. So that means this has ah form and movies reading from animal to animal. So here it comes to their definition. So what is the definition of pollen? More Facebook. That has many forms. So this move will varying for dog on this move Very for can get. So this move is having many form and that will vary from animal to animal. So this is worth Polyvore phrase Mitt. So this is what I wanted to show you in this session. Any of the concept you are not clear about you can drop your question to my twitter handle . I will help you toe make you understand, with more examples. But I'm pretty much sure that once we will finish the scores, you must become for table with all these jargon and all these concepts. So on this, nor time closing the session and see in the next session. Bye bye. 26. CONCEPTS + LAB : Python Classes: Hello, guys. Welcome to another station in this session. We're going to looking toe fight, own classes. So let's look into the topics. What are the topics we're going to cover in decision? So in this session, we're going to cover the following topics. The topics we're going to cover is that we will look into how to define classes and pipe. Then we will understand that there are certain keywords which we have to understand and their significance like what is in it and what is the significance where we're using it. We will own about this thing. Then we will also look into There is a key word which we have used in the earlier session that is called Self. Why we're using self. Once we have understand that thing, then we will proceed further and looking toe that how to create an object off the classes and how do we can bring the objects we were looking toe that we will also looking toe how to access the object attributes. Once we understand that, then we will move further on. We will look into how toe add instance methods, so we will look into that aspect as Well, then we will proceed for that and we will understand that how to use Del Key Word And what is the significance of Del Key word with the python classes? And whenever we're creating any objects, how we can release the memory with Dell keyword ones, we understand that. Then afterwards we will look into automatic memory management how the memory management is happening within fighting and after that we will look into intrinsic a tribute and all this thing we will understand with help off example. So let's look in tow, fight on classes. How do they find a fight on classes? First, we will look into the examples over here and then we will raid the court into a spider editor. So basically this in text to create a fight on classes this one where we need to use a keyword called class on the name of the Class B, which which we want to create. In some cases, we are going to inherit the class. So this is super classes refering toe the classes. Now we will use the keyword underscore underscore in it. This is a special way off defining the constructor within python so Let's jump into the Spider Editor. And there we will see the life example how to create a class and then how we will create the object off that class. And we can also look in tow how to use constructor with the help off, innit? Function. So let's jump into the editor. So we're going to create a simple class which will represent a person. So how do we can do that? We have seen this in techie word called Class and the name off the class who were going to create a Class Corp person and here, while creating the object, we want to in this lay some value. So the object off that particular class. So now here we're going to create an innit method in it. Mattered is nothing, but we create constructor with inviting. So we have to create over here that sell name E, and he'll we need to win its lies the valley, whenever an object will be created for person class. So this will be in this lies where we need to provide the name and the each here we need to provide a jazz, whether this is the way we have created off person class. Now when we create the object, so we need to pass the name and the age of the person. So how do we can create it? So let's look into that so person one we're going to be one equals two person. And here we need toe pass the name. So we're going to past some name that is called Max on ages 40. Another person we're going to create with the same person class. So we need to create another person like Rambo and the Ages 35. No beat three object again. We will create another person and this time I will use my name. OK, each 39. So this way we have created three objects off person class. So this is the way we can create the person class. So know what we have seen so far. Let's look into that related the topic. So we have seen here that how toe create a class with this Syntex. So we have created a person class where we have defined the name and the eat which need to be passed whenever we're creating a person class. So in it is a function used for constructor. What is constructor? Constructor is a special method which will record wealth creation off an object off that particular class. So we have seen here that whenever we're creating an object off this class, we need toe past the value to the constructor and constructor can be called automatically whenever we create an object off that particular class. We have also seen that how to create an object off the defined class the same way we have defined over you. Now we will understand. Here's the unit method. I have told you what is in it mattered in it mattered is a way by which we can in this list the object in python we can use in it method for construct The work is constructor. Constructor is a special function which will be called automatically whenever we are in its lazing an object or creating an object off glass the same way we have created a person class on there. We are creating an object and we're passing the value through the constructor and that function in it method is called automatically whenever a new object is being created. So no, we understand it, innit? Metal so now understand the self keyword what a cell itself is. A special variable. Which horse? The values which we pass at the time of creation and object. For example, we have passed John on East 36 over here, which horse? The information about the instance. Variable. Instance. Variable is nothing but don't object to in somebody. Self is a variable, which was the information about the instance, or save it is associated with the instance and instance is nothing but an object which we create with the class. So no, we understand it. We will move further and look into how we can print the object off a class. So let's jump into the dominant and we will look into how we can bring the object. So generally, if you trade toe print, toe the object over here p one. Then it will print that Which class it belongs Toa north. The values See you if you run it. So it is not being different. We need to define it so we will run it again. Now again. We tried to print it to see you. What the value tip printing. So it is printing information about the person class. So that means this object be one object is an object of person class. But how do we can print the value? Our print, the name off the one person And what is the age of this? So to do that, we need to access the attribute like the one the name, for example. The name of the B one is person P one is we need to access the attributes over here, be one door name and then also we need to specify that if we want to access the age, we can also specify the age as well. We can access the name and the age off the person people illness. And then we need to access the ages with the same way we can print the name and age off person. Pito Here we will change. Be too. And here we can access. Be to know again we will do it for stream be three toe. This time we will write for P three. No, we will executed. So let's look into that. What? It is printing. So this has printed. The B one is the name and the age of the P one is we forget to mention in the each we should rate it it. So here. Now we will run it again. So the name and age a person p one is max, 40 for the second person rambled 35 and the third person will case 39. So this is the way you can access the attribute off on object with this notation. So you should remember that you need to first grab the name of the object and the attribute with the help of dotted notation, so you should remember it now move for the let's looking towards other topic remaining. Now we have understand that how to access though object attributes and we have seen you. We have access with the daughter. Notation are moving for the so adding an instance method. So in this topic what we're going to look in tow. So far, we have looked that we have used in it method, but we don't have any instance method, so we need to add one instance method. So we're going to add a method cardboard day within the person cloth so that we can use this method on whenever, but they will be called it. Get inclement by one. And then it will print the value with the incriminated each. So let's defined it in our program. Let's jump in tow. The editor. So now here we have ah especial method co ordinate, which is a constructor. No, we need to add an instance method to define an instance method we need to rate a function well, today here we need to specify self and we're not going to pass any perimeter because it is known Param Eter function and then he'll we will print it. So you were bring dark, have people today You were so whatever the previous aided has. So it will print that eight here. We need to convert it first so that it is a integer value to print it, we need toe convert it into west year. Now here we need toe inclement days because this board A has been called who we need to add one and no, we will print the current age. So here we need to specify that you are now on. Do you need to respect for itself dot each so here we have declared by the function Now again we can run it cept in tow. And no, we will call be one door birthday. When we call this function, see what will happen. So it has printed happy. Were they? You were 40. You are No, now 41. So that means the person p one has called the border function on it has incriminated one value host. It has printed the each parentage and then inclement did one. And then the value of that age is 41. So this is the way you can create an instance method within a class. So why, it is called instance Method because, as we know that instance is nothing. But an object on this function is being called with the help of this instance so that the reason it is called instance method. So you just remember this jargon you're going to hear lot off these jargon whenever we're doing an object oriented programming. So no move further and looking toe, what is the topic we have? No. Now we understand that now we will look into their del key word. So what is Del key words or del que what is used to be leader memory or whatever. The memory, which is being a located toe and object. If we want to release that memory, we can use Del key word. So let's look into the example. For example, suppose that if this be one has been created and you want to release the memory, then you need to write del be one. So now, right now, If you were accessing the P one value, we were accessing it supposed that if you're executing this this one then it is printing the P one value name and date. But here, if you want to release the P one, so you need to run it. Deleted it Now if you try toe run this It will give you the Arab. So see why? Because we have released the memory for P one. So by tone doesn't know what this be. One is No, because we have released it from the