Landscape Painting Fundamentals Part 2 | Robert Joyner | Skillshare

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Landscape Painting Fundamentals Part 2

teacher avatar Robert Joyner, Making Art Fun

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

32 Lessons (5h 59m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Getting Started

    • 3. Materials

    • 4. Sunrise & Sunset Effect Part One

    • 5. Sunrise & Sunset Effect Part Two

    • 6. Frontal Lighting Effect

    • 7. Back-Lit Part One

    • 8. Back-Lit Part Two

    • 9. Golden Hour Part One

    • 10. Golden Hour Part Two

    • 11. Cloudy Day Effect

    • 12. Master's Examples Of Light Effects

    • 13. Warm & Cool Hues

    • 14. Chroma, Saturation & Color Intensity

    • 15. Hues Versus Colors

    • 16. Local Color

    • 17. Color Mixing 101

    • 18. Mixing Black & Gray

    • 19. Mixing Greens

    • 20. Color Vibration Part One

    • 21. Color Vibration Part Two

    • 22. Color Vibration Part Three

    • 23. Cropping Techniques

    • 24. Linear & Mass Compositions

    • 25. Light & Dark Mass Techniques

    • 26. Pulling Viewer Into Painting

    • 27. Composition Types Part One

    • 28. Composition Types Part Two

    • 29. Composition Types Part Three

    • 30. Masters Analysis

    • 31. Composition Assignments

    • 32. Congrats!

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About This Class


In Landscape Painting Fundamentals Part 2 you will take your art to the next level!

When you are finished with this landscape painting course your confidence will soar because you will have the knowledge to master common lighting effects such as cloudy days, sunrises, back-lit scenes and more. You will develop general models so that you can easily and quickly get started painting any scene.

Plus there are two additional sections that cover practical color theory and easy to use design/composition ideas.

Section One: Lighting conditions will cover various common scenes from sunrise, sunset, cloudy days, frontal and back-lit subjects.

Section Two: You will learn color tips that are conducive to good landscape painting such as hues, chroma, saturation, mixing greens and grays, and a fantastic tip for more energetic paintings with color vibrations.

Section Three: Composition and design ideas that help you quickly identify common mistakes and replace them with easy to apply solutions for quality landscape artwork.

IMPORTANT: I highly recommend you take Landscape Painting Fundamentals Part One before taking this course. any of the ideas shared in this class build upon what you will learn in Part One.

Click HERE to view Landscape Painting Fundamentals Part One

Need Acrylic Supplies?

