Law School Preparation: Banish Anxiety and Get Ahead | Emilia Gardner | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Law School Preparation: Banish Anxiety and Get Ahead

teacher avatar Emilia Gardner, Learning every day!

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

25 Lessons (1h 51m)
    • 1. Who Should Take This Course

    • 2. What You Can Expect To Take Away

    • 3. Alternatives to an Expensive Prep Course

    • 4. Importance of the First Semester

    • 5. Law School As a Competition

    • 6. What is a 1L?

    • 7. Before Orientation

    • 8. Your Conduct

    • 9. Protect Yourself

    • 10. Get To Know Your Professors

    • 11. Moot Court/Board

    • 12. On-Campus Interviews

    • 13. Groups/Clubs/Societies

    • 14. Networking

    • 15. Trap

    • 16. Avoid These...

    • 17. Law Review

    • 18. Daily Schedule

    • 19. Supplies

    • 20. Study Guides

    • 21. Classes Overview

    • 22. Outlining

    • 23. Reading Cases

    • 24. Case Briefs

    • 25. What a real life case looks like

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

Thinking about law school, or already admitted? You may feel excitement, or fear. You may not know what to expect. Preparation over the summer if you are already admitted, or during high school/undergrad, can make that first year less overwhelming. 

Frankly, there is a lot to be overwhelmed by. Your first year (I'd say semester) grades determine your eligibility for law review and academic honors, but also dictate what job opportunities are available to you. The most selective employers start recruiting law students after they've completed their first year, and will only consider students who are in the top of the class.

Getting ready for law school makes sense. You wouldn't show up for a marathon without training, would you? 

In this course, we won't dive deep into the core first year subjects (I'll leave that for other courses), but we will dive in to the school culture, what activities are good use of your time and what you should avoid, and the basics for the first skills that you'll need to know to be successful.

Why should you listen to anything I have to say about law school? I've been there. I went to law school, graduated, clerked for a judge, and then worked as a lawyer for several years. 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Emilia Gardner

Learning every day!



My name is Emilia.

I'm not an expert. I'm learning every day, just like you. I'm here because I am passionate about: "Learn, Do, Teach." I truly believe that teaching is the best way to master a skill or concept. I create content around the topics that I am implementing for myself.



I am obsessed with building passive income streams. When my children arrived, my dreams of the corner office with the view changed. Now I dream of having complete control over my days so that I can be where I am needed, when I am needed. No more trading time for money. My classes focus heavily upon helping others build the same skills that I have learned (and earned) since making my career pivot. 