memory. And if we want to use it again, we need toe again. Instance she ate it or we need to again create this object. So this is the use off del key words so normal further and looking to other topic. So no, here we will look into automatic memory management. So basically This is a small topic. This is nothing but all this memory management. We don't have to bother about this memory management in Piketon because Brighton will take care of this automatically. So we're not going toe perform all this activity. But in certain scenarios, whenever we want to release some memory, we can have ah method or have a keyword. Every level are imperative. Way off. Releasing the memory is being available. But all these thing happen automatically within Python on Brighton will take care of these things. We just remember it No move for they're looking to intrinsic attribute. So this is really important if you look into intrinsic attribute So there are special methods which is being provided within pipe on. So basically remember that by tone has or for some of during 26 method and in big method with the class. If we're creating a class, then it will automatically associate with it. You don't need to define it. So these are the method like name, name of the class Will this method will return the name off the class more deal from which it was loaded under the school underscore basis, A collection of based class it will return. This is their dictionary. Assert off developer for object. These are the two intrinsic methods. So we will trade looking toe that word actually ate it. So basically it is telling that if you access this under squanders were class it will return the which class This object belongs to alerts looking toe that once Let's jump in Put spider, for example you have be to object and if you try to access it under this condo score clause . So if you try to run it so see you. We haven't defined this under school in the school class, but it is returning that it belongs to us person class. This object belongs to a person class. So from where it is coming. So basically it is an intrinsic method which is already being provided by python. And whenever we're creating an object with the help of this keyword that class so it will associate this intrinsic metal Buddha instance off the class And here p two is an instance of person clock so that the reason it it is returning that so this be to class belongs to person. So this is what I wanted to show you in this session to see in the next lesson until then. Bye bye 27. CONCEPTS + LAB : Class Variables And Methods: hello Gays will control in a position in decision. We're going to look into the class variables and method. So let's jump into the topic and understand that what actually it it's so basically we have covered. So far, we have understand that although object oriented concepts, what are the object oriented concepts where we have looked into portage objects? What is class? And then we have also looking toe the pillars off object oriented programming where we have discuss about abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphous, they're not rewards. We have also known to vote that bite on classes, parties bite on classes, how to create the fight on classes and where we have seen the Syntex, where we have also seen that photo create object from that class. We have understand that what is constructor were unwarranted, innit? Method Then we have also seen self keyword way to yourself keyword than we have seen that how to print object. And we have also seen that hardware than instance Method. We have seen the Dell keyword went to use del Key would and we have discussed a ble toward traumatic memory management off quite home. Then we have also seen that intrinsic attribute. So now we are in a position to understand that class variables and method. So far, we have seen of instance, meth that instance met there and instance attributes that is represented by your variable, which is associated with the objects all classes. But now we've been looking toe how to create more method, how to create a very well, which is associated with the last. So let's looking toe that so forced a dis turned it toward Actually it is so quarters class , variable, So class very well is associated with Plus So where does it mean? So let's jump into the spider and we will write a program and we will understand that what actually class where he will earn class mid thirties. So here we will use the same class which we have returned earlier. That is person plus and we will right here. You remember that? How do we can write or creator class? So we will use keyword class person over here and then we will define that construct. So you remember that how to create constructor with the help off, innit? Method And here we need toe past self keyword. Why because whenever any new object will be created, then it will be associated with the self keyword. And here we need toe past, name and date. So whenever we're creating a new object, we need to pass the name and date, and he'll that need to be associate it with you. Your name will to name himself no equal toe age. So this is we have created now suppose if we want to create ah, class variable. So how do you can create a class variable? But prior to that, we have contestant that water's class valuables class variable is having a single copped What does it mean? So first we will create a class variable and then we will discuss more about it. So no, we're going to create a class variable called instance underscored Go because you know So this is the class variable and that we associate ID with the last name CEO. We're using this variable Darrick And here, in instance, very believe we're using with self people to know what is the benefit out off it. So that means what does this instance count will do the number of times a new object will be created. It will inclement one. So that means a class variable is having only a single cup. And that is associated with person class north with the object. So let's look into that here. It will run it now we will create three hours. We will run it now be one equal toe porcelain. Or sometimes we can keep the name John. What do you be to equal toe? Some here with us at three. P three equals toe for so Monica, your past 23% we have created now, once you run it. So what will happen? So to understand it we will also bring the class variable and the class variable list. Instance Can't know here if we will look into that weird attic Lee accessing the class valuable. We're not creating an object Supposed that if we want to access the name Name variable Laureates variable. We need to create dog. Remember that. So this is an instance Variable But to use a class variable what we're doing. We're directly accessing with the name of the class and now it will create only a single copy. So we will look into that. First we will create this object. So now we have created and we will bring the instance Count. So how many number object It has been created One. Now we will again create another object. Now again, we will run it. We will run its CEO. It has created toe to object and let it printed one. Now it is printing to so what it is selling that salt is now telling that we have only a single copy off class variable. No, again, we will run it for person. Three. No, we need to find that CEO. It has created three objects now. So our instance Count is a class Very, but which is having only a single cup. And that is associated with class, nor the instance Variable. So this is the way Creator class. Very well, no. We will look into how toe creator class methods. So no, you understand that class variable? No, you can easily understand that What is class matter? Classmethod is nothing but maturity is associated with the class north with the instance north with the object. But how do we can create a class matter? Let's looking toe that So we will again use it so here right now. We are directly using it. We're going to define a method which is guard Steph in agreement instance Count, we're we're going toe passed. The class si unit is a key word earned. We will again use the same way plus dot Instance count inclement instance Count equal to one but it is not yet completed. So to make it class method, we need to decorate it. You should remember that at the read and we can tell that it is a class method. Now this will be associative. This method is associated with this glass and it is a class method for other method. If you remember that we have created the board emitter. You remember so right that as well. So I have written that method. So no. Here you can see that this method doesn't have this decorator that class matter. So that means this method is associated with the object north with the class. And here we're passing Self self is representing that it should be associated with the object which is being created and each object has a copy off this border method. But here only a single copy off method will be existing and that is associated with the class. So now let's call it. And here we will do. This changes. So we need put into a video and we're calling this method and ST off Inclement directly. We're calling this matter. So here we call the method, Nor it will run it'll the same way. So for that, what we need to do so through the most returning, we need to first delete that the object which we have created. You remember the Del key word. So, no, we're releasing it competitively. And we're telling that lead these memories so that I can use it again So you can run it. No, there is no objective will pray to access it. There is no object. So, no, we will again create it now. But prior to that, you need to select it and sift and took. And after that, we will create one way one and we will check that how it is coming. No, try to run it. So if we did a mistake over here, we need to do instance Count over here. That should be instance. Go over The mystic me Did we have provided the mid third name started for them. So let's move for the and now again, you we need toe run it. So now if you try to access it And now you want to print the instance Count over here. So it printed one again. You will create another object. So and again you can find that how many objects has been created for this class. So run it so to object we have created now again we will run it. And then again, check that so three object we have created that is indeed true. So this is one of the example off classmethod and variables. So this is what I wanted to show you in this issue. So seeing the nexus in Mumbai 28. CONCEPTS + LAB : Static Method: Hello, guys. Welcome to another station in decision. We are going to look into a static method to let's understand that what is this static method? We will write some program and then we will understand it with an example. So let's jump into the discussion and we will look into our journey. So far, So what? We have understand that object oriented programming concepts where we have seen classes, objects and the pillars off object oriented programming. Then we have also seen that bite on classes, how to create by tone classes, how to create an object, although access the intrinsic method and how we can get an instance matter than we have seen that class, valuables and methods. No, we will look into a static methods. So what is the static metal to? Let's understand it. So basically the static method is associated with classes. But this time we don't use any off such keyword like cell and CLS. What does it mean? So let's jump into the spider and we were looking toe that how it is different from class methods jump into the terminal. So here No, we're going toe raid the same