Lean Standard Work: Process Improvement Through Waste Elimination and Increased Customer Focus | Efficient Gear | Skillshare

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Lean Standard Work: Process Improvement Through Waste Elimination and Increased Customer Focus

teacher avatar Efficient Gear, Lean Production Expert

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (45m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Why Implement Standardized Work

    • 3. Standards Exercise

    • 4. Components of Standardized Work

    • 5. Takt Time

    • 6. Work Sequence

    • 7. In-Process Stock

    • 8. Documenting Standard Work

    • 9. What Makes a Good Standard

    • 10. Summary

    • 11. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

Ready to take a decisive next step in process improvement? It's time to lay a strong foundation with standard work

Join Lean expert Sagir Isah for¬†an introductory and implementation guide on standard work¬†‚ÄĒ inspired by core ideas in lean thinking from. This comprehensive class is packed with examples, practical tips, and templates to help you understand, plan, and implement standardized work to ensure stability and consistency both for manufacturing operations and personal projects.¬†

Use these lessons as a springboard to action. You'll learn how to use the user friendly, customer-first standards to stimulate productivity, quality, and safety improvements. You will gather real world examples and references, and complete 3 exclusive, downloadable standard work templates:

  • Work Capacity Sheet: Allows you to evaluate production potential.
  • Standard Work Combination Table:¬†Visualizes work sequence
  • Standardized Work Chart:¬†Shows motion sequence

The class is entirely customizable to your specific situation. Whether you're just starting out with lean, refreshing you knowledge, or looking for guidance to help implement standard work.

Meet Your Teacher

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Efficient Gear

Lean Production Expert


Hello, I'm Isah. Manufacturing Engineer and Lean practitioner who is passionate about helping professionals succeed in understanding the basics and implement lean and Toyota Production System in general both for their organizations and personal projects. 