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Meet Your Teacher

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Robert Joyner

Making Art Fun


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1. Introduction: Hi. Welcome to landscape painting fundamentals, Part two. In this course, we will move beyond the techniques and ideas we discussed in Part one by developing a reliable set of general models for painting various lighting conditions. Once you are finished with the section, you will have unlocked the secrets to painting beautiful sunrises, sunsets, cloudy days and much more. Section two is all about color. I will help you solve the mystery of warm and cool colors. Practical color, mixing pips, Hadow mix, vibrant greens and other hues that are common in the landscape. We will also talk about color vibrations, which is the key through adding mawr, life and energy to your artwork. In Section three, we will talk about some of the composition, Do's and dont's. We will discuss and cover some of the essential tried and true techniques so that you avoid wasting your precious time and energy compositions that have some of the common pitfalls for the paintings. I will use acrylics, but just know that all mediums are welcome from pastels oils to digital painting. So if you're excited, let's get started painting beautiful landscapes 2. Getting Started: Okay, so this course is broken down into three main sections to get started. I'll go over my materials, but just know you can use whatever medium you like, whether it's water, color, pastels or even digital painting. The ideas and techniques I share in this class are perfectly fine for all mediums. Now in the Section one, I'm going to cover lighting conditions. This will cover a lot of the common light conditions that you will experience in the landscape, such as sunrise, sunsets, cloudy days, the golden hour, backlit and frontal lighting scenarios. Now keep in mind these air just general bottles, and they're intended to give you a something to compare other subjects to So not every landscaper seen will have all the exact elements. But it should give you enough content so that you feel confident about taking on any lighting condition. And then you can compare other lighting conditions that you are seeing in the landscape to some of these general models, and Section two are going to cover some of the color basics. Color is a vast subject is something that should be studied by itself for a long time. But for landscape painting I'm going to cover some of things you're going to need to know, and hopefully that will answer some of the questions about color that you may have in Section three. I'm going to go over landscape painting compositions and different composition types. This will hopefully help you avoid some of the common traps many artists have about compositions, and it will replace them with really good, useful ideas for creating good designs. And that's because we don't want to get into the painting on Lee to figure out that the composition just simply doesn't work. The wasted a lot of time and valuable resource is so I hope this course enhances your landscape painting. So let's kick things off with lighting conditions. 3. Materials: okay, I'm going to dog over some materials I'll be using for some of the drawing lessons. You'll see that in the composition section. Um, I'm using 18 by 24 print paper and ah, four B. Um, this is, ah, artists of pencil. But I mean, if you just want to use a regular standard to be, ah, you can use a Sharpie, any sort of ink pen, any sort of paper print paper doesn't matter Whatever you had to draw on to so you can work with some of the composition ideas later on in the section, we'll do fine, but this is what I'm using for some of the painting demos. This is £123 drawing paper. Mom, it's made by skansen. So a £123 again, Um, pure white. It's again suited for drawing, but it works really well for quick sketches. Really smooth surface, but feel free to paint on whatever you have. If you're a watercolor artists, you may opt for ah, £140 cold press whatever your standard paper is, if you paint on acrylics, he may even like using boards over paper. But again, This is just kind of a quick look. Some of things I'm using for brushes. I will be using these royal ling nickel. Ah, these air these n, um, models. And this is a number four and then this is a number eight. So I have a small in a medium. You can see there, have a square there, But again, use whoever brushes you, like, right, so that you're comfortable. I'm going to you include a list of my Hughes, but I prefer you track heavy body paint. Um, so it's a ruling in have some yellows and and again I'll include all the list or the list with all the hues I'm using. And obviously, like I said before, if you are a pastel artists, you can do this digitally. Whatever you want to do, it doesn't really matter. Um, probably good idea to have some tape around. Especially like to paint on paper that we can tape your painting surface to a firm board. That's what this is. It's just a firm drawing board. Always good to have that I would ever out. Whenever I'm drawing and painting on my table, I have ah stack or a ream of paper I will use to angle my board. So a good angle would board or well, oftentimes give you better perspective of what you're drawing. And you probably need a reservoir. Ah, for your water. If you paint with acrylic or what are color, Obviously, when her to have some napkins, tissue set, things like that sitting around. Yeah, that about covers it on again. Use your medium of choice. I just wanted to clarify just some of the things I'm using in this course, but feel free to substitute according to your desired medium and your approach to drawing and painting. And I will see you guys the next lesson. We're gonna kick things off with a common light effects. 4. Sunrise & Sunset Effect Part One: all right. So the first thing we're going to look at for were the different light effects is going to be a ah, sunset. This could also be a sunrise or pretty much the same before I get into my drawing. Just know that sunsets are basically a composition are designed That is the illuminated sky playing against the, um, darker tones of the what's in shadow. Okay, so or the land? So no two sunsets or the same? Obviously. So it is really impossible to even think that anyone formula is going to work for every single seeing. But what we can do is take some of the ideas that we have learned so far and apply them to the scene. So that will be, you know, atmospheric perspective. Um, sky gradations, different things like that. So that we start to understand how all that kind of plugs in to this particular lighting situation. So, um, this just kind of look at that for a second? Let's just, um, just say we kind of have a composition here where what kind of uses theme of a house, a barn or whatever. Maybe we'll put some sort of Bush or something here. And so there's some hills back here that's fine. Maybe we'll do a little lake and maybe getting over to this side. We have, ah, kind of a large mass of trees or bushes or something happening on the right here. I will put ah, a road leading and maybe, um, something like that. So, uh, would do a few cumulus clouds in here. They're gonna play a kind of a key role in this particular design picture that not all the same size. Maybe they're breaking up as they get closer to us. So that's that. They'll give us what we need. And as I mentioned before, no two sunsets are the same. But we can kind of look at this idea of the sky gradation and kind of start blocking out some of these horizontal masses. And before we do that, let's say we have our our ground plane. So pretty much you know, everything and everything that is ground playing here is going to be in shadow. Okay, so no light hitting this. If you had a shiny object, maybe it will be catching a glare. But for the most part, um, I put ah maybe a slightly closer hill here. Maybe that's a little bit darker. Um, So, like this lake, for example, could be catching will be catching a glare, a reflection from the sky. But for the most part, all of this is this kind of darker valued area and all the all the values air really close together. So, for example, if we look at this little idea of this section that's represents the value of the ground plane or the ground here, that's the verticals, the horizontal, those the angular planes, all that you may get some, you know, darker values like this. You may get like that for the most part, but all of these values kind of are close to each other. And that's very important because you don't want a big amount of different gradations value masses in the land. Because if you start to do that, that's going to ruin the light. And again, as I mentioned before, with the sunrise and sunset, you're basically playing the the light, the illuminated sky against the darkness or the darker values and the of the land. So they're very important to understand that. Okay, so cover my colors here, So I got titanium white ready and green. Cerulean blue, Lisbon Crimson cad. Yellow light cat, orange cat, red light. I need some yellow Oakar. Um, no. Use the Sharpie There is you could see to put in some darker values. Ah, The one other thing that you need to know is that the let's say the sun is maybe behind over in here. Okay, so that's that's down. We can We can no longer see the sun causes below the horizon in the eye level line. Okay, So would you say that? Afraid there. So it's below that area. So that means these cumulus clouds have light showing on the under plain case. All of this, this catching light where the tops of the clouds and the sides of, um are going to be and shadow. So that's one thing to know, because the lightest there shining up underneath those objects. So let me go ahead and block in something for our landmass here. And as you know, we talked before. You know, it's not about what we're just say. It's You want to be careful about using something that's too dark, because if you go to dark than you know. You have nowhere else to go. So just keep that mind, you know, as you do this, um, always leave a little wiggle room, um, to go darker or lighter. If you need it, we'll see this path even is kind of Ah, dirt. Ah, light color, A light value so I can get a light value that goes in there. And let's say the building is light. So remember some of the ideas we talked about previously in that you're the vertical planes tend to be, um, lighter or darker rather than the ground plane. So those are all things, you know, that I'm going to take into consideration when I do this. So hopefully you've taken the first part of this series. If you haven't, you know, highly, highly encourage you to have a look. But vertical planes, um, are going to be darker than the ground plane, and so wants. I'm not gonna go back into those lessons because there's something I've already covered in the Siri's. So again, if you haven't watch that part of it, um, go back and check out those those lessons. So now I'm getting into my vertical plane here mixing in some different colors again. Maybe more blue as that goes back. Maybe a touch later and value, but again, keeping in mind all those atmospheric perspective ideas that we've talked about so I could maybe push that mawr to a violet, But again, kind of keeping the values and mine as I go that I want everything tight. Okay? We don't want a broad range values. We have angular plane here. All right, Maybe I can suggest a few windows or something. But again, No, not much. All right, so that that will work. So now let's look at the sky. And the first thing we need to start to understand here is going to be the great Asians. So think of a rainbow. So you have. We are gonna have the strip of kind of violently color here. But again, as I talked about with the sky and the clouds and part one of landscape fundamentals, you can really see that see the strip because there's always something in the way. So then we have another thin band and we're going to This is Mawr red and then we have another band is slightly bigger orange And then just like a rainbow, we have yellow and then it gets bigger. OK, then we get this big green band and then as blue and then perhaps even back to a violently blue once we get way up in the sky. Um, again, I'm going to say this, but this is a general model. Okay? This is something you take and you compare things to. It's not gonna work for every single sunset, but in general, this is Ah, good way to organize the band. So you have these horizontal no bands of color. Obviously, we don't want that. We want those to kind of blend into each other, so they're not, You know, we don't see stripes of color. Obviously, nature doesn't do that. But we also I need to understand that there's, ah, second kind of great Asian going on, and that's what makes I think sunsets a little challenging 5. Sunrise & Sunset Effect Part Two: because of our son is here around. That is going to be another great Asian. So this say, for example, we have our horizontal gradation in the sky. Okay, so that's kind of a vertical thing happening here either from top to bottom bottom top, depending on how you want to look at it. Um, Then there is this kind of of, um this great Asian happening that is darker towards the outside and then lighter as it gets towards the sun. So that's happening to I'm sure you've seen sunsets, and you probably can relate to that idea a little bit. So if if this was our son behind the mountain here, you can think of this kind of these arcs like that. So there's great Asian happening from the outside, and and then, of course, we have these bands like that, um, so that are kind of getting bigger. So you that's the idea with sunsets. Um, and to there's there's always a general overall color scheme in the sky. So when we start to add these gradations to it, it's going to be in the context of whatever the general color theme is. So, for example, I'll use a yellow green. Okay, so maybe more yellow towards the sun, obviously. And then maybe as it gets away, it gets more green. Okay, so I'm kind of dealing with these bands, these arcs. So maybe that's kind of the general idea. The general color of the sky. So yellow green. And it could be blue. It could be red and orange. I mean, it just depends on the atmosphere how much water is in the air and a lot of other variables that would determine you know what, the colors in the sky. So you just again, this is No. Two. Sunsets are the same. So I can tell you, this is how you paying the sunset. I'm just giving you a general idea of how to approach it. Okay. All right. So they let me go ahead first and and let me just say too. So this is a yellowish green theme in the sky. All of these colors are in the context of that. So I'll add red to that idea. Alright, ADM Or orange? That idea. As we get up and together bands, I'll continue to add it, but so kind of all in that context. So let me go ahead. And now I'll start with, um, you know, the red that say we can start to see that in here. And so I kind of get a color that'll work. You know, red is ah, very dark color. Um, it's so easy to, I think, to misinterpret the value of red. I got a little bit of green now. I'm just making mixing in with that. So you have kind of to be careful with it. You don't want to go to light in the sky and value. You don't want to go to dark. Um, you know that the lighter you go, the lighter and value you go, the less color, um, you end up putting into it. I'm so basically, if you if you, um, start to blast really intense, or you start to saturate and mix everything with too much white, then what's gonna happen is, um, it's going to start to look kind of pasty and to to, um, Dole. And, um, that's easy to do so that the way to avoid that is to you have your dark mass of the land, and but don't add too much white you know, because again, if you get if you go there, then things will start to get, um, to lighten value, and then you're gonna lose. Ah, the ability, ability to add color. So I want color in this guy. I know they have to be of a lighter value, but I have to also be careful that I don't go to light or too dark. It's kind of Ah, you think something you wanna have to practice and ah, work with as you go. So I've kind of getting these general bands now, and what I'll do here is I'm going to start to work the outside color. So I told you, this is all in the kind of the context of a of a yellowish green sky. I could even add some blue into that. So I'm going to do now before I get ahead of myself. Is kind of start to mix a little bit that, um, idea out to the edges. It's gonna get darker as we get up in here again. I cover these ideas and the first part. So So now we're kind of getting into this greenish areas, so I'm pretty safe. You know to work these greens, but you know, you have to understand, too, that the yellow starts to get out of the sky here. So I'm using orange and reds and some of these other Hughes in the sky now and kind of avoiding going to yellow so I could go a little bit darker, maybe up here. Now start to kind of work. A little bit of this more yellow as I get to the sun. So now getting into this yellow band clean my brush and I think I'll get a little more white for the palate. We're going to switch brushes a little bit. Let's go a little bit smaller here, get into these yellowish areas. But see, I'm blending that in a little bit with these reds oranges. So we're getting some of that effect going on, so I could probably go a little bit lighter and value. Get a little bit. Is red touch of orange maybe a little more red and yellow. So we'll try something like that. I think we'll do now is get a little bit of color on the clouds. So again, um, taking in to consideration, Um, no, the atmospheric perspective of everything, um, things getting more yellow as they get near you again. The underneath of these clouds. So I go a little more orange now a little more yellow. We're seeing a little bit under these clouds as well. So now what I'll do is add a little bit of dark to the cloud itself. So I can get mixed up a little violet e grayish color here, and I'm gonna put a little bit of red in there. So I got this idea, um, kind of have these red glow going on underneath the clouds. So things get lighter and value as they go away from us. So I want to make sure I get some of that and then, you know, slightly darker arm or yellowy right? As they come near us. So maybe a little bit lighter in here, All right? And maybe a little bit lighter and value on this guy pushing that read a little bit time. Now it is pushing this yellow a little bit in here. And now get a little glare. A little reflection. Maybe maybe we got a little see through a little bit there, and maybe we're getting a little sky hole in there as well. So a little more yellow, Um, just going to go a little bit darker. Maybe on a couple of these in here. Go back in. Now, you can add a few, um, accents, I think. Especially in the foreground here. Something back there and just kind of silly. Tying things in a little bit. Maybe I could go a little bit darker. And here. More blue. A bit cooler, be a little bit, um, too late value. So maybe maybe something like this. So that's the idea. Um, for a sunset. So you know, the the less, um, you know, like I said before, don't don't go too light and value with these guys. Um, if you again. If you do that, you're going to find you're going to lose the ability to work your color. So things get too much white in them. Um, then, but in general, you kind of run out of room to work your your color in the air film anyway. All right. So let this thing dry a little bit. I've also added the swatches for you. Um, nothing really exciting there. I just went in and added some of the base colors. So violet, red, orange, yellow, green, blue and then more violent, more violently as we go to the top. So as the saying has dried, the sky got a little dark. So I've got plenty of room to go. I mean, look, compare that to the white of the paper. You'll see. Um, there's just a lot of a lot more value left. I can I can push. So we're kind of getting up into this green band and I'm just thinking, Ah, and here, as you can see here, that's going to add a little more light into this area, and I'm going to try to pop the underneath the clouds a little bit. I can even push a little more kind of this yellowish she green sky. So I want to get a little more. These yellows going in here and kind of define some of these tops of the clouds just a little bit doesn't need much definition. But now, as I get up into the blues again, you'll see I got a lot of room to go so I can continue to add lighter values. So I didn't go to dark. I can add darker values because I didn't go to light and all that this is doing. I'm still adding color. You know, I can go even lighter. You know, I can get up in here, maybe more orange reds. So I'm still pushing that color. You know, it's not washed out as I get down into my yellows so I can layer that right in there and then bring that under the sky. So get that reddish glow of the cloud there. And such is kind of manipulating those values a little bit more. So now I'm getting into the reds and orange, so leave a little bit of that underneath. I'll come back and touch that up, and I'm just pushing That blew a little bit more. And that red is really dark. Could even, um, I suggest a little window or something. Here, get under the clouds now, But underneath plane, So more yellowy, more orange. Now, as that comes closer to us, but in the overall context of just read a little bit later in value, I think for this one, um, so, you know, bringing that Scott of life a little bit more through some lighter values. And again, that's only possible because, ah, left room in it. So I didn't go to light in the beginning, So that's going to work a little more red into these clouds. I think it's just going to blend a little bit better. So more yellowy a little bit darker, changing that valuable just a little bit there. All right, so just again cleaning things up a little bit, Um, for the most part, and they were still kind of work in the ideas, and that will pretty much wrap up this one. So I kind of keep these gradations of mine as you go forward. And like I've said before, Nature's your teacher. You can always go outside, observe the sunsets in these conditions on your own, and you'll start to kind of see how these all kind of all this kind of fits in with that sort of scenario, 6. Frontal Lighting Effect: all right for this particular scene. We're going to do a frontal sort of lighting condition. So what this is going to mean is that say you're you're standing here. You're painting. This is your easel and your subject. You're looking this way, and your subject is right here. So it could be a bar tree, whatever. And the sun is directly behind you. It was blasting light directly on to your subject. Um, it could be a very beautiful seeing and painting. It is done. Well, um, but they can be very challenging to, because all of most of your objects tend to be of similar value because the sun is hitting everything. So, unlike, say, a sunset where you have a lot of contrast in this particular scene, you're not gonna have a lot of contrast. Also, when you're painting, you tend to have that son right on your canvas. Um, but there are some things that you can try to do when you're in a situation like this. You want to perhaps just try a painting with this sort of condition? Lighting condition is look for contrast in the object. So things have a local color. Eso for my example. I'm going to dio I'm going to add a white house. They will have a light path grass around it. Um Then it will have a dark tree in front of the lighthouse and then behind the lighthouse is going to be a background with some houses. They will be kind of a mid tone, um, value because the homes are kind of a darker wood. So the contrast that I'm creating is basically capturing the local color of the object objects and basically looking for a situation that would work well. So, for example, if if you don't have it, if your subject is, um all of your subjects in the scene are of similar value. You don't have contrast that I would tend to avoid Ah, a painting like that because you kind of want to look around and find the right set up. It can be, uh, this bright yellow grass against a dark vertical row of trees. It can be a dead stock. Ah, very light value dead stock, you know, in front of a dark value again vertical trees or something like that. Light against dark, dark against light. So always gonna keep that mine when you're doing. And considering your subjects, I feel like, you know, it is easy to kind of get set up and excited to paint. And then next thing you