program. So we will take the copy off that method which we have written earlier. We will take this class and we will copy it. And then on top of it, we will write this tactic mental and we will understand that What is this static method? It. But first, we will design this static method first. How we will create an ecstatic method to design in static method. We need to use another decorator cord static method. And then you we will define our function something called static function on which is printing some message something like tactic with third so no understand it worked actually looted so ecstatic method are defined within the class. So see you we have defined within a class but that nor tied with this aesthetic method is nor tied with class are any off the object But the static method is invoked with last name . So how to do that? Let's look into that So we will run it like this. First we will execute it and then suppose if we want to execute foreign vocal static method we can directly call the person class and here we will call this static function and we can run it. So here it God, that I'm a static method. So the media difference between classmethod and stents method and distracting method is that class mid thirties associated with the class and instant method is associated with the object off this class. But a static method is not associated. Neither it really associated with the plus our nor it will be associated with the object. You can directly invoke it with the name class. And when we were designing this static method see, year, we're not using any keyword like CLS itself. All these keywords are not being used. So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in this sessions here in the next station by 29. CONCEPTS + LAB : Class Inheritance: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session and decision. We're going to look in tow class inheritance. So let's look into the topics. Order the topics we're going to cover in class inheritance to let jump into the discussion . So here we're going to look into class inheritance. So what are the topics we're going to cover? We will discuss about the inheritance, what is inherited and we will look into the corner hard to achieve inheritance within Python programming. So basically what we have discussed earlier that inheritance is a cool feature off object oriented programming, and it allows one class to inherit data or behavior from one of the class. We can reuse the existing code, so to warn distended better, let's jump in tow this by the editor. And there we will create two classes. First class. We re create the person close that will be inherited way. Another class called employees close and we will see that how employees class inherited the person class and we will also look into how on inherited class create the object. So let's jump into the Spider Terminal and we will write program. So we are interest Spider Terminal. So let's right, the person class again and we will also create another class called employees and within employees class we will inherit the person class. So let's look into that now. But prior to that, I wanted to show you what we are going to create. So we are going to create over here with this a structure where we are going to create a person class that is going to be a super class for employees. And then we will create the employee class and that is employed class being inherited way the sense person close. So this is the subclass. So we're going to design three classes. The very first instance we will create the person class. Then we recreate employees closed and then we will clear sense person, class and self sports and will inherit employees class and employ class. Inherit wasn't plus, so let's jump into their litter and we really start writing the code. So now here we will write the core, create how we can create the class. You remember that we will use Okay, what core class? And here we were defined that we're going to create the constructor toe, create constructor, reusing it method. If you remember that and we didn't that we are going to pass herself enable and name and date Remember it now we will create self dot name equal to name and here served RTD quarto . So we have Can you turn and we're going to create a method called board A few Remember that we have created this as well earlier and here we are goingto part that self weak away. We're passing the self because it is associated with the instance off this class practice called object. So we will bring the world a Remember that happy were there you were. And here here we need to train. Then we can access the age and are so that we will inclement it. We will, claiming by one We will print that, you know, you know dot age So this is the way we have created the person. Plus now we will create the employee class which will inherit this person class toe how to do that? So if you remember that I have shown you this in Texas, we will use their 10 text employees and here we need to, especially for either based class, which is going to be inherited within this class. Two year we passed the person class and then again, we need to any slice the constructor. So this is a little tricky. We need toe pass three variables over here way because this will be passed to super class status person. So we need to call its name. I suppose that if you're creating an employee object, then we need toe wants the name of the employees age of the employees and I d and this name will be passed to the person class. So how do we can passed? Ordinance lies the person class from the inherited class. We will use the keyword super. And for that No. Here we are accessing the constructor off the base class And now we're passing over here name and each And here we are, assigning the i d off this class to see you. This is really interesting over here, whenever we're creating an object off person class, we need to pause the name and they eat. But suppose if we're creating an employee object and where we need toe, ask the value, name and date. So how do we can pass it? We will use super keyword over here. So superb I With the help of super, we are able to access the base class. And there we canniness lies this off which required toe have name and a for the constructor we need toe passed with the help of super keywords. So just remember, moving further We're going to define on instance lettered and how we can create instance method yet again. Death calculate underscore pain Here we need to parse self over Sunday school work then toe read off be defined valuable So value want for him Little self taught age scripted and some dummy logic and providing it sequel toe set up here we will return that to me So this is another class we have defined here we have type Weather was there So now we're going to create third class that is cord sales person So this is going to inherit this employee class for let's looking toe that sense person employees And here we're going to define the constructor for sales person class. To do that again, we will use toe in it with 1/3 and here again, we need to pass name H I D reason and sales. No, We can pass the valley to the constructor There this class constructor, How to do that? We will use to per keyword in it Name Here we will pass name H I D. And then served art region to region and self taught cells make ourselves now We will define another method that moment something core bonus in here that doesn't contain any perimeter and it will retort toward too. So no, we have created three classes the first class we have created person. Then we have created employees class which is in which inherits person class than we have created cells person which inherits employed class. Now we will create object off all these three class and we will look into that. How do we can in its place those objects so moving for the and let's create hell create objects off glasses. So to do that, we really start again. Print. We're going to write some value person and here we're going to create an object. Be equal toe person. I will use my name here my age and here we can print it. Be now we have to form it It if you remember the Centex? I have told you the part two. I suppose that if you want to create any corrected a number of times, then you can multiply it with those number of times it will form it. This sign now we have created over here the person object. Now we will create the royal object to do that. We're going toe. Call it and the employees will bring something. And here we will create an object e and posit employee. He over will pass Monica on and the name of the on the each. We have to pass the easy as well. So here we were past 28 and the I d so value we need to cross over you. Now we can exit the body. We will print Call the CEO. We're accessing the birdie method or person class, which is accessible from this object. Why? Because we have inherited person glass over here. So now we need to tell that letter We don't got going me So 40 We need toe, has no label printed. You calculate me. What? So no, we're creating the cells. Personal object. So here we need to pass the value. We need to posit value. You can so really over here? No. The name of the bus sports on it is now moving further on. We will call it. Start your day. See you again. This bird. The method is defined. Where? In the base class. Their grand parent class. So what is happening over here that you are creating an object off sales? Purcell, which inherited sales person inherited employees class and employees class inherited person plus so that the reason it is accessing the word a class on here. The border is not being defined. You can see you. But you were able to access the border class. Why is it so? This is because off inheritance. So if we were inheriting any class so there may 3rd is accessible. So now here we have access. The birdie class. No moving for Don't know. We are going toe right. It again will cooperate with leverage. This and here. We need to change the subject. Yes, and this time we need to print the bowlers as well. Start dot Bonus this time. Pass it. Start bowlers. No. We have created object for all the three classes which we have created earlier. No, let's run it So to run it. What do you need to go? You need to select and sift in tow. So you have created all these three classes? No, we will create the object. So to create that we will select all these things and we will run it. So here, here I have done a mistake. It is sales over here. And I have you sell Sorry for that. So we will select this wall again. Run it! And now again we will select all this thing and we will run it to see you. We have person class on which is off type person. We have employed class, which is what is happening over here. That we need to little bit form it. It we don't named Hell is. And here he don't age, so it will look more meaningful. No, you will run it over here again. So, CEO, So what? It is telling that we have created a person object off this class. Then we have created our employer object. And that is being inherited. The person class. And here we are in this lazing the constructor. It's lazing the object, bypassing the values toe the constructor and then we are creating a salesperson object. And here again, we're passing the value to the person class. These are the value were passing toe the super super class that is going to initialize the person class as person classes and aerated way employees class and employ classes inherited weight, salesperson class. And here we are initializing all these values. So this is the thing, or this is the way we can play with inheritance. So this is what I wanted to show you in this demo. If you have any