Learn Camera Basics for Videos - A Beginners Guide | Adi Singh | Skillshare

Learn Camera Basics for Videos - A Beginners Guide

Adi Singh, Videographer and Youtuber

Learn Camera Basics for Videos - A Beginners Guide

Adi Singh, Videographer and Youtuber

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19 Lessons (48m)
    • 1. Introduction

      0:22
    • 2. Why you should watch this class?

      1:27
    • 3. Contents

      2:12
    • 4. A Good Video Camera

      3:23
    • 5. Type Of Video Cameras

      0:29
    • 6. Action Cameras - Pros & Cons

      3:59
    • 7. Point and Shoot Cameras - Pros & Cons

      2:40
    • 8. Mirrorless/DSLRs - Pros and Cons

      1:42
    • 9. Different Camera Resolutions

      3:54
    • 10. Frame Rates Per Seconds

      4:31
    • 11. Shutter Speed

      2:56
    • 12. ISO

      2:12
    • 13. Lens Apertures

      3:37
    • 14. Camera Filters

      1:21
    • 15. Filming w/wthout lens filters

      3:37
    • 16. Filming a Slow Motion Video

      1:49
    • 17. Filming in Low Light

      3:27
    • 18. An Introduction to Camera Lenses

      3:55
    • 19. Conclusion

      0:36
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About This Class

Are you that person who wants to start making videos but don’t know where to start. And do all the camera settings seem scary to you? Then you have come to the right place! Learning camera basics for videos isn’t that complicated!

What you will learn
In this class, I will break down all the different camera settings and I will go through in detail about all the terminology such as shutter speed, frame rates per second, ISO, Aperture, etc with real-life examples. Most of the time I will be filming outdoors and will take you to all different scenarios so that you can learn with me about how to apply different settings in your camera to film at different times of the day. 

And by the end of this class, you will know all about your camera gear and you will be confident enough to film in manual settings and get the most out of your camera. You would exactly know how to play with shutter speed, frame rates per second, ISO and aperture to get the best video output possible from your camera.

Structure of the class

  • An Introduction to video cameras: Lesson 4-8 will consist of everything you need to know while buying your first video camera. We will discuss the pros and cons of an action camera, point and shoot cameras and Mirrorless/DSLR cameras. By the end of this lesson, you know what camera is good for you, if you are thinking of investing in a good video camera.
  • Camera basics in depth: In lesson 9-14, I will go in-depth about the different camera resolution setting. I will explain about the shutter speed, ISO, Aperture, Frame rates per second and much more. I will also discuss how you can use all those settings in different scenarios.
  • Real-life examples: In lesson 15-17, I will be talking about how you can use all the settings discussed in real life and how those setting are interrelated to each other. I will show you how to film with and without camera filters. I will show you how to film slow-motion videos and how you can change the frame rates to get the best slow-motion video possible. I will also show a few examples of filming in low light and how you can use the ISO setting to get the best footage possible in low light.
  • Introduction to camera lenses: In lesson 17, I will give a brief introduction about the types of lenses available in the market and which lens is the best for you if you are starting out.

Is this class interesting for you?
This class is welcoming to student of all levels, though the class is built for beginners in mind.

So, do I see you in my class? Let’s learn and create!
________________________________

Who am I?
My name is Adi – and since a few months I am living in the Netherlands. Since I got my first camera back in 2015 to capture my travels, I am hooked with videography! Every day I learned something new and eventually I started my own video production company and YouTube channel! I learned all the ins and outs of videography online or by self-teaching and I would love to share my knowledge with all of you!

My equipment
Check the gear I use: Adi Singh (@letsmeetabroad) gear • Kit

Let's connect!
My YouTube channel: Let’s Meet Abroad
Instagram: @flexmediafilms @letsmeetabroad 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Adi Singh

Videographer and Youtuber

Teacher

Hi there! I’m Adi.

In 2015 I got my first camera to capture my travels to New Zealand. From then on I was hooked with videography! Every day I learned something new and eventually I started my own video production company and YouTube channel!  

The reason why I love online teaching is simply because it has been the foundation of my filmmaking career. I learned all the ins and outs of videography online or by self-teaching and I would love to share my knowledge with you! I truly believe that if e-learning is taken seriously, anyone can be professional in anything. I really hope I can help others with making content and creating videos.

So where are you waiting for, let’s learn and create!