know, you're you're in it, but the the scene just isn't going to work for that sore lighting condition. All right, so I've talked enough. I'm going, Going Teoh this, Make a path. Let's say so. That will say the path is coming in something like that. Kind of cutting in and maybe winding back like so. So we'll bring it out here Out is bringing in this way. We get a little more paint mixed up here. Okay, so we have this sort of thing back here, we could just do some homes, like a dark, a darker value home, and then this will be right here. Um, this really light valued house, so we'll say the side. We can really see the side of this one be our distant home. Um, and we'll make that a little bit bigger and then kind of off in here, um, kind of right on the side. Here is where we get kind of this bigger tree. Um, let's say there's my even be Let's say a smaller one. And here that might be of a lighter value. Something like that. Um, and then over in here, what is to we just do some grass? Um, I just do a few more homes, maybe would do one like this, and, uh, maybe one more here it may be a nice, strong vertical do have kind of a triangular looking shape tree. And there, So this all kind of the grass grass path coming around and so on. Ah, few clouds, I think, just for contrast. So let's put a few What kind of dot Some clouds in there and the clouds are nice because you go in in a lighting situation like this, it tends to be a darker sky. I'll get more into that as I talk about it. So, like when you're looking, when the son is behind you and you're looking at it, um, that can sometimes be The sky came sometimes be as dark as the ground. All right, so let's start. Let's start with the ground plane. So using some of my meridian, touch your yellow, and then Oakar, I'll go with a little bit of red in that and now a little bit of weight. So it's good, Um, let's get a little something going on here, and, um, maybe I'll make it a little more of a reddish orange brown type of hue over in here. And then we'll say, maybe there were some greener looking grass, you know, kind of trickling in here somewhere. But this will be really, really dominant pale green as it goes back and make it a little lighter and value like that . So now, um, I have this tree, but again, the light's hitting it. So even though it was going to be one of the darker values I start to keep in mind, the sun is blasting. Ah, that tree. So it's probably a little too late. We'll go something like that. So I kind of really feeling the sun on it. Maybe we have slightly different variety of Bush or something in here. Um, now we have another vertical back here, and we'll say that's a little bit different variety. So let's say this is like little cedar tree or something. Um, so maybe this one the local color is just very, very dark So I guess me to these background homes. So I'm going to just use a little bit kind of violently color first. And then we'll go with a little bit of this. Brown. Let's go with something like this. Maybe one of, um, has more of a green issue to it. Uh, we can say maybe the roof on this one. It's a little bit too green. Complain my brush. I will say this roof is kind of really catching some light here. And then maybe it has more reddish tend to it that maybe that plane side of the house is Ah , you know, and more and shadow soften that edge up. No, we're moving in moving into the home here, our little kind of impact. So say we've got this side which isn't isn't quite indirect light. And then this side is and then we get a little bit of ah, you know, a few holes in here, something like that. And then let's just say we have a really dark the dark room, so we'll say underneath underneath all of this. It's really dark Mets. That's our contrast. Excuse me. Maybe we can see a shadow kind of running away from us on that. Maybe we can even see it, you know, on the house too. Um, let's go with a little more of a warmer, almost reddish violet color on this house and then that, say, behind it There's some stuff happening, but we don't quite really get that. We could put some windows shadow. Um, give it, give it a little vertical there. Maybe we can catch another vertical on those. And then we have our path, which I'll come and keep it This reddish color a mixing some of these grays. But, you know, let's just say this is really light and value. Maybe it gets a little bit lighter as it goes back. Something like that that gets us to the sky now. So I'm gonna use a little bit of Saru lian, maybe a touch of ridean and we'll get get something happening here. Maybe a little bit darker towards the top, perhaps, Um, a little bit later, as we get down, maybe we have some sky holes. So we obviously make those a little bit darker? No. Ah, maybe underneath I just throw a little value on are clouds. Then I can get a little bit of an under plane. Very faint. Uh, doesn't need to be much. You wouldn't see a ton in here. Maybe a little bit of light hitting some of these pieces. But maybe we're seeing a little bit of detail in the grass. Something like that. So that's a, um, something you may expect whenever you're dealing with this tower. Lighting condition. Um, again, if you're in this situation, you know, you always kind of look for that Contrast. Something light against something dark, Something dark against something light. Um, see, Steve is there, not? Try toe, try to search it out. And I think that's going Teoh, give you what you need to pull it off. Um, so just kind of search around until you find something. But hopefully this gives you a few tips on how the handle a situation like this. Um, I'm just going to pull out a few edges and maybe something a little bit darker in the air. Yeah, Hopefully it gives you some ideas on how you can approach a scene like this. OK, so wrap it up now. I'll see you in the next one 7. Back-Lit Part One: All right. Welcome to the demo. And this one, I will do a backlit scene. So imagine you're standing there. The sun is in front of you and it's really up in the sky a little bit. So it's not like a sunset where you have a really low sign, you know, it's up in the sky, maybe two or three o'clock. It's coming at you. Um, and all the shadows are coming towards you. Ah, the vertical elements that are facing you are in shadow and so on. Ah, this It's a popular kind of, um, set up with many artists because it's really nice to have all the contrast. So you're gonna have a lot of things that are in shadow you're gonna have been because of that. There's going to be really good contrast with all of your different elements, and the composition and the shadows make it kind of interesting. That could kind of lead you in as well. And of course, with this sort of condition, it has its own unique characteristics. So that's what I kind of wanna go over in this video. So let's say we have a similar composition as the previous ones. Let's say we have our path. That's, you know, maybe coming in Ah, circling around like so. So we have our little house here, something like that. And this makes the tree a little bit bigger. Kind of something like this off to the side and the say back here, though. There's a little water feature. So maybe it's a lake or something back there, we can kind of crop. It may be right there. We're all just kind of running all this fun. So let's say we have another little house here, a little building. Um, I'm a change that design really quick. So it was say, I won't bump this up just a little bit. So our path and then back Here's our little water feature. Yeah, let's just say this house is bumped back a little bit in the background. Maybe we have a tall tree here, Uh, see, And then maybe back here, there's a little hill or something, so something like that will work. Um, lastly, I'll just Sprinkle in ah, few clouds because I want to talk a little bit about about those as well, and we'll say there's another little funeral homes scattered on the hill. So the first thing I want to talk about is the sky in the sky. And this condition is going to be a lot later than what I showed you in the front lit demonstration. I want to show you that again real quick. Just a reminder. So in this condition, you have a very a darker sky, very blue, very vivid, um, color more intense. So in this case, because you're looking into the sun Ah, that's going to make the sky often times appear much later. So I'm going to start there, and we'll just kind of get a base value going. And then, as always, as as we work into it off, come back and make changes and all that stuff. If I need Teoh, which I usually dio like everybody, it's hard to get it right the first time. But once you get all your block in finished, you can start to compare things back and forth. I must say, maybe towards the horizon, maybe it's getting a little bit later. Slightly more yellow due to the atmosphere, maybe a little more green in parts of it, and maybe a touch of that blue towards the top. So again, um, very, very light sky. Now let's start doing the vertical elements of the vertical elements will again be in shadow there, backlit on the say This house is white. So we're still dealing dealing with a white object. I didn't get any Eliza in crimson out. So let me grab a little bit of my Eliza in crimson. And then once I get that a little Hugh on the palate, I can mix up a really nice violet. I think Violet is going to work. Well Ah, for for my vertical element with a little bit of yellow Oakar into that. So for now, I'll go with something like this. I think I'm gonna go a little bit of red. Something like that is fine. Now, on the front of the house is probably catching a little more light than the side. So in that case is going to be a little bit later and value. I'm just going to All right, so we'll say this is a brown house over here, So I go with my sienna red. I don't mean to get that yellow in there seeing a red touch Oakar Touch of the ultra A little more green, Little more red Push the Browns And again, we're going to make the front of this a little bit later and value. So now let's look at the tree So the tree and this condition is going to be very dark. So red Oakar Meridian say it's got a really low, really low, Um, under a canopy there on all kind of bump this up into the sky, something like that. So the trunk be very dark. And then on this side, I will say this is more of a shrub. Alrighty. So I'm going Teoh, just make this a little more yellow and then we have the distant hills. Something like that. Maybe we're getting a little Scott whole, the air, something like this. So now we can get into the water. Feet share sale Good. Blue, green, red. The water, um, will be affected by the light is well, you tend to get a lot more reflections, which I'll do in a minute and then on the roof. You know that I will be slightly darker. We're slightly lighter in the vertical elements again. I'm just going to get something down here. I'll make this roof. Ah, little more in the light, Hugh versus the green. Right now I want to start with the ground plane soem or red in the distance, A little bit lighter in value as well. I talked about that and the first part of the Siri's. So I'll start in here. Maybe every now and then we're getting a burst of yellow. I want to get a little more poker out as well. Never seem to have enough Oklahoma palette. So it's a as it is getting near us, really starting to kind of see that. Ah, yellow come out. And now, just near the foreground here, I'll kind of go back to the green. I don't want it to be too bright and intense. And maybe in the very distant hills there, maybe we're seeing ah of something. There could be, you know, a little couple of homes sprinkled back in there kind of play with that idea for a second, a little bit darker. All right, so let's talk a little bit about these clouds because the clouds are lit up from behind. We kind of get this ring effect. So the center of the clouds. 10 tend to be a darker. She will kind of get this probably a little too dark and maybe a little too red. 8. Back-Lit Part Two: And now that I've got this kind of white gray on the palate, I want to say We'll go ahead and put in the path. I'll make it agree ish or reddest, rather looking path. Maybe we're seeing a little more yellow in the foreground and I'll get a little bit darker . The light values tend to get darker as they move away. We'll go back in the sky, just clean up a few of these edges, and now we go a little more Oakar touch of green. I can think about, ah, really warm sky go a little bit darker and there because you're gonna get refraction, and only for this building that's a little bit closer to us here. I think I'm gonna go a little bit darker on that one. Maybe we're getting something like that. Are. So now let's do a few cash shadows. The cash shadows should be a little bit lighter than the darkest on the tree. A little bit of blue into that, perhaps more red wasn't quite dark enough. I could probably go a little bit lighter on that building. Think I'll just do away with that building? Actually, I think it would, um, be a little more effective without it. So let's say we have our hill coming through. This is our water feature. And let's just say, you know, we got some more trees in here. Push a little more blue into this touch later and then a little bit darker, maybe for these holes. And then, okay, clean a few edges here. No, the ring effect I was talking about earlier. Basically, if he liked looking this clouds, they'll have the gray in the middle almost that had this kind of ring of light around it. When if you know a little bit about linear perspective and the lights coming at you, what's gonna happen is the objects on the left hand side. We'll start to get light on this side. The right side with the objects on the right would have Morson on the left. So I'm gonna put that in. So I'm basically starting to add a little bit of light on these objects. Um, and maybe as it goes away from us on this tree, um, starting to get that sort of thing. So that's kind of something you want to keep in mind for your vertical objects and because there's a little bit of ring lighting going on, I mean, you may start to see a little bit of a glow on this side. So the idea is that you have this really, um, is really dark kind of center with this kind of a little bit of light affecting the outside . So I had a little bit of light. Perhaps on this bush, you may start seeing a little bit of detail in here, and I just want to make the impact a little bit stronger on that tree there. Now, let's get to the water. So the water in this case is going to have a little bit of a sparkle to it. I know you're getting a little bit of a Blair here. Try to take that glare off of it a little bit. Yeah, that'll give you a little bit better sense of the colors I'm looking at. So the sparkles are kind of hitting the waves. Maybe you can think it's ah, a little bit of ah, little breeze going on. Maybe. And you're getting this kind of sparkle going on in the water. Something like that. A little more white path and want to bring a little bit of red into that. And now I'm just going to lighten the value a distant hill on again. Just maybe we're seeing a little bit of that pick through a few windows. Um, typically in shadow. Um, you don't want a ton of, um, detail? Um, because usually it doesn't exist. And now it is kind of strengthening a few of these darks. Yes. So too much detail in shadow can kind of ruin the light a little bit. So be careful with that. Maybe there's, ah, vertical element there and has had a few little sparkles on the water getting a little more light around these clouds, kind of really showing that the illumination effect again, keeping it really light and value. Perhaps a little bit of green as we stepped down and perhaps even more yellow lighter, even, uh, towards the bottom. Again getting that it's got a few sky holes in the air, and maybe we're starting to see a little bit detail in here. All right, clean the brush off, and I feel like this pretty good, I think, Um, you know, again, you're gonna start to see no details and different things happening as it gets closer to you. That's all part of the atmosphere, perspective, things we talked about. But that's the idea. So that's again a backlit scene, giving you some ideas on how you can approach that on. Hopefully, it'll give you some ideas on how to to do this next time, next time you're out and about. This is the beauty of, I think landscape painting. I'm gonna get this a little bit lighter, but the beauty of I think landscapes is that it? You just never know what Mother Nature is going to throw at you. So having a general model, you know something you can count on when you go out doors or when you start to work from your images helps because it's, you know, like everything that you want that little bit of, ah of a base, you know, a start, a general model, like with figure painting, everything, um, figure drawing because it really helps you save time and it gives you something to compare to. And then you can kind of take what you've got and go from there. All right, So anyway, I hope you and enjoy the demo, and I hope it will help you in your landscape painting journey. I'm just going to lighten that just a little bit. There are several other conditions we're going to look at. I think all in all you know, it'll start Teoh. You'll slowly start to build up that that, um, arsenal of different ideas you can use to take out into the landscape with you. All right, so thanks for watching. I'll see you in the next one. 9. Golden Hour Part One: Welcome to the demo. And this one, we will do A It was called the Golding Golden Hour demo. Um, it's a tough one to do for a variety of reasons, and I'll kind of explain that. Let me lay out what I'll have here. Say this is our gonna be our demo area. So with the with the golden hour, what happens is let's say this is our horizon and then the dome of the sky. We have something like this and say we have a house sitting there on the ground level. So again, ground level I can extend that out a little bit. So the sun when it rises or the say after it sets and before rises is below the ground level, I level well, that's just call a ground level, since that's what we're dealing with here for right now. So in that case, the sun's rays Are you going upward? And as I talked about in the sunrise, sunset demonstration is basically illuminating the sky and the clouds, especially the belly of the clouds underneath plane on the tops of the clouds. Our great out. Okay, as the sun starts to rise, um, and gets over the horizon here, and I'm going to kind of connect all of those. But the shape will be back up. Let's say down in here, it's going to be a very, um, read late. Okay, so the temperature of the sun down here is going to be in the reds. Um, maybe a hint of orange into that as it breaks the horizon. And so we start to see the sun here. So this is like new minutes after a sunrise or sunset. I'm just going to add a little bit of cad yellow to that. So then as we get up in here, it gets more of an orange glow. Okay, Um, and then as we go a little bit higher, it will start to yellow out, and eventually it will get white. It won't we Look at the son of one appear white, but in terms of the temperature, it's not gonna have a lot of effect on our objects and are seen like this low son. So, basically, um, when you're dealing with a low son, you know, is casting is light across the ground across this way. And then as you get up in here is kind of, you know, pushing down, and it's illuminating the sky and, um, shining down on your objects off obviously here is coming across the land. And when you're dealing with this sort of idea where it's coming across, we've got these different veils of atmosphere. Depending on where you're at and as the sun, you know, the sun as the some penetrates and goes through all of these veils, they'll just appear very red here as a breaks. And this this area right in here is what we call you know that the golden our of the golden time it could be 1 to 2 hours, depending on a variety of conditions, really has a lot to do with your environment, the atmosphere where you're at and so on as to how long it holds that yellow gold ish color . But, you know, up in here, this is again about an hour to two hours after the sun rises will say an hour to two hours after the sun sets. It's a very, very difficult thing to paint, and that's because you have to be quick. You don't have a lot of time to capture this so if you're outside and you want to paint this sort of idea, and this time of day you want to be out there set up, have your your composition all drawn in prior to this time of day, even starting. And then once it starts, then you you have to work quickly, um, to get your idea down on paper. So anyway, I'm going to again talk about this sort of scenario and to do it, I'll mix up a little bit of, um, we'll get kind of a darker color going here. Eso let's will use a similar ideas I have before. Um, let's let's go with this kind of path idea and then kind of curling around and then back I'm going to put, would have put the house or the barn or whatever it is with its side here, and we'll say it's kind of going off the page. Even something like that. We may have ah, little tree or Bush or something here. We can kind of put a little water feature back in here. That's fine. I want to say this is a white um barn. And then maybe back in here, there are some Hills or something. Um What? See? And we'll say we maybe we have a little bit bigger tree in here casting a shadow. Maybe you have a shadow kind of moving across and here and then maybe, Ah, another little distant said a trees or something in here. Okay. So, again, when you're dealing with a time of day like this, your shadows will become part of your design. You're gonna have a lot of them. Okay, you have these really long shadows kind of cutting across the landscape. We'll even put, um, I'll put another little tree or shrub or something here that may be casting a shadow up on the house, but I'm gonna have a lot of contrast. Um, with the heavy shadows, all of your vertical elements, um or shut say things, things some of the rules and ideas we talked about leading up to this may change because the sun is so low. Um, oftentimes the ground plane can even be a little bit darker and value then some of the sun planes that air hitting the verticals even with the sky sometimes, um, the sky can even be a little bit darker value sometimes and in the ground. So you kind of have to look at your subject a little bit closer to get an idea of. Compare those values back and forth, you know, Where's your lights? Where's your darkest dark? How do these vertical shadows compared to the shadows coming across the landscape and so on ? So that's the idea that we're going to go with, man, because going to mix up a little orange here and because we are dealing with this very low son that's casting this golden yellow tone, you're going to have this sort of glow on everything that's that's getting light from the sun. OK, so let's kind of go with that and all kind of worked through it. Let's talk about the ground plane. First, let me mix up a little bit of a bass green, so I'll get a little bit of this going on. So I've already in with a little bit of poker. I could touch a little bit of my reds and oranges in the air, and you want to notice that these again that the ground, the green grass and so on will probably be affected in value. So with the sun higher in the sky and a little more on the white side or pale yellow. It's coming down mawr on the ground plane so that ground plane is getting a direct sun. We're here with the low sun. It's not getting as much, but a lot of the ideas that we've talked about before with atmospheric perspective things get a little bit later as they go back, so on all those were still Ah, hold true, but you're going to just notice Ah, lot mawr of this sort of orange kind of glazing and bouncing into, Ah, a lot of this Ah, green area and Ginnie Mae observe a little more yellow into that golden color as it gets a little bit closer to you. So what kind of deal with something like that for now and then let's go ahead and do the upright verticals of the ground plane. Actually, what it will do first is do this path. So the path in this case, they say we're still dealing with a white path, so I kind of get this golden yellow, maybe a touch of blue in the air. So let's say this with something that were you know, a color we would use in a normal lighting condition with the sun coming down on the path. But because where the path isn't getting that direct light down on it, um is going to be a little bit darker and value with a little bit this ultra Marine and we can mix in a few little golden colors and so on it a little bit later. Actually, things that are light get a little bit darker. Have that backwards as they go back So I can get a little bit of violet e color. Maybe touch a little bit is gold into it. So we're going to start to notice this sort of thing. So I'll go ahead and do a shadow coming across that, and it's gonna be more of a warm violet because again, is getting this warm sunlight into it. There are shadow here. We'll see. We've got a little bush here casting a shadow onto the path. So we got something like that I can even start to use. Well, I won't do the house yet. Let me go ahead and do. I'll do the shadows and the ground plane. So I'm going to mix up a fairly dark green. And when I make the shadow a little bit warmer. So this say, if you were dealing with, ah, situation where you're painting into the light, the light is back here, and it's casting these long shadows against towards you. Those shadows mapi up here a little bit cooler. But in a situation like this, you're probably gonna have shadows there, perhaps a little bit warmer. Um, so again, these are just This is just a base model that I'm teaching you, and you need to kind of make these observations when you're out there. So a little more yellow, perhaps a little more red and gold into that as this shadow gets near you. I didn't mean the paint over my white path, so that's pretty good. So now let's go ahead and move into the shadows. 