question, you can drop me your question at my Twitter handle. I will and set it. See you in the next session till then. Buh bye. 30. CONCEPTS + LAB : Overriding Methods: hello grades will come to another session in decision. We're going to look into a rating method. This is a part off inheritance. But I have taken it over here. Has separate topic because I want that you should understand every topic in I step by step manner. So in that aspect, I don't want to overload all the concept in a single lesson or say single season. And this topic is really very important. Topic off inheritance. So let's discuss this topic to Let's jump into the discussion overrating methods. Toe overrating methods is nothing but implementation technique. In this technique, we have two words ands off implementation off same method. We're one implementation for parent class on another implementation for the child class. So to better understand it, we will jump in tow. Spider editor and we will write a program by which we can understand this topic. So let's jump into this by their edited I'm going to write again the same person class and the employees class and then I will show that how a method with same name can have different implementation within each class. So you we are remember that we have created a glass core person and then we haven't exercised it have created the construct to Then he'll be taking the name and age at the time of creation off object And then we are assigning it Name, age This is worth So you're going toe create toe another class as well That is employed class employees And here it is class inheritor person class And it also contains the constructor We need toe create the innit class Then here we need to cause the age and the idea No recon units lies the I d. So know this. We have two classes over here. So now to understand overrating method, we will create a glass. In fact, it's called under the school underscore str And here, whenever the printing method will be called So this class will record And here we will return though for mated our put No My 3rd 1 person class will be printed Then this will be printed okay And you they're for making the string little bit. So this is the implementation off this str function the implementation within person Plus now we will take the same MMA third and we will define over here and we will do the over. Right. So here we have created like this No, Here we will write like this. We do some changes within the implementation so that we can understand that what is overrating is that. And now here, we can use right over here ploy I need can use i d sold dark Look, I d and he'll reduce so dot So this is what the implementation is to you. Basically what is happening over here we are having a function which has the same name But we have different implementation. So this technique is called matured over rating You should remember it. So we have through classes one is called person Another one is employees where person classes inherited by employees class and each has their own implementation off method To here we're using a steer method which being called whenever you called or print function So let's look in tow Example now how to run it 15 toe Now create an object off person plus people toe person reduced my name you And now you were be No we will creator employees class here can pass And you it can give some each some employees 80. No, we will print E and when you will run it at first instance if you will run it. Two person Mukasey's 30 name. See you. This function is being court. No, if we will run this one, we did a mistake over year. Do you remember what is the mystic? So the mistake is we haven't in its lies or we haven't passed the soup. Okay. What? We haven't used toe supercute where we were using super keyword toe past the value to the base class. And here we are not passing it. So that means it will not be in this list, so name. And it will not in this list so that the reason it is throwing an error that employ object has no a tribute name. Why? Because we have any related the class. But we haven't buys the value which is required in person class. So we need to initialize that value from employees class. And to do that we used to put you would So now again, we need to run it, select it and sift in tow. No, we will run this one First state is printing. Fine. Now we will try to run it again. This one. So here we get one more other we need to cast it. We need to see ideas in teacher value and we're trying toe print it with this tear. So if you run it, then you need to convert it into a steer. So this method will cast your indeed your value do string value casting. I have covered in part two. If you're going through that, listen then you know ever this thing Now again, re lord it on this time we print this one on this one again. So no hell. See you. It has printed. We need to provide some MySpace is over here so that it will be more for making so no, we tried toe Grunnet and you will so no here, See that it has printed This was enough. Str function So we have same name function. But implementation is so This is what gold overrating method and it belongs to inheritance concept. So this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in decisions in the next session by 31. CONCEPTS + LAB : Access Modifiers: Hello guys. Welcome to another session in this session. We're going to look into access modifiers. So what is access More different? Let's jump into their discussion and we will understand that what actually access more defiance is and we will understand with an example as well. We were looking toe all journey. So so far we have looked. I didn't do the object oriented concept than we have understand about bite on glasses. After that we have looked into what is glassware, tables and mid thirties. Then we have also seen that what is ecstatic? Variable. Then we have looked into class inheritance. Then we have also looked into overrating off for method. How to do over right better Now we came toe topic access modifying so access modifier is again belonging Toa object oriented concepts. So you must understand that how many types off access, more defiance we have. Then we will understand that What Actually it is so basically we have three types off access modifiers, public protected and private. So public quarters, public excess mortified what is protected mortar fire and what is private modifying so definition ways. Excess modifier is a mechanism to control the access to class resources by public, private and protected keywords. And these thing happening within C plus plus and Java. But within bite on there is nor direct mechanism. So do the access modifier controls as by Tony's and hybrid language, C plus plus and Java as a object oriented language. Word by pawn has given us a way we can achieve access control off glass resources, so to understand it. But let's jump into a spider editor and we will loan with an example what actually ate it so that you will be more comfortable about these Juergens access. More defiance like public protected and private. So let's jump into a spider director. So we are now in the spider related, and now we will rate some example and then we will learn dis turn that or this public access mortifying. What is private Texas more defiant and work is protected, more defiant. We will take an example off same employees class. So here we have employees class and then we need to and it's lies a constructor. And here this time you're going to take the name and the salary. In this time we will sign the Israeli whatever the value. When we're passing, when we're in a slicing and object when passing those value, which is going to win, this lies it for here. Then we're passing the salary and we had assigning it. So no, load it into memory. So run it, except in tow. Run it so it is loaded into the memory. Now suppose that if we're going to create an object, for example, he and people equals toe employees. And here we're passing my name on some salary over you. So here we are, going toe access this salad e. And if you try to run it, we can print here and we can print the salary over here. It will do that, try to run it. Then you will find that we are able to access this part, this resource. So this is a public access. Mortifying. We don't have any kind off access destruction to access the value off salary. So this is a public access. Modify it and by default, fight on supports public access modifier. So how do you can achieve protected excess more than fire? So let's understand. The work is protected access modifier packed with act. Let's understand that. How do we can create a protected access modifier and fighting to do that? What we need to do, we're going to use the same class, the same name, and here we will use a single underscore That is a representation off protected classing vital. So just remember that if we want to create any class, variable is protected. So you have to use this single underscore. So what does it mean? So basically, what will happen that this resource is accessible by employees class and their child class ? No. Other than that, any other glasses trying to access the salary cloud and they will not able to access this as it is protected, protected mean that is accessible by the last object on you, Pretty the inherited way other base class at the child class. Then it will be accessible way back child class. So, for example, an employee can, when we know the salario off himself and other person can no repeat of the parcel here. What we need to do we need to create Riedel. And here we will inherit Remember that or to the center to inherit last. So we used the name of the class over here and here. What we need to do define no method, a simple matter. Sal Gentry notes what we will do. We will create an object to access the salary from employees. And we will also create an object for parole which will access this salad e. So let's run it. So no, If you try to create an object lawyer, one ploy strain, we are goingto pass on and we will try toe access the salary that has protected the source off. Plus, So we will write it like this. And when you try to run it, then you can easily access that. Really, there is no restriction for the class where this salary resource belongs. Toe, they can access. The last resource is if it is protected or if it is public in Easley access from outside. So outside means you have created an object Early work. Accessing that. Sell it. No moving further. You can create an object for payroll now, so P one Quito, this betel. And here you can pass an object. We will try to pass the same value which we have used earlier. So, David, And this time we are Grateful point. Three Free weather before fight. No. Try to run it First we lowered this one. No, we have loaded into memory. No, we will run it. You did. No, no. We will try to access the salad Tea party. You wonder salary trade to run it. So this is excess able by the child clatter year. We have seen that how a protected resource is exercisable by the object off class and their child class. So no moving for the we will know, look into the private access Morty Foyle's war tactic to play with Texas More defiant ease . So let's understand it. But prior to that, we will Viator last and we will create are the source So which is a private resource? So how do you define a private research? So let's look into that For the final private resource, you need to use double schools over. Does it mean first corporate and come below and placed it? We're going to use the same. So now, to define a private resource for a class, you need to use double disc. So instead of that, we were using single underscore for