LaTeX for Data Scientists 2020 (and for non-Data Scientists also) | David Armendáriz | Skillshare

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LaTeX for Data Scientists 2020 (and for non-Data Scientists also)

teacher avatar David Armendáriz, #NeverStopLearning

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

19 Lessons (2h 13m)
    • 1. Introduction to LaTeX

    • 2. Introduction to Overleaf

    • 3. Packages, sections, and table of contents

    • 4. Equations

    • 5. Cross Referencing

    • 6. Inserting Figures and making them behave!

    • 7. Matrices and Vectors

    • 8. Lists

    • 9. Tables (Part 1)

    • 10. Tables (Part 2)

    • 11. Font Sizes, Families and Styles

    • 12. Hyperlinks

    • 13. Adding code to your document with Minted

    • 14. Creating a bibliography

    • 15. Creating presentations with Beamer (Part 1)

    • 16. Creating presentations with Beamer (Part 2)

    • 17. Editing LaTeX documents offline

    • 18. Adding code to Jupyter Notebooks

    • 19. 19 Congratulations

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About This Class


Hi and welcome!

If you are here, that's because you want to learn LaTeX, the best document preparation system out there! With LaTeX, you can create professional documents and presentations. If you are a student, researcher, Data Scientist, or any kind of scientist or professional in general, then it's not bad idea if you have things documented with LaTeX. Yes, every scientist or engineer needs to know math, and there isn't anything better for writing math than LaTeX.

Documenting your ML or DL model in a Jupyter Notebook? LaTeX.

If you are going to present something in a very important conference? LaTeX.

Already doing your thesis? LaTeX.

Writing a paper? LaTeX.

In this course, I will guide you through the basics of LaTeX. You will learn:

  • LaTeX basics: how to write equations, matrices, vectors, lists, etc.
  • How to customize your LaTeX document by changing the font size, the font families, font styles.
  • Add figures, tables, Python code, hyperlinks.
  • Cross-referencing everything in your document without having to worry too much.
  • Create professional presentations using Beamer.
  • Adding a well-structured bibliography.
  • Edit your documents online and offline.
  • Add LaTeX to Jupyter Notebooks.

This course covers the basics and it is intended that you can write complex documents with complex math at the end of this course. 

Without further ado...


Meet Your Teacher

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David Armendáriz



Hi! I am David Armendáriz and I am an ecuadorian mathematician. I like everything related to Data Science and also I like to apply my knowledge in this topic to software.