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1. Introduction: Thesiger Difficult, substandard work to lean methodologies and process improvements cannot be unless stated at the very core of increasing efficiency. Using Lynn methodologies this elimination off wasteful activities through continuous improvements. This is why standard work is the backbone of all in transformations. It gives you that foundation to build on an impact, every aspect of the organization. Through standard work, he will be able to continuously improve your quality and efficiency. White, freeing your employees to express their creative improvement. Spirits Hi I m disagrees are welcome to my sculpture class. In the past six years, I have been practicing lean production in an automotive manufacturing industry both in Europe and Asia, where I helped develop a foundation for successful process improvement with standardizing production processes. This course is aimed at both. People were new to lean on those who have heard some level of exposure boy experiences with lean methods. The course is great for engineers who would be designing production processes or anybody really, who is looking for ways to increase efficiency n transparency on any activity or personal in diverse. We're going to go through some exercises to help you practice what you be learning By the end of this course, you will be able to create a standard work document and use it as a baseline to explore potentials for improvement with regards to productivity and quality and at the end, measure the effectiveness off your improvement efforts. I'm really excited. He chose this close to take thank you for clicking a Let's get started. 2. Why Implement Standardized Work: Hello, everyone. Welcome to the first class in this lesson will go through the basics and theory of standardized work. But the first question really is, Why should you care? How can this benefit you or your organization? It is a good question to ask, so let's begin with a bit of imagination here. Let's imagine a new operator who walks into his or her production line for the very first time. Wouldn't it be nice? Wouldn't it be beneficial for that operator toe have an easy to follow, step by step document that will teach them how best to deliver their job? Of course, standardized work can be a very good base for training employees, Whether they're new or simply, you are making interpretation and letting operators from one work station toe work on a different workstation. Another example is it gives you that clarity as to where exactly a certain process begin and where does it end. So you can imagine a process where there are multiple apparatus working in one work cell. Now, depending on how complex your process where your product is, it can be very challenging sometimes when you're trying to pinpoint exactly where is the hand over point between operator number one, an operator number to this kind of lack of transparency can lead into so many other inefficiencies, like waiting and some other confusion among the operators. So having a clearly written standard can help resolve that. Another example is supporting the process conformation and problem solving. Now off course, When you have a defect, you would want to trace it back to the origin. And one way to do that is by looking at your standardized work and checking for the exact point where that particular part is being fitted on your product. If it's an assembly line, of course, so you see that you have in one hand you have the standard what is supposed to happen. On the other hand, you have the process conformation, where you can check to see whether the operators are really working to the standard or not , because based on experience, many of the problems are not really because the process is failing there, because somebody has forgot to do the job I could into the standard. In that case, standardized work can help you to minimize that risk. Next one is about employee engagement because this standardized work document is a shuffle to its being developed by the show floor guys used by them and being improved by them. It gives them that kind off sense, off engagement and being part off creating their own process. Therefore, it's a win win situation, both on the operator site and on organization side. Now, having all that you are building already a kind of baseline or a foundation to improve, you can, of course, as an operator look at the process as it is today and explore what can be better. You can look at the ways diagram or the so called spaghetti diagram and observe your movement in your work area and see How can I minimize my walking steps? How can I minimize my waiting time? How can I improve my productivity and so on? And therefore you can see this thing today is to work document developing into a kind off baseline and a kind of foundation that will propel the whole organization to improve the processes in re gets deficiency and quality on the last one is really about retaining knowledge in the organization, meaning that as the standardized work document continue to develop and continue to mature. You are documenting a Siri's off learning through the time from all these operators will have been working over a long period of time for that process. All right, these are some of the benefits that we can gain from standardizing our work processes. Now, of course, there are a lot more. But for now, let's go into the lens off the operator who is on the shop floor and try to perceive these standardized work from the point of view on the shop floor. Here we have three definitions, and each of those definitions are trying to assimilate the meaning of standard work in the context off shore flow operator. The 1st 1 is a tool for maintaining productivity quality and 70 at the highest level that is expected off the operator. That means the tool itself have to be helping the operators to be able to maintain this level off quality, productivity and safety for their respective processes. If it's not doing that, then it's not a very good standard. The next one is about the work sequins that is efficiently organized and that is consistently being repeated by the operator on the show floor. That means that these two part of this definition one is about the work sequence, and the order is about repeating. So it's two key information here on the last one, of course, is defining that standardized work as a process whose goal is kaizen, which means to improve or continuous improvement. And if standard work does not change, we are regressing. So a standard work or any standard is only the best way that we know today on how to do the job. But tomorrow we would think about the potential to bring that standard to the next level. So as we have seen throughout this lesson, standard work is really there to be improved. Is there to be a baseline that we can build on? Is there to be like a foundation that we can build on and produced the best product in the most efficient manner ever? All right, that's the end of this lesson. In the next lesson, we will do a bit of exercise to see how we will get a hands on experience on the use and the benefits off standardized work. See you in the next lesson. 