 

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Welcome to this class where you would be learning all about camera basics. My name is Adi, seeing food answer, a videographer and a photographer. And I've been working with businesses and organizations for the past couple of years and have held them in providing high quality video content. And I also make travelling lifestyle videos on YouTube. That was not a bad intro. Let's get started with the class. 2. Why you should watch this class?: So why should you watch this class? I didn't go to film school. I learned everything by myself. I went out there, I filmed, I did some mistake, I came back home. I did a lot of research that Hawaii, my video looks crap. And he took me around three years to get my footage from this to this. And why it took me three years because I probably didn't watch a course like this where you can spend 40 to 45 minutes and you would know all about the year camera gear. You would be learning all different types of settings. You'd be learning all about terms such as shutter speed, frames per second are used so and a lot of stuff. But then I also don't want it to be super technical class or whatever stuff I'm going to teach about. And would go out and film. And I would show you this example that this is why this setting should be used. So it would make more sense and it would be like, it'll be just much more easier to learn. Because if I'm at your place and a file, if somebody's talking to me just about technical stuff, they're not showing how what that thing would actually do then it wouldn't make sense to me. So that's why I wanted to do this class and put all the things together in a structure that, that'll be easy for my audience to understand. So I hope that makes sense. 3. Contents: So Quentin's for this class. So I broken down this class in two different segments. So there would be some segments which you would already know C can all. So you can always skip to the next part so that you're not just wasting your time. And we're just talking straight to the point. So the first segment is for people who are looking into getting a video camera. So we'll talk about what an ideal video camera looks like. And then the second segment would be all different cameras. Options available for a beginner. For example, when we talk about action camera visit, talk about plenitude. We'll talk about mirrorless and DSLR's. Because, yeah, if you, if it's your first camera will be so overwhelming because you would not know which camera is good for you and they're all expensive. So yeah, I would try to to spread down to you guys just to show that Mitch Canberra is good for you. If you already have a camera, you can already skipped first two segments and then third segment we'll be talking about resolution. So we'll be talking about for caries allusions. We are talking about high definition resolution. What is the difference between that? And why you need those resolutions setting in your camera. And after that, we'll jump into the main segment of this class. Those are camera basics. So we'll be talking about frameless per second, will be talking about shutter speed, will be talking about aperture, ISO, white balance and all that sort of stuff. So it would sound soap are overwhelming, that that's a lot of information, but I'll try to make it as simple as possible, as practical as possible. And after that, I'll give you a brief introduction of all different types of lenses available in the market. And I will also discuss about different types of terminology, what they use in the lens. So that when you are looking online and there's a million different lenses, you will exactly know that that's what that lens to. That's what this length is two. And that's what it's good for me. So yeah, I hope it makes sense saying have a missing anything else? 4. A Good Video Camera: So what you should look for in a good video camera. First of all, I need to make it very clear. There's no perfect camera. There's literally no perfect camera. So an ID and a video camera. What it should do to the first thing is it should film at least in 48, and it should have manual video settings. So not manual focus. I'm talking about manual video settings so that you have control over all the video settings in the camera so you can change shutter speed, ISO, and all that sort of stuff. Because some camps, some beginner cameras is just automoton that video setting. So you really have to just check that it might be really overwhelming to film in manual setting, but at least you should have an option if you're investing in a camera, camera shoot, film in all different manual settings. And the third property of a good camera is should have a good auto-focus. So yes, autofocus is a big thing, especially for beginners because you don't want to also stress about money refocusing the lens. Yeah, a good camera, a good video camera should have a good autofocus. And the next thing it should have is that it should work good in low light. So you don't want to have two cameras, one for daylight and one for Nightline. So whatever camera you by the sensors should be good enough so that you're also, you could also get a decent film in low light. And that's a really big thing if you study using a camera and if it's really cropping like evenings or low like, it would be super annoying. So you're always make sure that when you're looking for a camera, see for those video test-like low-light video test on YouTube. And yeah, that would be very helpful. And the next one, which is, I don't know, it's not that important, but it's also important at the same time, a camera having a good stabilization, especially all the action cameras and some of the points that should they have really good stabilizations. But the mirrorless and the DSLRs, you have to invest a bit of money to get a camera with good stabilization, so yeah, just keep an eye on that property as well. And the next one, a camera should have a good audio. So most of the cameras, they have inbuilt Mike in those. But most of them the mike is not that good. So you also have to just make sure that whatever camera you buy it does it has a mike slot or not. So if it has a mike Slotnick and always use an external might be the cameras. So yeah, these are the things which you should look into while buying a good camera. And yeah, and all these priorities, it would be different for everybody. So if I just want to look for a camera, which is just for travelling, I would want to look at, I wouldn't focus too much on like the video settings. I would focus a bit more on the how easy it is to carry that camera, how good the battery backup IS, rather than focusing too much about all different crazy specs. So yeah, and if I'm buying a camera for my video production work, I would want a camera which has like a really good video output. So yeah, the camera, whatever you going to buy, it's going to be all dependent on what see reviews for the camera. 