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1. Introduction to LaTeX: Hello and welcome to this course called later for data scientist. Some people pronounce it latex or latics, but I think the correct pronunciation is late IQ, so we will stick with it late. Check for data scientist. What are the goals of the scores? So, after you finish this course, you will feel comfortable writing documents. In late IQ, you will be able to use latex to document your models. If you're a data scientist, there's a high chance you're already using Jupiter notebooks, and you can use latex along you bitter notebooks. You will be able also to use later to great professional presentations, and you will avoid common errors that beginners make. I have been working with latex several years, and I know what these errors are. So what exactly is later? I was very lazy, so I just took a screenshot of the Wikipedia page on Based in In Here. It says late IQ is a document preparation system. When writing the writer uses plain text are supposed to the formatted text found in this acronym, that means what you see is what you get. Word processors like Microsoft Ward. The rail fees for those who use Lennox and Apple pages For those who you smack. The writer uses market tagging conventions to the find a general structure off a document toe Estill eyes text through ah document and to add stations on gross references. So what this means is that, for example, if you want to make a text bold in Microsoft were, what would you do? East press a button and automatically that text will transform into bold You lay dick. This doesn't work like that. We have to add attack in order to specify that we want a text to be bolt a debt distribution. Such a steg leaf or Mick deck is used to produce an output file such as a PDF or D V I X treatable for printing or digital distribution. So you can see the Steck as the compiler for the document, and this compiler will produce an output file that it can be a PdF or A. D. V I or other. For months, latex is widely used in academia for the communication on publication of scientific documents in many fields, including mathematics and statistics, computer science, etcetera. So this is to review search for a paper for example in Google Scholar, there is a high chance that that paper is reading in late IQ. Almost every scientist writes their paper in later. In fact, if you find a paper that is not written in later, maybe you should not trust that author. Okay, so here comes. Ah, fun fact. Who invented late IQ? Well, these two guys here, the guy in the left is called Leslie Lamport on the guy in the ride. It's a well known with inefficient gold Donald Move. So don't Luth really invented tech compiler that I was talking about on Leslie Lamport, invented later that uses tech to produce these documents. Okay, so I will show you right now an example of what can you do in later? For example, I write my underground feces. It is in Spanish because Spanish speaking guy, I wrote it in late IQ. So you can see here. This is the table of contents. These are some complicated formulas. More formulas on. Well, there are lots Bages matrices. Here You can see these savory, very long system of equations. Some company get it. Seen balls right there. And at the end you can also see bison coat. So I wrote this using bison coat and well, this is the return documents, of course. But I also had to present it. Andi, for that I constructed where I wrote these presentation also using later. So, as you can see, this is like the summary of my thesis, and it's completely written in later. So of course, this is very complicated stuff. We will be doing things like this on. I hope you enjoy the scores. I will try to make it as fun as possible and see in the next video. 2. Introduction to Overleaf: So throughout this course, we will be using this online later. Every door, gold over leaf. So why we will be using this tool? Well, a few years ago I had a bad experience where I got robbed in my laptop, and I had a very important projects in there and for some reason, idea. And I load them to the clout. So I lost all of my work. That's when I decided I needed to use an online later editor, and at that time I used share. Later. Then, sure, later on over Leaf merge into one company and the name off that marriage company, WAAS. Overly so with other leaf, you can have available all of your projects anywhere in the world where you have an Internet connection. Of course. Later in the course, I will teach you how to use off line. They take editor like that maker on off course, you Peter notebooks. You don't need Internet connections for editing documents or writing code in and and your eternal. So if you don't have an accounting over lift, just register here. You can restore using your email and password, or is in Google or or sit if you already have an account, just looking and you can log in with Google like me. Um, here I will have all of my projects. I will have also projects that people has shared with me here I will and see only my projects here. I will see our chi projects trashed projects. These V one projects are the projects that people had insure late. Think so? If you had and sure later account and you had some project there. Here they will show you those products. Um, you can also tag your projects. For example, here, these CV east inside the C v holder. My thesis is inside these these folder. And of course I have some uncut The Christ, These are some. Well, for example, this is just the template so I can movie to the trash. It will be in the trash projects and I can delete it. So goodbye on categorize project. It was only a template. I will I will going to open my thesis. The one I showed you earlier in the last video so you can see your ease. The main deck file where I wrote all of my thesis here. You can see. For example, here I have a python file. Obviously, this is not an either, so I cannot preview Ah, these this file. I have an image here. Have another Inish. I have Ah, I know. This is a pdf file. I don't know why it is here, but for some reason it is here. I have. Ah, some oxy, Gary, the tech. I don't know. I really don't remember how high I did this bright. It was my thesis, like, one year ago. Okay, but I can, for example, download all of these files in these dot zip file. Um, I can only download the pdf. I will. Don't know the pdf. Okay. In the desktop, I will see the pdf here in my browser. You can see it's a very nice pdf file. Okay, so I can count the words. I can copy this project. I can seeing this filing to Dropbox into get hub. And some of bus options here are also available. For example, that compiler, the main document that gets compiled on all off those things. OK, but here are other functionalities that are really, really useful. For example, these are the logs. Um here. You will show you if you have some error. And also, for example, you can share these documents and with someone by using you just type here the the email of the person you want to share this document with and you can leave. Edit these document with someone else. Any, for example, He's doing something wrong. You can that What are you doing? You're doing something wrong. So you can You can chat with that person live on on comment. Are ready these file Together, you can see the history of the changes you can review spelling on. You can submit also this file to some ah feature. For example, journals like these ones like i e d Institute of Electrical and Electronics engineers. These art side, for example, and those these journals that I don't know about Well, I think the most, um, useful feature is the share one the chat you can because you can edit you can Eddie with appear and that's that is very, very useful. You can also, for example, split the screen so you can see your changes here. For example, if I well, this is not how my last name is spelled you. You click your compiled a TDF or or press control enter. You will see the changes here. For example, the Z got to replace with that. Even if control in there on there, you can see the chains you can, Asai said. Download a pdf you can hear at a new folder. For example, if you want to and get your images in this folder so everything is organized, you can do it. I don't want to do that, so I will delayed it on to return where you were to your projects. You click that arrow and you are here again. So lastly, we're going to create an example project. And but you can see also hear some other options. You can upload that bread gigs, for example, if you were editing your document with an off line editor or you can import from get hub or you can use some templates, for example, for books for letters for journals at center, So I will click here. In the example, Brad ICS and I will name an example. We create it on a few seconds. I will have these document here, so let's full string this and you can see here Introduction. There's a theory that a lot of references conclusion conclusion, etcetera etcetera will analyze this document in the next video. See them. 3. Packages, sections, and table of contents: Hi and welcome back. So here we are with our example Project we created last time on in this lesson, I am going to teach you how late at document is actually structured. So this is the output off these main that tech files. So I'm going to open it. And I am going to delete some things here so I can explain you thinks better. Okay, so in the first line, we have thes backslash document class on inside this curly brackets. We have article. So as you can guess, we have to specify the glass of document we want to write. For example, we go 10 to this to book it. We were writing a book two memoir. If we were writing anymore. Beamer, if we were writing representation, but we will stick with article us, we will be writing an article I've seen any other programming language. Although later is not a programming language. We can use packages. So, for example, this input ANC package is the one responsible