protected under the school for private Now we will run it again and we will create an object. So here. Now what we have to do to come here and we will create an object. Ito and employees. And here maybe And then you need to specify the salad e you know you can run. Suppose if we want to access the salary off Mehdi. And if you try to run it like this, then it went through and ever So let's look into that. Try to run it. So what? It is telling that they're not understanding what actuated Why? Because it is a private variable and private variable is not accessible by outside of the class Outside of the class means we have created an object and we're trying to exit the private variable. So you must be asking me how we can access a private variable from outside. I will explain you in a better way. So what we will do? We will create a punk and we will define it as Give me Give me e m p salad e There is a funk. So this is the resource within the class. No, this class is having access to this one, so we really use Or we will access this salary with help off this class. So how to do that? We will come here and here we can pass self. And here we will access the salad print. Loy salad is see over here. If we can access the name don't. Here we can print a salary. So now we have introduced a public method over here which has the access off this private variable. So let's run it and see this is working. No, we will create an object again. And this time we're not going to directly access this variable private value. This time we relaxes with give e m p sanity. Now we will run it. See you regard Oh, maybe sell it. Why? Because the resource within the class can access the private resource. But from outside we can't access city to radically try to access this under the school underscore salary. What it did it throws this set up. So what we have done, we have introduced a method. This method has an access to this part and were calling this method so that the reason it is returning the salary I hope you and your decision. And this is what I wanted to show you in decision seeing the next session. Bob, I 32. CONCEPTS + LAB : Error And Exception: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in this session. We're going to look in tow. Ever send exception in Python? So let's look into the topics which we're going to cover. Indecision. So here we're going toe cover the following topics where we will learn about what is exception we will own about some of the jargon is which is being used within error and exception topics. Then we will look into points to remember some of the points important points which would remember while doing with the error and exception handing. Then we will look into the exceptions handling technique, hard to handle any exceptions when it is soccer and then we will look into water. The Syntex we follow when we were we're handing or we are writing the error handling techniques within court. Then afterwards, we will look into that how to catch any exceptions. If we talkers at run time and then we will look into else clause which will come with Trey block and final estate. We will look into the finally close. What is the use of finally close, inward scenario we can use when Lee Claude So all these things were going to cover. So let's start our discussion. So first, understand that what is ever and work these exceptions. So basically, when something goes wrong in a computer program, someone needs to know about something goes wrong and one way often for me. Other parts off a program is by generating an error object. So what does it mean? So, basically, when the other propagates, then the user who runs the program needs to know that something has gone wrong. So the user get notified about a problem via a short report on the error. So in somebody, we can say that whenever any other awkward, then we need a mechanism by which we can handle those errors. So in this session we were looking toe those technique as well. But prior to that, let's understand that what actually exception is the exception is nothing but an object within, Fight on and fight on. Everything is an object with seem like they're We have an exception, class on which has cap ability to handle the editors. We will look into the hierarchy of exceptions. So looking toe that so this is the hierarchy off exceptions within fight on. If you look closely Then you will find that we have a base exception class, which is being inherited by Exception Class. And there are were 80 off other exceptions, which is being created like arithmetic exception supposed that defending automatic operations related ever happened. Then we can utilize this class. We can catch those errors on. We will provide a more meaningful information to the user. We will understand this thing with an example this, I'm telling you, because you can understand that how many types off, whether you will there might be a chance, is that you can get a different variety or feathers. So we were looking toe zero division ator in an example, the same way you can use it for other paper ferret as well on a sort of north you can understand that exception is nothing but an object within Python, which can be used toe handle the it when it talker so that user get a better experience while using the program to let's move further and looking toe. Other topic. Other topic. We will look into his exception jargon. So what is exception jargon? So there are certain words you should remember whenever we are dealing with exceptions. So basically, we're going toe get exceptions. So what is an exception and error, which is generated? Runtime? That's it. Raising an exception. That means you can intense religion rate and exception to write the more robust program. So sometime we need to raise an exception in certain scenarios were doing their development so that we can handle those exception, and we can write a robust program. If if starts in our you will haven't, then you can handle that. Accept same where there is something girl throwing another sometime. We need too intense, nearly trigger there it'll we were looking toe handling an exception as well. There is something called handing an exception. That means processing court that deals with the other. We can also see that handless that deals with their signals means a particular type of exceptions, such as Out of Bone or D Wade Way zero, divided by zero. We're going to look in tow the example so everybody and then you are going to listen. Such words, and so jargon is whenever you are dealing with error and exception objects. No, let's move further alerts looking toe the point. Want to remember so Basically, whenever we're dealing with the different type of object in Python, sometime we will get that different type of feathers and different type off exceptions. So let's understand with an example over here. So if you look in tow that then you will find that we have different tape off pray, catch block, we will look into the strike as block whenever we deal with any exception handling technique, we need to use tray in the catch block. So that means whatever the court, which you feel like that is going toe real erroneous scored, or that my generates a mirror or some exception so we can write it into the trade block. So here what it is telling that different type off ever produced different type of exceptions. So that means there there might be a chance is that if you're doing some wrong, the reason something you are trying to divide way zero, then it will generate descended on the same aspect effort. If your memory get full, then that means it will generate out off memory era and again here it with showing an example that Harto handled actor You can also see year. There is different. We're 80 a feather in, given in the example like end off by letter. So these are some of the exception type. It might arises whenever we're writing and when we were writing any program. So we need to deal with such of the exception, so so that we can give you a better user experience. Toe the users. So let's go further and looking toe the handling an exception. What is handling an exception? So this we will understand with an example, this entire thing. Instead of reading about all this thing better, we can raid some program and understand this thing. So let's jump into the editor where we can write the program for exception handling and where we can learn all these topic. So let's jump into the editor. So here now we will write some erroneous scored and try to generate some mirror, and then we will understand that how it is really helpful. Suppose that if we have a function called Run something like that, and here you can rate somewhere near scored, like I'm going to write some erroneous scored which will generate. And so here we will try to divide whatever the number, we will pass and we will try to divide by zero if you try to divide with zero with any number than it will give you another. So now if you try to run with run Cal to see you, every passing, any number, then see how or what kind of Federer it we're getting over here. We run it, See division by zero. We generated the center. So this is really very bad experience for user. If you're pretty is happening on the run time, supposed that if anybody is trying to run in a production environment without this be way file and if you try to access it and some erroneous buggy code, you have return it and then it will. Let's talk that program. So this is not a good experience. So to handle this with the entire exception handling mechanism comes into picture. So let's look into that now. Now, to better handle it, what we need to do, we need to rate or try except block. You try and we are going toe call. Reach over the court, which we feel like that my generate another. So we will write the court in the try block and then here we need toe. Accept it. In most of the programming language, it is going to be a catch block between the prey tone were using except over here and here . We can make specify that whenever we are getting this error zero division error. So we need toe. Tell that whenever we're going to see you, it is a key word and that the reason it is the color is a little different. And we need toe Tell that if you're getting such another so print or some graceful message and move further, there is another court block. Who here now we will run it. So if he will run it now, then earlier we used to get this error, but this time we will get a very good error message. So here it has gas. This editor and it printed that something goes wrong or we have whatever the custom message we have provided, like we have provided troops nor division by zero to see you, how gracefully we have captured there. So this mechanism is Carl, except son handling. So this is what it is telling that you can catch an exception by implementing the tray except construct. So that's what we did. What we did. We have created or try and accept block and we're catching that error. So that is what it is telling now, moving for the So this is what it is telling and to do that we have us in text. We have used this in text and we have used the same example over here. So here we will look into some of the examples. If we're trying to run it and if we decided is happening, then we need to print that the custom messes again might be there in the chances that we will get some index era. Then we can create that thing. So there are multiple layers supposed to happen sometime. Then we can handle it. So whichever court block it will auto that court blocked, get executed, and your program will execute continuously with our coming out from the program and giving some erroneous message. So this entire