One of my goals here at Ski... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Who Should Take This Course: all right, So who should take this course? I'll just say right now, this course isn't for everyone. If you're doing any searching on the Internet whatsoever, you will come across a ton of blog's that will go one way or another about whether or not law school preview courses or zero l pretty courses, whether or not those are valuable. And you'll find as many people who say that they are against all the people that they aren't. And I will say that I think it is very suspicious that the companies that are selling pre law courses are primarily the ones that say you should take them. And generally those folks are selling courses for $1500. So, of course, they're going to say that you should 100% take them. I'm not going to say one way or another where you whether you need to take this course or whether you need to go and buy a $2000 pre law course. But I will tell you who will benefit, I think from taking this course that you're looking at right now. Now the people that will benefit from this course are people who feel right now that they're ready to go and they want to learn about how to succeed in law school, they feel like they're go getters. They're really excited. They really want to get started. Um, the next group are folks that are feel anxiety about law school. They're worried about what's going to happen, and they're worried about how they're going to perform. And they want to do everything possible in the interim to try and get ready. And so this course, what will try to do is to give you some insight to what is going to happen in law school so that you can sleep better so you don't have to worry. So you can show up on the first day having at least some idea of what is going to happen. Another group that could really benefit from this course or what we would call nontraditional students. So students who are coming back to law school after having gone out into the world and worked for a while will benefit from this course. Students were English is a second language or international students Ah, parents who have Children at home, especially young Children, or are coming from another career. Older students and students who are working or doing law school at night. The reason I say this is because practicing some of these skills and being introduced to some of these things are going to reduce the amount of time in the first semester that you'll have to spend learning about outlining and learning about reading cases and learning about how to do law school. Ultimately the first month or so of law school is just figuring out how to get your feet and how to stand up and how to do everything that you need to do. And so taking a course like this, or or even one of those $2000 courses, if you have the time of the money to do, is a way to help you do that. No, this course, I will say, was created with rising law students in mind. So when I say rising law students will see, I mean somebody who is going to be enrolling in law school in the coming fall or in the near future. But this also could benefit someone who's thinking about law school because we do talk so much about what will happen in law school. If you're thinking about law school and you're not sure one way or another about whether or not it's something you want to do, this course could be useful to you if you sit through it and you hate every minute of it. You hate everything that I have to say. You hate me, um, for talking about what it is that I'm talking about. Then maybe law school is is not for you. And maybe it's not me that you hate. Maybe it's just the whole idea of law school and everything that it is about it. But then again, if you love all of the content, then maybe that's a sign that you should consider moving forward. 2. What You Can Expect To Take Away: Let's talk about what you can expect to take away from this course. Even if you complete this course, which this isn't a difficult course, it's not a long course. You are still going to have to work very, very hard to get excellent grades in law school. But here's what you will get from this course. You would have a better understanding of what is going to happen to you once law school begins. And this will, uh, cause you to waste less time, feel less confused and just be less fearful. Overall, you will have built a basic foundation for success in law school, and once you have that foundation, everything that you do in law school after that will stack. On top of that, you won't have to spend any time building that foundation. And lastly, I just want to say again, this is not a substantive deep, deep dive into the first year subjects. If you want to know everything that there is to know about civil procedure, you should go and find a course that specifically talks about civil procedure 3. Alternatives to an Expensive Prep Course: Now, let's say you're just previewing this course and you're not for sure whether or not you really want to put out the money to go ahead and sign up for it. Well, here's some alternatives, Okay? The purpose of this course is to give you the initial foundation and to help you release that anxiety that you feel about what is coming up in law school here in the near future. But if this course either because of the money or just because you're not quite sure that this is the right course for you, or even if it's any good, here's what I would suggest that you do. Instead, I would roll over to Amazon, and I would take a look at the short and happy guides to the one off course topics. Each one of them is about 14 or 15 bucks. If you do kindle, if you can do e books or about 20 bucks if you want the hard copies, the hard copies air nice because they can also be used as, ah, study guys throughout the year and also later on when you're studying for the bar exam. But they have been very, uh, quick gods to property con la creme, loss of pro and the rest. And those could be something that you can review on your own time before law school starts . Another book that people talk about the time that I also recommend is getting to maybe, And this is a book about X selling in law school exams. Again, this is, ah, really affordable product to get. I'm not selling it to you. Ah, I don't get anything for recommending it to you. I just think it's a good book for you to read, even if you do take this course. I also think that it's important to get a handle and get a jumpstart on legal research. Um, and this is a great book by Amy Sloan that's highly recommended. It is used as, AH, textbook and but in some law schools, but it's really affordable. There are used versions of it for under 20 bucks. Another book that I definitely recommend is called Point made by Roscoe Berman. It's about legal writing, um, making her case. That's another highly recommended book, the Art Persuading Judges by Antonin Scalia. And then I just really think that ah, narrative nonfiction that involves the legal world like invincible Go See and Truman Capote , her good books because they introduce you to legal concepts. You know, they go through a court case, but they also we've in the facts of the case in a narrative manner. So it makes it enjoyable to read, you know, another option for you to consider if none of this stuff so far is interesting to you and you're not really sure what you should do, but you only have a little bit of money to invest, I would suggest that you go and look for used bar prep books. Most of what is taught in the first year is the material that bar exams are based upon. So if you go and get bar exam materials that have multiple choice questions and have essays how to write essays and also have substantive teaching sections on Cipro property and all the rest, you will be consuming the information that will likely be presented to you later. Bye, your professors. And this is another way of for an affordable way to get introduced to the subjects and also to start building some skills of foreign law. School begins Finally, I do think that there is some value to surfing the law. Student blog's the A B A website has some really high quality articles. And the Nexus Lexus Lexus Nexus Web page also has some good articles for rising law students. And finally, I mean, you have Teoh Teik YouTube with a great assault. But there are lots of law students who have gone on to YouTube to either talk about their experiences in law school or to provide you information. Ideally, you want to focus on building in, you know, skills in outlining and how to re cases and legal terminology, so that when you jump in tow law school that first time when it finally happens, you're just not feeling so overwhelmed. 4. Importance of the First Semester: in this section. I want to take a few minutes to talk to you about the importance of the first semester of the first year. You may already know just how important that first semester is in law school, but we're going to talk about it because you really must know why it is your first semester in law school could and likely will set the course for your entire legal career. When you get into law school, everybody is on one level playing field. Okay, everybody is coming in from having great grades and their undergrad. They took the Elsad. It probably had community service and work experience. And when I went to law school, I was surrounded by some of the most impressive people that I have ever known. Some of the most well traveled, friendly, Ah, well connected people who had I could just sit and listen for hours to them, tell me stories about meeting politicians and meeting famous people and traveling around the world and being the Children of airline pilots and having grown up here and there, and they just were so diverse and so amazing. But they were also so dang smart and so it was very, very competitive place. But all that stuff in the beginning didn't matter because we were all on the same playing field. But that first semester is that opportunity for students to begin to distinguish themselves from their peers. And while I wish it wasn't the case, but it is that that ranking is a really important part of law school because hiring after law school is over, or even during law school for competitive internships clerkships, you know, clerk jobs that this is when it begins in that first muster, many law firms of the big firms, not the small firms, but the big, big, big firms will only hire the top 10 20%. And so there's a lot of people who come into law school with this goal of getting into one of those big firm jobs and getting into the top 10%. When law school starts, nobody's in the top 10%. Everybody is the same. But in that first semester, a small percentage of people will make that top 10% and then everyone else, which I mean is gonna be most people. Frankly, 90% of everybody in the class is not going to be a not top 10%. And not only that, in that first muster, if you aren't anywhere near that top 10% of you. If you really struggle in that first muster and you only make it in the top 50% you're not gonna be able throughout the remainder of law school to claw your way back in because those individuals who were at the top they're not gonna have bad semesters. They're not going to take off and and coast the rest of the way. They're gonna hammered out the rest of law school. So if you miss, um, you know, you miss the boat that first semester and you really struggle and you get bad grades and and then you just have to know that your focus about getting jobs after law school is going to have to be different because you're not going to be able to check the box for the top 10%. And I don't want to say that you can't get jobs if you're not in the top 10%. I mean again, 90% of students are not going to be in the top 10% And for the most part, everybody who wants a law job is going to be able to find a way to get one. They're just going to do it in a different way. They're gonna have to do it by gaining practical skills. They're gonna have to do it by networking. They're going to get this other information. They're gonna find creative ways to do it, and it's gonna happen. But that first semester is that place that I don't say almost magical place where everything, everyone is equal until those grades come out. And then everybody is off to the races. So don't think that you can just roll in to the first semester and and, you know, pick up speed as you go on later. Oh, you know, I'll get good grades in the second year. Well, some doors by then will already be closed for you. You'll be working towards opening new doors, but some of them, unfortunately, will be closed. And that is why the first semester matters so much 5. Law School As a Competition: there's no doubt about it. Law school is competitive, but is it a competition per se? Do you have to feed into it and be competitive? You're going to receive advice from all kinds of people. It's kind of like having a child if you've ever had one. Everybody on the other side wants to tell you what to do or how to do. And for some reason, when it comes to law school and being lawyers, lots of people have opinions about how you should act in law school or what you should do, and it is competitive. Have you ever heard of what a gunner is? Ah, it's not always a nice term to be called that, um, you can't control other people. You can't control how competitive other people are, but you can control how you comport yourself and how you deal with the pressure and the competition. It's going to be important that you try really hard because you can't get through law school and get grades without trying hard, and you can't get a good job without trying hard. But competition doesn't mean that you have to drive yourself into the ground and burn yourself out. This is why, and you will hear. This is part of the advice from lots of people that self care is such a huge component to success in last school. But let's talk about gunners, okay? Gunners are. It's the like, wide known blah school stereotype. These people can appear outwardly, very ambitious, you know, they're the people who always have their hand up in class. They take every opportunity to to show everyone else how awesome they are. And the term gunner isn't something that that they would label themselves as it's a term that other people behind their back would say behind them. And not always in a nice way, you know. Oh, that's a gun or whatever else. I wouldn't worry so much about whether or not you are a gunner, and I would also think that if you're a person who has the time to sit back and say, Oh, you know, maybe to even be critical of someone by calling them a gunner that it has less to do with the person who's trying really hard and more to the person who's seeing them and thinking negative thoughts about them, and this is why I just want you to think about the competitive nature of law school and how you think and how you handle yourself. If you invest time thinking negative thoughts about other people or wanted to call them a gun or even thinking about any of that, you're wasting your time. You should be spending that time that energy focusing on moving your own career in your own path forward and not worry so much about how well or not other people are doing. Aside from the fact that you know the people who are trying really hard are your competition and the folks that try harder than you may get. You know more opportunities than you. So don't focus on dragging people down. Just focus on lifting yourself and other people up and everything will work out. 6. What is a 1L?: I know this is silly, but I just have to make sure you understand this. The question is, what is a one l if you don't know the answer to this. Most law schools in the US are three year programmes and students are called one l two l or three l's, depending upon their year in school. So in your first year of law school, as you're coming in, you're going to be called a one alibi, your professors and your colleagues. And that's just something you should know. I assumed everybody who's watching this probably knows that already. But if you don't, you feel kind of silly because you didn't know that. I mean, that's what we're here for, that we're here to give you these little details that you shouldn't have to be learning later. You should be able to get ahead and understand what these are. You should also know in your first year of schooling, one else, for the most part, take all of their classes together, separate and apart from two wells and thrills, and your second and third years, you'll be able to select your classes and you'll have more control over what you'll take while in the first year you have zero control over what you take. And those classes you'll mix up with the The students were farther along in the program. You may have heard of the zero l these air folks who are either rising lost students or even potentially pre law students who are looking forward to law school. 