for telling the latest document. Hey, we want to use these kind of encoding. So inside these brackets, we're going to specify that we will be using you D F eight and coding. We can also a specify metadata like this one, the title that now is example. But we're going to change it. My title, the other that is me, the arm injuries, the date that we're going to specify, Montali or we can tell later. K, I want to use today's date this package Go. Not Bebe. This is used for separating that bibliography from the main file. So as you can see here we have these file called references dot beep. And here we have a reference. And well, DC's used whenever we have lots of references or we cooled Onley include a bibliography inside the main file. So it is up to you if you want to use this package or not, The next package is graphic X. So this package is used for displaying figures or images right now or document doesn't have image an image, but we will use them. We will just respect it to later. Okay, so these are the packages we will be using in our document. But the actual document begins here. Everything inside these begin document on and document will be displayed in the pdf. So this backslash make title will display all of these information in the pdf. So let's see what happens if we re compile so everything is deleted on. We stayed with these title the author on today's state. Okay, so we can also adhere sections. So the first section will be the introduction, for example And I will say this is that introduction period. Okay, so let's see what happens. You re compile, we will have the introduction section automatically numbered. So this is great because we didn't have to worry about the numerous Asian off the sections . We can also have subsections. For example, these will be I don't know the sub introduction. I guess these is the sub introduction. And if we re compile, we will have the some introduction automatically numbered as 1.1. So ive, for example, we add another subsections of introduction to and I will say, Hey, this is some introduction to we reckon pile then later is smart enough to know that these will be subsection 1.2. We can even add sub subsections. So this will be the sub sub introduction, I guess sub sub introduction. And if we re compile late check will enumerate these two to sub subsection 1.2 point one because this is below subsection 1.2. So let's see if we had sub subsection here sub subsection and I don't know sub sub Introduction one and I will not in itself so later isn't smart enough to say Hey, this is Subset Introduction one and it should be numbered as one point. What 0.1? Okay, so this is useful because we can at a table of contents as easy as writing table off contents. So let's see what happens. We had this. As you can see, we have now a table off gun Dent's. So suppose I want these to be in only one page, the table of contents to be in another page on these to be in another patient. In order to do this, we say, Hey, based break. We could be based on below table of contents, we add also base break on. Let's see what happens. These ease in only one page in patient number one, a table of content is in Beijing. Number two on everything else isn't Beijing number three, and as you can see, latex is smart enough to say all of these Easing beige number three. So both these subset in section 1.2 point one, he's in another face. So let's add a base break here. So if we re compiled, these will be in Bache number four. As you can see on the table of contents will get updated and say, Hey, subset introduction is now in base for so that's great! Now supposed you don't want these to be numbered? So we didn't want this to be section one. We don't want to be this section 1.1 we add asterisk before the courtly rackets and let's see what happens now you reckon pile now Introduction is not section one. This is not subsection 1.1 and so on. But now the table of contents will be empty because later doesn't know that these will be section one. This will be subsection one on so on. So it is recommended that you haven't least these be numbered So the table of contents can identify on Well, that's everything I will. Did you in this lesson in the next lesson I will Did you about equations later is great for equations. So see you in the next video 4. Equations: hi and welcome back. So in this lesson, I am going to teach you how to ride the beautiful equations on several other things. So remember we had this example Project and this is the output off these main Dex file. I'm going to delete some things I don't want any more and I'm going to stay with these make title, and I am going to use another back ish gold AMs Math. So AM s stands for American Mathematical Society. I think that will allow us to do some very nice tricks. And let's see, the first type of equation we can ride here in later are cold in line equations. They're called in line because they can be written inside a paragraph or text. So I'm going to say these e se polynomial of degree to column, and I am going to add these $2 signs. So inside these $2 signs, I am going to write my equation p of X will be I am going to use Grigg letters now. So if you're a data scientist or a scientist in general, then there's a high chance you're familiarized with Riddler's. So I'm going to say Alfa X squared plus better X plus gamma. These is a beautiful equation, so let's see, what's the output of this? So as you can see these equations, this equation is inside this text. And now, if you want to separate on equation from a paragraph, we can use the following environment. It's called begin equation, and as you can see here, we have two options here equation without a nest risk and equation with an asterisk. The main difference is that these we'll have a label or a new Amerasian so late Dick will liberate our equation automatically. And these won't have any kind of numerous shin. So let's see both in action. That's first start with equation without an asterisk. I'm here. I am going to write the formula to calculate the average of a set of points so usually right next on above the X there is a little bar. So that's how we had a bar above the X. If this is going to be equal to frack, this is for writing fractions. So here we will write the new man numerator, and here we're going to write that denominator. So here we were going to have a some. So this is going to be from I equals one to end. So that's how you write sub scripts. You at this underscore and inside this curly brackets you at what you want And if you want supper scripts, you had the symbol. I think this is called the wedge symbol. And after the wedge symbol it is. If it is only one character, we didn't have to add curly brackets. But for example, if we want this to be to and plus one, then we will have to add these curly brackets so it's not necessary. But we're going to leave those curly brackets there, and the denominator is going to be an So let's see, What's the output off these immigration now? This equation, I forgot. So this has to be for eggs. I of course. Okay, so we're something x I from I equals to one to end. So no, the things here, the first thing is that this equation is numbered. So if we want to reference this equation from another part of the document, we will be talking about cross reference later. But we can do this by using this number here so late. Take this is smart enough to say Hey, this equation number one the second thing I want you to notice is that this I equals one should be below this mentioned symbol on this and should be above. So in order to do that, uh, before the some you write display style, we re compile and see what happens. So you can see now that I equals one is below on the end, east above the summation symbol. Now let's see what happens if we write it gration but with these asterisks. So I'm going to copy and paste this formula and add some parentheses here. So the formula is now ah, wrapped inside this Prentice's, um let's see what the output is. So note two things here first, that this question is no longer number. So we cannot reference thes equation and also note that these Prentice's are too small. So in order to fix this, we can adhere left on here. Right and red. Compile. Let's see what happens well are that parentheses are now automatically rece iced. We can also do some other cool stuff like box this equation. So we had on the bucks here we write. We wrap all of this equation into this box, Doug. And now our equation is boxed. The other thing I want you to show you is that you can write actually systems of equations . So, for example, I'm going to write I'm going to use this environment equation with an asterisk. And inside this environment, I can use another environment provided by AMs meth. That's gold begin cases. So I'm going to write my first equation here, a X plus y equals zero. And in order to write the second equation here first we had these two back slashes on continued on the next line and say, Hey, C X plus the y equals two syrup. Read, compile and see what happens because you can see No, we have a beautiful system off equations. And we did this by him, batting one environment inside another environment. No, I am going to show you. So that's first companies on based it here. So let's see. I don't want this to be boxed anymore. I just want to write a lot of expressions here. So now this is going to be multiplied by a square root off X plus three, uh, glass at Times Square. Well, you brute. So in order to do us some Cuba, it we had, um, in these brackets the number three explosive six or 73 times. I don't know. Let's have some sign of eggs. Essam just I love eggs. Um, let's see. Time school sign of eggs. Uh, let's see times, Let's at some integral is now integral off f of eggs. The eggs times, um double integral. So another to do some double integral we do back slash I ain't ever affects Why the x y The Times triple integral it seems triple integral have of X y Z, the X Do I, they seem. And let's see what's the output now? So these steel feeds in our screen, so that's had some more symbols, lets up. I live off us up. 123456789 Sometimes better sub with 3456789 So let's see what happens now. So as you can see now, the equation does not feed into our screen. So we have to split this equation somehow. In order to do this, let's say we want to split it here after the double integral. So we're going to change equation to a line lying, Um, after these double integral, we're going to have to back slashes. And at these two second line Now, you can see that this equation is in fact split into these two lines. So on this is very useful when you are riding very, very long questions and that is all I am going to teach you in this lesson. So there's a lot to digest. So if you didn't got chopped with some something and then you can rewind this video on, watch it again. So see you on the next video. 