10. Golden Hour Part Two: on the upright verticals, so again dealing with mawr of this kind of warmer effect on everything. So if you start to really observed some of the shadows in your verticals, you'll probably find that they are starting to appear a little bit warmer. And even looking at this, I may have to lighten just a little bit that value of the ground. But let me get everything in first, and then I will make some of those decisions. So do something like that, maybe a smidge lighter as that goes back. So maybe a little more read a little more green into that. Maybe this is kind of about the same. I'll go a little bit darker here. That gives me a little more wiggle room, I think to. That's all right. I won't make anything dark value right now. Just leave it like that. Okay, so now let's get to the light of the tree. So mixing up a base yellow the say now could take some of this Oakar, perhaps a little red and yellow until I feel like I'm getting a nice golden yellow, and that's probably not even enough enough that golden color into it. because these verticals are really going to show that idea really happening. I just want to make sure I get something. What I'm after here. Like a little more Oakar. A little more green. I think I put a little too much red. A little more of the yellow. All right, so let's go with something like this, and maybe that gets a little bit later. And maybe we can say this is a different variety of tree, so that's getting a lot more even more yellow on that. You see, this is all getting affected by that blast of color and some of this. I may even be exaggerating a little bit, but it's okay to Okay, um, so now with the tree trunks, I'm gonna notice these are illuminated. Um, with that golden ideas. Well, maybe we're seeing pockets of shading here. I'm just going to maybe lighten a few. You're those shadows there. All right, so now I'm gonna get a little more of this golden color gone perhaps even a little more yellow. I'm just to really kind of make the point on this. So we'll say all this is really getting affected by that son Lo Osan lightness just a little bit. Not too bad. Let me get a little bit of read into that. And it's a little more gold. Harry, something like this. And maybe over here, Seymour of a greenish glow to it. With those pockets of all right on, I'm just going to move or pool some of that golden color down towards the foreground a little bit. So lots of poker's lots of those warm reds foreseen like this, and I'll kind of I'll paint that shadow again. And maybe we're seeing a little bit of shadow. And here on that side of that path, kind of casting on there. And I just kind of lighten us just a little bit in here and perhaps a little bit darker as it gets nears. All right, so now let's, um, let's look at the water is going to even be the same thing so I could take a little old trail little COBOL touch a little bit of these reds and jokers into it. Um, so you may find that the water may even appear a little bit darker and perhaps even a little bit warmer and temperature. Um, at this time of day, the distant hills again receiving that pot of gold but trying to kind of make it a little bit lighter value there. So now let's get to the sky. So the sky will be, um you know, it won't be is dark as a like if you're looking, if the light is behind you So when the light is behind you, I'll grab the demo I did for you real quick. So if we look at this one, this is where that light is going with the sky's gonna be fairly dark. So the sun is behind you and you're getting that kind of flat light and shadow condition. Um, this other scene I'm gonna show you is where the light you're looking into the light. So in that case, the sky is very light and value, so this guy's going to be somewhere in between. So it won't be his light as looking into the light where the shadows air coming towards you . But it won't be is dark as if the light is son is behind you. So again, somewhere in between eso it may be a little bit bluer towards the top of the sky. Well, something like that. You may see a little more green, maybe a little sky hole there, but I mean again, observation. Going to get you there and we take a little bit of that gold in there. Hookers perhaps even go a little bit bluer, a little bit darker, even, um, up in here, the clouds will have a little bit of that. Glowed that orange glow to it as well. So it may even be a little bit of pink in there. Underneath. He may see that. Ah, warm gray, but definitely on the side. So if the sun's is coming from over here, that's our source. So is casting light. Um, the side of this cloud and these air like cumulus clouds, if you remember right from part one. But this this left hand side, you may see a little more shadow. If you think about that box idea the house. The remember This house was white, and it's going to get impacted by that warm glow. So you're going to see that golden color in that, and then maybe on the back side get a little more of kattegat low light. Maybe on that back side, There's going to be a plane change, so it's gonna be a little bit darker like that. You may even want to break that up a little bit. I'm now the I'll use some of these warm greys for a cash shadow. So maybe we're getting a little bit of a cash shadow here. Something like that. Maybe this roof has that same idea to a kind of Ah, I'm gonna get, um, a little bit of this green going, maybe a touch more that read into it a little more yellow even. And I'm gonna make kind of pop, um, some of this, this tree here, those closest to us Then I could get a little bit of that on this as well. And maybe this warm color, but with shadow up from this bush on to the house. So a little more of a gold ish like color on those hills back there. And now it's kind of cleaning up a few things. Maybe we got a little vertical element there, and I'll get a touch more. I'll get a little bit of green going here. I'm gonna pull this into this golden color kind of go back and forth until I get a decent. He's a kind of a warm green. Something like that may work, and it's kind of Sprinkle some of that in here so we don't completely lose it. Now it is. Go back and work a little bit of these jokers in there. And last but not least, we're punch this a trunk a little bit stronger here and something like that, and it's bringing a little bit more of the golden white under these clouds. All right, so hopefully that'll give you some ideas on how do you approach Ah, this time of day again, it can be a challenging, uh, situation. But I think with some practice as I'm kind of closing up here, I'm just going to get these shadows working a little bit stronger. But again, it's, um it can be a challenging time of the day. But if you just take some time and observe it, just understand the big picture to, um, kind of knowing having a base model, I think, helps So kind of what we discussed here, Take that a little bit darker. Even I'm a cooled off just a touch a little bit cooler. You having a base model like this, I think will help you, um, kind of start to learn a little bit more about how toe tackle or something like this. We have one more to go. Um, the last ah, one we will do will be a kind of great a scene. So what kind of deal? With a situation that's also very challenging. Um, and that's basically trying to make. I'm just gonna make that a little bit darker coming across and maybe got another little shadow kind of moving on here like that. All right. Yeah. Alum. Leave you with this one, and then I will see you guys for the last one on the cloudy day scene. 11. Cloudy Day Effect: all right. And this demo, I'm going to do a cloudy day effect. And before I get into the demo, I just want to talk about some things that you want to know that are kind of common or synonymous with this living conditions. First of all, because you're not dealing with a lot of direct light whenever you have a cloudy day effect , the dome of the sky tends to bounce around what little bit of light there is. And because of that, you're not getting a direct light source like that coming from one direction. The shadows tend to be diffused, so they're they're in some cases. Ah, in other cases you make they may be a little bit, um, or parent or obvious, but for the most part again, it's the very soft shadows. Joan generally don't have a lot of hard lines around the edges of the shadow. Um, the land is always darker than the sky. Again. I'm going to demonstrate that as I get into it, um, so that's going to start with a room, would do a similar design that we've worked with, and so again, like if I were to put a little something here that say, this is our house, Um, coming off here, there's our background. Maybe there's a little lake back there, a big tree. But all of this is land. That's what you're kind of dealing with. So it again, it's similar to a sunrise and sunset where you're dealing with the play of the lighter value in the sky, What's receiving light and then the land, which is getting that really diffused light but light nevertheless, And because of that effect, um, you don't want the sky too late. So, in other words, um, if on a cloudy day you're probably gonna have great clouds, um, and the sun, the light source the sun is kind of getting covered up by layers of clouds. So this, like, really dense, cloudy day, then obviously the sky will be even darker. Where is it? This is, you know, partly cloudy or semi cloudy day. Then it will be a lighter value sky, but still darker than a few cases, so like a backlit sky. And I'll bring that up real quick and show you, um, the backlit sky tends to be pretty light and value, so it's gonna be darker than that. So I should something that kind of keep in mind as you're designing on thinking about values. So she's lay something out real quick here, um, and a little more blue to this. So let's, um let's use this one right here. I'll just kind of leave this in really quick. So we have our path coming in, circling back again. I'll use a man made structure here because they're not kind of nice to understand because they have very, um, hard edges. They're very boxy, and therefore those edges the plane's front side top etcetera. All received light a little bit differently on their good, good for teaching and for painting. So let's say we have our lake back there, maybe a few bushes. Here's our big tree that we used in the backlit scene. We'll bring that down in here, and then we gotta have a little bush here. All right, So, um, obviously you can make whatever decision you want in terms of how you want to start the painting, but just know again that you're you're always comparing the values of the sky and the land . Let's start with the start with Sky so I'll go ahead and establish some sort of value here . So, little red. I mean, back in a little bit of this green in their orange yellow touch of cerulean. And there there will be different temperatures, too. So they're looking around at the sky. Um, you know, it could be a cool sky. I'm going to do a combination. So a little bit of a little bit of warm, a little bit cool. And I will eventually add some clouds to that as well. Ah, lot of the things we talked about and discussed in landscape painting fundamentals, part one. Terms of values getting lighter. They go away from you. Um, a lot of those things apply still. So the atmosphere, perspective, ideas. You may even find a little bit of green in there, and I'm gonna put a few lighter values in here as well. I don't want the I want to getting too dark too fast. All right. That's pretty good again. I take some of these blues, reds, orange. Maybe a little more red to take some of that blew out touch of that green. To maybe touch of this Oakar. That's not too bad So I'm going to add a feeling of some clouds in here. Something like that. All right, so now that I have established a value for my sky, I want to play everything against that. Um so let's let's get a little bit of violent going so again, slightly darker. Ah, than the sky. It's in the distance. Maybe we're seeing even some a few warmer hues in there, So basically, just trying to make sure we get some broken color there. So it's not too boring to look at when we get into the ground plane. It's important to note, um, the colors on a cloudy day actually tend to be a little more saturated. So you're going like, if you look at a really sunny day, Um, that son tends to kind of gray things out a little bit, Um, so that's kind of something you want to keep an eye on. But again, you know, each living conditions going to be a little bit different, as we talked about, and I mentioned in part one of the landscape painting Siri's. You may see a little more yellow towards you as it gets closer to you. Values tend to get a little more great out. Perhaps maybe even a little more blue has it goes back in space here and again. You can push the saturation of the colors a little bit. And maybe I want to really add some nice greens, too. This tree or Bush, it could be change it up a little bit on this one. Yeah. As you start to add these different areas of the painting, you can start to compare them back and forth to each other. I'm going to add a little bit of lighter value here. I won't get into, uh, the tops yet, so I'm not gonna get into the light areas of the trees. All right, so that's something like that is fine for now. Again, um, very difficulty, um, to see a big, big change in some values. Um, so we'll go with something like that. I mean, we got a large patch of they're dirt or something in here. So the house, um, getting cloudy, they effect. It's going to be a little bit ha darker than if ahead, son. You know, hitting it. Um, we'll even say because there's a plane change in the front there may be a slight difference in value, but again, depending on the situation, your subject, it's gonna be very subtle. So our white path is going to be darker than a situation where it was receiving light for all the same reasons we've kind of touched on. It's going to be darker than the sky. You may see a little more yellow towards you on. Then that yellow starts to fade. And since it's a light colored object in May, even I'm get a little bit darker as it goes away from you. The the agonal plane here is going to be a little bit darker, uh, than usual as well. I'll push that to more of a bluish bread and are our, um, little water feature back there could be catching a reflection from that very grey sky. It's going to be a little bit darker and value, then the sky sorry from shape. The tops of the trees, bushes and so on will be receiving a little bit of light again. You want to key that down a little bit. You don't want a tremendous amount of contrast. This one, probably a little bit too, too much contrast somewhat the tone that down a little bit still pretty dark. Better. I think what I'll do is make that shadow a little bit later. Maybe a little bit grayer. We may have some few sky holes in there. Um, any sort of vertical plane, as I mentioned earlier, is going to be darker, Um, underneath, um, the planes. So let's say underneath the tree, maybe a little bit darker just because it's not really receiving how much light it all. So let's look at the shadows. And as I mentioned, you don't want a lot of, um, hard edges here. You don't want very little, um, put another little tree back there, little bush or something. I kind of forgot about it. But edges maybe catching a little bit of light again. Some of these colors, maybe a little bit richer. Like I mentioned, um, she may see, um, Mawr these deeper green colors versus grain them down. So I think, um, that's this. Add a little hint of some blue in here, So maybe, um, that sky is kind of starting to peek through and places like that. This for the sake of having a little bit of contrast, Aiken again put some kind of yellows more that are a little bit closer for things that are a little bit closer to us. Probably see some more detail in here is, well, all those things again. You may see a little bit of green back there again, lighter and value. So that is a great day. Effect can be very, very difficult to achieve, but I think with these kind of guidelines and ideas, that should give you some tips on how you can approach it. 12. Master's Examples Of Light Effects: All right, Welcome to the lesson. We're going to look at the impact of lighting using some of the masters. Eso basically the lighting effects that weaken, spot and identify at this point. Um, and here I believe this is it, Tim Cough. I'm not 100% sure. Anyway, um, basically, we're looking into the light. Eso noticed the light sky here. Very typical of a scene like this. I also noticed a lot of most of the vertical planes and looks like we have, ah, into the light. But also, I would say the light sources favoring this side. So it's kind of coming in at a slight angle, and we have some light hitting the features over here on this side. But we can see here all the verticals trees, building structures, so on our a darker and value, and we can see the shadows kind of coming towards us. Also note the cool shadows so typically and a into the light seem like this. You have slightly cooler shadows. So we're seeing that as well. So I think a good example of that particular type of late. Almost. Look at this one. And with this one um, where this is a TEM called. But we can see the shadow from the foreground moving this way. So this shadow isn't coming from the tree that's coming up the middle. These shadows are all actually kind of working as a lead in as if it were a path or something taking us in. So they're obviously this is a frontal light seen so that the sun would be behind us at the back. Our backs. We can see these shadows again, going up the house roof, so on. We can also see, um, the structure, how we have a lot of, ah, light hitting that, um we've got a slight cash shadow here, which means the sun is behind this, but probably slightly to the left hand side. And we're seeing a darker blue sky as compared to before. So that's a good example of how when the sun is behind you and you're looking away from it like this, how you're going to get a slightly bluer sky. Also note how the artist has his lighter value area in the background here, And these gray er brownish homes or tones are kind of especially this one, right here is kind of a dark against a light light that like that so and also a good use of layers here. So you got a light value of the road, and then we got a thin strip of brown, the green and then brown going up into the house. Also note the lighter, um, trim on the windows, resting against a darker volume. So I think a good example of frontal lighting here and how that works. This is another example of light behind us. So a frontal lighting scene, Um, again, the artist used these shadows coming in this way, getting us and almost as like, a subtle path. But then we had this path here that a little bit lighter value taking us in. But because it's this ah, snow scene, you're getting great contrast. So you're getting these darker brown wood buildings and fence posts against the light value of the snow and again, a darker blue sky up here. Obviously, some cloud structure there, too, but we can see that light heading these trees, but it's a little bit toned down compared to some of the values and the richness of some of the colors here in the middle ground, but you can see the darker green trees behind it. So kind of layering a little bit of light against something slightly darker again, we can see that the source light sources behind us, but probably slightly off to the left. So the shadows air run running away from us, but slightly, um, back into the right. So again, another good example of that lighting effect. From here we have a William went painting. What I'm seeing here is a top lit, um, painting. We can see the light hitting the tops of the clouds. So where I'm thinking more like noon, something like that. Um, again, we could kind of see how the light sources hitting mostly the tops a little bit on the right. So But you can see even in this tree right here, how that everything is kind of silhouetted a little bit. Um, it could possibly even be a little later than noon or earlier. So the sun is above us, but slightly in front of us as well. Um, so starting to get a slight feeling of the shadows running mawr towards us than away from us, So yeah, I would probably say, you know, two or three o'clock, something like that, Scott son is still high in the sky. So we're getting a lot of top lighting on all of this. We can look even back in here and see the light. It's haloed around these things, uh, ring lighting effect. But then we can look at the clouds to and see this kind of gray area in the middle, which tells me, you know, starting to move slightly, Um, you're back, but still still kind of, you know, high in the sky, but probably faith facing a little bit mawr towards the sun, but not much. But this is ah, good example of that great use of, ah, aerial perspective with all of these colors and because of the lighter value in the sky to these lighter blues, he tells me the sun is we're looking mawr slightly more towards the sun. Then the sun is towards our back. So I'm so dealing with more of a great day effect here. Um, we're not getting heavy shadows. Um, you see, the colors are a little more rich, a little more saturated. They were getting the that that play of the darker value of that near the ground plane, uh, playing against the lighter value of the sky. So we kind of see all of this. And here, um, I'm kind of doing all the positive space of these trees coming down through the foreground . Here, up. All that's in a dark room value. We get some darker values up in here from the clouds that are closer to us, but definitely a more of a cloudy day effect there. And that's a good example of that. Um, I'm so with this one, um, we could see it seems to be more of a cloudy day as well. We're seeing a little bit of sun kind of perking up back here in the distance. So it tells me there could be a cloud, a massive cloud covering a lot of this foreground stuff. So it's putting a lot of this in and shadow and maybe that sun is lighting up that distance a little bit a distant middle ground background area, because we're not seeing a tremendous amount of light on any of this stuff. And here, but yet we can see a little bit of light. You know, affecting the cloud back there. So I would say a cloudy day, Uh, but it started to break up a little bit, and we're getting some sun again, hitting some of the areas in the background. But in this foreground, we're getting a more shadow. I mean, some of that could be the dense forest, but because a lot of these leaves branches and here, um, don't have leaves on them yet tells me it's, you know, it could be a cooler time of the year for winter time. But anyway, I would say, definitely cloudy day, more than likely. And then I know daily with, um area that's partly lit up. So probably either after the storm, maybe even before it starts something like that. So here's a good example of looking into the light on. This is also well, we can see the light source up here, so it's fairly low in the sky, so it made it into the frame. So the sun is either has you just popped up or is going down. But we could see all these verticals are clearly and shadow, so we're dealing with a low son. We're seeing