3. Standards Exercise: Hello, everyone. Welcome to this lesson in this lesson, we will be doing very simple exercise called standard pig. It is going to be a very easy to follow exercise that you only need a blank sheet of paper and a pen or pencil to follow along. So for this exercise, we're going to be a graphic design company. We just received an order from our customer that we need to supply 32 pieces off drawings off a pig to the customer. We will have three rounds for this exercise, and we will spend roughly two minutes for each round. All right, so for around one, the task is you draw a pig on your sheet a piper, and you have two minutes to finish. You can post this video and draw you a pig. When you finish, you can come back a Let's review together. All right. So how did it go? Was it easy? How does your pink look like? Is it something like the customer expects? How would it look like if we put all together our 32 pieces from all different operators? When I did this training before in a physical? Listen, I had a surprising output. The result looked like this. Everybody had entirely different product and we were not really sure what the customer really would be looking for. And if you are the customer, would you be happy to receive this different drawings? So I said, Turns out the customer was looking for something like this. This is what the customer expected. And those are what we delivered. Now we will go into the second round and we will try again, this time with a bit of a different set of rules. The task is that you first off all divide an a four sheet of paper into nine. Rectangles are shown in this picture. And then you draw a pig following the steps listed below. We still have two minutes to finish, so oppose the video going to draw the pig. Let's come back to review together. All right. How was it this time? Was it any better? Was it better than the first round? Was it easier to follow these steps? Well, it could be overwhelming to try to follow these instructions, all text and a lot of steps. So we will go again for the third round. Please keep your drawings and let's try this one more time, and this time we have more clear instructions. We have the same instructions, like Enron, to divide the sheet of paper into nine rectangles. Draw the pig following the steps. But now you have a reference. You have a reference drawing and you have the steps listed out here. So please try to draw the pig one more time. And let's compare the results when we come back. All right, so hopefully it was a lot easier this time. Usually at this stage off the exercise, people tend to finish the drawing a lot quicker, especially because now there is a visual aid. There is the reference, and maybe having done it several times also helped. But the key points of this exercise, really is that when you start off with no instruction at all, you don't know where to start, and there is no way to guarantee the output of the consistency off the output and the quality off what you get out. The second thing is that when we had these bonds off words as instructions, it becomes a bit more confusing. A lot of people with spend more time reading the instructions than actually drawing the pig and so on. So this is also not a very good standard in the Rhone, too, but in wrong three, you had a visual aid and this visual aid. It's the easiest way that we humans can relate to any instructions, and therefore we find it a lot easier to work with and a lot more efficient to follow. Please take a picture off your drawings, the three drawings and posted in the project section off this class so that we all can share or experiences and get feedback from other students. It would also be fun. All right, that brings us to the end of this lesson. In the next lesson, we will go back into the technicality off standardized work where we will have a look on the components off a good standardized work. See you in the next lesson. 4. Components of Standardized Work: Hello, everyone. Welcome to this class. In this session, we will be going over the key component of standardized work. And despite the fact that for every organisation, for every process and for every operation there will be unique standard days work. There are these three core elements that every good standard should have. So we will be going over through this elements one by one, the 1st 1 being tacked time now, talk time is the pace off production. It's easily calculated by taking the total production time. I am dividing that time by the customer demand for that time. So, for example, if you have 900 minutes shift and you take 90 orders from your customer, that will make you attack time to be 10 minutes. That means every 10 minutes you would have to produce one part and if you are producing less than that time, you will be over producing. And if you are taking longer than 10 minutes, you're on at risk off, not satisfying your customer demand. So attack time is very important perimeter that needs to be understood and ensure that every step off the process is kept within tuck time. That it completed before the end of talk time. The next one is work sequence work sequences, the list off activities that an operator or machine has to complete before the end of tact time. You can think off this as a recipe off a certain dish, which has to be done according to step by step instructions. Thes other work sequins. It's very important to standardize thes steps so that you have repeatable steps at every