5. Type Of Video Cameras: So what's the best camera for you? So I've divided a few different cameras in three different segments. So the first one is action cameras, the second one is pointing shoot, and the third one is DSLR or very less. So in the next section we'll be talking about the pros and cons of that action camera. All right, let's move on. 6. Action Cameras - Pros & Cons: Ok. So action cameras. I love action cameras, but there's also like this, so much limitation of just using an action camera. Let's get let's get into it. And then, yeah, I've been talking about that. We will do a little conclusion in the end that is it good for you or not? So pros of action camera, it is super handy. It's just super small so it can fit in any pocket. You don't have to have an extra camera bag. And the second one is most of the action cameras, they are water resistant. And the next big thing about using an action camera is you can have so many creative point of view is like you can literally put the camera anywhere and get a really creative shots. So you can be super creative just because of the size of the body and how Racket those are, you can just put them anywhere and get our super creative shots. And that's one of the best things I love about action cameras. And next one is It's super good for traveling, especially as a beginner. Like when I started making videos, I was using my GoPro and it would also just helped me to log in public because if you're filming with a GoPro, Not many people freak out. But if you fill it with a big DSLR and it has a mike on top of that, you would get so many weird looks. So yeah, if you're traveling and if you're a beginner, I would highly recommend an action camera. And the next one is especially the action cameras which are coming these, this stabilization on DEM is super smooth. So yeah, I mean, it's really good for action sports. And the last one is they're not that expensive. So even if you are willing to spend like three to $400, you can get like one of the deepest action cameras in the market. And that's what the pros, the concept and action camera is. And this is the thing which I don't really like about it is you just get one wide view. So if I'm trying to get like a few different views of a character or a place like a wide-angle look, close up a medium shot. You can't really do that with just an action camera. You would want another camera as well, uh, became as well. So yeah, that's the first thing which I don't like about. The second thing is the bokeh is missing from the camera. So what bokeh is like, it's just the blurry background. What do you see when you're using a DSLR? So you don't really get that in an action camera. And the next one is most of them because of their small sensor, they are not the best in low light. They would always be a DSLR or a mirrorless, or a point-and-shoot camera that would work ten times better than an action camera in low light. So yeah, you just have to be mindful. So yeah, those were the pros and cons of an action camera. And I think this camera would be best for is people who are people who love adventure sports. I'm just document and they want, just want to document their yeah, adventure. And it would also be good for travelers who are, how can I put this? So who are not too much? First about getting that like cinematic crazy shots aren't getting that cinematic close ups are getting that poker in the background. For those travellers. It's really good. And I started when I went to New Zealand for the first time, I bought a corporal and that Sylvain, It all started. So yeah, I would highly recommend if you're traveling, it's the best thing ever. And the best part is you don't have to have an I have an extra camera bag. So you can just put in any other power to get a couple extra batteries and you're done for the whole trip. Whereas if I go with my DSLR, I have to have like an extra camera bag just for that. So yeah, for the people who were traveling, it's perfect. It's literally Perfect. 7. Point and Shoot Cameras - Pros & Cons: So in this section we'll be talking about pros and cons of using a point and shoot. So the pros of point and shoot, the quality you get. It's a little bit better than a GoPro so you can get like bokeh in the background. And yeah, just a little bit better than the corporate, not the quantity, but the dynamic range and all that sort of stuff. If it's a good point that shirt and it's, it's sort of more closer to the DSLR types rather than a GoPro types. So the quality is more inclined towards a mirrorless or a DSLR. The next benefit of using a pointing to it is you can film a different focal lengths. You can get a wide angle, you can get up super zoomed-in view. And you can also get the bokeh in the background if it's a good point and shoot. So yeah, that's a really good thing. And some of them, they are really good in low light. So you have to do a bit of research, but they have this option of if e by a really good point and shoot, you can get a really good low-light performance out of that camera. And the next benefit is it's just easy to carry, so it's a little bit bigger than your action camera. So you can literally you just put it in your pocket and yeah, just walk around and some of them, they also have this flip screen. So that's also super handy if you're into vlogging or if you're like even doing any sort of shoot at your home. And