5. Cross Referencing: hi and welcome back in this lesson. I am going to teach you how to do cross referencing so gross references are so simple. Get. They are so powerful. And this is one of those things you will not doing. Other text processors like Microsoft's work. So let's see what this is. So let's go back. And remember, I told you last time that this environment equation without an asterisk numbers are equation on. We can reference this equation by assigning I labeled with. So let's say after begin equation, let's write label on. Let's say this is equation one on Dhere. I am going to say Gordon, too. I am going to say ref, And here I will say Equation one. This is the formula to calculate the average. So let's compile and see what happens is so here and nothing changed. But here we have thes reference to these equations. So let's add another equation so you can see the difference. Let's see begin equation and let's say eggs equals 200 y plus one on, Let's say, the seas equation Number two on. I am going to say here this is the second equation riff and equation too. So let's see what happens now You can see we're referencing these second equation and later is a smart enough to know toe what equation we are referring to. So if something changes here, so these, for example, changes from 2 to 3 then, um, these reference will be correctly displayed no matter what on we can reference other things not only equations, for example, if I say section introduction. This is, um sorry, these is the introduction on. Then I say here, label being true. For example, you can you can right here whatever you want. And I can reference it from another part of the document according to that intro for two section And then I say Araff intra, let's see what happens. According to Section One, the second line, we can also reference subsections. I don't know. That's right here, subsection sub introduction. This is labels of intra whatever you want. I liken right here according to subsection breath 17 through again, Let's compile and see what happens again. We get the correct the reference we can also reference images so we haven't talked about even just did. But I'm going to and put any Miss year. So include graphics, graphics, Universe that and J B. G. And let's see here when I wrote Begin figure and over Leaf assignment label automatically. This is Fiqh, my label. So let's see according to feed your and then they say it, Ref, I think my label blah, blah, blah. And let's see what happens according to feed your one. This is figure one, blah, blah, blah, and you can say whatever you want here. So as you can see, cross referencing is very simple, and it is very powerful. You don't have to worry about if you change this image. If you had another image and this is now figure two, you don't have to worry about any of these things later is smart enough to reference things correctly. I hope you like this video and see in the next one 6. Inserting Figures and making them behave!: Hi. And welcome back in this lesson. I am going to did you how to deal with images. So the first thing I'm going to do is to the lead All of these equations I don't want any more. Okay, So later cannot deal with images naturally. So we need to provide the package for letting to do this task. In this case, the package is called Graphic X. And remember, this package came along with our example projects, so we don't need to import it anymore. Also, remember, I said in the first video that we called, uh, create in the folder so we can store all of our images here. So I'm going to create this folder, and then I'm going to drag and drop these image universe, the J B. J inside this folder. So, in order to say hey, later, I have my images in the folder. I'm going to say graphics bath on inside this curly brackets. I'm going to say it is inside my images folder. Okay, so now later knows how were or where to find the images. And we're going to include this image in our documents. So we have to say include graphics on inside these brackets. We're going to specify the size, but for an hour not going to modify the size, we're only going to display the original image. Let's see what happens now. That is our original image so we can scale this image. We can say, Hey, I want this image to be twice as big that see what happens now, the images twice as big as it was before. We can also specify the height and with mentally so we can say with six centimeters hide also six centimeters. So we shall have in a square Right now you can see the image rece iced on. Now it is a square image. We can also rotate this image and say, Hey, I want this to be rotated 45 degrees. Let's see what happens now It is rotated 45 the grease. So remember from the last video that we said we could also cross reference images. So in order to do that, we need to embed this include graphics inside this environment called begin figure. So if I legal that then all of these things appeared automatically, the first thing is centering, so this tells later. Hey, I want my image to be in the center. Off the document. The second is the include graphic. So I'm going to replace days with what we had. The third thing here is the caption. So we can have a caption to be below the image or above. We just have to move these above in good graphics in order for the caption to be above. Um, we have also these labels so we can say I have the image and say, Ref feed. Call him my label. So now let's see what happens. Okay, so look at this. This is very weird. I have this text that should be below this image, but the image and went to the second page on these texts remained here. So what happened here so late? IQ is very weird on for later. That is the best positioning off the image. But certainly we don't want that. So we have to say to later. Hey, I want my image ragged here. In order to do that, we need to use another baggage gold float on here. I'm going to best an argument that it will be capital age for here. Okay, So let's see what happens now. Now, the image is both these text as we wanted it to be. As I said, D caption can be above the image if we move these above the include graphics command. Now, the caption is a both. Okay, so, no, I'm going to importing another package. It is going to be the lips whom package on this lips and package is going to allow me, uh, deride these. A standard text called Lauren Gibson. We just say, Hey, lips. Um, Andi, we're going to have a very long text. Very long. A standard text called London Epsom. Okay, so now suppose that we want our image to be wrapped inside these paragraphs. So inside, for example, these first paragraph. In order to do that, we need get another package, and it's going to be rap fiqh. Okay, So before leaves him, I'm going to say the game wrap figure on. I'm going to include all of these things here so we don't need these anymore. We're going to say where is? Okay, so let's see what happens now. Let's resize these a little bit. Let's say hey, want my image to be syrup point eight times the regional size on. Okay, we got an error because we need some more arguments here, so we need two more arguments here. We need to specify later. Okay? I want this to be wrapped on the left and we put an l here or on the right. So we're going to stay with the left and we're going to say, Hey, I want also these to be, um syrup. Oh, that The box that is going to contain this image is going to be 0.5 the text with, So we can also specify in terms of the text with and let's see what happens now. Now, as you can see, the image east on the left is wrapped on the left. We can also change these to the right. If you want that scene now, it is in the right on the box that is containing this image is syrup 0.25 times the text with so 1/4 off. This text with the image is not 1/4 the images Still Syria point eight times its original size. But the box containing it is one forced off the text with and the last thing I want you to show is that we can include a list of figures. Just as we included the table of contents. We can include least off figures left. Let's see what happens. So as you can see Well, we can say these. We want this to be another page and these to be in another page. Um, okay, this is in the patient. And now we have our least of figures, so that's pretty nice. We can have our table of contents on now. We can have our least off figures. So that's nice. And I hope you like this video that you learn how to deal with images. See you in the next video. 