cycle off your production process. Next one is in process stock. Other name for this is a work in process or with this is the standard number off product that are within your production system or within your production line at any given time. This is very important to keep to standard, because when you have too much, you create problem in the system, and when you have to less, you create other problems like waiting and so on. We will go more into detail on this individual topics in the next lesson. This brings us to the end of this class. See you in the next one 5. Takt Time: Hello, everyone, welcome to this lesson in this lesson. We will be going into details on talk time. As we discussed in the previous lesson. Talk time is an important idea that allow us to set the pace of production, and ultimately this drives us into this direction off making sure that our pace of production is going closer and closer to our pace of sales. And this is important because we don't want to be over producing and we don't want to be on the producing so that we are always meeting of our customer demand. Although there is a little bit of math involved in calculating tuck time, it's very straightforward and we can calculate it by taking our total production time. So let's say you have one shift in one day. You take total time that you run your production line and divide that number by you. Our demand for that shift This will give you you attack time so we can go through an example here. So we know a production requirement and we have a demand from the customer off 1800 parts per month, and we know that we're working 20 days in one month. This will bring our daily demand to 90 units powered day. And we can go even deeper than that because we know that the daily production time is from 9 to 5 p.m. That one shift day with lunch break, we come out at 450 minutes per day and therefore our talk time will be 450 into that 90 units per workday. And this brings our tech time to five minutes per unit. That means every five minutes we have to produce one product for the customer. And if you would start at the end of the line and count the number of parts that are coming off and you see that every five minutes, exactly one part is coming off. At the end of the month, we would have produced exactly those 1800 parts for our customer. Now, this is quite theoretical, but the idea is really taking your cycle time. How long you were actually taken to produce your product and bring it closer and closer at your talk time. Another side of tact Time is, once we establish what it is, it allow us to then think about how we would want to distribute the work among individual steps that go into producing something. So, for example, here we have an assembly line and there are five operators or five Fox stations in this line. With the talk time being five minutes, we can see that the work is distributed like 3.5 minutes 4.53 point 62.2 and 3.8 now. This is not the based situation. It's not really balanced. And there is some waiting time in between, some faster than others, and it is not balanced so visually. You can see that there is stock being built up between Station one and two because one is faster than two and three and four actually waiting because their load faster and station to is not able to supply part fast enough to station three, and by default, four will be waiting. So typically with traditional line balancing, we can resolve this situation and the first thing that comes to mind would be, why don't we balance the line and give equal worked everybody? That's not a bad idea, but there is a problem with this approach. We can see that now we have waste in every single step off the process. There is a bit of waiting time everywhere, and the idea from Lean it's actually balancing to attack time is taking our current production line how it is distributed and trying to balance our cycle time and make it as close as possible to our attack time. So how can we balance this using lean approach? Now, here you can see we have one way. Um, By balancing the line, we're able to actually reduce one workstation and distribute the work among Station 123 and leaving four with a bit of work. Now the waste is no transparent. It's apparent in station for and with more improvement initiative, we could be able to reduce the amount of work in Station four and perhaps try to reduce waste in Station 123 and redistribute some value at it. Work in there so that we may end up with for 03 workstation in the end. And visually, you see, here we have only the last person actually waiting. But every off the station 123 is actually producing according to plan So this brings us to the end off the class in tact time. And I hope you understand the concept behind. And if there is, one thing you walk away with is that tack time is this idea that sets the pace of production toe our rate off sale. And by doing that, we will continuously make our production line a sufficient as possible and as cost effective as possible. Thank you for taking this course. See you in the next one. 6. Work Sequence: Hello, everyone, Welcome to this class. In this lesson, we will be discussing about work sequence, the second element off standardized work. Now, what is work sequence? It is the best current order of task that an employee uses to complete product or service. This can be thought off US steps in a recipe. If you're trying to recreate an old recipe, you would more than likely follow the steps in the recipe so that you have the best chance of re creating the same result every time you try creating that recipe. Now let's try to have an easy example that we can relate to one our day to day life. Let's take making a cup of tea, for example. If you would prepare a cup of tea, you would first boil water 200 degrees Celsius, and then you would put the T back into the mug and then pour the boiled water into the mug and wait for two minutes for the tea to diffuse through the water. And then you would remove the tea back at milk at sugar to taste, and there you have a cup of tea. So if we are to create standard days work for the process of making tea. These steps want to seven will go into the work sequence, part of the standard work. Now we can relate back into production process or service based process. And we can really think about what are the steps that we