yeah, this just there's a lot more options of filming if you have a point and shoot. So the cons of pointing to it is the quality is good, but it's not as good as the DSLR or mirrorless. And the second coin ease. You cannot change the length, whatever length is attached with the camera. You just stuck with that. That's why I do a lot of research before buying a point and shoot because, yeah, you can't just change the lens. So yeah, and the next one is It's not water resistant as the action camera. So yeah, you just have to keep in mind that it's not going to be as good as your action camera. I mean, you can still put it at places and get creative shots, but not as good as the action cameras. So those were the demerits of buying, point and shoot. And who is this good for? It's perfect for people who are just getting started with its logging. And even like you can still use that camera in your home setup. So if even if you don't like a beauty tutorial or even if you don't like any substance, you can get like those close-up shots. You can get those wide-angle shots. You can get a good low-light performance. So yeah, I mean, it's good for a lot of people, but it's also good for traveling at the same time. So yeah. 8. Mirrorless/DSLRs - Pros and Cons: So the next one is a DSLR enamored less. So the best part about that camera is you can change the lens. So even if your camera body is not the best, if you put a good lens on top of that on the camera body, the WTO would change dramatically like you can literally like change the video quality by a lot, by just changing the lens. And with mirrorless or DSLRs, there's literally no limit on how good the quality on the video. It's just that the more you spend money on a good memory less or a DSLR, the better the video quality is. So yeah, there's literally no limit on DVD quality can literally get one of the best memory less. But at the same time, the cones are, the body is a little bit bigger, especially if you're carrying the lenses. So you have to have like a little camera bag or a big camera bag depends on how many lenses you by saying it's just gonna take extra space. It's not super-duper handy while traveling. But if you really want to make a good video, you, you just gotta take it with you. Although like everywhere, like that's what I do. Like I am like, I don't want to compromise on the video quality. I don't care how hard it gets just to travel with a camera bag and my main backpack. But when I come back home, I'm really glad that I think all the things in the optimum quality as possible. So yeah, there's pros and cons that I said. And the price, it's expensive. So those were the three different types of camera options for beginners. 9. Different Camera Resolutions: Now we will talk about when you're buying a camera, right? You just hear a lot of properties that I can film for gate can film cage and film ten ADP with this many frames per second. But the question is, what are those? And do you really need that? So in this section we will be talking about camera resolution. So difference between 4K and high definition video. So what resolution means is that resolution is just a size of a video. If I'm talking that it's a 4K video. So it would be 3840 into 2160 in the size. And if I'm talking about a high definition video, so it's going to be 1920 into 1080. So those are the different sizes of the videos are 4K video would be twice as big in size as compared to a 1080 video. And what's the benefit of filming or 4K or ten ADP is. So if you're filming a video N4 k, the output would be a better quality. The image would be much more sharper than a 1080 P. So the thing is that if you filmed a video at 40 and if you're playing that video on a 4K scream, you would see the Perfect quantity. But if you film the video in ten ADP and then you watch that video in a 4J screen. What the software will do is it's just going to expand that stretched that ten ADP video in a 4K format. So the quantity, it's not gonna be as good as a 4K video. So yeah, 40 video is much sharper than a ten ADP. But at the same time, if you're watching affordability on your phone as compared to the attendee PVGO, you're not gonna see much difference. So yeah, unless you zoom in. So if you see this video, I had zoomed in, say 300%. And you can see the difference between the shop mess in 4K and attended a PVGO. So yeah, I mean, if you can find a camera with just four again, which is in your budget, like I would say, just go for it. And the next cool part about filming in 4K is, so if I'm filming something with my GoPro in 4K, and if I want to take a close up shot so I can always crop that 4K video and I wouldn't lose the quality if I'm exploiting my final video into a ten ADP. So yeah, if you are cropping attended TV video, that crop, it's not gonna look good, but few crop a 4K video, you wouldn't lose the quantity as much as ten ADP video. So I hope that makes sense. So it's just that the difference between for continued GPS, they're just different sizes. So of course, if I have a bigger size video, I have a lot more options to play with. And the downside of filming in forecast setting is it's just going to take twice as much space in your hard drive. And also while you're editing, if your laptop or if your computer is not that powerful, it's just gonna make the whole system slope was caused. The whole computer is processing the file size is twice as big as 1080 P. So yeah. I mean, you just have to be mindful. Like when I was traveling in Naipaul, I would film. I was editing all the things in my laptop. So I would film all the really beautiful things in 4K. And if I'm vlogging or all the other general shots, I would film intended API because I just saw the beautiful things, the highlights of the trip that should be in the best quality. But all the extra PID, like even if it's not in the best quantity, that's fine. And that and that saved me a lot of battery on my camera. That saved me a lot of space in my hard drive, and that also saved me a lot of time while I was editing on my laptop. So yeah, that's the pros and cons of filming a 4K video. But I would say if you're, if you're looking for a camera and if you are willing to invest the money, definitely go with the 4K setting. So yeah, let's move on to the next section. 