that orange effect yellowish orange effect of a lower son. So looking into the light with a very low sun, so that's pretty much what's going on here. This is another example of probably sunrise Sunset action. So you really see the Reds, oranges and ah blues in there in that sky. So that's, um, very strong example of that effect, and this is one more I want to show so clearly the artist wanted to make an impact with that red sun. We can really see how that those warm hues in the sky and obviously we can see all the golds, reds, oranges and stuff impacting Um, what's getting hit with that light? So a really good example of that so that just again gives you some examples of how other artists are used these lighting effects and hopefully it will help you start to identify them and either in your photographs or in other artists work. And then you can kind of start to make some notes and comparisons to your general models that you learned with the different effects of light in the section 13. Warm & Cool Hues: All right, now we're gonna look at color again. We're talking about a massive topic. Requires many years of exploration putting those miles in to learn more about it. But I'm going to cover some basics that kind of go over some of the terms and ideas you're going to hear quite a bit. I know. Just some things you you may need to know. Okay, so this is not a complete course on color. I'm just going to give you some ideas from how to how to use them and how you they may work with some landscape painting. The first thing I'm gonna talk about his color temperature orange, you know, is going to be obviously a very warm color by her. But, um, if you can by itself, it may not register anything. Um, and that's kind of what I want to get into. So if we look at a blue, if we compare that and put a blue swatch beside it, then near the orange becomes very warm, and then the blue becomes very cool. So let's let's kind of explore that idea a little bit. Um, and let's go with, say, a green. So I'll get a based green here. You can see I'm putting a little bit of Oakar into that. And yellow Oakar tends to be a very or considered a very warm color. So by putting the Oakar into it, um, I have to assume that's going to be warmer then if I took that same green and just added white to it, so obviously that's going to be cooler. But the main point I wanna kind of drive home is, um, a color by itself. Okay, so my color that cover up that swatch of green, um, that green by itself isn't really warm or cool, because what you always want to keep in mind as a painter is the relationships is is this color warmer? Cool compared to this color and so one. So, for example, I can take that same green, add a little bit of blue to it, and it's going to get I even push that more to a green. Have that a little bit of white to that, Um, but that's that's still gonna be warmer. Then this green. If you take that same green, I'll just go right into what I've got mixed up here. and I had a little bit of red to it. I have to add a little bit of white, too now even had a touch of orange. We'll bring in a little bit more of the greens here. Maybe a touch more of the white. I got a dirty brush, So let me clean that. Let me get a little bit more of a pure you here to work with. So if you're curious, that's Failla Green. I don't talk too much about stuff like that because I feel like is is too easy to influence other artists. So I always like to kind of give you the gist of what you need to know and then lets you kind of take it from there. So again, I'm not thinking value. I'm not trying to make it even any darker, although this one is so I'm going to lighten that a little bit. I'm just thinking in terms of temperature. So that's when it be that's gonna read as a much warmer green compared to this one because it has mawr red in it on the same can be done for another color. I mean, doesn't matter. I'm just going to give you two examples, but we can do the same for our blue. So let's get our base blew down. Um, if I wanted to cool that off, I could just even add a little bit more white to it. He had a little bit of crimson loser in crimson. Very cool. Read. Very powerful, too. I can make that warmer, a warmer blew by adding a touch of red and orange. And now I have you even put crimson into that. That's going to give it more of a violently color. Take a little bit of blue, uh, ultra Marine, because all I'm trying to do is create a warmer blue. Then I had before. That's just got a little bit too dark. So there's your warmer blue and it's warmer again because you can Seymour of that red into it. Okay, so that's your green blue. This would be cool, and this would be warm relative to each other. So that's just something you need to understand. Um, again, I think to really understand, to learn more about these ideas knows good to just do a series of swatches. Start with any any base color. Um, I like to at a little bit of white to the base color. So let's just say this is my base color. Now I want to cool that off so I can add a little bit of blue to it. So it's going to push that mawr to a green because in the yellow family, then I can take that same color at a little bit of lemon yellow, a little bit of red, even orange, and then that's going to warm it up. If I wanted that to be not so much of a transition, I could put a little bit of poker back into that again. This is not about values lighter, darker, anything. This is just about understanding, color, relationships and how you need to put in your mind that it's how colors compared to each other is really the big picture. And that's what determines if a color tends to be warm or cool. 14. Chroma, Saturation & Color Intensity: are. The next thing I want to talk about is chroma, saturation and I don't know color intensity. These terms get tossed around a lot, and for me they all mean the same thing. And I'm going to demonstrate what I basically I mean by that. So let me move my swatch here a little bit higher, so get a little bit of a clean palette. Let's take Let's take orange, Um, and basically, if I take this orange and that's straight out of the tube, so that is uncut, unmixed, and I put put a swat tray here from that is as orange as I can possibly make. Okay, that is cat orange, and I really can't make anything more intense. Higher chroma mawr color intensity with orange of mine than that. In order to decrease saturation, I need to There's a few ways to do it. Baking this, mix it with a gray, and I'll mix it with a gray that is roughly the same value as the orange. So I'll get a little bit of this, a little pile going here, and I will try to match the same value as what I see there, and that's that's going to be closer. I'm just going to step back and look at it. I may even go a little bit later. I think I'll just need a little bit more. So let me get more of this going here. Maybe a little more blue. So now, a little bit later, it was pretty close. All right, So say we have this on the other scale, so that is completely be saturated. Now, if we start to take a great Asian from here to there, I'm going to start to see that you'll see the orange completely disappear out of that color . And again, um, what I'm doing here basically is removing the saturation. But it means the same thing to me as removing the chroma. If he started here and you're working this way to the intense yet orange, then you're adding chroma Here. You're decreasing it here. Saturated, less saturated, less saturated, more saturated. Here. The color is intense. It is becoming less intense. So that's something you want to keep in mind. You know, I've discussed a little bit about taking color intensity out of your Hughes in landscape painting. Part one. I'm not gonna repeat that here. But always keep this in mind. You can do this sort of scale with any Hugh. It doesn't really matter. Um, Amazon? Was this a red, blue, yellow? Um So on. If you're dealing with a grayscale, then you can work values, But you can't really take gray at a great because it's not a high chromatic while you were saturated. Cute. So that's the idea. So on. That's going to cover those three things chroma, saturation and color intensity again, I view them all as the same. 15. Hues Versus Colors: case. Another thing we can look at issue hue and color are interchangeable. But sometimes I think color can be used more broadly and for other things besides you. So I'm just going to say, Hugh, for now, let's just stick with the orange for this example. I'm just going to explain what this may mean. So I'll put a little bit of, um, orange down. I can do Swatch a red. Um, Now I'll do something in between. Don't know if the camera can pick up on that, but basically, um, in terms of a hue, this will be orange. This will be read, and this will be a red orange. But so when you're thinking about you, your just thinking about, um, the family a color is in, you're gonna oftentimes get ah, color, that is, you know, mixed. It's not highly saturated or Croke. No, you don't have a high chroma to it like here. So, for example, we compare orange or just look at this scale. Let's say, um, that's orange. That's orange. That's orange, orange, orange, orange, orange until about right here, where starts to shift mawr to a gray. So that is kind of something, and I'm gonna lighten that a little bit. Just so we're kind of the same value. I just got a little dark for me. Um, so right up until, you know, I'd say in here, maybe to the right, it would be more gray. Moving here tends to be Maurin the Orange family. But just on a saturated let's say, is this So that's just my definition of hue and how I use it. Let's say, you know, with this, all of these would basically be green. She's a green, green, green, green green. Even though this is a blue green, this is a red green. You know, the hue would be a a green in the blue. Same thing here. So orange, blue, green, green I will put this Maurin the yellow so it's kind of teetering mawr on a yellow than it is a green. So that's just again, um, Hugh and again, you can say color as well. That's that's fine. But ah, Hugh tends to be a little more, um, kind of nails down the idea for what it's typically typically used for artists 16. Local Color: another term you'll hear a lot is local color and local color refers to on the color or overall dominant Hugh of a given object. For example, if you ask, let's say, a non painter what color there apple is. And maybe some Fuji or something to come. A common red apple. They I would say. Okay, well, that's clearly a red apple. Um, but for painter, they're going look at that a little bit differently. They're going to look at that. And probably Or if you were to ask a painter like, Hey, you know what? What color is that Apple or what color is an apple? They're gonna say, Well, I don't know. I mean, it depends on the lighting conditions. What kind of light is hitting? Is it a warm light? Is it a cool light? What's it sitting on? But, you know, is the sitting on a patio a neutral tablecloth? Is it sitting on something yellow, Um, and so on. So they're going to look at it from a different perspective. They're gonna look at it in terms of the conditions there that could be affecting it. Um, so but but maybe still, the apple itself. It could be read, but they don't assume that is for a head. And they could probably paint an apple. Um, that maybe a red apple, even that has Ah, very little red in it. Um, because maybe it's sitting on something very blue and sorry, that light change there. You see, I've got a bowl burning out, but I think we're okay. So it was sitting on something very blue that could be reflecting light that blew up into it, um, causing it to gray out in some places, you could have a very harsh, um, light on it on. So that means, um a lot of the apple itself could be in shadow. Um, So, um, so, basically, you could have a red apple, but because of the conditions and the light on it, um, you actually campaign it with very little red at all. Um, because of that. So I mean, nutshell, I guess. You know, um, local color is always referred to as whatever the overall dominant hue of the object may appear to be. But, um, the artist will always probably manipulate that color because they're trying to create an effect. Um, for their painting. But anyway, that hopefully will describe a little bit about local color. And, you know, if you take that red apple that the artist has painted it, he compared to their their artwork, they will probably never really look the same, um, again, because the artists wants to create in effect. And a lot of times they're trying to copy nature would would be, Ah, good way to ruin. Ah, that effect. So, anyway, that's local color. 17. Color Mixing 101: Now, the next thing will look at is, um, color mixing. Let me slide this over just a little bit. So we have everything in the palate. All right. So, um, there are a lot of different ideas about mixing colors. Um, but the say it all starts with you observing or looking at your subject, and then you make a decision on the color you need. So let's say I need ah, kind of a muddy greenish color. Um, maybe a little more read into that. And maybe I want that, um, a little bit darker so you can put that down on your campus. Um, and then you want to ask yourself, You know, is it the right value? Um, value is always going to be the most important aspect of your color. That's not how saturated it is or how colorful or vibrant it is. Typically, it's the right value first, so that's a priority. And if it's the ray value, you can ask yourself, Is it? The right temperature doesn't need to be warmer cooler, so he needs to be maybe a little warmer. You can get in there and then add a little bit of orange to it. Read Oakar. If if you find yourself, for example, kind of going back and forth, well, that's that's too yellow, um, or that's to read or muddy, and you still can't quite get that rate. And then you go more, more, more. Um, what will happen sometimes is it will just get so, so muddy on the canvas, and then the mixture become so kind of muddy and so much going on that you may need to start over. So what I recommend doing is first of all, identifying that you're in that position, and then you can either take a clean brush. Whole recon, um, clean the one you have. You can always take what's on the canvas. Wipe it off a little bit. Um, try to get the bulk of the paint off of it and then start a new mixture. So come over here to a clean spot on your palate and try again. That's going to be sometimes the quickest way to find the color you need so you can put that down and decide that's what you got have. Or that's exactly what you need. Sometimes, if another idea to do, um Well, this just kind of stay here. So let's say this is the color you want. Um, he started putting it down and then you decide. Well, that's, um, maybe two saturated. Okay, so it's just too colorful. What you can do is take something that's already on your palate. That's a similar similar value. A lot of what I have on my palette has dried up. So let's say I just mix anything here to start throwing colors here. And, um, I can take something of similar value and just kind of go right into it. And what that's going to do is automatically reduce the saturation, the chroma, so that that's kind of one idea you can do. And again, it works best if you are working in the same value. So whatever you, whatever you gray or other Hugh, you mix into it. Make sure it's of similar value, and then that can sometimes reduce Ah, high chroma painting or saturated area of a painting. Um, so talked about, you know, if things get out of control on the palate, you're mixing your mixing. You can't get it. Clean your brush, find a new area on your palate. If you don't have a new area on your palate, wipe it off. Start over. Do the same thing for whatever is on the canvas. So, um, let's say you're you're mixing another. Another idea is that you want to mix the green so you can start with something very, very saturated very high. Kruma. So let's say I want this really want a green. So what you can do is you can start with this really high chromatic green on your palate. And then again, we can take a similar color or similar value of another color. So let's just go with his blue, for example, and then we can kind of work that into it a little bit, and then that's a good way to get Um, no, the color mix kind of right get in and how you want to do it. But, um, that's let's just some kind of ideas about color mixing, so some of it has to do with understanding how to stay in control of your palate. Also, how to stay in control of your brush. So if your brush starts to get too much Ah, all in there and you're mixing your mixing mixing, and you can have this brush. It's loaded with Muddy Hughes. Sometimes it's best to get a new brush or, um, but I like to do is just take the one I'm using and then clean it of giving the idea of the starting with a very saturated mix because the easiest thing to do is to take the chroma out of a color. So if you starting with this really intense blue. So now any color I put into that besides that blue is going to reduce. Ah, the chroma of that blue. So you have to, you know, you can also work your colors like that. And then, of course, you know, understanding how to warm and cool the colors. And that's just observation, knowing that maybe there's this kind of a general rule sometimes that by the things that Aeryn Sun they're getting hit with sunlight. Um, say this is a tree. So that's getting hit with the sun. That will probably be often times more a little bit warmer. Um, so that green you would want that to show a warmer Hugh other times, um, where you can look at how you know shadows sometimes and green is it can be a very cool looking color, like a little bit of blue to that, you can look at your shadows. It was being a bit cooler, so light being a little bit warmer, getting no hit with the sun shadows. Thank you. I tend to be sometimes more cooler, but not always so again. When it comes to color, mixing a lot of different things. A good thing to do is just experiment. Do some sketches, do some small studies on just kind of know where you're at. You know, if you have a messy pallet of Messi, brush a messy canvas and so on. 18. Mixing Black & Gray: So now we'll look a mixing some blacks. I'll make sure we got everything in there. I'm introduced Another color to the palate. This is transparent red oxide. I think it's a really good color to use when mixing blacks. Um, depending on how much black you need, you could could easily, um, mixed with your brush if you if you need Teoh. If you need a lot of black, then he may up to use a palette knife. Um, I just generally do not use a palette knife. I'm a preferred just to use my brush, but again, it's totally up to you. I'm going to use a little bit of, ah fellow green as a starting point. A little bit of the ultra marine blue, uh, the transparent redox I, which is more of a brown and then a little bit of a lizard crimson. You'll notice as you mix these colors that almost like it gets darker as you mix it. But it's really hard to tell sometimes exactly what temperature this black is until a pill . Ah, a little swatch up here, for example. You add a little bit of white to it, so as I look at that. Um, I'll bring that down just a little bit so you can see my swatch. No, actually, as a matter of fact, I just put on the paper, so I'll put a little Swatch there. I'll make that even a little bit later, so we can You can see it. So I had this kind of a base. Uh, this is actually a great now since I added the white to it. But again, adding the white to it will tell you exactly which way you're black is leaning. Is the leading cool or is it leaving? Warm. So cool. Meaning a little more blue. Ah, warm. Meaning a little more red. So if they were, if you wanted this cooler, for example, I can take a little bit of the black, some blue and mix it up. And then what you're unnoticed is a gray that starts to lean a little more to the cool side . If if I wanted it to be a little little bit warmer, I could even use crimson. So crimson is all of these air fairly strong colors. But a crimson is considered a cooler red. But again, um, compared to blue. It's going to read a little bit, a little bit warmer. If you want that even warmer. We could take the transparent brown and then put a little more white under that. So again, it kind of really see the effects of that read. So that's gonna lean a little bit warmer. So that's some good tips on, you know, mixing your graze. Now let's look at some greens. 19. Mixing Greens: talk a little bit about mixing greens, and I'll use two greens as a base. I'm on my palette, um, generally will recommend and also have for myself Um ah, cooler green. So in this case, on my palette, I have ah, already and green. And then I have a fellow green. So what? What I will do with these two greens is mixed them with my cat yellow. I could just start with my cad yellow, So I just kind of get something like that on something like that. And and now I can take my fellow and start mixing that into it. You see, you get ah, really, um, vibrant green. Ah, fellow is more transparent. Um, then the meridian. So if I use variety and now you'll probably notice that it may, it will probably come out a little more intense. So basically, when you're dealing with, uh, fellow, you're not gonna want to use quite as much because it is a very powerful color. But I think you will see that both of them give you some really good starting points for greens. And then from there, you can always ask yourself, um, you do you want it warmer, cooler and so on. And then you can start to to add whatever other color to it, depending on the desire or what you want to dio Another way you can mix Green is too. Um this Try this one This try a blue now ultra marine blue. Actually, we start with green. Wipe that off, so I kind of keep it consistent. Fix that. So I'll start with ah, Swatch of yellow. We put a little bit more down. I can take a little bit of Coach Marine here and work into it. Um, what you'll notice about this combination is it's a little bit gray er and that's because Coach Marine has a red bias to it. So it's a warmer blue. But again, that may be a very good starting point for what you want, so I'll kind of mark thes two. So you we know what they are. So here we have our three grids. So with the you remember right with the fellow, um, it's more of a warm yellow, so I'm just gonna put P for failure. Green with the meridian, it's a more opaque color, a little bit cooler and then you have your ultra marine blue mixed with yellow. So I mean, these are all good starting points for mixing greens. And these were all mixed with, um, cad Yellow light. You can use cadmium yellow to you. Very similar results. Another way you can. Mixed greens is Teoh use, um, yellow Oakar, Um, as you may. No, Already yellow Oakar is a yellow, but obviously it's going to be have a little more red in it than the yellow itself. The cad yellow. So if we just start with a few swatches here, actually, I do. Three. Um, you can mix a little bit of ultra with that, and you'll start to notice. Ah, very gray green. If you want to use your COBOL, you can do that to, um, Cobalt mixed with this again. We'll give you a very toned down green. Obviously, um, I'll do two swatches here. We can go with our meridian here and mixed with the fellow or with the yellow Oakar. I'm sorry on then we can go with the fellow. So So again, these air mob basic recommendations for mixing greens the ultra Marine Marine ultra Marine blue with poker is gonna be the greatest green you'll probably need to mix, so it will have hints of green to it. But again, very great out. Um, if you're just kind of new to mixing greens, I mean, you always want in my opinion, um, there do these swatches and get used to mixing the colors on your own. But what I like to do when I'm painting is start with the most vibrant, intense color I can on the palate. So, for example, let's say I wanted to use a I will go with the fellow. So if I wanted to go up here and start mixing Ah, very intense green 1st 0 my palate. Then from there, I can start to decide what I want to do. Now I can take something of similar tone or value, I should say so. I can't even take you know something down in here and start mixing in with it. There are some You can have your base gray like this on your palate or black. I should say so. You have your black on your palate. He can mix that into it. That's a kind of an unsophisticated way of doing it. but very effective. You can decide if you want something cool and mix into it. You can decide if you want something warmer and you can mix into it and then depending on if you want that to be warm, cool or whatever, but more read less yellow, Um, and that sort of thing. So I'm just a few tips there on mixing greens. 