need from the beginning of that process to the end. And the best work sequence will be formatted in a way that it breaks the tax down to the smallest element that an employee has to complete in order to move to the next step. All right, this bring us to the end of this course. In the next course, we will be going through the third element of standard work in process stock. See you in the next one. 7. In-Process Stock: Hello, everyone, welcome to this session. In this class, we will be talking about standard M process stock. The third element of standard work standard in process stock is the fixed number off product or parts that are in an in between your process that will ensure some would flow off your process. A new product here we can see an example of a process that have standard of two parts in between the processes. This ensure that at any given time, whenever there is a part being shift, the one part is being moved through the process and therefore ensuring that there's always one part in between the process or at least two parts in between the process that will ensure that the part are continuously flowing through the process. There would also be in a waiting time as every time every associate will get apart whenever they need apart to continue their work. Now, an interesting question to ask is what happened if we have too much off stock or if we do not have a standard number in every associate is allowed to put us many stock as possible. This is especially relevant when you have a process that is producing when badges, meaning that an operator has could has to complete one badge off a fixed number of parts before they can move it to the next process, as we see here as we see here, having more in processed or create a problem by blocking the process in which the process downstream are actually waiting for the process before to finish the part and give to them . This is a big problem because you have a lot of waiting time and you can imagine if there are even more stations after this, the second station they would all be waiting. This is something you definitely don't want tohave in a process because it leads to the process being broken down and there is no flow going on. So it's a big problem now. The next question would be what happened if we have to less off work in process or in process stock, as we see here, lesson process talk will lead to even more waiting time in all the processes downstream, and this is quite apparent because there is actually no part that they can work with meaning that all your processes will be down and you will not be able to ship the product to the customer. So this concept off standard in process talk, it's a very important one because it ensured that your process continue to runs in a stable manner, and also that at any given time your employees are not actually waiting. But they're doing some value added work. Now there is no one size fits all for this kind of in process stock. You have to really look at your unique situation. Look at the process. Look at the bat sizes you have and think about what is the feasible number off standard in process talk that need to be kept in order to ensure smooth floor throughout your process and this bring us to the end of this course. In the next class, we will be talking about documenting standardized work. See you in the next one 8. Documenting Standard Work: Hello, everyone. Welcome to this class in this session, we're going to go through ways to de commenced in the days to work. The first document we're going to see is process capacity sheet. This process capacity sheet is really a document that allow us to calculate the capacity off each process to confirm the true capacity and also be able to identify bottlenecks and come up with ideas to eliminate this boat. Next. The 2nd 1 is standard work combination table. This is a table that allows us to visualize how manual work is combining with automatic work and to see how these different activities are completed and see it in actual time line . The next document is standardized work chart, and this is a chart that show an operator in his work environment and how he actually moves as he complete his tasks within his stock time. So we can see the basic ways that he walks and we can also see where quality took is being done and all the other relevant activities in relation to walk sequences and standard in process stock. So we were going to have more detail. Look on these documents. The 1st 1 is process capacity sheet. As you can see here we have a list off all the steps that are supposed to be carried out where they happen, on which machine. What is the manual time? What is the automatic cycle, time and so on and even the changeovers at the end? We have the capacity per shift. This number is very useful because we can compare that to our shift demand and see if, for example, for this process we are required to produce 700 parts for the shift. We have a bottleneck here, so we have to think off ways to actually increased the capacity of this process so that we can meet our customer demand. Calculating the capacity itself is straightforward. We just take the total available shift time and divided by completion time. But this time we will plus that with some bit of wrinkle there because we have some machines involved and as it is for machines, we have to maintain them, do some oil changes and other maintenance activity. Therefore, we're accounting for those downtime when we're doing the maintenance activity and put it here in the formula because the goal here is really to account for the true capacity and to show it and make informed decision and focus our improvement activities on the areas that matters. So process capacity should really show us the potential for the process. And if there are, but next we can see directly and therefore act accordingly. The next tool that we can use to deck Ament standardized work is what combination table were combination table show Clearly the steps needed to complete the work and also how long each step takes on the right side. We see we also have a timeline which we would be able to compare and can trust. Way there we are ahead or falling behind against our attack time. So the red line here is the talk time and we can see how each step takes. We also see that every step is is differentiated with different color