7. Before Orientation: with the competitive nature of law school in mind. Here's some suggestions for things that you should do before orientation starts and you say orientation. What's that? Well, every law school is going to have some sort of either a couple days, a day or a week where you show up and they give you a chance to get your bearings before all the major stuff happens. And a lot of times orientation is voluntary. I recommend that you throw yourself in and participate, but before orientation here, the things that I think you should do You should get a hold of the school of the email or phone after you get accepted and find out when the orientation and the initial initiation materials will be available. Find out when your schedule will be available and how you can get it. Is that coming to Elektronik Lee? Are you going to have to go and physically pick it up? Will be coming in the mail, but find out when that's going to happen so you can get a hold of those as soon as possible . The reason I say this is that in most cases in those initial materials, you're going to have your first homework assignments, and you're going to be expected to have those homework assignments completed on that first day of class. So you're going to have to make sure that you get your books far enough in advance to have your ah, homework done in time for that first day. Now, if you don't want to spend thousands and thousands of dollars on books, you're gonna want to get that book list as soon as possible because it will give you an opportunity to go on to Amazon, who are other textbook used textbooks sites to be able to get, ah, high quality but low cost books. Otherwise, each law textbook that you're going to get is going to cost you upwards to 3 to $400 a book . And if you have seven or eight classes, you're talking several $1000 in books. Whereas you could probably get the same book for 50 bucks if you went and did that work in advance. The reason I think you should also get these books in advance and get started on your homework early is not because I expect you to be a gunner with your hand up on the first day. It's just that this material, this way of learning of reading cases it won't necessarily be easy for everyone. And so you want to be able to give yourself enough time to take a look at the materials and then step back and then read it again and take a look at it as many times as you need so that you can show up to school and feel comfortable on that first day. I'm other simple things that you should do are really common sense things. You want to go and figure out where your classes are. You want to be able to get around the school. Um, you'll want to. If you got a new laptop on, a lot of students do, because there's generally a new laptop fee or funds budgeted into the school's budget for law school. You want to make sure that it's up and running, you know how to use it, and it's ready to go. So it's not updating on your first day of class. You also want to take some time to figure out where it is that you want to study. I really do suggest that most students plan on studying at the law school rather than studying at home or in cafes or elsewhere. Just because there are so many distractions you're going to be studying? Probably. Ah, in the beginning, anywhere between six and 12 hours a day, you're not gonna want to do that in a cafe. You're gonna want to know where the bathroom is and to be able to get there and back. If you're drinking lots of water, Um, and you're going to want to just be distraction free. You don't want to deal with other people. And I'm sorry to say at home there are going to be distractions. There's the laundry, the television, the refrigerator, you know, opportunities to do something else. You're not going to want to be distracted by any of those other things before orientation. You should also get the supplies that you need, and I've got another short video in the future. But definitely take care of that, because once law school begins, you're not gonna want to be taking breaks to go do things like shopping. Finally, before orientation, you should definitely make sure that you have a good looking professional suit So for men. You know, I'm not talking about a blazer and a tie and a pair. Khaki pants. I mean, a real suit. Ah, a suit that matches and a good shirt that looks, ah, fairly new and a good looking time. They should be conservative, you know, if you've got a lot of personality than great, But just keep in mind that you'll be using this suit, probably for interviews. You'll be using it for argument. You're going to be using it for potentially to go to court. So you want to make sure that this is a suit that looks really good on you. If it's really good, doesn't have to be the most expensive thing out there. Just has to be something that projects the kind of lawyer that you want to be for women. It doesn't matter if it's skirt and ah or if it's pants. You women have a little more room, toe in toe. Look more stylish, so you can have in a brightly colored shirts. You can have suits that have flair to them that accentuate how you look. Um, have at it. Just make sure that you have some conservative shoes and, ah, a suit that fits really well. So if it's a suit that you've had for a long time and it's high quality, but it doesn't fit that great one way or another, you know, this is a good time to invest in something that that shows people what sort of lawyer you want to be. Because you will be meeting judges. You will be meeting other lawyers, and you're not going to get another chance at that first impression. 8. Your Conduct: And while we're on the topic of first impressions, let's talk about how you conduct yourself. So a lot of people are coming into law school coming out of their undergrad. I don't know how you lived, and I don't know what you did and how you did when you were in your undergraduate education . But my guess is that it wasn't professional. It wasn't. It was probably more informal so you could roll out of bed and put on a pair of flannel pajamas where your slippers go to class. You could get great grades. Didn't matter what you were. But law school is a professional school, and so there will be people all around all the time who are professionals who may be instrumental in making your career. You never know which one of these people that you're going to meet in law school at any point in your day is going to be the person who is instrumental in getting you your first post law school job. You need to go to school every day like there is going to be someone there who's going to make your clear. What you'll see, though, is that a lot of people won't treat it that way. Ah, lot of people will come to school wearing clothes that are are they're fine, but maybe not necessarily appropriate for a professional setting. And I'm not saying you have to wear a suit to school every day or a tied to school every day. Just makes you look nice and neat. Um, and professional, like a lawyer would look, if a lawyer was taking a break to go down to the law school to do some research, and by the way, they do. Okay, There are always lawyers walking on the law school. They're always walking around the library. There are visits from congressman from politicians. I mean, they're going to be in the law school, So just keep in mind that starting from the first day from orientation, the things that you do, what you wear on what you say, I will impact your legal career. Now, you might not realize that the things that you say, maybe they're funny. Maybe they're clever. Maybe they're on point with the political climate. That's great. But you don't necessarily always know who you're talking to and how that impacts them. So I'm not saying not to be yourself, you know, because you're gonna have to be yourself. That's a key component of becoming Ah, lawyer is figuring out how to incorporate yourself into that persona into that profession. Just think about how riel you would act if the person you were standing in front of was a judge, I would save a lot of the informal things that you might dio for not being in the law school. Right. Once you've made friends in law school, when you understand you know the limits of where people are and where people are coming from, you know you can relax. But when you're at the law school, try to remember that, um, and think that you know any of the people, even your colleagues, even the people that you're friends with now, in the future, one of those people might be a judge on your case. Okay, One of those people might be hiring attorney who you want to hire you. You don't know where everybody is going to be in 235 10 20 years. But I tell you what the things that you say and do in law school will follow you um, this holds true at, ah, at events where alcohol is involved. It involves how people relate to each other and the relationships that form, um, and then end. I mean, I just can't council you enough. And I can tell you a really horrifying example of this. I remember sitting in law school with a group of people We were talking about some case or some deal, and, um, the dean of the law school woke up of walked up. Stark woke up, walked up, and the person I was sitting next to lean forward, and I realized that that person was wearing an ill fitting pair of shorts What? You know, look fine. You know, when he was standing up, But when he was sitting down, you could actually see all the way down his back. And you could see the, um, his his, But you could see he wasn't wearing underwear, and, you know, he didn't have a belt on. And so the professor I saw the dina. She was also Professor. I saw her look down and I saw her look at his butt crack, and then she looked up at me, and then you could see, you know, she was connecting the dots to who it was and realized that she had just seen the top of his. But you know, those things stick with you. I can't imagine how she could possibly not see that student again and think, That's the about student. That's the student. I saw his rear end and, you know, it's just it's silly and kind facility. But, um, I've never forgotten it either. Okay, every time I see this particular lawyer, I think I've seen the top of his butt, and that's just not how you want to be remembered in law school. 9. Protect Yourself: in an earlier module of this, we talked about the competitive nature of law school, and what I want to advise you to do is to take steps early on to protect yourself both from mistakes or from accidents and also from other people. So in law school you will spend hundreds of hours sitting in class and then from your classes and from your reading from the case cases that you read, you will be preparing notes, briefs, outlines and essays. And I will tell you this. Every semester there's at least one student who will lose everything they have prepared. When I was in law school, there was a student who several students, actually, who who's laptops were stolen from the library. They got up and ran to the bathroom. Didn't take their laptop with him. Came back. Boom. It was gone. I can't say for sure if another lawsuit, it took that laptop. You know, there's always students from other parts of the school that would come in and studying in the law library, because that was generally a very quiet place to study the people who were very serious about studying. But that happened every single semester. Other people lost everything because they dropped their laptop and the laptop cracked or broke. And the dot data was just wasn't recoverable. Um, there was definitely a malicious, uh, things that occurred. You know, there's oftentimes lockers at the law school and you put your stuff in there. You think it's safer than the library, and it is to some degree because the only people who have access to the lockers are the law students. But every now and again, somebody would come back to find that their locker had been broken into and their laptops or even their books and notes. Anything else had been stolen, and not because the person who was stealing them really needed them. It's because the person who was stealing them didn't want that student toe have them. They were going out of their way to prevent that student from having them. I've heard stories from other schools where the assignment would be to go to find a particular case in a book, and the student would get there and then find that that case have been cut out, you know, with the razor blade, or had been ripped out because the student got there ahead of them and, uh, you know, wanted to prevent other people from doing well. So I can't say that this will happen. My hope is that the's stories, you know, that that this just isn't happening. I can say for my own personal experience, having gone through that people did lose their materials because either issues with their laptops or from theft on. Sometimes you do the best that you possibly can, and your bag gets stolen out of your car. You know, while you're in the grocery store. But you need to plan for that. You can't obviously back up your books, but you can back up everything on your laptop. I recommend that you use I drive or some other cloud backup system, have it installed in your laptop and then have, or any other device that you use for law school and have it set the backup daily. Okay, protect your stuff. Don't just leave your backpack in the library. Don't just leave it in the hall to get up and go grab a cup of coffee. Take that stuff with you. You know, don't rely on the school lockers if you are headed home for the night. Take your books with you. Take your laptop with you. You know, make your locker a place to put snacks and your gym clothes and other things that you might need during the day. Just don't trust you know your most important stuff in your locker and then make sure that you get to know the other lawsuits before you trust them with your stuff. I mean, you want to believe that the people around you that they don't want to hurt you, but you can't speak to humanity and you don't want to risk losing everything, because if you lose your outlines right before test time, you might get another student toe loan you their outline. But it's not going to be the same. It's just not the outline