20. Color Vibration Part One: Okay, let's talk about this idea of color vibrations, something not everyone uses. But I think that can be used. And I think when it's used well adds a lot of life to your landscapes. So let's say we've got a little drawing here. We got some mountains in the back, some grass sky. Um, and I did two different ideas about a starting point for your canvas. Eso this on the left obviously is white, so I haven't used a ground or anything to toned the canvas. And some artists like to start with a tone canvas. So I wanted to give you two versions of color vibrations on a toned or a unt owned canvas. Um, so let's just talk about what color vibration is. And I think to do that, I'm just going to mix up a little bit of ah, a blue here. Maybe I want to put a little bit of ah, poker in that. Warm it up just a bit, um, so on a start with the white, So whenever you're you're thinking about color vibrations, you're basically putting down the color, but you're leaving little specks of the white or the original color of the canvas. Or it could even be the color under it if you're starting here. Some some artists do this unknowingly. I mean, they just don't blend, and they don't try to cover every single, um, square inch of the painting. Um, another way, this can be done. So that's one of what you can achieve. Your color vibration. I'll just kind of give you something to compare it to here. So I'll do that on the toned side that we kind of see what they looked like side by side. Um, so and this this version may work a little bit better because the values are very similar. So the tone of the canvas having this kind of warm, yellowish she brown color underneath a blue, um, doesn't have as much contrast while this with the white has a lot of contrast. Um, so that's kind of one way to achieve it. But then, of course you want to understand, you know the difference between having something that has some tone to it or value to it versus something that doesn't another way it can be achieved, and again, artists kind of do this without knowing as they do this idea of scrubbing, Um, so when you scrub and you can probably pick it up on the camera, you're gonna see places where you can see through the transparency of the scrub, because this pain is a little bit thinner. Here I was using the side of my brush Tau bay basically scrub. You can see here working with the white. Because of that technique of applying paint, you're gonna get some areas that are thicker that are more opaque and other areas that are more transparent and have less paint there. So you're you're getting a vibration as well, but it just has done a slightly different way. Um, typically another thing. Beginners and many artists will do without again, even knowing or realizing they're doing it eyes. They'll have something that's working really well like this, and I'm not saying this is bad. I like painting on a white surface. That's kind of my thing, But not everyone likes it. Some people like to have that sort of look, but what some amateurs will do is they'll get in here and I have an area that's working really well, and then they'll just start covering and blending everything. Um, And what that does is that basically, um, that's gonna kill the vibration. Okay, So you want to kind of watch out for that? Um, you can't really bring back the white or the tone of the what was underneath it. Unless, you know, wipe it off with oils. That probably is more effective with watercolor and acrylics. Um, you're going to get you have a little bit harder time getting that, because the media is dry faster and they staying differently. Well, let's say you have an area, Um, where you you know, you let's say over here where you killed that vibration and is very flat. So I say is very flat. I mean, everything is applied evenly. So you don't have this broken looking color. You can get in there with some warm tones and kind of break that up a little bit. So now that that area is vibrating again with the two similar values, or the two colors kind of working back and forth, so basically was painted. Ah, and what isn't on the same could be said for a ah, grassy plain. So I kind of mix something Now I've got my biggest green. So let's say we're we have this sort of thing happening, and now maybe I like that, but that that's too much of a similar green. So I can kind of make this a little more interesting. Um, by getting those colors to vibrate a little bit against each other so that warmer green mixed with the bass green kind of some of that broken color underneath. Um, I can also, um, mix up something a little bit cooler, so it's like a little bit of blue to it. Excellent. Got some crimson on my brush. So this is a good place to start over, so I'll get my biggest green, a little bit of blue, and I'm gonna lower that value. Maybe even a little bit more, and you can see kind of breaking that up. So I'll do a different version here, so I'll get with some ready in this time. Based green. Knock it down a little bit with some poker. Uh, okay. So what I've done there as I've flattened it out, so I didn't really leave any of that area underneath. But as I have demonstrated, we can bring a little bit of that vibration back. Um, just by getting something very similar, I've got too much white on the side of my brush here, so I'll go with, Ah, little more Oakar. Ah, and then maybe a little bit of red in there. Okay, So again, bringing that vibration back to the area. Some artists like to painting dabs to achieve it again. There are a lot of ways to achieve color vibration. I'm just going to introduce you to the idea, and then you can run with it. So kind of a base green. So let's say I've got a light area in here. I'm then kind of coming in here and putting a different color. Maybe something slightly warmer, and that could go a little bit cooler. Can mixing that up and maybe something a little more read and lighter in value. Maybe as it ah has back towards the hills a little bit. So you're getting Keller vibration that way as well. So kind. All interesting ideas, different techniques. Um, you can think about, um I'm just going to get our areas back here. This so we kind of you can see our original diagram case. You want Teoh, explore some of this on your own, and we can remember what that risen withdrawn. Look like a little heavy on the outline There. You can even go bolder than that. Um, let's say you want even more broken color. Um, getting here with, like, no greens at all and a splash those other colors in there again, getting that vibration feeling. 21. Color Vibration Part Two: so I think I'm going to get a little more. Ah, vibration in this guy. So just that might be a little bit too dark or too light. So let's bring him back a little bit of that. Maybe I want to come back and kind of latent some of the values, especially as a heads back again. Leaving specs. Um, so I'll do what the same idea here on the whites is. So you have something to compare it to, So I'll get a base screen like that up a little bit, take a little Oakar, knock it down. Little bit orange. Maybe. So, um, with broken color, I mean again, you're just kind of adding expects. Oh, color. Like so on. Then maybe you want a completely different version of that. Well, now you're doing this number. And how may be getting a little bit of this bluer mixture going and just kind of working back and forth, achieving that vibration feel and using a little bit of broken the broken color method. So you just kind of mixing up different colors of similar value for depending on where you want to be. Is it further away or closer to you or whatever. So anyway, um, I'll just show you one more time. Um, so easy to kill a value or to kill a vibration while it's wet. Just blend it all out. You can put that back in, uh, getting things of similar value and putting that back into the color to the area. But anyway, um, again, just a few ideas there on, um, understanding sometimes that you know, maybe what you need isn't ah, different color or whatever. Maybe maybe the area is just too flat. And you need to, um, just add some vibration to it because, I mean, if you're dealing with landscapes, maybe you're maybe you have a situation. There's a big field or maybe a big patch of blue sky since we're working with that. And you put that in there and he realized that, you know, well, last night said the right value. So you start making all the adjustment adjustments and then you realize that, um, it is everything's too much the same for that area. And sometimes color vibration on Madden is blue. Now to the field, you can see how that making that vibrate. But the same can be said for that flat area in the sky for the cornfield or whatever. So that's that 22. Color Vibration Part Three: the last thing I'll show you is on this other idea on achieving, um, color vibration. This is Dunmore on the palate, and what you can do is not over mixture colors. So, for example, on the say of one of the green, so I could get a little bit of yellow a little bit of or in Ah, a little bit of orange, Little bit of yellow, Um, a little bit of my Floridian and you put that down. And now if you actually into it, I'll do it here. Now, if you do it right now, I could mix a little bit of red, and with that as well. If you do it right whenever you you put it down, um, you're going to see on my brush I'll try toe, show it to you where it's not blurry, but is basically you'll see green, yellow, orange, maybe another little darker green here, um, I'm letting my brushes kind of turn. I'm turning it and just kind of letting a dance a little bit back and forth on the on the paper could be canvas. And that's giving you this broken color here. And obviously the more you go in here and fudge with it. Ah, the more blended it's going to be. So that's kind of an interesting way to do it the same willing to changes to more of a violet so I could get some Eliza Rin mixed with my blue. Um, I want knock that down with some orange, um, so And do that and kind of leave little bits and pieces of that and they say as I'm putting this violet down, remember, you can scrub it. Someone take a little bit of my pain off and scrub it. You can get that kind of thin look and they say You actually dip your brush in orange. You're like, uh oh, no. Maybe that's too dark or too much of a kind of soften it up a little bit, but sometimes, but that's creating color vibration in that mass. Um, so a lot of different ways to achieve it. Let me just kind of have the work with someone your own. I think it's ah, it's a fun concept. It's a fun technique, I should say, really, to work with that same other thing. You you decide you want a cloud in the sky. Um, catch a little orange and you kind of go here, Um, And you put that down and you're like, Well, hold on a second. It works just like that. Maybe I don't need anything else to it because the way the edges are broken in the way some of those strokes or more transparent because it has less pain on the brush than the say here that is giving that really nice feeling of vibration. So that's again these things you have to visually recognize whenever you're you're painting and then make a decision conscious decision once you see it to leave it alone. So, um, again, just a few ideas on I think color again. This is, ah, a massive topic. You know, a lot, like many others with painting that require some doing, you know, putting in the miles, um, the knowledge. Getting some knowledge, Hopefully which is what you're getting here, something to work with. But this a recap, you know, think about you know, the different ideas that we talked about the beginning of, you know, the cold color section, Um, the idea of warm and cool. I mean, it's all relative warm and cool colors tend to be, uh, relative to whatever it is that this next to so, you know, you always have to kind of keep that mine. Um, how red is something compared to the other thing and so on. If you want to knock it down mixed something of similar value, and with it you can knock it down. That way you can use your your graze your blacks mix up a generic black and then premixed some different greys. And there he can use, um, your graze to come in here and mix Ah, with your colors to tone him down, take out some of the saturation and all that stuff so and hope that I gave you some good ideas on just the definitions. Basic things you're gonna want to know, Hugh. Local color Mixing some greens, mixing some blacks and grays and so on. So, uh, with the color vibration, it's a little more of an advanced technique with color, but 90 of color nevertheless, And so hopefully you know you got some more tools to use more things to think about and explore, and hopefully to add to your landscape painting, journey 23. Cropping Techniques: OK in this video, we're going to start to break down some design and composition ideas, composing your painting again. It's, ah, a huge subject. I want to cover some of the basics in this course. I've talked a little bit about massing and part one of landscape painting fundamentals on and kind of how to group various objects into one mass. Also talked about value hierarchy, how you can start to playing darker darks, lighter lights and kind of joined shapes and different objects through values. And now I want to look at is some different ideas about cropping. So basically, when you're say you're out in a landscape or your in a rural scene, for example, and I'm gonna draw this rather big, let's say you're you can see a really large area obviously, because whenever you're standing there, you're seeing a 30 degree angle left and right up and down. So you have this cone of vision and you're taking in a tremendous amount of information and a huge portion of the scene. So, for example, so I guess what you have to do from that point on, and what you have to understand now is, um that obviously needs to be cropped. Um, and he could crop crop it in a lot of different ways. There are various formats. I mean, you have, like, a square format. We have vertical. We have the horizontal look. Um, there's panoramic. You know, where you get these long, rectangular looking scenes and others This could be a different ratio. 3 to 4. Um, you know, 123 or whatever. So it's just kind of you have a lot of options. We when you're starting to look at a scene in terms of cropping. So let's just kind of take a few situations. Eso let's say, for example, we have, ah, a scene with, um Let's go here, take a take a mountain or something. I'll kind of put it along the middle So say we have a distant hill. Ah, maybe that ground plane is moving and kind of dipping in different places. So slightly sloping. Let's say we have Ah, large tree may be in here. We can even have see a path or road or something kind of, you know, taking us into the scene. Um, it could be kind of ah regular. We'll just call this like a dirt path and maybe back in here we have move it over a little bit. Another small tree, and then on the left hand side we can put has put something just kind of small here. Something like that. Um, and there can be other things happening. There may be another kind of level of batch of trees, um, in here. And maybe we're seeing it a little bit in here, too. So, uh, again kind of a made up scene here, but I want to give you just some ideas on what you may find when you're outdoors painting or even when you're looking at a photograph. I'm just gonna make these a little bit darker so you can see him. And that way you can start to understand, um, a little bit about this idea of cropping. So there you are, standing in this field, you're looking around, you're scanning back and forth, and then you see this tree against the maybe a darker set of trees behind it. I mean, this could be a yellowish leave tree. So you're seeing a nice contrast between this tree, a darker foliage in the back and maybe this, um, violently looking hill here. And there may even be some clouds, you know, that are catching your eye. So we're getting some overlapping and different things going on. You go. Well, I kind of like this. So you look at painting. Ah, this seen that tree. But, you know, you could be 300 yards from that tree. So the tree is really far away from your station point where you're standing, so and this is a common scenario. And when you're that far away, the tree is only making up a very small portion of your field of vision. And because you're so far away, you may not see these interesting edges. Um, you may not see Ah, some of the branch work that could be going on in here. Um and so things tend to be that are farther away from you, tend to be simplified and kind of reduced in terms of details. In contrast, So if I were this person, I wanted to paint that seeing than I would probably say, I'm gonna walk up and stand, and here that way I can see more information on the tree. It takes up mawr of my field of vision, and I can kind of probably, um, composed better, because again, I'm starting to see mawr information and edge quality about that treat. So that's one idea. Always consider getting a little bit closer to your subject as close as you can. Um, if in fact, you want to paint this one tree and you're not interested in the entire, um, section you're not interested in painting everything in this particular seen. So that's kind of one thing you want to think about. Um, the other thing is, um, you're just kind of understanding the I kind of like to break things down into, like, three categories. So, for example, if I took this whole entire scene, um, I painted this kind of broad area, I would consider that Let me just kind of write this down. I will make sure you guys can see that. So pull this down a little bit. Um, so I'll put three main types again. There's there's a lot of different ideas, but so you got different formats and there are many the selling discovers. Ah, phew. But that's a a big scene like this would be mawr of a they call that a long shot and filming. So you're getting again this fast amount of information, you can do a medium shot. So a medium shot is basically where Maybe, let's say you're going to do something close to you. But you maybe you want this tree in this mountain. So maybe in a medium shot, um, you could possibly do. Now. I'll do that a different color. That way they will show up a little bit better. So you're medium shot here. Maybe in red. So you say I kind of want that tree on the edge. I want a little bit of this, a little bit of that. So you're crapping out? Obviously quite a bit of it, but you're still you still have a decent amount of information. So on this blue, one will call that I'm sorry. The blue one will call that our long shot. So we're getting this again Vast amount of information and then a close up, um, could even be, uh you know, something very, very small. It could even be smaller than this, but I'll just call this relatives everything else that you're seeing here. Ah, close up compared to the other things. So you're basically going to zero when on just a little bit. And that close up could be even ah, smaller. It could be just a branch with some leaves or something like that. But again, this kind of taken this idea and breaking it down into three different types of shots. Hopefully, we'll give you a little bit of information about how you can ah, look at the scene and decide. No. Do you want to show this expanse of land and this big grand scene? Or do you want to kind of crop it down and just share the tree, the distant hills and a path? Or do you want to get zeroed in and zoom in on something very, very small? So that's, um, three main shots you could think about. The all offer a different perspective, and they're all useful. There's really right a wrong way to to really do this. There's no definitive answer as to that's the correct answer, but at least we start looking at your images and your scenery. You can think in terms of this, and I'll give you a little bit of a base model to go by, um, this talked to about another idea of cropping. So let's say we have a scene, and I'll do this two ways. So this will be a similar scene. Let's see. I'll keep it simple here to say we have our ground plane here. We have a tree going on here on the right hand side. We can have a hill back in here. Ah, and maybe a distant hill. Um, here and we can have Ah, no little Bush or something. All right, so in a scene like this, what's happening is we're getting ah, lot Mawr of the sky, then the land. So if you I had this beautiful blue sky you wanted to show this beautiful, great Asian going on in the sky, you wanted the impact and the attention to be on that maybe had this beautiful cloud formation going on. Um, with these bands off serious clouds and the way up in the sky, I'm so in a case like that, obviously you're cropping intentionally, um, to show us a certain perspective and idea. Um, that includes the Sky AZM or of the dominant focal point. And it's taking up mawr than half of the composition. Typically, when I cropped this way, we want the sky. No, roughly about 2/3 in with the ah ground plane being roughly 1/3. So that's that's an idea. So let's take the same scene to say I really like it, But I want to show mawr of this tree and what's going on here? You may have to make the tree Ah, little bit bigger in this case. Maybe got these interesting little shrubs here. We've got our hill. So I got my hill coming down. I got my 2nd 1 here and then we have our, ah, ground here. So here you've got are the same tree. Maybe, you know, you're going to see a little more detail here because you're a little bit closer to it. The way you crop that, um, maybe you see a few branches and that sort of thing. But here you're making, um, the focal point Maurer of the land. So you're getting less sky and more land. Um, I'll just give you one more example of cropping on. Then we can kind of start to get the point and about what's happening here. Um, it's all just gonna go right off to the side. So let's say you have this mountain back there and you wanted to make the mountain the main focal point. So what you would want to do is put that mountain, um, up towards the top. And what that's going to do is give you, um this feeling, this illusion of this massive mountain. Maybe there's a little lake or something in here and so on, we get some trees down towards the base of the mountain. So now you've got this mountain, and from this sort of perspective in this sort of cropping Ah, you're getting this, um, illusion again that you're looking up at this huge mountain. Um, and you could see back here. Maybe this is the same mountain in the distance, but it doesn't really say, you know, look at the massive mountain this thing is. So while again, if you were trying to put the impact on the focus here, obviously you would have less sky dominant mountain. Um, that's taking up a big portion of the frame. So that's a, um, just some different ideas about cropping that you need to know. And perhaps you want to think about? We start looking at your inspiration images. Um, it's a little bit harder when you're out and on the site looking at things in real life because there's everything's changing, everything is moving and you'll have to start making some decisions. And I think this is a kind of a good way to do it. Some artists have ah viewfinder, so they'll cut a piece of cardboard or something like this. And maybe they'll cut a little square or rectangle different shapes out of it and just kind of put that near their face, their eyes and look around to see, um, some potential shots, some potential, um, compositions that air cropped and they just kind of fit well together. I tend to not use those. I like to just kind of look around and and kind of figure things out on my own. All right, so that's cropping. 