mechanism Iscor error handling. No, we understand that, Brian. Except block how we're using, try and accept block to handle the exceptions. No more further and we will look into the else clause. So What is the use off else? Close. We will understand that. Let's go toe the court. Now suppose a scenario. We're going to do a little changes over here. We're going toe. Provide another perimeter. Why? And we will do it. You excavated way, way. And we need to provide seven and zero this time. This time we'll 27 and zero so that it will give more meaningful information now to understand that else block what we need to do We need to introduce a else block over here. And if everything goes wrong, everything goes well. Then we need to print that all scored gets executed without any error. And so here this time What? We will go copy this scored. We will do little changes over here to understand it. This time we will pass eight and some value north zero. So if you will run it And now you will try to execute this one. This block will not execute it. Instead of that else block will get executed. Run it So why? It is so because there was no area. So in that scenario, we can use else block as well. Or suppose if you want to perform any other activities after execution off the entire court with doesn't have a nearer, we can write it into Dale's block. So now we have seen that else close went to use a else close and how to write and else close. Now we were looking toe, though finally close. But prior to that, I wanted to give you information about finally clauses that finally clauses the clause which will be executed if it is gets you get another. If you don't get another in both the scenario, this clause will be executed. So why it is given. So this has given because suppose that if any other happen and you are having open database connection so you don't want to keep it open if any other will happen, or if you don't want to keep it open. If you're work has been processed from their databases in both the scenario, you want to close decision, so you need a mechanism by which you can handle such scenario. So finally closes one off the way by which you can handle such scenario where we want to close the session little bits connection after processing. If you get an error in that scenario. Also, we need to close the rate a position on if it will executed properly. We have festive data from databases under than the end off the entire processing. We need to close decision so we can write that block off court in to finally close. But we here we will look into a simple example so that I can show that how to write the finally close. But this is one of the important thing you should remember inward scenario. You can use the finally close so let's jump into their litter. And here we will have ah finally close finally and here we can print. I will run every time. So here now you can keep both the scenario. We will check over here develops in Are you is another condition scenario below is the perfect execution scenario. So first we were letters in Are you We can run so you can find that it given the no division by zero But it has also executed this court block. Why? Because it is a finally block. I told you that this block will be executed if you get better. Are if you don't get better. Now we will run for No, don't dinner. There is no error. So run it. In that scenario, also, after execution off all the court, it gets executed. So this is the beauty or finally laws Just remember. So that's it. Guys, this is what I wanted to demonstrate you in this second. I believe I have given you a good information about that. Under an exception, you learn something in decision. So see you in the next session till then. Bye bye. 33. CONCEPTS + LAB : Python Module Pacakges: Hello, guys. Thanks for joining the session in decision we're going to discuss about White on modern packages. So this station, I have kept it theoretical session because this session is mainly related toe rending your project if your project get larger. So when we do our project where I can show you some of the example how the packages is being adding to within bite on and those packages were going to use in our projects. But this topic I want to keep it at the last off the third part because afterwards you are no comfortable with programming and now onwards your do a project and fight on. So let's jump in tow the diagram and where we will discuss the topic. So basically, we're going toe cover all these topics. We're going to learn about what? Actually, eight. It's I only mention that water to models and packages air to constructs used in bite on tour. Nice, larger program. This I already mentioned you use bite on model packages for arranging the court. So how we're going to arrange it? I will show you some example over here. And then I will show in the project section how we're going to use the existing packages. So basically, if you will look into the modules, then their definition also says a model allows you to group together related function, glasses and court. In a general way, you can think of model as being like a library. Of course, it is useful to organize your according to models, when the court either become larger when you want to reuse some element of the court meeting multiple projects. So this is what I was explaining you earlier. So that means suppose that if you have multiple utility functions like Ring and some custom logical for your projects, which you are using in various places off the project, so inside scenario what you need to do. You can bundle those packages but didn't bite on using more guilt, and you can reuse that court. So how we actually do that's Let's looking toe that over here it is saying that water the things you can contain within the models, So first understand that then we were looking toe how we're arranging the court within model, so basically you can keep function. Classes were evil. Executable court attributes associated with the models sear. It has given an example that supposed that if we have created a function that contains a class on the function which you are going to keep Pinto Util start, be way fine and once you have created it later point of time. You can use this model so you can import your tails function and other models which you have created within the project. They are important. And so this is what I told you that So you have a creator file which contains all the repeatable core and those called need toe be every label within other while. So to do that, you need to import it. And once you import that file, then all the functionality which you have defined earlier that will be available to Docker and for it and that wild report as a modern and you can import that while with another file using important keywords and the file name on top of model, there is something core packages. So all these more deal going toe these packages and which has certainly structures so what kind of structure it has. So let's looking toe that so basically it has the following a structure So whenever you want to create a package, for example, here, if you're creating utilize bracket where you need to provide this a structure, it must have this while available in divide into. This is an initial Isar foil for this package and then you can have a separate gold. For example, if you have multiple classes, then you will use classes. Not be Rafe remarkable function that then you can use functions. Don't be way, friend. So the benefit out off it is that you are keeping all the utility functions within this packet. And wherever you want to import this packet in any of the project, you just need to import this util packet. We will look into some of the packages from fight on. Weird. We can look into how this packages is being getting. Then bite on when we will do the project. So that's it, guys, this is what I wanted to show you in this session and in this part of the course, See, in the next part of the course where we will do the projects of thank you, Barbara 34. PROJECT I : Snake Game: Hello, guys. Welcome to another session in decision. We're going to learn about our another project called Snake Game. So in decision, we're going to design this name game. So why we're going to design their snake game? Because here we're going toe. See that? How we have used glasses and objects to design a game. So the intention off the project is that you can see the good in execution, how it's being written and how we're applying the concept which we have loaned in the entire course, so that you can feel comfortable when you were start rating the court for any of the purpose. Then you can reference these goods and they purposely choose in the next project that is called snake him. That means this project as a game, because here we will see the classes and object. We will see the four loop while oh, we will also see that how we are going to control the key would and how to use the way game model. There is a game model also being available, which we will use to design this game. So let's look into the thing What we are going to design So let's jump in tow the anaconda console. So I will run the program and I will show you what we are going toe implement. I have already implemented it. So I'm going to demonstrate that so that you can get a confident that what we are going toe bid. So here, this is what we are going to build. If you run it, then you will see that. So this is what we're going to build. So this is the snake and you can handle with the keyboard year. I'm using the Iraqi left Iraqi off Farooqi, Down Arrow key to all this thing and it is changing the position. You must play this game at any time. So this will give us the ability to write the court by which we can handle the key would control as well. I will explain all the lines so that you can understand that how it is being designed. And you will also right the court to live. Jump into this by the editor and we will copy please the court and we will understand that each line off the court so that you will be comfortable. I'm doing copying paste because I want to save the time and I want to utilize that time to explain you the concept. The same court is given to you in the resource section. You can also copy in pay strict and try to understand the line off the court. Why that line is being returned. Pray to remove that line and try to execute it. What kind of feather you are getting because see, if you want to really learn the program you also trained to loan the enter called art are the record. You are getting well designing the program, so that will give us a real time experience that if we will get such kind, often era, so why it is giving that better. So sometime we need toe generate the error intentionally so that when we are doing the programming for any application within a project, then you must be aware that why the seller is coming if we are really about the other earlier. So let's jump into the Spider Editor. So we are in tow. A spider editor let me grab the court and then we will discuss the court line by line. So I have grabbed the court and pasted over here and now we will look into all the lines which is being used over here. You own believe that the entire game designed within 120 line, of course. So let's to start discussing all this project line by line so that you feel comfortable. I want to make you comfortable with the each line so that you can understand each lane and you can trade to design the entire project by your own. At the very first line. We're getting the P Way game. When you try to run this project, you will get an Eric. Why? Because the P Way game is not ready for tablet. If any packages is not every level