7. Matrices and Vectors: hi and welcome back. So, in this lesson, I am going to teach you everything about the matrices. Major cities are extremely important for data science for linear algebra in general. So in order to use matrices, we need to import these package called ams math. Remember a man assistance for American Mathematical Society. OK, so we're going to embed, um, a matrix environment inside the equation environment. So if we want the Matrix surrounded by brand theses, we begin this bee matrix environment and ended obviously. And here I'm going to say the first row, the first element of the first row is going to be a to add the second element. We and a 9% on say B will be the second element off the first row to go to the second row. We had to back slashes on, do the same thing. So let's see what the output of these ABC Andy. So suppose you like brackets instead of parentheses. You replace the fee with the lower case be and now you have rackets. Now suppose you like early brackets you replaced lower case. Be with upper case. Be now you have curly brackets, so let's stay with brackets. Now if you want to see me late, for example, that you are making a matrix multiplication just at another and be matrix below your first be matrix. So let's say you want to multiply this matrix a BCG with 123412 um, three and four. So the other main tricks is going to be blazed a side by side. Okay, so that's how you see me late, Your matrix. Multiplication. Now leads actually replace this equation with lying are Let's add a nother equation here. So suppose you want to ride a vector. So vector is a column vector and you're going to say, Vick big, I don't know A is going to be Begin The Matrix, Um, and the Matrix on here. You're going to write your vector one second road to on their rope. Three. So let's see what other victories. Now you have your nice vector here. Now it's at the another equation. And let's say you want to calculate the determinant off a matrix, so let's begin now. V Matrix V stands for vertical because you're right, like vertical bars. When we write that determinant a B see on the Let's see, What's the output? It's ABC, The suppose we want to say, Hey, that off this matrix A is equal to that. Now we're going to have a text saying debt off matrix A is equal to that. Obviously this is equal to okay, the minus B c. Something I didn't tell you when I d to how to ride equations is that you cannot text to equation. So instead of that, we can write, actually, just text that space on the odd booed she will be the same event. A easy go to these on this is equal to this You can Also, instead of adding one vertical bar, a two vertical barce we operate K's V. I know you have these two vertical bars. Actually, I haven't used these notation too much, but well, I think this is for calculating. May be the norm off the matrix. If you didn't know, you can calculate that. Let's stick with only one vertical var. Okay, so, no, the You can also add your own deli meters toe your matrix. So let's begin a matrix matrix. Just matrix. Let's see what happens here. A being see on the So now let's see what the output is. You have a matrix without any daily meters so you can have your own the limiter. For example, These left arm go on these ranked I will low angle stands for left angle on. Wrangel stands for right angle. Let's see what the deal emitter is now. Now you have these left angle on right angle. I think the seas used very often with physicists that study quantum mechanics. I believe, Um, okay. And so now you can add also in line matrices. So this is and in line matrix, and you can add these $2 symbols and begin your P matrix, for example, the matrix and matrix. And let's add our usual matrix a name see on the So let's see what the output is. You have your in line matrix, so maybe maybe these matrix is too big for your text, so you can write. You can write a smaller matrix with a small matrix environment, so let's see, we just have toe at these big left Prentice's Begin or small matrix environment. Small matrix a the, um, see deep and or small matrix environment on big right. Brandis is now let's see. What's the difference? Now you have his mother matrix that is more suitable for your text on looking at this, I want you to show you something else. It is not related to matrices that, No, that these equations in the ally environment are not center. So if we want them to be centered, we can play with the line environment. But more easily you can just replies replace align with gather that replaced these with gather. And then you will have all of your equations centered. Well, that's everything I will. Did you about the matrices and vectors? I hope you like this video and see you in the next one. 8. Lists: Hi. And welcome back in this lesson. I'm going to teach you how to write lists. So we have two types of lists. The 1st 1 are on ordered list and the 2nd 1 are obviously order lists. So in order to create on order, let's we have to use these environment called itemize. So here I put my first item. Uh, here I put my second item. Okay, so let's see what the output of thes is. Okay, so I have my Nord earliest here on by the fold D c. Is taking a black bullet. So if you want to change this symbol, we have to use another package called ams Seem so am s stance. Remember for American mathematical Society and seemed a stance. Four symbol. Okay, so here inside these brackets, I can say, Hey, I want a square instead of a black ball it I want a square. I need the show in there. A blank square. If I want a black square, then they put Black Square on. Now I have a black square here. I can also create order list. So for that, I need these enumerates environment. You I ride my item one here. I arrived. My He sees lower case I 10 to let's see what the output of this is. I have one too. I didn't want I didn't too. So we cannot change these numbers, because remember, we're working with a order list, so we have to change if we want. If we want to change these two, for example letters, we will have to change everything. So we didn't eso We don't lose that order. Okay, so before and showing you how to modify that, I want you to show that we can create nested at least. So here I can create another list and it will be sub item one. I can create another list here, for example, in Yuma, rate is will be sub sub item one and I can even go further and create another nested list. It will be sub sub. So item one. So let's see what happens here. Okay, so we have these first level off list. This is the second level. This is the third level on. This is the fourth level. So know that by default, the first level has numbers. The second level has lower case letters. The third level has these Roman number and the fourth level has these, um, uppercase letters. So suppose I want to modify the second level symbol here. So I want this to be Roman numbers capital. Roman numbers for that Before everything I have to say, we knew command. And here I am going to pass this argument that will be label and newme on. I am going to say second level with two I've piece are Roman numbers and what I want to use here. Well, Roman numbers. And I am going to say in them on the level that we want to modify, and we are going to add a point. So and it shows a point, these point here. Okay, so now I have these Rahman numbers over example. If I say I m sub item to, then we're going to have to Capitol eyes here. Okay, so that's how you modify these symbols here. But as you noted, you have to modify everything because we're working with, um, order lists. We can also have a levels in on orderly. So, for example, here I can have begin itemize, and here I'm going to say sub item one from here. I'm going to say hey, want another Ah sub list on here. This will be sub sub item one, So let's have get another begin Itemize sub sub sub item one. Let's see what happens with another lists. So by default, I have first is blackball it then this dash than these asterisks. And then this little point here again, we can modify the symbols of a certain level by using these Renew Command that instead of here I'm going to say label instead of a numb I'm going to say item item and suppose I want to modify the fourth level So I will pass it Roman number and became the fourth level. And here I am going to specify the symbol. So I want everything in the fourth level to be a black square. Let's see now what happens? I have no black square just like here. So if I add via had another item here sub sub sub I tend to It will be also a square. Okay, so that's pretty. All I have to say about lease I hope you like this video and see you in the next one 9. Tables (Part 1): Hi. And welcome back in his lesson. I am going to teach you how to create tables. They can be maybe a little bit complicated. But don't worry, we're going through it. Okay? So first, we're going to create these center of our meant. So our table east centered, then I am going to great these tabular environment Ondas you can see over Leaf gave us automatically these parameters here by the fault. Okay, So the first scene means that the first column each sell off the first column or the content off each cell will be centered. These vertical bar here means that the first column on the second column will be separated by these vertical bar. And these seem means that the second column will be also centered. So let's right here Column Whom here column too. Here. Still one. Ah, cell to. And in order to add another road, I at these two back slashes sell three, um, cell for Okay, So let's see what the art put off This is So this is the table, the result table. And as you can see, each element of this colony centered and they are separated by this vertical bar on each element of the second column is also centered. So what happened here? Well, in order to great an element for the first column and we right, well, the text. And then in order to greet the second an item for the second column, we have to specify this one person. So this is like the separator. In order to go to a next role, we have to write to back slashes on. We ride the content off the second room. That's how this works. You Natick. Okay, We can add a vertical bar at the beginning on at the end on let's see what happens in that case. So as you can see 1/2 these vertical by vertical bar here on these vertical bar at the end , Okay, so we can customize it. Ah, a little bit more by adding horizontal lines so far isn't the lines are added with these H nine command here Between the first and the second row, I add another horse on the line. Here I add another horse and the line on a D n or at