10. Frame Rates Per Seconds: So now let's move on to a section that can potentially be one of the most complicated section of this class. But I will try my best to explain it in a very simple format. So let's talk about frame that's per seconds. So you might have heard a lot of times that, okay, this camera can film 100 frames per second. This camera can fill 120 frames per second. But what is that? So frame rates per seconds can be recognized by the term sets, 24 frames per second, 60 frames per second, or 50 frames per second, 120 frames per second, and so on. So to make it simple, what I'll do is I'll show you what a 24 frames per second looks like. What are 60 frames per second looks like, and what 120 frames per second looks like. So could you see the difference between different frame rates? So if you see both the videos, the video which was shot in 24 frames per second, and the video which was shot at 60 frames per second, 60 FPS, it looks a little bit more fluid than 24 hours. And if we go 120th p at it looks a bit more fluid than the 60 FPS. But how a film a shot, there are all these fluid in 24 frames per second. Cause that's what our eyes can naturally see while watching a film. So that's what is super soothing for eyes. So usually all the news programs, I think there are filmed in 30 frames per second. And some of the commercial stare filament 60 frames per second. So that's why a film looks very different as compared to your daily show on the TV, because they are all filled with different frame rates. But if you want your video to look more cinematic, always fill me 24 frames per second. So now your question would be, then what's the point of even having a 50 frames are a 100 frames per second option in a camera. So let me explain. I saw at 24 frames per second means your camera is taking 24 photos in 1 second. And that looks as a 1 second video. And at 60 frames per second means your cameras taking 60 photos in that 1 second. So 24 FPS is 1 second, and here 60 FPS is 1 second. So the, the 60 FPS 1 second, I'm getting a lot more information in that 1 second. And if I convert that 60 FPS into 24 FPS, then that video is half of the speed as compared to a 24 frames per second. And same if I convert a one-to-many FPS video into 24 frames per second. It's going to reduce the speed by more than four times. So the conclusion is, have to film a normal video. You can choose to film at 24 frames per second. But if we have to film a video which you reach in the post, you want to convert it into a slow motion. You can film at 60 frames per second. You can feel like 120 frames per second, whatever the highest frame rate is available in your camera. So say you fulfill me at 60, you can reduce the speed of the video by 40%. And if you're filming at 220 frames per second item, you can reduce it by 30%. So video would be extra slow. But now your question would be, what happens if I try to slow down at 24 frames per second video. So this is how it would look like. If you're filming a normal video, 24 frames. If you're filming, if you're wanting to film a snow, always make sure that you are filming in high frame rates. And I did that mistake so many times. I just thought that all just film whatever frame rate, setting it, it is on. And then I'll just slow it down and then I'm like wise my foot it so choppy like icy people slowing down like ten times. Like what am I doing wrong? And then I learned about, oh, frameless per seconds. So yeah, you're welcome. By the way. Let's move onto the next thing. 11. Shutter Speed: So the next most complicated thing is shutter speed. You might have heard that, Oh, I should fill my dad shutter speed, that shuttle speed. So what is the shutter speed? So shutter speeds are recognized by one or 51 or 61 or 2001 second, 2 second things like that. So what those what those terms mean? So shutter speed, as the name suggests, that's the speed of the shutter. So every time you take a photo or you're taking a video, the camera shutter is working. So my, if my shutter speed is one by 50, this is how it would look. And if my shutter speed is one by ten per second, this is how it would look. The more increase the shutter speed. So if I go one by 2 thousand, the camera shutter would be open for really less time, which means that there would be less light coming in the camera. So if you want more light in the camera, we should be filming in less shutter speed. But here comes the rule. So whatever frame rate, what we discussed in the last class, whatever frame that's your filming a video, your shutter speed should be double of that frame rate. So say for example, if I'm filming a video in 24 FPS, my shutter speed should be one by 48th of a second. If I'm filming a video in 60 frames per second, my shutter speed should be one by 120th of a second. So why it is like that? So I'll just show you an example of a 24 frames per second video filmed in 150th of a second. And the same 24 FPS video, one of our Twenty-five hundredths of a second. So you see the more I increase the shutter speed, the light would get reduced. But then I would also see those jitters in the video. So the motion blur, what gives a cinematic look to a video that would disappear. And what I mean by motion blur is this sytem posing a one by 15 frames per second video. That's how the motion blurred looks of that video. And if I'm posing a one by 2500th of a video, that's how the motion blurred looks. So the optimal motion blur you would get is when your shutter speed is twice as fast as the frame rates, what you're shooting at. So also the thing that shutter speed is if you forget to keep it, like according to the frame rate, it's not end of the world I have filmed at so many times in the video. It was not Cray, but it, it, it looks decent. So just don't stress too much about it, but just keep in your mind that I believe I'm filming at that frame rate, I'm going to keep my shutter speed at that speed. 