that you create is everything that you brain dumped from the whole entire semester and put in there. And that is what you need to get ready and someone else's outlined just isn't gonna cut it , even if you can convince them to give it to You mean there are folks who I mean, I would gladly give my outline to another student if they needed it because I don't care. I don't care if they do really good. Um and, you know, I'm just gonna I can only control what I can do, But not everybody is going to be that way. So just do me the favor of at least installing some sort of cloud backup device on your laptop because, you know, it's 30 40 bucks a year, even for a terabytes worth of data. You'll thank me later if you ever have to need it. And if you don't need it, then, um, good for you. 10. Get To Know Your Professors: I'm sure you've heard LA Blah blah get to know your professor before. But in law, school networking is almost as important as what it is that you do in school on a daily basis, and getting to know your professor is part of that network. I recommend that everyone tried to at least once a week go and see one of your professor during their office hours, and it sounds like brown nosing sounds like a gunner ish thing to do. It is a no undeniable truths that people who know more people have more opportunities Now. The teachers can't give you a leg up because they know you are in the grading because generally the blade, the grating is all done blindly. Your name won't be on any of the the tests that they won't know your handwriting because all of the tests are generally typed, so they're not going to know you are. But professors have plenty of opportunities throughout the year to recommend students for opportunities. They're going to recommend the students they think of first because they either know the students or they engage with the students, and they've had opportunities to get to know the student and know that that person would be a good fit for that particular opportunity. Professor is also higher students during the summer to work for them, so these are not blind applications. You'll submit your resume and your grades and your cover letter to a professor and professor likes you and knows that you'll be a good fit for whatever project they're working on. You're more likely to be selected for that. And those types of, um, summer internships or summer research positions do look really good on your resume. And they can be a good alternative for you if you're not one of the students who get selected for one of the prestigious, uh, you know, Clark positions over the summer with a big firm. I mean, there's plenty of ways to get jobs, and one of them is getting to know your professors because they do hire people over the summer. The other thing that can happen when you go to talk to you, professor, is they can give you little nuggets of gold that they didn't get a chance to cover during class. You know, if you're even if you're not struggling or if you are going to talk to professor about the particular concept or just spending five or 10 minutes running through it. They may just present it to you in a different way. That that really resonates with you. Um, in a way that it didn't when you first heard it in class. Um, and finally, it will make class overall just less intimidating or less scary. You know, in the beginning, when you're sitting in a lecture hall with 100 other students and you the teacher calls on your ask you a question or engages with you in some way, it can be really stressful. And so if you have formed a personal, you know, a professional relationship with your professor because you've been going to see them during office hours on a regular basis class is just going to go that much easier 11. Moot Court/Board: So the mid court or mood cord board. When I went into law school, I had no idea what the Moot Court Board Waas. And I think that unless you knew, toe, look out for it like somebody else had already told you about McCourt's or your parents were lawyers. Or you knew someone was a lawyer or somebody put you onto it. You're never going to hear about McCourt's. McCord is one of the few activities that I would highly recommend to law students. Participating either on the board or in the competitions is incredibly valuable for your resume. Every school has a moot court board. The sport is autonomous and totally run by students, so there are no professors or administrators who run this. Generally, the moot court board will have its own offices, and they will have their officers. And those are the individuals that run the board. New members are selected by the current board, and generally what you do. Thio Thio submit. An application to the Food Court board is during that first fall semester. When you do your first brief. Generally, the appellate brief is the first written, you know, masterpiece that you create an l ow and the Mood court board will generally select the new moot court members from the quality of those briefs of Not Like, you need a more incentive to work really hard on your appellate briefs. But that's generally how those individuals are selected. Some schools will also take a look at your scores from Orrell argument. The board itself is prestigious and great to be a part of, because if you're on the move court board, then it tells future employers and other people who see your resume that that you are in the top percent of people who, as far as the quality of your appellate brief, the board sponsors multiple competitions, including the mock trial competition and the Appellate Advocacy Adverse Advocacy. I can't even say advocacy competition, and the board will prepare the competition problems and handle the competition. Now if you don't make the board recommend that when the opportunity comes even as the first year that you throw yourself into the moot court competitions, these are opportunities to work on these practical skills that you may not have yet or to refine the ones that you have. The mock trial competitions oftentimes are opportunities for you to cross examine someone. And maybe you do terrible. Well, guess what? That's fine. Everybody does terrible their first time. The more work that you can do early on to get through terrible and then get to kind of terrible and then get to average and then get to, you know, maybe better than average and then awesome, You're gonna need to start that work somewhere. And the moot court competitions are really great places to do that. Now let's say you happen to be super awesome. You happen to be, Ah, super awesome, it or argument. And you aced the competition at the mock trial competition, you have a chance to go to regionals and even to a national competition. Those are great things to be able to put on your resume. 12. On-Campus Interviews: you may or may not have heard of on campus interviews in your undergrad education or maybe from surfing the Internet O. C. I. Is what they call on campus interviews, law firms and other legal employers. They scheduled time to come toe law schools in the fall and sometimes in the spring of every year. This is the O. C. I. Process. Many of the law firms generally big firms, will hire some not all, of their clerks and their first year associates this way. These are fairly coveted interviews because the students who are hired a summer clerks and do really well at those positions will often receive offers of employment after law school . Now, some schools will not let one else first year law students participate in that first fall o . C. I. And that's not determined by the school. Generally, it's more about the law firms, whether or not they're willing to consider an interview. First year law students who don't have any grades yet some law schools will do a spring round of O. C. I so that law students want they. Once they have those first semester grades, the law firms will be better able to tell who they're interested in. In most cases, employers who participate in O. C. I. R folks that are looking for the top 10 to 20% of law students, and so they want to have some sort of grades to tell whether or not candidates are in that range. You'll have big firms, mostly sometimes medium size firms but generally not small firms and government agencies they'll hire for their summer interns, honors programs and entry level positions there. Um, your law school may have information online in the Career center about C. I. I just think that I'm going into law school if you have the time, focus on getting your resume ready and updated because you don't want to take eight hours, you know, here or 10 hours here really trying to nail down your resume, especially if you've never done it. Resume before. We've never had a resume, and he needs someone to help you with it, or you need someone to look at it. It's better off to start it now. Get it all updated with your new information where you live, you know, law school and and think about what it is that you would want thes o c i recruiters to see about you. You could also do a sample cover letter, the talks about your interests and so you can have that chambered and ready to go. 13. Groups/Clubs/Societies: All right, let's talk about groups, clubs, societies. Law school is full of groups Now. You'll show up to law school after orientation after the first day started, and you will start to get emails and see flyers everywhere about these societies. The Constitutional Law Society, the Federalist Society, the Public Interest Society, Denvir Environmental Law Group, the the Asian American Students Association, the Student Bar Association. There are literally hundreds of these groups at each law school, and there are chapters that connect blots of the law schools. Every school has a constitutional law society, and it could be very tempting to get sucked into lots of these groups. Now, here's what I say as a hiring attorney in a couple of years. These groups, unless they help you network and meet lawyers to get jobs, they will not help you get jobs. Now, I'm not saying that these groups won't help you just say, In most cases, hiring attorneys are gonna want to know more what you can do for them and for their firm and less about what it is that you did with this particular group. Like being the treasurer of this particular group unless it gave you a skill or helped you network with someone. It's not necessarily going to be valuable when what it is is you're looking to get hired as a criminal defense attorney later on. What I would do in these groups, clubs societies is I would look for the groups that were the most involved with members of the external community. So what groups it would actually connect up lost students with practicing attorneys, with judges, with politicians with business owners. That is a group that is worth investing your time in because it will help you jumpstart that. No working part of your law school career. These groups are also really handy. As far as making friends and colleagues. And again, your relationships in law school are going to continue post law school. You'll find that your law school friends become colleagues. You'll call and talk to each other about your clients in your cases, and you may, you know, square off against each other in court and having those connections air really valuable. But the groups can also be a big distraction. So if the group that you're in is not contributing to your legal career, it's just something for fun? No, maybe one group versus five groups, and there will be. It's almost like a competition where you'll just see everybody climbing over themselves to get into a many groups as possible and to run for election. To be the president of this or that or whatever the president of this, that or whatever doesn't necessarily mean what you think it means in law school. It might seem procedures in law school to be able to say, I'm the president of this or that or whatever, but later on, if that position didn't connect you up with practicing lawyers, you didn't gain any appreciable practical skills, and all it really was was a time suck. I can't say that that was a good investment of your time. So resist resist. Resist the temptation to go and throw yourself into 20 or 30 different groups. You are going to have so much work to do that first semester, and there is still time in your second and third years of law school to be involved in these groups. You can once you get through the first year and you get through your grades and you know where your stand and you have that first summer job. You know, go get involved in groups than be president of the student, our association or whatever else it is. But just remember that when you get involved in the groups, you have obligations and they won't take kindly to them if you decided to just blow them off to go and study. So Ah, this is my rant on groups and clubs and societies. Just be wise about how you invest your time. 14. Networking: Oh, networking networking is one of the most important parts of law school. If you weren't in the top 10% grade wise and let's face it, if you're not in the top 10% I mean 90% of you won't be, and that is almost everybody. Networking becomes pretty much the most important thing you can do. Aside from studying, most law students will get jobs if they're not in the top 10% based upon who they know and I can speak for from personal experience from that. Ah, judge who knew me. I knew that I was looking for a job and then a lawyer talk to the judge and said, Hey, I'm looking for someone with these qualifications. Do you know anyone? And I got recommended, and that's how I got my first job outside of my clerkship. So and there are many lawyers who have similar stories to that. So, uh, every student should try to attend the publicized events like you'll get notices in your email or you'll see flyers posted on the wall. You know where you'll have half an hour or an hour. These air good times to take breaks from studying and go to these events, and they will give you opportunities to meet practicing attorneys, just judges, politicians, business owners, other professionals like accountants or experts. Getting to know these people so that they know who you are so that they can match your face to your name is the most important part of this. This isn't the time to go there and tell them about you and to try to get a job. Your job is to go to these networking events and just get to know these people so that you could, you know, if you spotted them at the grocery store out on the street later, you would feel comfortable saying, you know, hey, so and so And they would feel comfortable saying hi to you. This isn't a time to get a job. You want to learn about them. You want to learn what it is. They're interested in what it is. They're firms do, because also, you convert them as potential places you'd want to work. Do you talk to someone and you really don't like the personality and and you don't like the Their approach may be to being at the event or to practicing law than you can think in the future. Maybe this is a place where that you wouldn't apply to. Um, I suggest that everyone gets a simple business card. You know, you can go online and get 100 of these business cards printed up for not very much money. I mean, the more you print, the less that is per card. But you know, having 100 or so of these in your locker or a couple of them in your law school bag or in your wallet with your name. Your contact in phone. You're, Ah, graduation day law school graduation date, because you may find yourself talking to someone and they're really interesting and they want to exchange cards. They'll give you their card, which is great, but you should also give them your card so that they can remember who you are. They can put that in the role of X or in their desk, or, you know, in their bag, other wall or whatever. And if they think of you later, they'll have that information for you. I wouldn't rely upon social media or linked in or anything else you know Seo, find me on linked in. That's just not going to be enough. If this individual was talking to multiple students and by the way, putting your Lincoln information, um, you know, having that information on your LinkedIn page updated and easy to find, um, is a really good idea. When you're talking to professionals at networking events, you want to be interesting. You know you want to sound sharp and smart, which you are, but also humble and respectful kind. You don't want to be out there beating your chest. And you know I'm the awesomest person in the world because people don't wanna work. People who were like that I would stay away from getting really personal and telling people Ah lot about your personal details. Like maybe even woes like health woes or personal. Lowe's family was, I would just focus on following the conversation and having a good time and being someone who's really enjoyable to be around because ultimately, when it comes down to looking at resumes later on, you may have to candidates who are both very, very competitive, and they have similar qualifications. But who's going to get hired? Ultimately, the person who's going to get hired is someone that the office would like to be around, that they have similar interests, similar goals, a similar manner of being somebody that they could stand around the water cooler, cooler within and enjoy talking to someone that they could see themselves working together on cases and enjoying doing that work together. If they're not gonna not going to see themselves working with you day in and day out, then you're not going to be able to get that position. 