24. Linear & Mass Compositions: Okay, let's look at another idea. Um, and we're going to basically compare, like, linear composition to a mass composition. Um, linear composition is something new to this course, So let's kind of start there. So let's say we have I've seen and that seeing offers, you know, various things. There could be a hill path and all that sort of stuff. But what you're trying to do has only focus online's. So you're looking at the edges of things, the flow of things, the angles and not necessarily the masses. So on landscape painting fundamentals part one. I talked about value massing and even massing in general, your groups of things. So this this is a little bit different because you're going to not you're gonna turn that switch off and you're on Lee again, looking at how things flow in a line quality. So let's say, for example, we had this mountain coming in this way, and maybe the ground is kind of sweeping. Ah Hill sort of thing like this. Let's say there's another ah laying masses coming down and here and kind of moving off this way, and then you have this ah path. That's kind of going off into the distance there. Um, And again, in the case like this, you want, you can look at it and then ask yourself, Is this an interesting? Is this interesting look at you don't really have to go any further than that. Um, no. Is this something that would work well, and a painting just on the direction of the lines? The line composition, you may say. Well, um, I kind of like it. And you could even this just kind of before you do that. Let's just see, we've got some clouds and you're kind of looking at the direction and lines. You know of these clouds. So you kind of are looking at it in that manner. And again, ask yourself, Do I like this? Is this something that would be interesting to paint interesting to look at? And that's a really good way to compose. And you may reply or Hansa yourself like I like it. But I would like something to intersect, Um, these lines, So maybe you can look around and you see a tree so you can kind of put this interesting of vertical here that may flow nicely, um, in contrast against the Mawr horizontal lines. So again, this is not. This is not massing through values. It's not trying to mass through colors or shapes or anything like that. This is something that's again a little bit different. Ah, way of composing. So now let's look at how we can take another idea. Or let's just say let's kind of compare this sort of thinking to, ah, mass composition. All right. Now we turn our attention to this idea of using and really comparing a mass composition two more of a linear composition. So let's say we have our composition or our format here. Incidentally, you'll hear me. Oftentimes consider this the frame. So and from a design and composing standpoint, that doesn't mean a frame that goes around finished art. I'm just referring to the four main lines of the edges. Okay, so let's say we have a scene where this may be a farm or something, and I'm just using this idea just so we kind of do something man made, but still keep it a landscape. And so maybe we have ah Hill kind of make that a little more around it off in the distance and then from the left. And then we had this Siri's of Save Barnes different sort of dwellings, um, happening. But, you know, they're all fairly dark. Maybe it cuts up in here. And this one, maybe is ah, bigger like that. You know, there could be some details and their this this may have Ah, a little a pitch to it. Um, but it's all in shadow. And maybe this is more of a A like this like that. And then maybe off in the hill here, there's another, um, some trees, but they're up kind of on top of the hill. So we'll say they're kind of dark and maybe the shadow. It's kind of running along of the landscape here, catching a few shrubs we're seeing maybe some shadows. And here and then maybe one kind of running off this. So again, all of this say these air kind of reddish blue looking buildings. We may even have a few more, um, trees back in there. So let's just put all of this in shadow. So we'll say all of this is going to be a dark mass. I'm all of this is going to be a darker mass and then right in here. Maybe we have this a little bit of light. So basically, you're getting this. Um, and maybe you can even put like, a chimney or something up here just to give it some a little edge quality. So we have this. Ah, kind of dark mass moving in from the left. There could be, you know, path or something Taken us into it. Um, maybe on the terrain, there's a hill or something here. So maybe we're starting to see a little bit of dark mass there. But let's say everything else. It was pretty much in light. May maybe a backlit scene. Right. So we can have some clouds up here. They're kind of had this a little bit of dark mass in there, so we talked about the ring lighting type of look. Maybe so. That's good. Um, I have some verticals in here that could be some posts or something, but for the most part, what? What I want to get at is you're playing masses. You're playing dark. A dark mass like this against something. Perhaps that's catching light. There could be subtle shadows in here. I'm not saying everything has to be lit up, but there could be no subtle shadows for the most part. But this really, you know, interesting man made looking mass here, very geometric shapes. You're playing against these kind of organic shapes. And then plus, you're getting this big portion of the painting that's a lot lighter and value. So you have the same 3/4 and light, so that's that's one of the masses, and then we have 1/4 of it and shadow, and that's gonna be the other. Okay, so is that a good balance? And I bring that up because, um, and typically, when you're designing your thinking about these things, nature doesn't always give this to you. There could be a big, dark tree over here. Big, dark stone Ah, in that dark stone, stone or tree could take up like this huge portion of your frame, and then you're gonna end up with equal. So what you'll have instead of a symmetry is you'll have ah, symmetrical ah masses. And that's going to typically not work as well as having one more dominant than the other. So that's just kind of something to think about, um, when you're doing this. But you could also look at this as more of a linear composition to if that's how you want to look at it. So you were kind of maybe look at this and say, Well, you know, can I approach this from a linear perspective and kind of work with more of the lines? Or do I want to kind of think more about masses playing dark masses against light value masses and so on? But again, I'm just kind of two ideas, um, about masses and kind of, you know, how that could work in terms of composing and designing your paintings. 25. Light & Dark Mass Techniques: I just look at another scenario. This is similar to talked about here, light versus dark. But it's going to be done in a little bit different way. And what we want to focus more on is, um, kind of that a symmetry or asymmetry that were looking for kind of maybe point out a few things where it could be good and it could be bad. So let's say we have a scene. So let's say we've got a And as I draw this and I think I'm going to cover some of the ideas that we talked about with linear composition, so remember, um, near linear linear composition, I should say, is you know where you're using line as your tool, you know, to compose linear person. Ah, linear perspective is the idea of using different tools and drawing techniques to create depth on a two dimensional surface. So I don't want you to confuse those two, but let's just say, for example, as I start to draw this, um, so we have our path so and you know, the beginning of the path, you know, was going to be wider, and then it kind of takes us in to say our our ground is down here. Excuse me here. So it's all going back to that point and then maybe it starts to turn here, and then it kind of moves off. Okay, so that's all going to appoint. That's going to appoint so on. And also I want to point out that you know, the whip you the width of this gets more narrow as it moves away from us. So that's all different ideas about linear perspective. So let's say we have a big tree off to the side here, and let's say it comes a real low like that, and I kind of look at the edge quality of this since it's closer to us and decide if that's something that's decent to look at. Um, so for me, I would maybe consider changing that a little bit so I can grab my eraser here. So we had this line going up the side and all that's on that same line. So you, if that's what's happening in nature, I would want to change that. To wear that shape disappears a little more interesting to look at, so we have gonna have this dominant shape tree in the foreground. So let's say over here we have, um this kind of other little kind of smaller tree in the distance, and it's again very, very small compared to this one. So that creates a sense of death. Um, let's say we have a hill back here like that, and so we're starting to get a little bit of overlapping now. So this tree, this little tree here in front of the mountain and we could even say the clouds. So when we look at clouds, even if the cloud masses that you're looking at and your image or in the scene have these big clouds back here against the the hill, sometimes you can alter that by making sure you put a few really big ones here in the foreground. It's closer to you. Ah, and then a few a few small ones in here, and then maybe you've got this really big mass of cloud back there. But what's happening there is you're giving that illusion of linear perspective. So you've got these clouds that are closer to you, and then as they step away, some of them get smaller. So that, again is a feeling of depth. This cloud is behind this one. So the again that gives that feeling of overlapping and kind of making depth in the painting so again, another really good way to create linear perspective on we could even have some. Um, let's say we have some telephone poles, so maybe we've got one here, and as they move back, they get smaller. So we kind of have this sort of thing happening. So again, that's kind of creating that same idea of linear perspective. So that that's just kind of Ah, some reminders about letting your perspective Ah, and now I'm gonna get to this idea of working in your dark against light very similar to what I did up here. So let's say, for example, we had this strong shadow moving across the foreground here, and that's gonna put the sun fairly low and maybe moving in this direction. And it's say, maybe even the top of that tree, um, is getting light. But even before I do that, let's look at some of the questions you can ask yourself based on what I've already shared with you. So looking at this, you can say, well, is this? Was this a good linear composition? Is this something that's interesting to look at? And even though I may want to play the really light shadow air dark, shadow out areas against the light, you still can analyze your work in a linear, um, composition there before you even go to him about to show you. But anyway, so let's say we all of this again is in shadow moving across the foreground like so. And then maybe over here, we're getting that same feeling. So we got a little shadow here, but pretty much except for these verticals, and these could have a little little detail on, uh, maybe law, um, different things happening on the pole here, but for the most part in these could, you know, have a little cash shadow, and this may be even be darker, closer to us. But what you're essentially doing here? I was looking at this portion of the design that's in shadow. Ah, where, as you know, the rest of this stuff is getting light. I mean, this is a vertical plane or to say, an angular plane, so that may have a value, you know. And here But for the most part, what you want to do is think, you know, um, where are my really heavy an accident? Darks wannabe, um, as opposed to you know, where the bulk of my light lighter values will be. So in this case, I think a design like this would probably work pretty good, man. As you may know, that's because we're dealing with a design that's not equal. So you have the same, you know, 1/4 of this that's in shadow, heavy shadow. And then the other 3/4 you know, is going to be like So let's take that same design. So we have our tree shadow. We have our hill back. Here were, you know, path. Something like that doesn't have to be exactly the same. And we have our little bush here and we get into our verticals tall, medium, short type of thing. Um, and then we can look at another possible scenario. So let's say, um, but say the sun is behind you. I'll make this a little bit taller. I'll make this a little bit shorter. So that means, um, we don't have a shadow coming across anymore. But let's say the sun is behind you. So is at your back. You're looking this direction. That means all of this is going to be lit up, okay. And that's going to typically give you a darker value sky. I'll bump this down even more. So I'm going to move this Ah, ground playing down just a little bit just for impact and kind of make my point. So again, this tree on the right is going to be in son. Now you may even get a little shadow there, maybe a little shadow behind that. So even though, um, it's a similar design, as we used here in this case in this lighting condition, it's not quite as effective. Have some shadows running that way, And that's because you're dealing with symmetry, and hopefully you can spot it. You're dealing with an area that has a dark that's equal to the area that's in light, so basically it's is half and half. Okay, so these air, these are equal equal parts. So basically, it's just something that you're going to want to work out for if you don't. If you don't or shall say it's something, excuse me, should you need to look out for because it's easy to, um, fall in love with the scene and then you start painting it. Ah, and then you realize that, um, you're dealing with a symmetrical sort of design where you have equal parts, so you kind of have to keep your eye out for stuff like that. 26. Pulling Viewer Into Painting: are this. Talk about a few ideas on leading the viewer into the painting, and I'll share with you kind of a common mistake. Sometimes artists will make eso Let's look at the first idea, and we've used this one a lot in the course, So it's basically a path, so I'll actually do a few of these. I'll just do all keep it one. So again, you know, Hill whatever tree and and, ah, foreground. Or somewhere in this area you have this path or some sort of road. Ah, that leads need u. N. And the reason I think this works is, um, you you had that idea of linear perspective. So you're getting this feeling of depth as the path is whiter and is leaving you in this getting more narrow and then even more narrow as it goes back. Um, the path could be, um, a river. It could be a road. So again, very common, a tool to use for getting your viewers into the painting. So another idea is using a diagonal in the foreground. I'm so so you have something like that. There could be another little hill back back here, and then lastly, some giant mountain in the back. Then perch, Maybe up here could be, you know, a little tree. Um, So what this does is it basically says that this corner were basically, you know, you could be standing is closer closer to you than over here The way this this happens, so but typically will, the viewer will do. Is that kind of come into the painting here? You know, that kind of move diagonally into the painting. So again, it could be a diagonal this way or whatever, but again of a very useful ah way to give the viewer in. I'll just call that a diagonal foreground. You can label it however you wish. Um, another conduct common technique. You'll see. It could be like a diagonal foreground. It starts, and then maybe it switches back. So maybe this could be a hill or could be a good piece of grass. Who knows? And and then maybe back in here, there's another little hill. So that means you often hear, you know, there could be something, And again, um, there may be ah, a distant mountain or something happening back here. So what you're getting is a zigzag. That kind of brings you into the picture a lot of different ways. You can manipulate this. Call this the zigzag. But anyway, so that's something to kind of keep your eye out for. There's this My last idea. Um, let's say we've got ah, another square sort of layout, and this is based basically a a foreground shadow. Um, so they say there's a foreground moving across. Maybe this tree, um, could be the shadow from this tree or something could just be a big shot moving across. And all of this is in shadow. Um, so basically, that kind of leads you in, um, to the scene. And then maybe there's a distant hill. Who knows? There could be some clouds since we have a big sky. But this has put all of this and shadow this left hand. Saad could be catching some light here, so it's moving in shadow and so on. So kind of an interesting one here, um, it could be subtle to, um so this could be another example that say so it doesn't have to kind of come across the whole front. Let's put our tree back a little bit. We'll put our tree back in here. Move the ground plane back and we do a few clouds, so we could have a little shadow here and then maybe, um, another little something there on then off here. There is just kind of this mysterious shadow moving like that. So we don't really know where the source is or what the sources of that shadow. But it just kind of helps even use a diagonal to it like this. So slight diagonal. So it moves you and to the painting. So that's another good way to do that. I want to say this is ah example to, um so those are all very common things. You can use Toledo View or end. Um, this talk a little bit real quick about what not to do. And this will be my last. Ah, thing is avoid the wall. So wall could be, Let's see, we've got a tree here, something like that. Then behind it could be a row of trees, and maybe it's kind of going across the foreground, like that kind of the middle slash foreground, and there could be some mountains or something back there. And what's happening here is your getting this really dark? The same mass looking shape moving across the foreground. So as you kind of start to enter, huh? And there could even there may not be anything else. You may just have this tree with these distant hills or whatever, and you want to get in, but you're like you get blocked, you feel like you're in this room jail or something, and this includes space, and you just can't penetrate it. Um, away he could possibly fix. That is to, you know, put your path or something in there. I get the viewer end on, then consider removing part of it. So let's say, for example, this is some trees. So maybe that path kind of leads you through this, and then you have a way to kind of get in on Explorer. The rest of the the painting this could be this could be trees could be a stone wall or anything like that. Um, it's not uncommon to come across situations where you're dealing with the sort of wall effect. So again, if you consider putting an opening some sort of way, you can get past it. You can crop it So, basically, you know, this would involve making some changes. So I'll do this real small. So you see, we have our wall here, and that's where it is. And the scene we have our distant hills clouds. All this beautiful stuff happening. But this wall here is a problem. So you can kind of take this brick wall, bro trees and just end it here so it would kind of come through and maybe a really dark hedge and just kind of ended here, Um, so that the viewer feels like they can kind of get in and behind. Ah, that wall and explore. You know, the rest of the painting could be up some other more distant hills back here. So now the viewer can zigzag through that. So So hopefully some good examples on how you can lead of you were into the painting in the course, maybe an example or an idea of what to avoid 27. Composition Types Part One: All right, let's look at some different ideas. Um, or just a types of compositions. In my opinion, I mean, they're I think keeping a simple is always the best approach. So I mean by that is you find two or three workable composition types and tried to fit your subjects into those, um, kind of formats when sometimes that's easier than having 50 ideas. And you have too many options to choose from. And they just kind of spent a lot of time spinning your wheels, you know, trying to figure things out. Um, So let me just share a couple with you. And I think, you know, just having maybe even these two would be enough. The 1st 1 could be the same, like an L. So you can think about it as, ah, basically this l shape like this. I mean, obviously, this could be a tree. Could be a building with a shadow going across. Could be a tree with, you know, whatever. Something some value, a darker value happening, but kind of what this does. Is it kind of frames within a frame. So you have this outside frame, your forming edges, and it's kind of, like, pushing, you know, into, ah, particular area of the painting. So again, I mean, this could be a tree with shadow or something like that, but the l could be turned different ways. It doesn't have to be on the right, and here could be left moving over and so on. Um, it can work in amore vertical format as well and doesn't have to be taken so literally, um, in the l may start in here and work over. So maybe at the top, you know, there's a little gap. You kind of get in that sort of thing. So that's just kind of one general idea you could think about this other is kind of a fulcrum idea. I've heard some people call it a steel yard, So let's say you have your fulcrum here and let's say on the right you have this heavyweight. There's a really large shape like that. So what you're looking for is balance. So with a big, heavy kind of ah, shape on the right, um, you're looking to balance that. So in other words, you wouldn't want to put a small shape right here close to it because you know it's going to kind of be too heavy on the right hand side. So what you could do is take a, you know, a small shape and move it way over here. Something like that. And what that does is that creates balance. So even though you're dealing with a larger shape here, you have a smaller one over there. So how does that translate and to your work? Um, the first thing I'll records say is that, um, these things could represent We're just say, this one right here. I mean, that could represent an object. It could represent a new, interesting shape. It could also represent a color. So this kind of bold color that's offsetting this really large shape. So let's take some of those ideas real quick. And so I kind of put this large shape off to the right here of the composition, and we can have, you know, some hills or mountains back there. Um, so again, this represents the tree just to give it some weight. Oh, add a little bit of volume to it, or value. I should say to it. So we had that. So I must take the idea of another object. So I'll do this real lightly. So it could be maybe a Siri's of smaller trees in the distance, something like that. So we're pulling this. I'll move this a little bit closer to us. Even so, we kind of really feel the impact of it. So I kind of dropped that down a little bit. Do you really see that this is much closer to us than that. So that could that shape that object could offset this. This is off to the right. This is way off to the left. If we took that and moved to here, it wouldn't really balance outright. It would be too close. So by moving it over in here, um, has a better chance of kind offsetting the big, bulky weight of this again. It could be an interesting shape. Um, to say, we have feel there that could be two figures, kind of standing here. Even then, they're kind of joined like this, and that is the same thing. So two figures walking. Um, it could be a path taking us in and everything. So that would be the on idea of using an interesting shape to do it. Um, so the object number one ah, was this idea of a group of trees to offset it. So something small that's farther, you know, off the left. The other idea was an interesting shape, so that could be two figures. Kind of talking. Maybe one has a little dog. Um, the last thing is, it could be a color. So maybe over and here there's just kind of who knows what it could be. It could be a little red barn. Uh, so, um, but it needs to be bold. Needs to stand out. So let's say we have this green grass that's kind of moving along in here. We got this big dark mass here. You could have a little red barn, uh, in the distance on that bold color sometimes is enough to offset. You know the tree, the mass of the large mass of the tree. So again, I like this one because it's very versatile. Generally speaking, when you're dealing with landscapes, you got a lot of objects that you could probably use that air around to create this sort of composition. If you're not one of those artists, I get stuck to painting and copying everything you see. Then you had the liberty to take something and move it left. Move it right. Bring it forward. Push it back. Um, generally speaking in nature. Um, and with most scenes, you're gonna have to do something like that. So a couple of ideas, I'm working with some basic compositions, a couple of types. Now, let's talk about a few mistakes and things or scenarios that you may want to avoid. And I'm cautious when I say that because, you know, I don't want to limit your compositions or