to you. So you have tow run the falling common. You should remember whenever you're working with bite on To run this program, you need to install a package Could be way game, which is again a model or a packet, which is designed way some other people which will give us the capability to design the game like when you ran when we ran this program, then what we found. We have found that there is a window open. That window is being provided by this package. So practice discussing the program. If you will get there, that this model is not available than what you have to do. You come to the conduct console and what you need to do You need to write, install, be way game what it is. Let me verify that. Be way game addict and then you can press enter for me. This will not run because I have already in started. So it is telling that requirement already satisfied. Beware gaming in this location. So one more thing. I wanted to give you information about the fight own installation if you're using a corn doubles and if we want to check that, what are the packages? Every label with Indo Anaconda. So you can go there in this location and to check the site packages. So let's looking toe that once. So we are in tow. The site packages in the same location, and here you can find that we have so many packages which is being available for use. So whenever we need something like game, so if you're looking toe that you will find over here that the way games is the level. See you. So this is the packages ability. You come to the site package and looking toe that what are the things that is? It has returned. So this way you will learn that how fight on packages is being managed. I have given you information about the package detail in the party off the course. Why? To using it. Don't be way file because it gives was Dennis logician. So the package it. So this is what I wanted to show over here. So let's jump into the spider Editor and discuss the program. So basically here, once you install that the way game, then you will get the important methods which is being used in this program. So basically what it is doing, do you remember? Can you tell me what it is doing? Yes, it is creating a couple. So black is the top of another. White is a couple. So it is generating a combination colors within a couple. Then afterwards, what it is doing it is in writing a segment width and height. The window vegetarians open and there is a snake. We find that and that the snakes is being created with this segment. So we're defining the segment height and weight. And then we're defining the margins. And here we are, defining the position. It's what are the positions off that segment. And it is calculating on the basis off segment with and the margin and see year we have used the class. Do you remember why we have used this? Yes, you're right. We're creating a glass over here. And then later point of time, we will create the object off this class. And what the way we're using the innit method, or will you? Yes, you're right. We are using it as a constructor and we are in a slicing the value. Whenever the new segment object is being created than X, Y coordinates will re paused. And that will perform these activities that will, in its lies, the following variables like height and width. And then here it what it is doing in its lighting, the X coordinate and the white co ordinate. Then here be way game. Not in it. Soapy Wigan The window which opened, basically provided with a P way game. The way game model which we have been start and there were setting that that this green size So be it 106 100. And after that, we are safe. Single title off. There is a caption we have setting that work this bring delays on with this block off court Were any slicing this knee And then afterwards what is happening over here? See you. We have used both kind off a loop. Do you remember? Four. Look So here we have used that for look and we are generating the snake segments. After that we have created up another form 1/3 within P way, game, nor time, nor clock and be clearing the false variable. Oh, hell no. Hell, We had using a while loop So here, till the time this value is true See year however beautifully it has returned that they have made it done And there negating it with the north operate. Do you remember? Not operator which I have explained you the part two off the court after that. Within this they're using the for loop So you can see that in a loop There is another look so forced Lopez Why Look which is running till the condition is true? Another loop is capturing the event. So how it is capturing the event event. Like if we're moving, if you're pressing the up key down key left key, right key. All those thing it has kept the way it is capturing it is changing the position off this next segment. And with all this, they're calculating the position again, and they are initializing the value to see it. So this entire game is designed within 110 lines. So this is what I wanted to show you in this session. I hope you enjoyed the course. I hope you learned something from this course and that you can apply in your day to day life. This course is invalid for you. Now you can apply these knowledge to loan any off the trending technology like data Science aws ap Eyes Photo three Framework. You can design games. You can do anything with the fight on. So now you you are in a position where you can think off with the use of fight on. Where do you want to take your career? So this is just an in its laser which has opened various parts for your career. This note I'm ending this course and giving you all the best for your career and feel free to contact me if you need any help regarding the doubts and any suggestion about the career in Bite on Bye bye. 35. PROJECT II : IMDB Web Scrapper: Hello, guys. Welcome. And congratulations for reaching till here. If you were in decision, that means you have completed all the three previous arts. And now you have acquired the knowledge where you can design something meaningful. So in this part of the courts were indeed going toe design something meaningful but pride to explaining you the project I want to show you what are the things were going toe cover in this part of the court. So let's jumping toe their discussion. So, guys, this is the story off our journey. So before I explain you the projects part, let's look into the journey so far. When we started this course, we don't know about coding, but we have loan every aspect of the coding where we have seen that how to start coding and programming in any off the language where we have learned so many things that give us the confidence to proceed further and looking toe the basic building block off any programming language. Then afterwards, we have also seen that how we have mapped the basic building block with by tone programming . And we have also understand that the programming paradigm So we will use this concert programming paradigm More prosecutable programming in our first part of the project that mean Project one. Here we are going to design IMDb wherever scrapper with the help off prosecutable programming, we're not going to use any classes. Whatever we have learned to impart to off the course, we will utilize those part with the help of procedural programming where we're not going to write any classes and objects, classes and object, we will cover in project to where I can use the classes and all those things which we have loaned in both part two and part three off the course. So these concept, we cannot playing in our project. So after finishing first part, then we went toe Part two, where we have learned about the basics of bite on programming and these are the topics we have covered. So we have covered the fight, owns overview. Then we have looking toe the fight on programming core elements, water, the core elements off, fight on programming. Then we have also seen the flow control where we have learned about the Fells block, even sledder. And although the stuff which help us to control, it'll behavior off execution off the program. Then we have also seen that iteration and looping concept than we have seen that how to convert any requirement to a program where we have seen that following tools like a functional decomposition, functional floor little flow diagram, flow charts, data dictionary all these tools will help us to convert the requirement with the program. So these tools are really very handy tool when it comes to convert a requirement to a program's supposed that if any client is coming to you with the requirement. So how do you can convert school program? So this we have also seen that functions variable scoping, and we have seen that out to use her your order function like filter map, reduce all these higher order function we have seen in this part off the course. And then we have also seen the currying technique where we have designed the curried function as well. Once we got the confidence in the part do off the court, then we proceed further and we have looked into that once topics really we have launched about the object oriented programming concept. We have seen the fight on classes. We have also seen that Classes and variable Smith Third, we have seen there s tactic mid thirds We learned about class inheritance than we have also looked into overrating method. Then we have seen that taxes modifiers We have also seen the technique whenever any other will happen How toe handle those that with an exception object and that last we have discussed about the fight on model packages I will show you in the project also that how anybody has back is there solution or packets their project which we are going to use it. So all these things we have learned now we are in a position where we are going toe design something meaningful. So in the part four of the project we're going toe to projects that basically project one we're going to design I am the river scrap but I'm going to explain involved this project No And after that we will design a game called a sneak which will help us to write something more meaningful and in object oriented way. So the second project will help us to understand that how toe think about an object how to create an object photo design a class how to instance, See the object from the design class. All these things we will you to design a game. Gord Sneak. Now let's start the discussion about the IMDb were scrapper Project. I hope you must be knowing about the IMDb website, which contains the information about the movies. So let's jump into the website. You understand? It better were in tow. Mdb side. For those who don't know about I am devastate, I am Devastated Site, which hold the information about movies, holds information like name of the movies when it was made. And what is the rating so far? So all these information will be available in the sight of what we're going to design supposed that if we want to grab the information about all those movies, which has high yesterday eating and that belongs Toa cooperated movie. I want these lists off movies, Toby every level, toe me off line so that I can use it for any of the project, like the journalists IHS or to create some map with the help of these data. So we have to with either we can go manually and copy, pasted, selected and copy paste in tow. a text file. This is the first way. But this way is very much dread. Gary. That means you need toe do so much off before toe gravel this detail manually. So what we're going to do, we're going toe Designer Tool which will grab all this information from this site and save it to your local computer. So let's jump into the a spider Editor and start writing the cool to design this tool. So