15. Trap: Let's talk about alcohol. Alcohol is a trap for some unknown reason. Most law school events include the consumption of alcohol. I don't know why this is, but it was surprising to me to come from undergrad, um, and then go to law school and then to be constantly surrounded by alcohol. Uh, you know, a lot of students who are recently turned 21 or even some students who aren't 21. Yet when they enter law school, it'll be It's sort of an awkward thing because everybody around them will be drinking and and then, you know, if you are 21 you do have its lawful for you to consume alcohol at these events. But you wonder, you know whether or not you should. I think it's really a mistake to consume very much alcohol at professional events or even events that have a lot of other law students. And we talked earlier about your conduct and how you are and how that can be remembered, and then how that can impact you later on. And there are horror, tons and tons of horror stories of people who consumed too much alcohol at these events, and then how they are remembered later. So there very smart people, the getting great grades. But they are known for this consumption of alcohol and then the behavior that follows. And that's just not how you want to be known in 20 years. You want to be known for your solid work and for helping your clients and and to really doing a lot of amazing things in the community. But this reputation that you create in law school, because lawyers community is such a small community, it will follow you so alcohol at events I think is a trap. Law firms they love to sponsor events and pay for the alcohol. Maybe they feel like they're doing a nice thing for students who are poor, who can't afford to buy a high quality wine or or, you know, high quality alcohol for mixed drinks or beers or whatever. But it is a trap because you do not want to get tricked into consuming very much of this free alcohol. A lot of times these events have a lot of alcohol, but finger food or not very much food at all, it's really, really easy to get intoxicated and then it's not even realized what you were saying or how you are saying and who you were saying it, too. You really do not want to be, you know, even buzzed while talking to a judge. It might make you more comfortable. You might feel like you're funnier and more interesting, and, you know, there might be a lot more laughing, but you don't necessarily know. You can't really judge how you were doing with these individuals because of the alcohol in your brain. So I would just say that approach alcohol carefully. I think it's a trap, and I wouldn't recommend that even if the alcohol is free and flowing and you can drink as much as you want that I would do that and I definitely wouldn't do it. Even at students sponsored events, there are you'll see this when you get to law school. But for some reason, um, pre pre lawyer law students love to get drunk. It's just this strange thing that you see, and um and I don't know why that is, and I don't admire that part of law school, and I hope by now that that that part of the culture and community has has stopped. Just don't fall into it. All right? That's my unasked for advice on alcohol is just to watch yourself, because this stuff, it will stick with you. 16. Avoid These...: Here's the section on drugs even, you know, legal drugs. This is I'm not gonna spend a bunch of time lecturing about whether or not you should do drugs, especially recreational ones. You know, as we go on the question of whether or not the use of marijuana is appropriate in in a professional setting and whether or not businesses can prohibit their employees from using a drug that is otherwise legal in that particular state. You know, we're in a place where the state and federal law are constantly in flux about legal drugs like marijuana. But here's what I will say. Some companies and government agencies will prohibit the use of certain drugs such as marijuana. So if there are places you want to goto work and you have to be able to pass your analysis to be able to work there, you know if there are things that you consume that may prevent you from working there. There are some government agencies like the FBI, for example. They prohibit drug use within so many years of your application. Used to be that the FBI had ah rule that you had to be able to take and pass a polygraph that you hadn't used marijuana in the last three years. And for other positions, it was 10 years. So if this is the type of place that you're considering working, you definitely want to consider whether or not the use of legal drugs like marijuana is something that is in your best interest Now, Right now, this minute, you may say, Well, I don't want to work for the FBI, so I'm not gonna worry about that. You have no idea where you're going to be in three years. You have no idea what sort of job you're going to be looking for. You don't know what your grades are going to be. You don't know what your cape blub, and so you just have to consider now whether or not the use of marijuana now or during law school will close doors to you that you didn't even realize that you were closing. I will also highlight that most campuses prohibit the possession of marijuana on campus. And if you get caught with marijuana on your person that you could be disciplined by your professional school or by the university at large, that is not necessarily I would say anything you want to have associated with you or attached to your record whatsoever. 17. Law Review: Law Review, also known as law school journals. Lara View like Moot Court is one of the few are extracurricular activities I would recommend. Aside from networking, Lar View is sort of the generic term of the generic name lost students used to refer toa anyone of the student run legal journals. You'd say things like I got on law review or did you get on Law Review or you don't lar for you something that you got or you get on. Ah, in some law schools there, maybe just one flagship journal and other schools will have multiple topics, specific journals, some of them or more prestigious and others. Generally, the flagship school journal is the most competitive, but it's still great if you can to get on the subject specific ones. Now remember, law review is a very time consuming activity, but it is one that can actually mean a lot to potential employers. Employers see Law review on your resume, and they will think, Wow, right? This means that this person was selected by there appears to be on law review, and you have to be at the top level of students to be able to do that you say? Well, what's a journal? Like what? What, what What is this said In the legal profession, There aren't lawyer journals, right? Judges, right opinions. Those opinions are published, and lawyers use those opinions and cases to to do the work that they need to do. But law schools well generally have journals, and the students are in charge of them. Not the professors, not the administrators. But the students will be in charge of them, and then lawyers and professors, even professors from your own law school, will submit their materials for them, submit articles to publication, and then the law. Students will be the ones who select the articles, edit them, check the citations, and they get the journal ready for publication. So it's definitely a great thing to be able to say that you got an article published in a specific journal, and sometimes lost students will even submit articles for publication in these journals. But it as a law student, what you really want to do if you, you know, maybe do both, but you definitely. If you can have an opportunity to join larvae you, you're gonna want to do that. The skills that you'll polish that you'll work on or copy editing research and your Blue books citations generally won't be responsible for, you know, a ton of like a whole article. In most cases, there are a lot of people on the journal, and then you'll be given a small section toe work on a little bit at a time, you know, and it can take a while to to site check something, because in these articles, sometimes you'll have one sentence, and then the article writer will have listed five or six citations, and every one of those citations has to be checked and double checked to make sure that the citation form is correct. And then the source material actually says what it is that the author says it says. 18. Daily Schedule: I'm not going to spend a ton of time talking about daily schedule. But I will say that your daily schedule, like having a routine, will make or break your entire law school experience. A student who can commit to a regular study schedule to do the work necessary will succeed . If you do not get in the habit of doing the work on the same type of schedule, you will struggle with procrastination, motivation issues. I mean, there's just no question about it. Successful law students treat law school like a job and treat the there any day like a Monday through Friday, or even on the weekends as a job sort of situation. Here's a pretty standard law school weekday schedule Law Students will get up at a reasonable hour. They'll get up early. Some people will go and play basketball in the morning or work out in the morning. If you can get up and work out in the morning, I recommend that you do it, you know, shower dress, eat at home, pack a lunch and then get to law school. You know, early between eight and nine, I'd like to get there between eight and 8 30 because it made it easier for me to get a parking spot because after nine o'clock it was really hard to get parking. I would use that time to not serve the Internet, not to serve my phone, but to actually look at the materials that are going to be asked about in my first class, which usually would start between nine or 10 o'clock, sometimes as late as 11. But a lot of times the first classes in a nine or 10. You want this material fresh in your mind so that if you get called on, you can talk about it. You know, while it's fresh in your mind after class, I would generally studies more and then prepare for the afternoon class. Take a break to eat lunch. You know, I I would set aside half an hour for lunch. I'm not going to do this hour on half, you know, grew up to launch to eat. I generally won't leave the law school because that eats up time that you're away. I just don't like to study all night, and I don't like to study all of my weekends so I would generally devote a lot of time during the weekdays to get as much done as possible, then after lunch. Usually that would be about the time to head to my next class. But if it wasn't, I would prepare again for whatever it was we were going to talk about in the next class. After that class, which no classes will generally last between an hour and 1/2 to 2 hours is a good time to take a break because generally, if you have been at it, you've been at it already for probably close to eight hours in the day. At that point, I think it's a good time to go and either work out if you haven't already, or to take a little break, take a walk on and make some food for dinner. Any dinner and after dinner, hit the work again until your work day is done until you've prepared for the next day, until you have done all the things that you need to do and on the work that you need to do . And then I probably get home relaxed for a little bit and go to bed and turn around and do it again. some students will try to study seven days a week. Some students will try to cram all their work into the Monday through Friday time. I think realistically, most students are going toe work six days a week, Monday through Saturday and then either work part of the day Sunday or try to take something off. I think that's generally a good schedule. But don't look at taking, um, the whole weekend office, something you'll be able to do regularly, especially in that first year, because that Saturday is the opportunity for you to catch up on things that you, um, didn't get done during the week, like outlining or case briefing. Or it'll be a place for you to get forward and get a jump on the next week. Or it will be a time when you work on networking or you'll work on job searching or doing the things that you need to do to get ahead and get employed 19. Supplies: supplies. This will be a quick section of this course. Your law school was going to give you a suggested supplies list, but here's what I would suggest that you have from my own personal experience. You're gonna wanna have a laptop with a charger and a bag to protect it. There are lots of really affordable laptop covers or things you consider your laptop into so that it doesn't bounce around in your bag and get jammed up when you have it tucked into your bag along with all of your books, they weigh a ton. Sometimes you'll drop that bag that I had this whole personal experience. I knocked my my book bag with my laptop into it in it onto the ground, and it actually broke. That laptop was a huge bummer, so just make sure you have your laptop and a carrier in it that will protect the laptop from stupidity like mine from not protecting my bag. You'll need a backpack that can carry your your books that you're going to need, so it's going to be a bigger bag. It's not going to be a small backpack. Some people who have, um, troubles with their shoulders or the backs will actually do Rowley bags like really cards or traveling suitcases. I know it sounds funny, but it's not. The books are actually quite heavy, and the material that you have will be quite substantial. You're gonna wanna have pens to write with the