your a vision, but sometimes, you know, scenarios out introduce you to now will usually be a little more challenging to pull off. 28. Composition Types Part Two: look at some other composition types. And then I think in this one, we're going to look at Ah, good example, some bad examples off composition and design. And these air a lot of the common mistakes beginners make but their health. So a lot of mistakes experienced artists make. It's so easy to, um, kind of lose sight of good and bad designs. Let's go ahead and dive into it. What I have here are to quick designs. They're very similar. They're intended to be similar at this point. Let's say you got the big idea down. You've got your ground plane. They got a vertical plane here, and maybe you have some mountains and stuff in the background. Now it comes time to, uh, put in your clouds just for, um, clarity here. We'll say this is good, and this is bad. Um, so over here, um, you decided to put some put your clouds and ah, and maybe you have a cloud right in here. But, you know, there's some overlapping going on, and maybe you even decide you put start with a nice cloud and here, now, over here, you're going to do the same thing But instead of the overlapping, you decide to put it right next to it like that. And what happens is on what you're really trying to do with landscapes in particular and cityscapes, Seascapes, that sort of thing. And even with still life painting, you're trying to create depth on this idea of overlapping works. Well, so when you overlap something, what you're saying is this object the tree is in front of the cloud. This is good too. This is fine. Um, my favors the left a little bit, So there's less space from here to here. They're from here to the edge of the tree. So in other words, if I were to put the same cloud here, um and we just kind of skip this for a second, I'll move it over to just slightly like this. What I'm doing is I'm putting the cloud in the middle of the space between here and here. You're better off the favorite one way or the other. And of course, with this it's not pleasing to look at. You have to objects that air kissing each other. And that's just not a very good effect that you want in your designs. So that's something you definitely want to watch out for, um, another. Let's go ahead and maybe let's look at ah, foreground. Example. Um and then we'll get back into the clouds. Just say there's there's a pole or some other vertical element moving up the side, and it could be anywhere. The pole, The vertical element could be kissing your object where you're staying from Mueller Station point from where you're standing. But experienced artist knows they're not going to draw it that way. They're not going to put that in their design, even though they can clearly see that's what's going on. You could also put the poll the safest it is kissing. In fact, here, um, they could put the poll here. So what you're doing and I'm going to actually move this over a little bit, but I had it right in the center. But let's say I move it over to the right a little bit, and now I'll get rid of these lines, these intersections. So now that the poll is in front of the tree, or that's not touching the tree, it all and there's less space here, and there's more space there. I want to talk about one of their thing in a minute. And, of course, with a bad example. There's two things I'm going to mention here again, we're dealing with the idea of kissing. All right, so no overlapping and again you start to see it just doesn't look good. The other thing I want to point out to you is the idea of depth through where, how close something is to use a linear perspective. So here you can see I dropped the poll lower. So it is here. So when you're looking at this, what that's telling you is the poll is closer to me than the tree here. They're roughly the same. So there's no depth here, So you're kind of dealing with something similar. So you're you're kissing here, and then you're telling the viewer, um that they're they're the same so that their flat So either take the telephone pole up in here where it's farther away from you than the tree, or you drop it down here. But trying to put them uh, here is not a very good design. Um, now let's look it. Let's go back to the clouds for a second. I'll give you another example. I think to do that, I'll get rid of this one. Let's say you again. You're putting in your clouds. Will pretend that does isn't even here right now. And you start to look around and you see a cloud that's like this shape and then you're like, Well, I'm gonna put another cloud and and you're here. And so next thing you know, you're clouds are similar shaped there, and they're they're the same size and again you're dealing with something that's not very pleasing to look at. We're over here. Maybe you have a large cloud. So the clouds there towards the top of your design or closer to you. Then as you move back, um, you know, the the clouds can get smaller and smaller. And of course, we can overlap clouds as well. So we can get in here. And, you know, maybe there's another cloud in there. But of course you can see I drew that poorly on purpose to show you that there clouds air kissing. So probably a better idea. Um, would be to pick ah slightly different shape and size something smaller than this one so that you get a better cloud shape. So again, just kind of things you want to. Ah, watch out for, um so here there's no depth. But again, you know, make that smaller a different shape, and then you start to get depth. You start to get this feeling of distance. Um, And now another thing you have to watch out for is where you start to do this thing where you basically are going around a shape. So maybe there is, ah, a distinct hill in the background and you start to do this sort of thing. So if there are clouds back there, um, you know, you want to avoid the idea of going around him, you get some overlapping or something like that. Of course, that could be done. Ah, here is well, you know where you're going around your subject. So just some things you want to watch out for when you're designing 29. Composition Types Part Three: All right, let's look at a few other good and bad ideas. Um, through composition and design and And this one I'll look at let's say we have a situation . I'll just make this square. Maybe you have a ah, vertical element that could be trees coming down here, have a foreground, and they have another tree. May be here. Um, you you kind of do this, and I'll make this a little bit darker, the frame so we can get a better idea. So what you're dealing with there is symmetry on. Who am I to say You can't put symmetry in your painting. Um, but I would say don't do it unknowingly. So you don't want to be naive about it. Maybe you're doing it for a purpose, but, um, oftentimes it's done mawr as an accident. So a better approach, if you want to do the two trees, would be maybe, um, you could fly this one over a little bit. Um, like this. And then maybe this one. We're getting just a piece of it here. So now this is going to fight us shade that end. So we start to see the negative space going on there. This 1 may work a little bit better because it's not equal. There's a symmetry, asymmetrical qualities going on there. So that's kind of one thing you want to look out for. And it's always a good idea when you're designing painting, whether you're in the studio doing it, working from an image or in the field, step back and look at what you're doing from in that way, you could have been a much better visual of what's going on. Um, another thing that happens a lot is, let's say there's, ah, maybe some hills or something back here And maybe, you know, there's a there's a mountain or something here, and actually, I put that in the wrong spot. So let me back that up. So say there's a row of flowers or something and then we have another hill back here. I did it again. All right, try again. So this would be the bad version. So again a row of something there, and then maybe there's something here. So what we're dealing with is equal. So the space from here to here is equal here and equal there. Okay, so all of these are the same. And this happens Ah lot. You can get Instagram Pinterest and to start scrolling through looking at everyone's art, you'll see a ton of situations where you're dealing with equal planes, things of dividing the thirds equally. So, um, a better idea, maybe would be to let's say we make this one a little bit shorter here, and then we have a much bigger one here. So now we've got one to three and again, you're your subject may not give this to you. It may not have this, but when you're designing in your composing, you can always look for it so we can scan the area where you're at or you can created imaginatively on your own. So, um, a few other things I want to point out to you make sure I'm on the screen here, slide this up. Here is, um let's look at angles real quick. I've touched on this a little bit when we talked about linear composition, but I just want to kind of point this out here. So let's say again we have our good here. We have our bad above it. I'll say this is good. Maybe sort of bad I can say avoid. Perhaps. And then again, you can decide on your own what works and what doesn't. And let's say you're dealing with a situation from where you're thinking mawr about linear composition and you're looking around and let's say you see a ground plane is going here. I'll even take this right to the corner. I'll talk about that in a second, and then they have, Ah, another hill back here and then maybe, Ah, that say. But we even get this some variation there. So maybe there is, Ah, a little bump. And then maybe we see these clouds and what you're dealing with, You may have three spaces that are different. So this is different. This is different. So you kind of avoided that problem. But a few things you gotta watch out for him here is this goes right to the corner, so try to bring that either above it or below. It so started. Um, you want to start that here that say they were stopped that soft broken it here. Another thing that's happening here, so I'll say that's one is we've got all the same angles. So when we follow the line of our clouds and all of these lines for the mountain and the ground plane are there all the same. So we're dealing with equal angles throughout. So what I would do is again look around, see what's going on. And maybe with this mountain it's a slightly different angle. And then with clouds, maybe you could come up with a scenario where there's a feeling of this, this and then this. So you're getting some variation there in the clouds or in the main angles of everything. So again, thinking in terms of angles is good, Um, this Say there's some vertical elements going on. So over here, you like high. Well, I see a little tree or a stick or something coming up. And then over here, you see another one, so you do that. So what's happening again is you got angles that they're the same. Maybe there's more space here to hear in their ears is here to here. So you did a good job of dividing the space, but the angles are too similar. So what you can dio is maybe create the feeling that this one is doing more of that and then you have another one. And also note that I put them the same. I'll make that a little more obvious. So now I want to put one slightly feeling of slightly closer to me, and then maybe it runs off this way. So now my vertical elements are different. The angles are more interesting to look at. So that's that's kind of something you want to keep an eye out for us. Well, um, see, I think that's good. That let me just go over one thing here. That kind of happens a lot to, um that's let's say you're you have a tree. And again we make sure I'm on the screen here. I could probably drop down a little bit lower. I'm so we have our tree here that's going around. You see, a clump believes you see another clump of leaves. You see another clump of leaves. Okay, so you're dealing with a situation where all of these clumps are the same. They're almost equally spaced apart. Uh, so you kind of have to watch out for that. This kind of creeps up a lot to so again. Always look at your shapes, Um, and try to find a situation where you have a big clump here. Maybe smaller clump there. Medium sized clumps. Okay, so you're your tree shape. Even there's the asymmetrical quality going on to the to the edges. So there's that. And then lastly, you know, if I were designing, um, something with that in mind, um, there's this idea to of, you know, if you have two trees, that's a, um always avoid putting them at the same size. I'm running out of space. Okay, so we don't want that. Um, another thing you know you don't want or this just say something to keep in mind is that maybe, you know, you have one tree that's really big, noticeably bigger here, Um, kind of running here towards the foreground, and it's off the page. So is getting cropped there on, then. Your next tree can be mawr in the distance. Uh, slightly different shape, even if you can get it. Um, and then this one is actually in the picture. So one is getting cropped. One is in. So, you know, if both trees were getting cropped, So if you were here, and this is your design that this is getting small body this really dark and really quick. Um, where you have a situation where you have to trees and they're kind of equal. Um, or I put this one even smaller here and there, sitting in there, sitting in the frame. Now that doesn't work too bad. But if you can again think about you know this idea versus that, then that may work a little bit better. So again, creating distance kind of creating. You know, this feeling of symmetry to trees equal distance from the edges. They may be different sizes, but we can see there still ah, head of symmetry going on. So anyway, these are just some ideas about composition types, things that watch out for years in your designs and so on. 30. Masters Analysis: All right, we're going to look a Tim cough here. This is a really good example of your three different size areas. So you get this really large area of the sky rather thin strip of, um just call that trees, and then we have another medium size for the ground. So we have Ah, large, small. And then we have a ah, medium. So that's kind of interesting to see it. I like this very simple composition. There's not many elements here, but because everything is spaced out well and thought about it, just it just works. And also, you had this, like, really thin, dark. Um, And if you were to even gray scale this if you took this area right here Ah, the ground. Um So the trees and the ground and again, if you were to gray scale that, that this would be a darker value. Eso everything right there. And all of this, you would find would be much lighter. So there's that idea of mass is understanding. Do your darker values against your lighter values and making sure there are some they're not equal. You can see the lighter clearly is much bigger. So again. Simple paint painting. But I thought it was, um, pulled off really well through composition and design. This is what I'm going to show you. Um, well, actually, take this off. Show it to you to gray scale first, as I alluded to earlier. Sometimes it's hard to see values that this way, but you can see this darker, um, mass here of the trees and the ground. So again, that's very large. And that's playing nicely with the smaller mass of the light sky. So let's go ahead and, ah, look at a color version of that and you'll see what I mean. I mean, it's not a tremendous change in value, and sometimes it's even harder, harder to see with color. But there is very much that play going on with the larger, dark, darker mass and a lighter light mass. Again, these can flip flop as well. So that's kind of interesting to note a lot of variation in size here to get the smaller tree medium large, give us a different variety. Here, edge quality is pretty good. These two trees here, this one and this one are very similar. Um, but the fact that this one has to stocks, trunks, maybe even three. They're coming up makes it unique. This one has a very simplified edges here, especially in the background, very minimalistic as you get to the trees closer to us, the shapes are are more detailed, but all of these shapes are different. There's no repeating a pattern or shape. I thought that was pretty good. You can look at these little shacks here to this one. This one, they're very They have a similar triangles top. But this one's got more of the side showing so again, similar shapes, but different sizes overlapping. So this tree clearly in front of this so you can see all that overlapping nicely. These trees, the lighter values hitting the sides in front of the darker trees in the back. So good, good example of overlapping. And I'm here. We got the lighter green in front of this darker green in front of this reddish looking barn, so some good overlapping quality there as well. I'm a big fan of this artist for a lot of lot of the reasons that I enjoy painting like simplifying things and doing it in a way that is interesting. And I thought that this artist just does that really well in a very abstract, um, way. So here, when we can see the unique shape. So we had this large mass coming down Interesting shade. We got a little figure or something there again, coming out with a very hard geometric angle into a more smoother angle and off here. So this whole area coming down into the ground and back up and then we have a darker strip here, all very interesting. Those simple, simple, simple but again thes little subtle shifts and changes and the sizes of everything is what makes it. But if you combine this area here with this area here, you start to notice the small, um, light mass here. Could be, I guess, the lake or water. We have a very narrow strip here in the sky. Um, and then this band of dark going in between Ah, variety. Look at the angle. So the angle of this building here in the foreground playing against this one, this off to the side, and this one's turned back towards us a little bit on this way, all different sizes. This one is overlapping this one. This one is staggered behind this one. And then maybe we even have 1/3 1 or 4th 1 back there. All of different sizes, slightly different values and the overlapping here. Ah, very subtle. Like greens in front of the dark's of the barn. These dark green is going up over this barn here. I'm giving that sense of depth. So another really good example of some of the design ideas we talked about. Um, this is Ah, one. I want to point out for linear composition. So we've got get rid of that. Here we go. All right, so we've got this line coming over here. We've got, uh, linear path coming in here. Um, we've got this idea of these trees. They're all moving down with the angle of the land. But But look at this. I think this is really a good example of it is very clear, but put off very well this angle of the cloud. So that angle is playing against these angles. So you had this angle of the land and everything is moving here, and then we've got the clear angle moving up and out towards the right and then this linear composition idea where the path is leading us in, right? And we've got a little snow strip there, all this grass in the middle, all playing a role in getting us in. And the artists left different heights, different ways to get in. There's a little space right there. Even you can sneak around and get behind that bush. So a good example of of a lead in example of, um, let your composition as well, the last one. Um so good variety here on this is an example of, you know, a mass Turn it off. Here we go. So a good example of a mass here that's cropped. All right, so it's going off the page and then we have a very similar object. That's right here. That's on the page. So we get this larger mass and his counterbalanced like a fulcrum idea here with a smaller mass of a similar object that's spaced away from it. Um, again, A feeling of a path kind of swooping in and moving around and then back here with some figures. It's kind of nice. We've got these angles here of the crops may be here, Here So we've got that angle happening. We have this angle happening. We have that angle happening. And then we had these angles of the clouds moving down this way. So it's a really good play there and angles as well. Another good example of a lead in. And that's where things. So again, I disappointed to point out just a few paintings there, Um, that employed some of the ideas recovered. And hopefully it will strengthen your knowledge a little bit and get you thinking a little bit about yours, so that's that. 31. Composition Assignments: So for your composition assignment, you're gonna have to parts in part one. I want you to visit a museum gallery. Whatever more, Uh, check out your favorite landscape painting part book and want you to spend time looking at the art and determine um, what composition tight they used. So you can ask yourself, Did they use an L shape? Was there a diagonal foreground? Did you see ah path or some sort of indication that there is that sort of road or something , that this lead you in to the painting? And also look at some of the other ideas that we shared about designing composition? Do you do you see where there is a larger object? And then there is a similar object that smaller and perhaps in the background, do you see the light and dark value masses and how they play against each other. Is the artwork symmetrical or doesn't leam or asymmetrical? And those air all good reinforcements, um, that you're going to need to see an absorb, but again, just visiting a museum or picking up a landscape painting art book. It is a great way to learn from some of the masters and then that's going to help you move forward and tack with some of your subjects. So again, this is part one and part two. I want you to take a walk through your neighborhood. You can take a walk through the city, whatever, wherever you want to go and look around. Observe um, how you can use some of the ideas that we shared to compose, um, paintings in your head again. You could take a walk or another idea is you can simply look a, um, let's some landscape and images so you can find or pick a city you really like or an area, Let's say the coast of Maine. I live here in the United States. Ah, and I can pull up a bunch of images on the Internet and I can look at those images and tried to, um, figure out how you can use, um, some of the ideas about composition design, um, to create good compositions so often times you have to move objects around. Um, other times you may have to add things. He can add objects. You can delete them. Other times, you can just simply crop it. So remember these whole section about cropping where you're looking at a scene. There's all this information in front of you. No. Is there a section of it that works better? Has that asymmetry going on? Um and if so again, how can you take that section and make it even better through some of the design and, um, composition techniques we shared in this course? So I think if you complete this assignment, that's going to help you create really good composition, so that when you start to tackle ah, your paintings, you're going to be ahead of the curve, so to speak, and you'll be able to not only identify good compositions, but you'll be able to take your images the subjects that really speak to you and you'll be able to, uh, a just, um, make changes that will enhance the composition so that when you get to putting paint on the paper, you know exactly where you're going to go, and you know the message you're trying to send with your artwork. Okay, so that's your assignment for this section. 32. Congrats!: congratulations on finishing the course. I know that was a lot of work. There was a lot of video to watch and take in tons of ideas for you to absorb and to try to comprehend so that you can get the most out of your landscape painting. Hopefully, by now you've finished your assignments. If not, how do you recommend you go back and you do that? That is the critical part of this course. Watching me and listening to me go over the process and share the ideas with you is a very small portion of it. That's just so I can transfer the knowledge to you and then demonstrate some of those ideas . But it's up to you to do your part, so you had to roll your sleeves up and get to work. But for those of you that did complete the assignment, congratulations and I really appreciate your support. And of course I hope these lessons and hance your landscape painting. So for now, it's goodbye. Believe me, I will ADM or content to this landscape painting Siri's So I will see you that take care