the bottom of the table. I get another hers on the line, so this is the result. As you can see now, it's looking like a really table. Okay, so now let's move to the next topic that he's I didn't fixed length to each column. So here, instead of using these, see, I'm going to write in I am a stands for middle, so it's not the same needle center. You will see the difference in a moment on. I want this come to be two centimeters with on this column to be once intimate er with Let's add another column and middle once intimately with and a vertical bar on. I closed this. Okay, so in order to use these parameters here, we have to import another baggage. Gold. Um, sorry. So I use this baggage array, and now I can use these parameters here. Also, I'm going to delete this content on, have another another text. So I will say these is a dext very long text that normally will not feed on the screen on Let's, uh, I don't know. So sales to on here. So three at the back slashes and copy paste these things three times on. Finally have another h No. Okay, so let's see what the output off. This is okay. So as you can see well, we don't have to write these h lines with these things here. Okay, now we're table is corrected. Eso As you can see, these very long text that normally will not feed on the screen is automatically reupped. So for those of you who already who uses excel in a normal basis on you, right there, very long text in a cell, then the text will not feed on that cell. Then you have to press the bottom wrap text in order for it to be like this in this table. So that's why this is a very useful parameter. So because we have automatically wrap text in this cell here on will I told you also that on the content to be in the middle is not the same for the content to be in the center. You can see the difference right here. Well, it is center. Yes, but it is in the middle of the cell. So you have like these. It's based here above the content on this space here, below the content. It's evenly spaced vertically. So that's what the content for to be in the middle means, um Well, that's everything I have to tell you about fixed length columns. Let's move to the other topic. That is a multiple rows and multiple columns. Okay, so let's delete this on. Let's actually create a two column table. We've center columns, obviously. Okay. So, um well, you can specify these for l for left the lying or are for right. Like, but it is prefer. Well, I prefer tables or the content to be in the center. Okay, so I want these text to be and disband to come. So for that, I'm going to use this command multi column, and it takes, as you can see here, three parameters. So the first parameter is how many columns will these span? I want this to spend two columns. I want the former to be like this because you have to specify an informant. Because here is a former it off all the cells. But this is a spanning two columns. So we have to specify what for meant we want here. I'm going to say here the decks contra list. Obviously we can write h line here. Um, age laying here on here I'm going to say country on the second column will be the population of each conference. So I'm going to add my home country, Ecuador. It's more or less 7 17 million people, even here through it's more or less 33 million and Colombia, it's much more 50 million, I think again, that's odd. In H line, it's nine here. Each line here, age line here on H lying here. So let's see what the output of this is. So you can see these country least aspires to columns these country on. Well, the rest of the table is just like a normal table. So that's how you combine multiple columns, and we can do the same for multiple rows. But that's first Delete this. In order to use multiple rows, we have to use another baggage. Gold moules dear Oh yeah, we don't have to use any baggage for multiple columns, but for multiple rows we have to use that package. I don't know why, but let's see here we want in Column one and call him, too. Your h nine um, h nine. That's just at it up here. And, well, multi road takes Also three parameters the 1st 1 is how many rows you want these to span. And I wanted to spend toe to Rose. This is the size on. These will be the next rolled people row. Then we have the content of the first row. Well, the second row, second column. Um well, here I don't have to write anything because these space here will be occupied by the text off this multi row. That's just that sell to Okay, so let's see what the output of this is. So as you can see, I have a multiple row here onto sales here so you can play a lot with this on. You will see that it is very, very funny. 10. Tables (Part 2): hi and welcome back. So, in this lesson, first I'm going to remind you that Remember when we used images when we inserted images in athletic document? Sometimes they didn't behave like we wanted to. And with tables this can also happen. So we need to figure out a way and for tables to behave well on. That is a very easy way. There is a very easy way we can just create a table environment on, as you can see over leave already help me adding these things by default. So we have here a centering command so we can center our table just like we did with this center of government on We have here a caption so I can change this with my new table on. We have already a label here, so we can reference these new table and ref dub calling my label. And also, I have here my tabular commands. So that's just copy and paste what we had inside the center environment on Let's married here. Okay, on, let's get the read off all of this and well, I have something else here. Remember that with images we imported these package float on we added here these capital h So these tales laid the K. I want my table right here. So the later won't do any calculation to optimize the positioning. It will at the table right where you wanted it to be. So let's compile it. And while the position of the table is not going to change because it was already well positioned. But now we can have these caption on. We can also reverence this table right here. If you want your caption to be above the table, then you just simply at the caption above the tabular environment on there you have it. Now the caption is above the table. Okay, So just as we images, we can also have a least of table. So here, after title, we're going to say, least off tables on, we're going to have this in a new base and let's see what happens now. Now I have my least of tables. Here's the caption of my first table on it is telling me that it is on the second page. So if I go to the my second page, then table one is right here. So this is very useful. Uh, it is very useful. Toe. Have your tables with the caption and labeled. Okay, So one last thing I want to doug you about East Long table. So let's delete this on this. Also, think this on. We have to use another baggage for these. That is long table. So now we can create a new environment called Begin Long Table. So now we can create this environment on. Now what we're going to do is to add a caption. But before doing that, we're going to say, Hey, I want all of these elements center and I want two columns. Okay, so now the caption is coming. You can say here these is my love table on. One thing I have to tell you also is that the labels should be inside the caption So love my long table and we're going toe to backslash is also and we need for things the end of the first head. The end had the end foot on the end last foot. So let's just create them, create them. And then you're going to visualize what is each of these things? I'm going to explain you after I have done these steps So let's adhere a multi column. It is going to span two columns. It is going to be in center and it is going to say beginning of the table off the long table. Then we had another H line, and we have called him one and call him too. Backslash each line, um, end off the first head that we're going to create the end head with an H line here. A another multi column centred element. Continuation of the long table. And also another H line again. That column one on they call him, too. Double backslash Age line on, we're going to say and off head Now we need the M foot. It is just going to be this age nine and foot and the end last foot. So here we're going to have multi another multi column center, and that is going to say, end off, uh, the long tail, um, nature line and and off last foot. Now, finally, who are going to write lots off line. So we're going to say DC's A as the first element e. I'm here. We're going to say Long table Onda backlash. Then we're going to copy and paste this lots and lots of time. So let's add a few of these, then copy beauties and that not some not such information here on. Let's see what happens after we have added luds and nuts of roast. Get more rose. Okay, so I think we have sufficient of these grows. So I have here a well here. We needed to add these two backslash and that's why I had that error. Okay, so I don't have any error. And these, as you can see, is the and off the first head. This is the end first had we created and it says, Well, beginning of the long table calling one on column too. Now let's scroll down on this is the what we wrote before the end head. So as you can see continued continuation of the long table Come one come to Well, we have more row, so it will show a continuation of long table continuation off long table on. Well, we have reached the end of this off this table and if it is going to say the continuation of the long table again But at the end we have our end last food so This is the end off the long table. And remember that we also had and foot. Well, is this this line here? Um, these lying here. We just added a n h line. So what we haven't do that way have not do that. We will only have We wouldn't we wouldn't have that line there. So we need to at that age line. So every table in every base, half that line there on will I hope you have understood how tables are