and different type of line. So we know where there is potential for waiting and where there's waste and so on. The importance of this tool becomes more clear when you have a combination off humans and machines working together because you are able to see exactly how the man is waiting for the machine or the machine is waiting for the man. How much walking is involved and the general efficiency off the process could be improved. If you have sets kind of transparency off your process, the next document we're going to be looking at is the standardized Walk chart, a document that show us and give us the transparency for the process in terms off how the operator is moving around in his work environment in relation to completing his tasks within the talk time. So you can really look at this and think about other routes, really in the most efficient manner is Kenly do something better? Can we rearrange the layout so that the operator is actually walking less distance and maybe even reduced the steps that he's doing and a lot off? Other different ideas can come up, But from the operator side, it's important for him to have this kind of document that he can always refer back to and see what is his layout supposed to be, and also for the management to actually go and do a process confirmation to see whether the operator is working according to that standard or there are some division and be able to ask why is there that aviation other it need for support, or can we do something better in the process? So you see, the standard is all coming together. You have, firstly the capacity off the process. Then you have the work combination where you see how different man and machine timeline is being put together. And now we have the actually out of the operation. So you were able to see actually the physical movement off the operator within the work cell and asked the set of key question. Now, the whole point of this is to be smart about your activities, to be smart about improvement ideas and improvement activities, and actually focus on those areas that give you the highest potential with the highest gain . Now, these resources, these documents we have just went through will be available to you in the resource section of this course so that you will be able to download it, customize it and make it work for your organization and this Bring us to the end of this lesson. In the next lesson, we will answer the question. What makes a good standard? There will be a set of questions that you can go through and check your standard to see whether there is something need to improve or it's already good. Thank you for taking this lesson. See you in the next one. 9. What Makes a Good Standard: Hello, everyone. Welcome to this class. In this lesson, we will focus on what makes a good standard. And we want to ask the questions. The first question would be is there is standard or not? And you would really want to ask yourself before you even go on to say whether you have a good or bad standard, really, to ask whether there is standard or not. So fortunately, there is a standard. Okay, that's good. Then we can ask the next question. Is the standard clear or not? Now, does the operator who is supposed to use that standard read and understand your standard? Or is it just something made for the management to see, or something that is just sitting somewhere and operates? I have no idea where it is or why it is there. So the question really is Mr Standard clear to the person who is supposed to use it now. Some standard can be really tricky to read. It could be not, um, user friendly or it's simply just a bunch of words, and it's not really clear. So he Fortunately you answer that Yes, you have the standard. You can go on and ask the third question. Is it? Communicated is really the person who is supposed to use this standard knows that they are supposed to use the standard. Are they trained on using the standard or all the stakeholders involved in the standard creation and other all aware off it? If the answer is yes, we can ask the next one. Whether it's followed or not, this standard is not any good if nobody uses it. So the question is it's standard being followed. And if the answer is yes, then we can ask the last question. Is it any good? In other words, does it fulfill your attack time? Does it help the operators in fulfilling their tasks off producing the product for the customer or not? Or is the standard really making the job even more difficult? In which case you have to improve the standard because the goal of the standard is really to make it easy for the operator to fulfill the tasks that is expected off them. So let's say you answer that with Yes, congratulations. You have a very good standard. Now, The last message I would like you to take away from this class is that the standardized work should be basis for improvement. It should be something that you build us a foundation to improve your process. And therefore it should not be something that you have and never changes. It is not aesthetic document, but rather you should use it as a tool in order to get everybody together as a team and push the process to the next level. And with that we come to the end of the lesson. In the next one, we will summarise the whole course. See you in the next one. 10. Summary: Hello, everyone. Welcome to this lesson and thank you for sticking with me until this point. Now, in this lesson, we will be summarizing the whole course and discuss a little bit about some of the key information that I would like you to take away from this course. So we started the course with Why should we standardized our operations? Be it you have a manufacturing operation or you have service business doesn't matter. You can all benefit from standardized work, and we discussed some of the benefit like standard days. Work can be a basis for training your new employees or when you're irritating your employees to different jobs. It's very beneficial to do those kind of things. But one of the other important benefit is that you were able to retain the knowledge in your organization by creating standard work. Because a stand go on, employees are putting in their experiences into the standard, and even long after they're gone, the organization will still retain that level of expertise because it's all documented. Then we went into the