we're in tow, the Spider Editor. So let's start writing the court. So here, before writing the court just to understand that the floor for the project then only were able to design the project or implement the project. So to do that, we are going to use the tools which we have learned toe in part two of the course like tools to convert from require mento program. So what we need to do we need to understand that the functional flow So how, actually on what actually happening within the tool when we are using it. So basically we will write it. So we're going toe comment it so forced to step what is happening, that we're going to the website once we are going there. Then what is happening? That we are getting information. And once we are getting the data into tabular form it, That means a mechanism by which we can extract information to hear if you look in tow that this is the top rated movies. And here we are getting the detained tabular form. How do you come to know about tabular Formenty? That two way you can go in tow The source court. You paid sore school. Then you will find that the source court how it is being are You can inspect the element as well. Here we will. For example, if you grab it and do inspect element, then you will find that this is a people headed today. Today's coming into a table. Er former So what? We need to rule. We need to understand it. Okay. The day ties in NATO allies in tabular form it in tabular form it So the data is in tabular form it So that means we need to grab. We need toe grab the data from tables. So this is our task to perform while designing the stool. So here the beauty of bite on comes in tow. If we're going to design this tool, that means you have to design all these for the steps by your own bird. If we're doing this thing in Python, that means you are going to leverage the existing court or existing program which is already designed way somebody else and practiced it and provided you to use in your model. So we will grab some of the earlier design packages in our program which will help us to perform some of the activities like going toe the IMDB website, Getting the information from table grabbing the information from S T. M A table to our program memory. So let's start writing the court to save your time. I have already written the court. What I will do. I will copy paste over here and I will explain you Laneway Lane so that it will save our time and we can achieve more knowledge in less time. You can also grab the court from your resource section off this course I have provided the court to your resource section. You will go there and grab the project. One imdb underscored a scrapper. Don't be way fried and open in your spider editor. I warned that after understanding all these concepts, you can write it where you run from muskrat, so that you will be very much comfort. Table off all these scored and understand each line why you were writing that line or test the purpose of writing that line off court. So let me grab the court, so have grabbed the court. I will paste it over here. So this is the court I have written. If you will look into that pretty much very a small program. But it is doing so much of Gary tasked with an ease. Let's understand the program as I told you that we're going to use the models which is already we designed way somebody in Pakistan. So there is a model called Beautiful. So what they do, it will grab the returned as TML. And from there it has the capability to read the elements, esteem, ill elements from the return esteem data. What we will do, we will try to execute line by line so that you will understand it. So this is one of the beauty or pytorch program is that you can write or you can run any off the line, which was the line. You want to execute it here, which I explained you of leer. So now suppose you want to execute the 1st 3 line to Lord these more deals into your memory . So you need to just select it and step in tow to see it. It has loaded it. No. Next you need to provide the U. N you trade toe executed. Then you will find that it has stored this you are so if you print it, then you will find that it has this value and you can also use variable exploded Where you come to know about water. The very was like you are We have loaded it. So it is containing this information which I have already explained. You know, we will use response request Don't get ur else what it is doing. It is going with the help off this request object. This is again a package to grabbing the information from the U. R l from the website or what it is doing. It is grabbing all the esteem l which is being used to display that pitch which bridge the am levy Pidge. It is grabbing all this data which you're seeing over hell into a variable called response . So if you print it just a like response Variable safe Tinto, then what? It has returned. It has returned 202 100 minutes. It guard the data. So now what they did. It has taken the text. If you run it. If you want to look into that work is the text. We will go out in the response object supreme, This one. So you will find that all these information which is exist within the site We have all these detained too ugly for Mitt. But we want the information from this file. So what we're doing, we're using beautiful so beautiful. So please of packet which help us to grab the data from this ugly format file so that the reason we're using this model. So now what we're doing, we're creating off variable where we're using this class So beautiful. So people looking toe the definition of beautiful. So then you will find that beautiful show they have created and class over here, and we're creating an object off that class. And this class is taking two values respond or texture Nell XML. These values were passing toe there, constructor. And suppose you want to know the information about this class. So what you need to do it is very simple. You come here and right help and beautiful. So whichever door classed you warned the information. Beautiful soup. So here you will run it. Then you will get the implementation detail, how they have designed dysfunction and you will get the detail about all those perimeters which is being used within this model. So all these detail, you can get it over here. So what? It is telling that to create it. These are the argument to some of the default argument and some of the 90 foot. If you don't posit, then in that scenario, also, it will create an object so you can look into these documentation. So in a shorter not I can say that. So this is an object which help us to grab ugliest team, inform it to a simple form it. So the data is being We're getting the data from the request object, which is again, another model. If you want to know about this model, then what do you need to do you again. Come here and Ray type over here requests and will 100. Sorry, a Dido type, whether it is the requests and if you will run it then you will get the information about this model. So you will look into that. It has also given the example. So what it will do, it will grab the data. It will grab the information about the website or all the content off website, that particular Pete into one object and that you can grab the text off that particular response. And then we will for the process it. So if you look into the steps, then you will find that over here. What? We're going to go. We are actually performing the first step. We're going to aim to be website you with the help of this object. And then we're grabbing that object and we are getting the response. And once we're getting the response, were great and grabbing there Next, which is in a stable form. It and one by one, we're using the esteem ill element. We're reading their steam element with the help of these methods, and we are getting grabbing those details. Once we get all these details like Movielink reiterating. So if you're goingto the website, then you will find over here that like rating your rating. So all these details, if you will check in tow that how this detail is being arranged over here and you can design as put the table. So once you gravel this information than what is happening over here that we are creating the movies, all those movies which we grab and one day, one what we're doing we are grabbing the text over here. Then we are grabbing the title and after grabbing all these information, what we're going to do over here, we're creating a dexterity. You must. We remember that how we have created the dictionary in our part two of the course. And with that, we are creating the key value pair. So we are creating a key chord movie title which we have, which we're getting from here. If you look into that, we're using into a for loop way. We're using in tow for look, because we have our data. We need toe iterate all those movies which we have grabbed. So here, if you're looking toe that, then you will find that we have so many movies list over here. So we need to perform on each of the road. We need to perform that activity toe grabbing the detail about, like, movie name ratings toe all this information we need to perform in toe loop So that the reason what is happening over here that you will find that we have grab the movie name grabbed the details about the movies which has the column and then afterwards, one by one, we are grabbing the information from these objects so that the reason you are finding it in toe loop, each line is having some meaning. And then afterwards, what we're doing for each room, we're creating a dictionary and then we're a pending in tow list. See you. They are using a list also, CIA. We have also designed er list over here. Why? Because after creation off her dictionary toe, grab the information for a particular room, we will put it into a list so that we will iterate that list to grab the meaningful information and at the end of the program, what we're doing, we're displaying it. Once you have grabbed all this information, what you need to do You need to print it. So this is what I'm doing. What? They were the thing which is existing within this. I am Devi you just printed So know what we will do? We will execute the program and we will see that how it is working to alerts jumping toe though. And I were not console. And from there we will run this program. It's were in tow The Anaconda drum. Now what we need to do we need to run the program Your by told first we need to find out to here we need to rate my tone and grab the name you need to remove it and run it to see you . It has grabbed all those information from the website. See, At first it has grabbed the strong redemption. So if you will go over here now then you can match it. So what is the first information? The song for sung redemption and what it has grabbed. We will go there. Then you will find that it has grabbed it. No next step is you can either restore it into Excel files. See, as we file from the vital program you can do that. Or however you want to use this information. This is what I wanted to show you in this project. I hope you have learned something. The only thing I need from you is that you have to practice it. The more you can practice, the more you can learn. You try to loan each line off the court. Then only you are able to loan all this thing and you are able to write the court by your own. If you have any question, any doubt about any off the line off this court, you can drop me your question with the course name at my Twitter handle. I will definitely touch with you. Whenever I will see your message, I will respond back, that's for sure. So on this note, I'm closing decision in the next session. Really well designed the project to till then. Buh bye.