created. And one last thing I want to mention is that Well, sometimes tables can be very, very well time consuming to create, because we have to at this and percent, and we have to add this a double backslash. So if you go to Google on search for, um table latex generator, then well, I have already marked down in here. So as you can see, we can create a table online. We can even copy and paste things here. And if you click on this button, generate, then it will create these, um, these code for you. You just have to modify, for example, that here in age had descent drain on all of those things. But the thing is that if you just want to copy and paste some information that you have, for example, in excel or another program, then you just copy and paste it. Here, look at this bottom. Generate on. Then you have it. Then you can customize it the way you want. 11. Font Sizes, Families and Styles: Hi and welcome back in this lesson. I am going to teach you about four incisors from styles on fund families in late IQ. But first of all, I have to say that, yes, we are a little bit limited with respect to this topics in later, you won't have the same freedom you have, like, for example, in Microsoft War or Apple pages, because later gets a little bit limited about about this. Okay, so let's start with fond sizes. Instead of specifying the number of the front the size of the funding numbers. Well, we have disc Amanda's tiniest grip size footnote sizes, small, normal sized, large, large, large, huge on. Huge. So, yeah, we see a clear this advantage here because they are not so creative with names of the fonts . But let's see what the output of disease I have already compiled this. So you will see that the 1st 1 that you was tiny is thes from size. Then where I don't know the order script size with no size. Well, they are in ascending order. So huge. Uh, that well, the the largest fund we have here and a script well, tiny is the smallest one. So, yeah, you have to, um, play around with these in order to have the front you need. But in general, the general document you see here we have by default these 10 points here in this article on these only supports 10 11 and 12. As you can see, I can specify 11. Um, well, it is a little bit more. Ah, large. Maybe if I change it to 12 you will see the difference on those are the Onley numbers that latex support. So it's a little bit more large, so you can only put here 10 11 on 12. If you want to have more sizes, then you have to change this article by e x t article. Then here you can specify. 89 10 11 12 14 17 I'm 20. So you are leaving dead anyways. But you have more options. I've specified 20. You can see the phone size is ah larger. Okay, so let's stay with only 10 points on these being article. Okay? So that with respect to to the phone sizes now, let's see the phone style. Well, one styles referred to the text being bold, being italics, being um is landed and those on those things. So let's see what happens if I were compiled with normal one size. Okay, So as you can see here, I have this text written in bold. So in order to do that, you write this command inside this command, the argument is a text. You wanted to be involved here. This is italics. Then you write your text in italics. This is his lantern. This is a bright on. This is a small caps, as you can see, a bold italics. Slanted is like italics, but less curved. And this is a bride. Looks like normal text on this is a small cats. Ah, well, you also have fun families on. We are also really me that in these topic because, well, I have written here only three phone families that is safe or Roman sans serif, um die brighter or more space. Um well, I think there are two or three more. I don't know. So, as you can see, we don't have a lot off for families available in late IQ, but we can have more, but in order to do that, it is a little bit complicated, but because, remember, we have ah, different compilers. Well, I think this is the one we shall use in order to add in new funds or custom funds in an easier way. So let's just stay with pdf latex. Well, we have these 34 families and that are as I told you. Sorry if sensory, um typewriter Andi, this is how they look. So the last thing I want to toe tell you is that yeah, you write this command has this argument on that is the recommended way because maybe you want. You don't want to modify the whole text. But if you want to modify, for example, the whole dext, then you can use what's called the switch. Commend. So rich command is something like this. So let's see our am family. Then everything below this command will be written in serif or Roman, for example. I'm going to say everything here is going to be reading with Saref Roman on. Unless you specify another switch, command everything below this will be in that phone family. So if I write another switch command like TT family now, everything below the switch command, we'll be in type writer. Ah, foreign family. Okay, so as you can see, let's wreck Compile this. Now, as you can see, everything below the first switch. Command is in Saref on everything below the typewriter. Fitch Command will be in this typewriter phone family the same come happen with one style. So let's did it. Everything here on. Well, for bold these which commands BF serious. So everything below this switch command will be involved on this issue specifying another switch command, for example, I talent this which command for it is I d shape everything below this news. Reach command. We'll be in italics now. Let's see what the result of disease on you. Everything Well, I shall put here. I'll get you understand? Here. Everything is, um Bolt on here. Everything is on italic. Okay, so yeah, that's everything I have to tell you about these phone sizes from families on fun styles. They are a little bit, um, let me dead in these way. Well, there are recommended thing here is don't use these switch. Commence if you want your text of involved. Just used this text BF on then here put your tax Timbul. I hope you like this video singing in the next one 12. Hyperlinks: Hi. And welcome back in this video, I'm going to show you how to deal with hyperlinks. So, first of all, you have to use this baggage. Cool, high breath breath. Okay. And we can make some configurations here. And in order to do that, we have to invoke this command hyper set up here. I'm going to say I want all of my links to be colored. So I said, these variable equal to true. I want my link color to be equal to say blue. I want my u r l color equal to magenta. Now, for example, let's say I want some text to rhetoric to a an external website in order to do this, we say, for example, this on then and say invoked the command h ref on here I will write the URL www dot google dot Come and say this sentence is going to read erect to Google. Let's see what the result of this is. Okay, So as you can see, the color off these link East Magenta because this is going to read direct you to an external Ural on. Well, if I click here, then I read directed to we will dot com Suppose you only want the row your l Then instead of using h ref, you use the command. You are you URL www dot google dot Come. Let's see what the result of this is. Well, it's the road you, Earl. Okay, so when you import this baggage hyper f than automatically, everything that is labelled will be, um Well, you've you click. If you reference to that label, then you will be ready erected inside the documents. So let's see these with an example. Let's write an equation. Begin. Well, we need a labeled equation here, So equation equation on that. Say, these will be labeled as equation one on, Let's say, why was X squared plus X plus one now leads right here. A base break on reference the equation. So I am going to reference equation on Dhere ref equation one. So let's compile and see what happens now. Okay, so here it is, my equation on in the second page, I am going to reference the question one. So if I click here, then I get back to the original equation. So this happens automatically when you use this hyper ref package. But Well, some things cannot be labeled, for example, text. So in order to great manual toe insert links mentally, then you have to do the following. It's a hyperlink. I Burling. It takes two parameters. So this will be a tag just and naming attack. These sentence will ready red erect to another page, then that's at a base break. Beige brick on then to these. Sorry again. You have to say hyper hyper instead. A hyperlink. Hyper target. Sorry. Hyper target. I mean, we received 22 arguments the doc and the next two, these centers. Okay, so let's see what the output of this is. Okay, so it is colored blue because this is a link on. Let's click here. So, as you can see it read Direct me automatically to these sentence here, So these centres will reiterate to another page exactly to the sentence. So that's how hyperlinks on work in late IQ. Hope you like the video and see you in the next one 13. Adding code to your document with Minted: Hi. And welcome back in this lesson. I'm going to teach you how to add co two your later document. So if you are a data scientist, maybe you don't need this because with you bitter notebooks, then you can already include coat. Well, that's the point of view paternal book. But if you're working with a pure latex file, then you will need to do the following first. You will need to use this package Gold. I mean, did It's one of my favorite baggage is here in Natick on one note here is that if you're working off line, then you will need to use another package gold pigment. But if you're working with over, leave online, then you just have to import this package and you will be fine. So the first thing I want to mention that we can have one lie. One line codes, for example. These is a an example off a one liner on. Then you can say means and specify here the programming language. So, for example, by thumb or java or JavaScript Ormat lab Or I don't know, Scala. Whatever you