various colors, pencils, line paper for taking notes. In a way to organize that paper, you're going to want to have, ah, highlighters of lots of different color. It's really common for people to highlight specific details in each of their cases. So they always put the fax in yellow and then put the analysis and in pink and then maybe the court's determination or the holding in green, you're gonna want tohave, sticky notes or flags. I like the sticky notes because I would use them to highlight where the particular case was in the book. The professor might just you know, everybody's sitting around. This is OK in so and so case, you know, Please answer this question and then call on you and you want to be able to turn quickly to the case so that you can find what the holding was because you know where the cases and you have the holding highlighted in green. And then, boom, You have your answer and you look awesome. Ah, you want to have a copy among and water bottle water bottle, water bottle, drink lots of water. It's good to have a couple external USB, some drives you can have paperclips. Some people have staplers, some kind of on staples, but because they're generally around, you're gonna find them around the school. I think your plugs you should always have, Ah, a couple of sets of earplugs in your bag because you sometimes we'll find that you need them. And you didn't even realize you're gonna want tohave them and then headphones for listening to music. If you like to. When you're in the library or studying anywhere else, I think a printer is optional. Some people really like to have it at home, but generally you'll be able to print in school. Ah, for your locker. I think it's a good idea to have a toothbrush and toothpaste and other small toiletries, Cem P. Snacks and then an extra phone charger. If you're spending long days at the law school, and you may need to have your phone charged up and you're not gonna want to go all the way home to get that done, 20. Study Guides: study guides. All right, when you get into law school, probably as soon as orientation, you're going to have an administrator or professor start talking to you about study guides . The professors are going to tell you not to consult study guides. They're going to tell you to not search things on the Internet. They're gonna tell you not to use Wikipedia, YouTube or anything else to supplement what it is that you are learning in law school. They want you to focus on the materials that they give you, so they want you to read the cases. Ah, brief the cases, do your outlines and not consult study guides. Study guides for the most part, are like CliffsNotes, you know, for English classes, you know, when it's sort of like a short cut, right, they will take the concepts and boil them down so that they're easier to understand Now, this could be a good thing, you know, for being able to regurgitate information. So you know what is the mailbox rule and then being able to say specifically what it is is great. But in law school, what you're trying to do is change the way you think so that your brain thinks critically so you can read a case, see the facts and then think critically about the rule of law. And the reason law professors don't like study guides is that students don't think as much when they use study guides. So the question is, should you follow the advice of the requests of the professors and not use study guides? And as a former law student, here's what I would say. I would say that you should have study guides on hand, but you should start with the source material, start with the assignments and do the reading that the professor's give you and then if you have more time and I can't imagine you would. But if you did, or there was a particular area that was really giving him a hard time, that's a really good time to consult study guides. I would be hesitant to recommend that you simply just search things on the Google because you can't necessarily rely upon what search results the Google returns for you because you have no way to determine what the quality of that explanation. You know what Wikipedia says or anything else you don't know whether that's a higher, low quality sort of recitation of what it is you're trying to learn, At least with study guides. You know their official and they're vetted. And so you know that the whatever the material is, it's going to be high quality. Ah, when should you buy a study guides? What you will find is that the law school and it's part of the budget and maybe is your financial aid. They're not going to give you any sort of budget for study. Guides and study guides can be fairly expensive. Study guides Air Great thing to ask for a Sfar as gifts from family who really want to help out. You know what the first subjects are going to be? You know they're going to be civil procedure, you know, they're going to be contracts towards a legal research and writing property and constitutional law, and there are a lot of study guides out there, and this material isn't changing dramatically. I mean, there will be some new cases every now and again, but what you could do is is look for second hand study guides, you know, and see if you can get something that's affordable on just get them in your in your own personal libraries that if you feel like you need to turn to them, you can. 21. Classes Overview: So this is going to be a longer section. We're going to talk about the overview of what your law classes will look like. So the curriculum for the first year in law school is pretty similar across all American law schools. Most one else will take criminal law property long so procedure towards constitutional law and legal research and writing. Most people will call, AH, civil procedure look all Civ pro and I'll say con law and criminal law and property rather than property law. Just what they do. Class seats, You know, in the second and third years, you'll be able to get to pick your classes. But it, for one else of one else, will not get to pick their classes, and they will also generally not be able to pick their seats. So either when you get to class on the first day, the professor will have a place for you to sit or they will set up a seating chart from where you sit on the first day. It was really interesting, you know, after the first day for the professor to show up with a board and on that board, the professor had the names of every student where they sat, and then a photograph of the student for each seat. And those photographs were taken from the photos that we got from when we got our student I ds. This photo board would allow the professor to match the faces to name so they could learn the names. But they would also do that to prevent students from sending in plants to pretend that they were them so that they could answer questions for them because some professors were grade how you respond when you're called upon in class on that first day of school, recommend that you get there early and fine. Isi, That would be a place where you would want to sit. You might not sit next to someone you like. You might not sit next to your best friend. You know, if you know who is going in with you, you'll get to know the people around you. But let's face it, law school isn't about making friends. It's professional school, so you're there to do work. But you don't want to get stuck saying in a place that you don't like to sit like you don't want to necessarily end up in the front row if that's not your thing, and you don't necessarily want to end up way, way, way in the back, if you can't see very well, and you'd rather sit up more closely. So how law school classes are taught for the most part, they're taught through cases. So all the concepts, all the ideals, all the marbles will be taught with a case. So instead of handing you a list of definitions to memorize or just reading through and say , Oh, well, marketing automation is with the explanation. Instead, you'll be reading the opinions of judges, and then you'll have to take from them what it is that you're supposed to learn. You'll be asked to read anywhere between three and seven or eight cases before class. Um, basically every hour of class that you have, you have to estimate that you're going to need somewhere between two and four hours to prepare for it. So just know that there is going to be a lot, Ah, lot of reading to do. Reading cases can be so boring. Oh, my gosh, like watching grass grow sort boring. A lot of the cases almost all of the cases that you'll review in the first year of law school were cases that were decided and written before you were born, maybe even before your parents were born, to make that information more accessible, What you need to know From each case, law students are taught to brief their cases. Briefing a case is the process of taking the important parts of the case out and just leaving the garbage that you don't necessarily need to know or learn. In your case brief. You'll put that information into a one or two page summary so you can quickly have that information in front of you if you get called upon. So the brief is really, um, some people will say, is what is produced when you read the case, re read it, take it apart and then put it back together. Frankly, I think of briefing a case is just a way to stay awake and to make sure that you're paying attention, because it is really, really, really awful to try and read some of these cases. The Socratic method, This is the way professors teach in law school. This is a way of asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw our ideas. So instead of telling you the answer or to tell you what the concept is and explain it, the professor will ask you what is the concept and ask you to explain it and then use your answer to build upon what it is that the teacher actually wants you to know. So they'll give you a case. They'll give you materials to read articles, and then, instead of lecturing, sometimes they won't lecture at all. They'll just start asking questions. Ah, in most cases, students are not given the chance to volunteer to answer questions or to give any explanations. The teacher in law school will choose the students seemingly at random and then put that student on the spot. And it's called cold calling. Ah, this could be terrifying. I just will tell you, you know, especially in the beginning, when you don't know the material very well. You're not very good at reading cases, and then you're just sitting there trying to take notes, and then you may not even be paying attention. All that great because you're taking notes and then you hear the professor calling your name and it if you're ready to go, it could be awesome. It's a time shine. And if you don't? No. The answer. It can be brutal and humiliating. Um, how to perform? Well when called upon. Well, the best ways to do that are t do your preparation. All right, So do the reading on and really do everything you possibly can to understand the case. The next thing you're gonna want to do is pay attention. So you're going to want to do your best to listen to the to the teacher and listen to the other responses so that when you get called on, you can build upon what they had to say. So you're not just repeating something that someone else said and not only read the cases but also make the information accessible to you. So you don't want to take a 10 page opinion and then write a 10 page brief. You're gonna want to boil that information down to something that you can readily excess. So using your own sort of system of ah, of no taking so that you can get it all down toe one page or even to a couple paragraphs is going to be really important. Another way to confirm that you actually understand the case, and I suggest this is to try to teach it to someone else. Try to sit down with your study group and you know, three or four people and have them ask you questions about the case. You know, specific things like what happened in this case and see if you can respond to them and see if you can explain it. And if you can't explain it that you need to work to go back through the material so that you can break down what it is that these awful cases are actually trying to say, like what happened? You know, What is the holding? Why is this case important? If you can't explain why the case is important, you have not understood it. Go back and read it until you confined a simple 2 to 3 sentence answer that answers the question. You know what's happening and why is it important and why are we actually reading it? Teaching the material is can be really valuable because it really can help you hammer in what you've learned and It also can help your friends and your colleagues, your peers, fellow students, because it presents that material to them in another way so that they're more likely to engage with it. The reason reading is so hard and so awful is that you can read and read and read and not have actually put any of it into your brain. Your brain. You may not even realize that you're not paying attention, and you haven't engaged with it at all. So finding multiple ways to engage with the material rather than just reading it or taking notes on it will be just as valuable as spending hours briefing cases. I'm not gonna go really deep into testing and grading, but for the most part, law student grades your first year grades are will be based upon one exam taken at the end of the semester. Some professors might carve out you know, 10% or 15% of your grade as your participation grades. So how you handle it when you get called on, but otherwise that one examined the end is going to be the determination of what your greatest. So if you have a bad day, you show up, you know, unprepared on exam day. It doesn't matter what you did the whole semester. That is going to be your grade for the year. Most grades, most classes are graded on a curve. That means that someone in your class is going to get a D. It just It's just gonna happen if the class is super easy and everybody did awesome on the test. It doesn't matter. Somebody is going to get to see somebody is going to get a D because somebody is getting in a and they grade on a curve. You know, law school exams are by far the most stressful part of the law school experience. And so, you know, you have no one barking at you over your shoulder in the whole semester trying to to make sure that you get ready. Um, but with that, I want to say it's terrifying. But this, you know, the test is coming, and you need to be motivated throughout the semester to keep up because you're not gonna have enough time at the end of the year to catch up, to do all the reading to just get it. OK, um, some tests will allow you to have an outline. Some tests. They will allow you to have all the materials you could possibly imagine. Your book notes. All the rest. Uh, none of this is going to be a substitute for actually knowing the material, and I wrote a little test upon their, but I think wearing your plugs during exams is a great idea. Most exams are typed, and so the sound of 200 people. If you're all in the same hall typing, it's like a dull roar, and it's really distracting. And I just wanted to shut people out and not think about what other people were doing and how they were doing, especially as people you know got started before I had started writing or they finished before I had, and it just was a way for me to shut people out and to really get focused 22. Outlining: here is our introduction, Teoh outlines you are going to hear once you're into law school. Aton, about outlines and outlines, is a personal student specific