three component of standard work. Now we discussed that different organization or a different process or different product will have a unique stand that work. But regardless of the differences, every standard work should comprise of these three basic element attack time work sequence and in process stock. He's supposed to be really standardized and documented within distant that work. Then we went through documenting standardized work because once you understand what you talk, time is you have your work sequences laid out and used in the days you in process talk. You need some documents to carry this information. And therefore we went through this document where we discussed process capacity sheet which show you the production potential off your process. And then we talk about what combination table which show you the inter relationship between all the steps and even between human and machine, how this different different processes are comparing to you attack time. And finally we had a look on standardized worksheet which show the operator in his work environment and how he moves around and where everything is laid out in the work environment. And finally we discussed some questions to fact check your standard and see whether you stand that is any good or not. And we concluded by saying that every standard should be a basis for improvement. It should be a dynamic document and not aesthetic document. And the team should focus on really challenging the standard and bringing it to the next level. And this is the end of the summary. The next lesson will be some off my final thoughts and some of my thinking on standard days work to help you go on and creates then the days to work in your organization. Thank you and see you in the next one. 11. Final Thoughts: Hi there. Congratulations. You have made it to the end of the curse on standardized work. Here I would go through some of my final thoughts and some hints on how you can go about continuing to create stand a day's work for your organization or for your personal projects . So by now, let's say you have already decided on what process will benefit from standardized work, and you've crafted the content of the standardized work. Now it's time to think about how you would go on to maintain distended and make sure that you are using it as a baseline as a foundation to improve your process. I have some points here for you, and the 1st 1 would be the major change point. You don't want to have your standard work to be there forever as it is. You wanted to be improving over time. Therefore, there should be some check mark some points where you would look at your standard and improve it. So basically we have to change point, the 1st 1 being when you have a customer demand change or when their production requirement is changing, you would want to revisit your standard work and see how that will affect the time it takes to complete the tasks, how the work arrangement will be and so on. The 2nd 10 point would be when the team is looking at the work and improving the efficiency , improving the productivity on their work area. Then you would want update a stand that reflect the current status. So let's say, for example, a team is performing a kaizen project the kaizen activity, and they have improved some walking distance. Or they have improved the sequence of the steps and therefore you want up. They distended to make sure that it reflect the current activity that is happening for that process. The next point I would like to share with you, it's a little bit from my personal experiences implementing standard work in an automotive company. And what I learned is that whenever there is somebody from the lean organization or from, say, the lean specialist or the kaizen team creating standard work somewhere on their computer and then bring it on the show floor for the people to use it, it often doesn't work. You want to involve the team members as early as possible, let them create their work. Let them create their standard work because they work there eight hours a day, five days a week and the whole time of the year. So they know the process better than anybody. And therefore it should be created, changed and managed by this by these people, because you want them to use it as a tool, and you don't want them to look at it as a rules book that they have to follow, but rather a tool that will support them in discharging their duties. So the key message here is that whenever you start from the show flow upward, you have a better chance of success. We have seen it in many project before, and therefore I would highly recommend that you start from the shop floor and let the people who worked on the shop floor to create their own standard and the next point it's about that journey off creating and integrating the standard work into the company culture . You want to be patient, but at the same time persistent in training and explaining the people that these tools are eventually going to health, Um, simplify their work, improve the product quality, improved the productivity and overall benefit the company and for them personally. In my experience, I had a lot of excuses from some people who would not maybe misunderstand the tool by saying that we try that it never work or we have had the standard, but nobody wanted to use it. And what I the conclusion I came to as a result off those things, or those complaints are that there is slack off understanding and you just need to enlighten the people and explain to them the importance why you are doing it and importance or the benefit it brings to the organization and for them personally. And eventually you want to look at that really as a tool that helps you to make proposed decision on where you want to focus your energy, where you want to improve the process and how you want to transform your whole production system. And with that, I wish you the best of luck and take action. Be persistent and good luck with your lean journey and standard work implementation. Please feel free to comment on the discussion section and interact with other students and let you our experiences. Let's hear Ah your experience is what you have experienced in your organization so far. And what you would want to share with the rest of the student body. Thank you very much and see you in another class. Good luck and bye bye.