12. ISO: So the next one is ISO. I don't even know what ISO stands for, but that's not the point to what ISO does is it increases the sensitivity of your camera sensors against the light. So if I am increasing the ISO, your camera sensor becomes more sensitive to the surrounding light. So during the night, what we should do is if you increase your ISO, then you would see that there's more like entering your camera sensor. So the rule of thumb is, the darker it gets, the more you can increase the ISO until you can get the optimum exposure. But the problem with that is, the more you increase the ISO, the more you introduce grains in your video. And the amount of grain that would depend on the quality of sensory you have, the quantity of camera you have. This is the video at the same ISO from my GoPro and a DSLR. So you see a difference. But that's what I'm saying, that increasing ISO is good in the dark. But the more you increase, the more greens he would see in the video. So yeah, that's what I and so does basically. So our main goal should be to keep the ISO as low as possible according to the lighting situation. So if i'm outside during the daytime, I'll keep my eyes are as low as possible because I don't want any green in the video. And the lower the ISO is, the better the video quality would be. So during the night we have the sort of compromise between having enough lighting the camera sensor and also not increasing the ISO too much that we increase the cranes. So here are a few examples of the ISO test. What I did with my tamper, the one-tailed and 40 thousand IU, sir. And then I would go to 20 thousand IU, sir. And then I would coder 4 thousand Irish. And next one is 400, which is basically super dark. So that is 400 IOs. So when the ISO Avi told ranges from a 100 to a 100 thousand. So it all depends on what camera using, and it also depends on what type of settings you are in. 13. Lens Apertures: So the next one is aperture. So the aperture is not the specification of a camera. It's more sort of related to your lens. So each lens has a different aperture. Lens has fixed aperture, some lens has variable aperture, an aperture numbers they vary from 1.21.41.82.22.8. It can go it can go up to four, it can go up to 5.6, it can go up to six. So I'll explain you in the simple language. So the lower the aperture number is, for example, a lens which has reached goes up to aperture 1.8. That lens can be super good in low light situations. So the rule of thumb for aperture is if your lenses filming at 2.8 f-stop, it would have more ability to be really good at in a low light, whereas a lens which has aperture of force stop. So this is the example of a lens with aperture at 2.8 and that same lens, if I increase the aperture to four. So the thing that lenses is, the lower the aperture number is the more expensive the lenses. So for example, if a lens which has 1.4 F stop, that lens would have, that lens would be so good in low light. And because the aperture is so low, you don't have to bump up the ISO too much. That would introduce the crane. So that's the, so you see how these things are all related. And what also aperture does is that if I film at an aperture 1.4, you would see a lot more book I, in my background. And if I increase the same aperture, the blurriness in the background that would reduce. So I'll just show you an example of a video we just shot at different apertures. Okay? And you can also keep that number in mind by a bi-layer also buying appointed shirt. So all your point-and-shoot cameras that would have an aperture range as well. So in some of the lenses, as you zoom in, the aperture also increases. So that's, that cannot be really good in low light. So you'd have, so you just have to be mindful, especially, especially also when the kit lenses, what you get with your DSLRs, they're usually there are 18 to 35 focal entering into 55. And the aperture range you would see on the main site it says that it's very able from 3.5 to 6 something. So you just have to be mindful that as you zoom in, the aperture would increase. So these are the things you need to know why you are filming while you are using the aperture. And the next thing when also aperture can be handy when you want to film your subject. And you also want to fill in the background. So it's like you want to fill in the whole thing, then you have to increase the aperture. So when if it's like five or six, then it's focusing the whole thing rather than focusing just on one subject and blurring out the background. So yeah, that's also an aperture can come in handy. If you're filming a landscape video, you can always increase your aperture to 45 or six. So then it's focusing on all the things rather than just focusing on one thing. 14. Camera Filters: So next one that we'll be talking about his camera filters. So camera features are the things which a lot of people see as this extra accessory for while you're making a video. That's how, that's how I saw it as well. Because what camera filter does is that it's acting as a sunglass for your camera. So if you are in a super bright environment, you can always put a filter on top of that and that can balance out your exposure. But now your question would be, you can always change the shutter speed to reduce the exposure or you can always increase Z aperture to reduce the exposure. So that's not how it's done ideally. So in the next section, I'm going to put all the things together. Then it'll make sense that Y of filter by getting a filter is also a good investment along with your camera par guy. So thank you for surviving all the technical bits. So now is the fun part. So now I'll take you guys through all different environments, output all the settings according to the environment. So then it will make more sense that okay, this is where the shutter speed was handling. This is where using a filter both more handy. This is where the ISO was more happy. So yeah, it would just make more sense. 