rulebook for a particular course with a particular professor . So what you will do in all of your class in all of your reading, you will take notes on the cases that you read. You will take notes during class. He will take notes on the articles you read. You'll take notes as you are talking with your colleagues about things. You'll have thousands essentially pages of notes. By the end of the term, you need to be able to study them. T get the most important parts to be able to prepare for the exam. And if you are going to turn towards your thousands of pages of notes, you're not going to be able to get down to the specifics of what you need to know for the exam. So most law students will spend hours meticulously creating outlines for all of their classes. This boils down the information you've collected and the materials that you collected so that you can actually understand them and then learn from them. You can actually memorize what you need to know. You actually can focus on connecting the case to the information that you need to know from it. You can outline in many ways. Some people outline graphically, though include graphic. Still, uh, they'll do paragraphs of information. They will use the outline for him like you see on the screen where they'll just instead of but bringing it down into two paragraphs or sentences or or briefs. They'll just put, you know, the topic, the name and then just very, very the most minimal details. They need to have to be able to help them remember what it is they need to know. In most cases, your outlines for each topic are going to include the legal principles, any rules of law case summaries, policy arguments and then examples that help you remember or explain the material. Now the purpose of an outline is to learn the material, So the creation of the outline is really what's important because you can Onley create the outline. Once you've actually understood the material, you can just type word for word the notes that you that you took down into your outline. But if you don't understand it, then you're not really learning it. And so taking your thousands of pages of notes and creating 1000 page outline is not helpful. But taking 1000 pages of notes and then boiling it down to an outline. This 30 between 30 and 50 pages probably is what your goal, the in creating the outline. What you should hopefully do is learn to see the big picture of what it is that you're working on. So in class, you're you're looking at things very narrowly and covering elements one at a time. But in your outline, you should be able to see all of it. And it will also help you be organized. So if you have your outlining in the exam, if that's authorized and hopefully you'll know because you've studied the outlines so much , where in the outline the information is I'm in, people will walk in, you know, with their outlines tabbed and highlighted and notated on, you know, handwritten notes, whatever it takes to help you be able, find the information when you need it. When should you start outlining? Um, ideally, you should start outlining early in the semester. I wouldn't say that this is something you'll start doing in the first month. But after the first month, you'll have enough material that you can go back and look and see how it fits together. And you're gonna want to start boiling it down into more compact bite size pieces. And as you go on through the semester, that may happen. Even war you may should get down more and more more, but you can see how you know a minimal study. Schedule it. You still end up setting, you know, late on the weekdays and on the weekends because as you're creating your outlines, that takes time. It just takes time. People will often offer to share outlines or requests that your share yours. You have the right to say no and not to feel bad about saying no. I do think that it is important to create your own outline. You know, even if someone offers there are lying to you. Or you can go online and search civil procedure, outline and find Aton about lines out there. And in fact, while you're watching this, if you want to hit, pause and go and do that to see what Pops up. I recommend it Looking through them. It might not make a whole lot of sense to you what those outlines have to say, And that's because those weren't meant for you. They weren't created by you there like somebody else's cheat sheet for what they remember what they don't remember for their brain. So I don't think that you should avoid outlining and then think that you'll be able to rely upon an online guide or or not one that somebody else gave you. You can use thes available outlines, too, as a basis or, ah frame to show you how you should create yours. But the learning happens for most students when they're creating the outlines. So if you don't make the outline, you haven't truly engage with the material, and you're gonna have a harder time on the test. So this is a great time to go and check out what not mine looks like and have a couple of those. Maybe you can look at him or read him over, and maybe that will be helpful to see some terms you've never heard before. You could have your own little database of them. Maybe it will be helpful to look at in the future as you're reading case materials and you you feel like you don't quite understand what it is that you're learning from the book. You know, that's another sort of pseudo study guide that you could turn to. You just don't want to rely upon them, and you definitely want to create your own. 23. Reading Cases: a group of law students was asked after graduation to go back and and suggest, you know, what are the top things that they wished that they had known how to do before they started law school. And one of those things was how to read a case. One of the hardest things to do as a law school is to actually read a case. It's really easy to sit down in front of the book and turn to the page where it starts and start reading it, reading the words. But just doing so doesn't necessarily mean that you have learned anything or you have understood anything. Many of these cases were written 100 years ago, or maybe even more. And so if you don't find a way to actively engage with the material in some way, because there is so much reading, what you may end up doing is read a whole case and not remember anything whatsoever. When I was in constitutional law in my first year, I had a professor who taught an active reading sort of technique that I have employed ever since. Even when I went into the practice of law, the professor recommended that as you reach Bearak that you stopped before you go on and take a minute to write a one sentence summary of the paragraph. Ah, if you can't write one sentence that summarized what just happened in there, then you have to go back and read the paragraph again until you can actually bright, um, and, you know, in a present day English not just, you know, riding down sentences in the paragraph, but a sense that shows that you've understood that, and this can help you in a couple ways. One is you can take those notes on and just put them on a one sheet of paper or onto your computer. And generally you can use those notes to answer questions. If you get cold called on by teachers, you can use those notes in preparation of your brief or in your outlines later on. Uh, and you can review those notes in advance of class instead of reading the case again. So all you have to do to refresh your recollection of what the case was about is read your quick summary so you can read a 10 page case, and about a minute, or two and get totally up to speed about what happened in it versus skimming it. Skimming the case isn't gonna help you because you're going to miss a lot of the important materials. Some people will suggest, you know that you should highlight highlighting can help. And one of the things that I think it's pretty effective is to choose a specific color for a specific part of the case. So if the Kate the part of the case that your reading is factual part of the case to do that and a specific color if its analysis to do it in another color. If you are looking at the the rule of law or the holding, you know, do that in another color. So all you have to do is open up your book and then turned to that specific spot. You'll see the color and you'll know right away what the holding was. Now this is one of the things about buying used books versus new books. You know it could be really affordable to buy used books. Just sometimes you get people's notes and I'm already or you get their own highlighting in them already, and you won't be able to highlight over the top of them. Just so you know, that just could be one of the annoying things about buying his books. But I think you could get away with used books if you're going to use that. The act of writing technique that I said about writing notes in the margins on the case. 24. Case Briefs: another important skill for that first year is briefing a case? What is case brief or what is case briefing The case brief in law school is a study aid that you will prepare for yourself. The brief will contain the important portions of the case that you'll need to know to participate in class or to argue your side of the case. Who will read your brief? Only you professors will tell you to brief. But in most cases, they will never ask you to turn briefs in. Or if they do, it will be a one time thing to make sure that that you know what you're doing to make sure that you're doing it. But for the most part, they're not going to check to see if you're doing any briefing the elements of your case brief. And these are things that your professors will be asking you about in class, which is why you create a brief that has this information so you have it right at hand. Generally, they're gonna ask about the facts. So the name of the case, the name of the parties, you know, which side they were on, plaintiff or defendant factually what happened on and what was the outcome of the case. They'll ask you about the issues. So what Everybody was fighting about the holding, which is the applied rule of law? Also known as Why is the case important and the rationale? So this is the why the analysis? Why did the case turn out the way that it did? Everybody is going to have a different sort of briefing, and what you'll find is that you may brief a ton of cases when you're a new law student, but over time it will become more easy for you. Toe. Identify in the case. You know, the the procedure and the holding in the rest, and you can get away with doing things like just making notes in the margins. Or you'll read the case and you'll just know, and you'll remember it so that when the teacher asks you, you'll have that information right hand. The brief itself doesn't have to be a word, doc. It could be an Excel spreadsheet. For example. You could have ah form a template that used that just has the sections for fax issues holding rational, and then you just fill in that information in each spot. So that you have to do is turn to that particular case in that particular template and that have that information. Ah, some people like to break down some of the elements a little more like the fax. You know, they want to have little spots for fax, procedural history and the judgment. Some people will just skipped the briefing altogether and just highlight the cases like we talked about in the in another module. But ultimately, the point of all of this is just to be able to respond with that information when it's requested, and also to use the information as you're creating your outlines for preparation for final exam. The brief is a really good way to understand whether or not you are getting the case. So if you can't produce a case brief, the most likely. You don't understand what's going on in the case, and you need to either read the case more or you need to go and get some help 25. What a real life case looks like: all right. So in this video, which I think is somewhat different from the other videos that you may have seen in this course which we're very focused on going through the slides and just talking about specific concepts in this video in this module, what I want to do is just talking practically threw what a case looks like from beginning to end. If you were looking at law school or you are plenty of going to law school or are you thinking maybe you want to be a lawyer? It is amazing to me, and I admit that I was one of them. How few people go into law school actually, knowing what a case looks like and what a case looks like from beginning to end? And that puts you at such a disadvantage when you go into law school because everything is so brand new, everything is unfamiliar, and so much of it, if you just understood where it fit in a court case, you would understand a little bit better, and you would be much further ahead of a lot of your colleagues who were just completely unfamiliar and completely green, who had never had anything to do with court aside from, you know, watching Law and Order on television. So let's talk about how a court case would go in general from beginning to end. Now every court case starts with a something right, like an event or happening or an injury or a bad thing was just There's something that is the spark that inspires the court case to occur. It could be something that happens in the civil world or could be something that happens in the criminal world. But in general there is something that happened on a date specific, and that is critical and every case. So just remember that we're looking at a specific date when something happened. In most cases, when something happens that gives rise ultimately or later on to a case, there is a certain amount of time where people try to resolve that something they might report it to the police or they might get a lawyer, and that lawyer might try to demand money. Or, you know, if you've ever been sued or taken to small claims court, if you've ever gotten into ah motor vehicle accident, there's a certain amount of time where people try to resolve what it is that happened. But ultimately, if the case is headed to court that issue, whatever it is, that incident that happening, that damage or that injury or whatever else that is causing a conflict cannot be result. Now. We were talking about that date in the beginning, right? In most cases, you cannot just go on forever trying to resolve it. There is what we call a statute of limitations. This is a rule. You'll see this in state federal criminal civil war that puts a limit on how long you can try to resolve the case. Your injury, your event. This spark, whatever it is, has a limited life span. You can't just go on forever trying to resolve your court case. You have to either resolve the case or you have to file your complaint before the statute of limitations expire. So that's why that initial date is important. And also knowing what the applicable rule is for your statute of limitations is also very important because if you don't resolve the case and you don't file your complaint before that, Rule X makes your claim expire, then your claim basically goes proof disappeared. So remembering you have an incident date and you have a statute limitation. So whatever you're going to do in that time, it must be done by that date certain. Now, let's say that the case cannot be resolved or it is time to file a case because the statute of limitations is approaching. This is the same for civil or criminal. So criminal our cases that involve injuries that are violations of criminal rules that can result in fines or punishment in jail. Civil is on the other side, where there is no jail involved. The court can be asked to make people pay money or to do things, But there's no jail involved whatsoever. Honestly, that's the main difference is you can have injuries on both sides, but one of them is jail and a criminal record, and the other one is civil judgments and money and asking the court to do things. Now when you want to start a case when you want to begin the court process, it involves filing what we call it complaint. Now that is true, and civil or criminal court, though the the name of the actual complaint can vary depending upon if you're in state and federal or what state that you weren't. But initially there is a document that must be filed to begin the case. Now the document has a lot of technical things that need to go in it. It has to explain the names of the parties. It has to explain why it is that the court has will be called jurisdiction. And that's a word that you'll want to remember. Think about and maybe look up and read out more about as the Why does this court have jurisdiction over the party's? Why does this court have the power to here this case in this particular forum with these particular parties? Uh, there will be the elements of the case of the elements of the claim, whatever they are, whatever it is that gave rise to the injury and whatever the damage is, especially in civil court, you have to plead very specifically what the damages are when that complaint has actually been received by the court. Generally, that means of a file staff, you know, could check or it's entered into the system. Your complaint has been filed, and that's what we called the initial pleading. Pleading is another word that you want to write down. Remember, along with Statue of Limitations and jurisdiction pleading is one of those also the word complaint. That's a good one too. And I know this sounds elementary, but you would just be blown away. How many people don't know these things? Because I was definitely one of them. So the complaint must be filed and it must be correct. Now, the case, just because it got filed, hasn't actually begun. The case doesn't get begun and doesn't get begun. Doesn't really get started officially for the record and tell that complaint is what we call served on the defendant on the other party on the other participants who are on the other side of this case. And there are multiple ways to serve a complaint, and this is one that is very rule specific. So when we're talking about the federal rules of civil procedure, there are very specific rules about how you conserve on an individual, Ah, business corporation. And I'll see a nonprofit the government. This is going to be a big component, I would say several weeks in your cellar procedure classes, learning about the various ways that service can be achieved. Nevertheless, service needs to be completed and then a proof of service. A document that lays out how service was completed needs to be filed with the court so that everybody can be apprised in the case. You know, basically to the world that the case has begun, that the complaint was filed and that the defendant received notice that notices such a key component. If you don't serve the defendant and you don't provide him or for notice that cases going on, then you can't get the relief that you seek, whether it is jail, whether it's money, whether it's a cease or desist or whatever. So filing, complaint, serving and notifying the defendant of the case are the first major steps. Once the defendant has been notified of the complaint, they've received a copy of the complaint. They have two options. They can file what we call an answer or response. Basically, that says, I got this and here's my take on it. I I think you're right. I think you're wrong. I admit or deny, and I also have claims of my own that I want to tell the court about and I want to file against you because we don't agree. I don't agree with what you had to say. So you have the complaint and then you have the answer. Now the other thing the defendant could do instead of filing an answer at this time is to file motions basically challenging either the complaint or service or the sufficiency of some other thing in the case. There are some rules in the federal rules of civil procedure that require a defendant to make those motions before they file their answer. These are like defenses rate that the think of them like you're in a war and you have the initial charge at you and you throw up your initial defenses and you say, No, you're not coming in. You know, here's the moat. I'm pulling up the drawbridge. I'm not ready to go out and challenge you to fight yet, but I'm going to defend myself a za best as I can. And maybe I could shut this down without having to go any further. So you have the complaint service, initial defenses, and then, if there are no initial defenses that the defendant wants to assert they will file and answer the plaintiff. So there's the plaintiff and the defendant. If you've never heard of the words plaintiff or defendant, write those words down to, uh, has a right generally to respond on Lee to the things in the answer that were brought up that haven't been brought up yet. So that's basically the planet gets. The last word on the pleadings is complaint, answer and then response by the plaintiff. And after that, in general, the pleadings are closed, meaning there's no more filing back before you can say, Well, I still don't really understand what pleadings are. I mean, there, there, pieces of paper and we file them and they say what everybody is thinking. I mean, that's pretty much what they are right, And and that's the truth. You could think of pleadings like a game of chest right, the you set up the board. And then, if you think of the plaintiff as one side as the white pieces, the plaintiff moves and moves and moves, and then it's the defendant's term to move and move and move, and then the planet gets another turn to movement moving. So basically you have the movements and the response and the various strategies that go into chess are like the strategies that go into a court case. So you don't have to necessarily win the case, you know, at the pleading stage. But you are setting up what it is that you were going to do later on in order to try and move the case forward and ultimately be successful. After the pleadings have been closed, this is generally when the parties start will be called. I'm gonna put it my air quotes. Discovery Discovery is a technical term, and it's one that you need to know. And there are a lot of rules about it. During the period before the complaint was filed, the parties were probably doing a lot of investigation, work and case preparation work, and they were building their case and they were lining up their witnesses. And maybe they had investigators going in interviewing people on driving reports and getting documents and getting everything ready to go and organize. They have all your putting up my air close again evidence in the case. But in the discovery period, you can use the rules in the federal rules of civil procedure. And you could do this in criminal cases to to demand that the other side give you stuff, give you evidence, give you documents, give you for access to physical items to answer questions. Eso you see discovery come in the form of a demand for production, a request for production of documents and things, and that's a paper of a plea. It's almost like a pleading. It's on the pleading paper where you specifically request very specifically with specificity what it is that you want them to produce. So you see them requesting bank records or copies of the will or emails or text messages or photographs that these air really common requests and a request for production. This is also a time when people request depositions be done so you can subpoena witnesses who are not involved in the case to a deposition. And a subpoena is just the legal power to command somebody to appear. And if they don't appear, then you can ask the court to have them held in contempt. There are rules that allow attorneys to assert those it gives them actually quite a bit of power. I can't think of just about any one else other than police officers who really have the power to. I want to say command people to do things, but ah, subpoena is basically with the authority of the rules of civil procedure, and almost with the court, it's It's a very powerful thing that attorneys have, but you can make the defendant or the plaintiff participate in a deposition, and a deposition is like a recorded question and answer session, and the plaintiff doesn't necessarily have the authority to just not answer questions. You're placed under oath by the court reporter. If if it's being recorded or you know there's an oath taken before it's video recorded or audio accorded, because this is testimony that generally can be used later. Once you get to court, it can be played for the jury. It can be provided to the judge, so it's a very important thing. You wouldn't just go into it just for a chat, like an interview. You prepare for it very extensively, and you are very strategic about the questions that you ask. But generally that's a good place to try and discover more about your case, because these people may not have wanted to talk to you before or have been completely unwilling. You call him up on the phone and they hang up on you. Rescind your investigators, attack to them, and they slam the door in their face. So a deposition is a way to compel people to come and talk to you and answer your questions in a way that you could never get done before going to trial. And you certainly wouldn't wait until trial to talk to these people for the first time if you could avoid it, because you don't necessarily know what they're gonna say and whether or not they would be helpful or home harmful to your case. So deposition can be a great time to find that out. You can also do in some states, and in some courts you can do what we call interrogatory is. Have you ever heard the word in derogatory? Some people just call them raw eggs for short. I think it's kind of a silly thing. Did you get the raw eggs done? Interrogatory are requests for you to admit or deny a short statement, and so once you've admitted or denied that statement, then your answer would stand for the remainder of the case and could be used one way or another throughout case. So sometimes he will will be asked to admit something relevant to the case. Like, uh, you admit that you were born, uh, admitted. And I You were born on July 1st 2000 and five. You know, when that's a simple thing you could admit or deny. Or if the question is a bad one, you could object to it and say, This question is vague or isn't relevant or whatever it is that you would say. But generally in a derogatory, the people who are sending them are requesting that you either admit or deny them after discovery is basically complete or near the end of discovery, which is usually and should be well in advance of the date set for trial. And trial is usually set somewhere in the middle of all this stuff going on, as can be scheduled, you know. But by the convenience of the court and all the parties involved, whatever the more complex the cases honestly, the longer it will take for the case to get to trial because discovery could just take along time. But after discovery is done, this is generally a time for any emotions that need to be filed and dealt with. When I say emotion, that's usually a request based upon some rule or some point of law or some case for the court to do something, and in a lot of cases, it's court. Please dismiss this case for this various reason or please court tell the world that I I win. I don't need to go to trial for this various reason. It's usually another word that we see or it's a We see frequently emotions for what we call summary judgment. That's one that you'll need to know for civil procedure, but a motion for summary judgment or some sort of motion to try and resolve some specific point in the case, or to dismiss the case outright for various reasons after motions are done. This final round of motions if the case is still going on, if there are still claims to be dealt with, then the parties will prepare for trial. I mean, they've been preparing this entire time, but they'll begin to prepare in earnest for trial and then ultimately, after the preparation is done and on the date set a date certain the parties will go to trial and it could be a bench trial meeting. There's only a judge or could be a jury trial, and there is a jury of what we call a jury of your peers. But it's a jury of people from the community who have been called to hear the facts and the evidence and make decisions about the keys. And once the trial has happened and it could go for one day or it could go for months, depending upon the complexity of the case at the end, there should be a decision. It could be that the jury finds for the plaintiff for finds for the defendant or awards money or not. In a criminal case, that could mean a verdict of guilty or not guilty, or the judge could make those same determinations once the trial is over. In most cases, there is a period where after the judgment is entered and judgment is another important word for you to know if you have never heard it before, and you should also learn to spell it because it's frequently spelled wrong J u D G M e N T . People love to throw in an extra e to make it judge, and then meant, but it's J u D g m e N t. After the judgment has been entered. When I say entered, I mean filed and made part of the record for all the world to hear and see, you know the parties will have a short amount of time to decide whether to file what we call an appeal. In a lot of cases, that's 30 days from the date of judgment, though the rule can very an appeal is the party disagrees or thinks that the lower court, the judge or the jury got it wrong. And they want to let everyone know that they have the intent of pushing the case to the appellate court for the appellate court to hear it and maybe in some cases, look at the evidence overall and decided to the lower court got it wrong or too. Look, a decision that the judge made on may be one of the motions or one of the defenses are on a point of evidence that was wrong. That would have a dramatic change in outcome case or maybe just the ultimate decision, whatever it is. But an appeal is the process where the case gets taken out of the hands of the lower court and goes up to the next court in the in the process, usually the appellate court, and is again something that will depend from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, whether you are in state or federal court, because every jurisdiction, every place is going to deal with this differently. But ultimately, you have just sat through just about 20 minutes of how a case goes from beginning to end. If you heard any words in this just really informal discussion about a case that were unfamiliar to you, a recommend that you write them down and Google them get to know what they are, make sure you can say them outlaw. Maybe you've never said the word jurisdiction. Or maybe you've never given any thought to what a pleading is. A complaint, an answer, these air, good words to start getting to know and start using. And there are plenty of articles out there on YouTube or or anywhere where you can start come consuming information about these so that your ear gets trained to hearing them, and then you are more prepared to discuss them as you move through law school.