15. Filming w/wthout lens filters: So the first scenario was it was a super bright day event outside. And when I put all the settings, what I talked to you before, this is how my footage. So yeah, it's exposed at the moment and the shadow is set to one by 50. Aperture is 2.8, which is the lowest, and ISO is 400. So I cannot go a bit lower. So, so what I'm gonna do in this case is I can either increase the shutter speed to get the perfect exposure. But then I'm also sort of fit the, my shutter speed should be more than the families per seconds. So I can't really do that because then I would see those jitters in the video. It's good for if I'm just sitting and talking, but yeah. So I would get the shutter speed back to 50. And then next what I can do is I can either increase my aperture so you can write an arbitrary is at 2.8. And then if I say seven, the exposure is perfect. But then at the same time you can see that the background, the bokeh in the background, it's, it's changing a little bit. So if I go to 2, you can see that it's a bit blurry. But if I go here, you can see that it's like it's not that blurry. So for this, you can either put a filter or you have to compromise with the aperture or the shutter speed because they don't have filter for this lens. So I would rather just put the aperture down. So yeah. So what do we learn from this scenario is that if you don't have the filter, you cannot compromise with the aperture or the shutter speed. I would say compromise with the aperture because the jittery food edit just looks really bad. And even if the book is not that much in the background, it's still looks okay. But if you really want that bulk and the fluid video, get a filter. So yeah, even if the situation is super overexposed economics as compromise that with increasing the shutter speed or increasing the aperture. Okay, let's move on to the next scenario. So in this one, I had the filter with me. So I changed the lens. And I know for some reason the audio is not working for this video. So I changed the lens and for this lens I have the filter. So at the moment, I'm filming on F4 and you can see a decent amount of bokeh in the background. But when I increase the aperture, you can see that the bokeh in the background, it's, it's kind of disappearing. And I think that's what I'm talking, the video. And so I'm setting the aperture back to four, which is the minimum for that lens. So now I am putting the filter on the lens and you see what happens. As soon as I put the filter on, I could still fill Matt F4, which was the minimum for that lens. So my aperture is four. I could still get the bokeh in the background, and I could still keep my shutter at one or 48 while I was filming in 24 frames per second. So using a filter would help me to keep all my settings at the ideal numbers. So in conclusion, I'm filming at 24 frames per second. I was not doing any slow motion. So 24 frames per second. And because I was filming at 24 frames per second, my shutter should be dull. So I kept my shutter at one or 48. I kept the aperture at the lowest for that lens, which was F four because I wanted to get the boca. So to compromise the exposure, I had to get a filter on top of my lens. So let's move on to the next one. 16. Filming a Slow Motion Video: So next one, Do not judge my double of this skill. So I'm doing like one single under and one W. So in this case I wanted to fill my different frame rates per second. I wanted to get a slow motion, so I'll just go through what all settings I did in different cases. So the first one was saved 24 frames per second. I kept all the setting as we discussed before. So after filming at 24 frames per second in a normal pace, I wanted to get a slow motion. So here is what the footage would look if I did that at 24 frames per second in a normal pace, you know, in a slow motion pace. So to get a slow motion, I had to increase the frame rate. So as we move on to the second one, which is 60 frames per second, what I had to do was I had to increase my shutter speed because now I'm filming at 60 frames per second instead of 24 frames per second. So my shadow should be off the double speed. So my shutter at, in this case it was, I think one or one by 20 or one-by-one or 25. So then I'm able to get a smooth slow motion. And in this scenario, I am filming at a 120 frames per second. So what that means is that I have to increase my shutter speed had been double pace. So I was filming at 120 frames per second and my shutter was around 250. So one or 250. And I didn't change anything in the aperture, but I always had to increase the ISO because as I was increasing, the shutter speed, footage would look dark. So to compromise with that, I was increasingly ISOS Well, I think that was it for the morning outdoors. So now I moved on to a different location where it was completely dark. 17. Filming in Low Light: So in this one, what I am trying to show is how you can change the ISO setting to get the optimum exposure in a super dark environment. And in this video, I will also show a comparison between filming at an aperture of 2.8, which was a completely different lens, and filming at an aperture of four. So you see if I'm filming at this, it's not that bright and it's going to be super dark. But then I would change the ISO and see how it looks like. So yeah, now I'm filming it. F4. It's my 24-25 let, so yeah, I'll just change the ISO to make it a bit more brighter. So now I'm filming a 20 thousand ISO, so which is a lot. And you would see a lot of greens behind me. And then in the next one I would increase the ISO a bit more Soviet. We'll see how it looks, but yeah, this slide should look okay in this either. So, but yeah, we'll see now I'm filming got 40 thousand ISO, so it would be super bright and I would have enough light on my face and exposure would be well maintained. But now what I'll do is I'll just swap the lens and the tribe at all different types of ISO and we'll see how it looks with that lens. So now I'm filming with a different lens. So it's f2 0.8. So you would also see a bit of bulk. I'm in the background. So they would be the Burton and would be a little bit more blur. And at the same time it would be much brighter than the previous lens, the F4 lens, what I used before. If I'm changing the lens which has different aperture, the light in the dark environment, it just increases drastically. So what I'll do is I'll reduce the ISO and see how it looks. I am filming at 4 thousand ISO and it should be a bit more brighter than the previous one. So then the previous lens, but yeah, that's what 4 thousand ISO does and it still looks much better. It would still look like a doability men. So that's why it's really important to invest in the lenses which is, which bear the effort where the f-stop is a bit less. So still you can get these, these kind of images that you should be able to film like super dark environment as well. And the place is just like lit by its treat life altering the plates as well. So whenever you're filming in a dark environment, always make sure that your aperture is as low as possible and then you increase the ISO according to that. So the last situation was, I wanted to get a slow motion in that super dark environment. And that's very ambitious because to get a slow motion, you have to increase the shutter speed. And as you increase the shutter speed, the exposure goes down so the image becomes more darker. So then I had to bump up my ISO furthermore. So in this situation I was filming. I wanted to get like a slow-motion video. So as filming at 60 frames per second, my shutter speed boats one or 120. And then I had to increase my ISO furthermore, and because I was increasing my ISO furthermore, I could see that there was greens in the video, but the video, I could still get a decent video. But then yeah, it all depends on the camera. So if you're not, if you don't have a good camera, it cannot handle the ISO gradients as well as maybe my camera. And yeah, so that was it for the different scenario, guys. I hope you caught a good knowledge from that. And if you have any question, just comment down below. And I'll try to explain as much as possible. 18. An Introduction to Camera Lenses: All right guys, so in this section we'll be talking about all different types of lenses. So it's not a super detailed class about all the different types of lenses and how the lens works and different classes and different press. So it's just a brief introduction. So it after end of this session, you would know that if you see any number on the lens, exactly know that, okay, this is what that lens does and if it's good for me or not. So if the lenses, all the lenses can be measured with two different variables. The first one is aperture, what we have discussed before, and the second one is called focal length. So let's talk about four condense first and then we'll come back to the aperture. So forget length is just the amount of how much you can zoom in and zoom out with the lens. So say for example, a lens which says that it's a 14 mm lens, it would be super wide lens. But if a LensKit says that it's a 50 MM lens, it's not gonna be as wide. And if a lens which says that it's 1-0, five and m and it's going to be super zoomed in. So that would be considered as a telephoto. So all the lenses are named according to their focal length. Three for lenses, if a lens can give a super YOU view, it would be called as a wide-angle lens if a lens can be variable focal length, for example, I have a lens which says it's 24 to one or five m, m. So which means that I can also feel my 24. And as I zoom in, the lens goes up to 1-0, five MM. So that's called a variable lens. Because in that lens you can sort of change the focal length. And then there are lenses which are, you might've seen like super-large lenses, which is especially for wildlife photography, and how you choose which focal length is good for you. It all depends on your usage. Say for example, if I'm going to travel and I want to just keep one lens with me. So I'll take this 24 to 1-0 five lens because I can still get this wide angle shot. And if I have to zoom in somewhere, I could still get the super zoomed in shot. And if I'm not traveling, if I'm going for a professional shoot and if the place where I'm gonna film, it's super tight and I still want to show the whole environment. And if that's not possible at 24 nm, I would put the wide-angle lens on the camera. So even if I don't have a lot of room with the wide angle, I can cover the whole area. So that's the good thing about wide-angle lenses. The focal length. I think that's it you should know because with everything there's just so much, if you go more in depth, there's so much to learn. So the focal length, that's the only thing you should be concerned about. So always just make sure even if you're buying a point and shoot camera on top of the camera, it would say that the lens would range from this MM to disseminate whatever camera you buy and just be mindful that, okay. Whatever lenses on that camera, what's the focal length? So what did fulfill the purpose of me buying the camera or not? And if you're going for manipulates or DSLR, there's a variety of lenses for each brand. So I hope focal length is clear to you. Next one, let's move on to the aperture. So as I discussed before, a lens with less aperture number, say for example, a lens with 1.4 aperture is far more better than a lens with F4 stop. Because of course, if you're in a bright environment, it's not gonna make much difference. But the F1 0.4. stop would give you a lot of flexibility when you're filming in a dark line. So I have two different lenses, F2, 0.8, and F4. So whenever I'm filming in a dark situation, when I'm around filming at night, I always put my 2.8 on top on my camera. And with lower aperture number, you also get that creamy bulk i in the background. So obviously an F4 lens, we produce less bulk eyes compared to f 2.8 lens. So yeah, to properties of the lens, focal length and the aperture. 19. Conclusion: Anyways guys, that's it for this class. I there was, I know there was a lot of information, so that's why I would encourage you guys to go to some of the lessons and just make notes that this is what aperture shutter speed does. So, and so that you don't have to go back to the whole video again. And yeah, that's it for the cost. They meant there was a lot of things going on and I really hope that you enjoy it and I really hope that I was able to explain the class well. And yeah, I put the information about the projects in the description. And yeah, thank you so much for watching. Thanks for hanging out. And I'll see you guys in the next class.