want. There are lots and lots of Berman language. You can include here, but let's stay with bison. I'm going to ride the code I want to print inside these two vertical our souls that say I want to bring him the world. And let's see the output of these. Okay, so this is my one liner in the world. But if you want to ride more codes, so these will be not very convenient. So we will need to create a new environment, just as we did with equations gold minted on here. You can specify the program in language. So, for example, by them Ah, let's start important. Some packages here, like Mumbai. My live the type blood sk learn on. That's great. The glass example. And you need function. Self name. That same himself. The name name that's creating another, um, method here. Brains. Hello. Blasts off the name? I don't know. That's great. Now an object of this. That's greed. David, call this method greening's. Okay, so let's see what the output off this is. So as you can see, we have here are code. Well, just does before some keywords are in color ring, some others are in blue. For example, these parameters here are in red. Let's customize a little bit more. These So, for example, after And, um, sorry. Before um Specifying the programming languages, we can specify some parameters here. Like, for example, the background color of the code will be like Ray. We can also specify the fun size. So we have already talk about these on footnote Size is very common for coach on line number and got the truth on. Let's see what happens if I specify these parameters. So now, as you can see, we have our code inside this, like great box, the farm sizes now, food, note size. And I have the numbers here so him we can specify even more parameters, but you can search them on Google. Um, but, well, you can do this. You can ride the whole code if you know that your gold won't change. But maybe if you're modifying a lot your code this will be a little impractical, because you will have to copy and paste your code every time you make a change. So there is another way to include a code here. Um, but that's leads the lead. All of these on Let's stay with those parameters there, and we're going to say input. I mean, did so it receives three parameters the 1st 1 of these things here. So let's Okay, the second parameters is the programming language. So in this case is Spuyten and the third parameter is the file name. So I have included here this example dot b y. So, Yeah, I cannot preview this, but it's exactly the same as I wrote, so let's just a motive here. Um um, open. So as you can see, it's the same mess I wrote before the same script. But now it's in a duck p y file. So yeah, you will have maybe these in your local directory, and this will change every time you make a modification to your goat. So, um, here, you can say, is like, sample that people I'm on, It's recombine ill. There were sold, she will be the same, and the result is the same because it's the same code, but in the p Y file. So that's very useful, because maybe you have these in the repertory and you're making changes, So this will be synchronized automatically because these file will change. Okay. No, The last thing I want to talk about these. Um, well, remember, with images on with tables, we can capture them. We can label them well, we can do the same with with goat. So instead of having these like this, we can create another environment, cold least ing. So let's put everything inside this listing environment. And now we can capture this So we can say these is some Bytom code. We can label it and say these is by from code, we can reference it. So I, um, referencing coz, um, that's a biting cold. Okay, so let's see what the output off this is. Um, so did you see what happened? I have this above this. This should be above this. Right? So remember when I told you that figures and tables sometimes don't behave that you want to ? Yeah. And remember that we also imported these magical baggage. Gold flowed, so yeah, you're right. We have to say age capital age. So this tells later hair one. This go to be right here. Don't modify it. Don't use your optimized optimizing and algorithms. Just put my coat here. So now my code is above these text here on the last thing you can do is, um Well, uh, index off coats. So you just have to say list off these things. That's not a base break here on. Let's rickon violence. See what happens now. As you can see, I have a list of less things. Well, it should be a list of goats, and they have Michael here. So remember, we imported that hyper f at package. Well, that allow us Yes, to click here on it. Read directs me automatically to this goat here. So I hope you like this baggage as much as I like it. Um, well, see you on the next video. 14. Creating a bibliography: Hi and welcome back in this lesson. I am going to teach you how to add a videography to your later document So later is very, very complete and complex for doing this. There is nothing better than later for adding big longer because people who created later on who usually take take very seriously citations. So that's why we have, like, three packages to achieve be biography management. So the 1st 1 is not babe this game by default. The other one's called Big Deck on the one that we're going to use this goal of people a dick. So yeah, this gun, very this can get very complicated. So we're just to keep keep it short on, teach the basics off this topic. So as I told you, we're not going to use these, not babe, so we can delete it on. The first thing we're going to do is to create a bibliography and manually. So for doing these, we have to create these environmental called that bibliography from here against Basel argument. So if we're going to use from 1 to 9 s citations, we just right here nine you were going to use from 10 to 99 citations. Then we had here 99. If we're going to use from 100 to 999 citations, we add these and get another nine. But I think we're just going to keep it from one tonight. Okay, so here I can add a tax so we can reference the citation inside the documents. So, for example, that's right here, random book. And of course, we need the sect ation. So for these, I'm going to use this website called Side These for me. So this is for lazy people like me that didn't learn. Well, that's a different citation. Styles like a p a, Emily, Harvard and all of those things. So I'm just to search for any book here on let the website do the rest of the work for me. So I'm just I'm just going to pick this one. The advanced theory of statistics continue continuum on. Let's see what the result off the cetaceans. So this is automatically sided with a P A style. I'm just going to copy on based basted. Here are Let's just add another one. Be biting on Just will be random book, too, and I'm just going to copy and paste this on. Well, let's change the city and ano Kato on the advanced theory off machine learning Angela on Let's compile and see the result. So I have here a warning. It's telling me misplaced alignment up character I'm person on it is showing because I can't write 1% just like this. I have toe a box last year. Another backs last year because I percent east a special character. Remember, we used to write different items in the table and things like that. So that's why we have to add a backlash. And then it is written normally here. Okay, So as I told you, we can reference these, but we don't use the ref and command we use. For example, according to book, we use the site command and that detect we way we created So, for example, random book according to book love a lot. These formula is useful. I don't know whatever you want to right there on. That's also at a base, break your beige break and see what happens now. So as you can see well, the references are in another separated bache on. Remember that we imported that package Hyper f. So it's very useful, because if I click here, then it takes me back to the urinal citation. So this is Citation one on this additional one. If I click here, then resurrects me here. Okay. So Well, this is how you create a bibliography mentally. But people tell not to create a bibliography mentally, and they tend to separate the citations from the main document on for doing these were going to use the package I told you before, Beeb. Latex. So and we're going to say, Hey, my references or my citations are in these documents. Gold references are in this file. Cold references. The beat. Okay, so let's see what's in these files. So I have my citation. Well, it's just one citation here. It's of the type book. This is the tag. The title, the author, I s B and your l year. Bullish. Er Okay, so let's add another one. It will be an article. The attack will be the lead article. The title? I don't know. They dig or data scientists. Um, let's see the author or will be the V A. The year will be 2003. Okay, let's see. Now we have to, um, ad obviously these references here. So in order to do that, we just say, Hey, print you bigger and that's all. So let's see. And I think we will have some errors here, so it takes a while. OK, So as you can see, the references are not showing. So let's see the warning. So it says, um, empty biography on input line 32 Okay, so it says that these bibliography is 70. But why? It is showing at this message if the bibliography is clearly not empty. Okay. So late ag is Asai told you people who use later are very street. Think side dishes. Very, very seriously. So later want print any bibliography if you didn't mention any of those citations in your documents. So I have to say, according book, I have to say here inside, um well, it is here, Adams. Uh, well, the duck here, Adams in 1995 heat, sugar, or however you pronounce it. And if I add these side inside this document now, that reference is showing. But you see, the other reference I put here is not showing because I didn't mention inside the documents . So let's see, according to article. And I have to say side the article, Let's see now. So as you can see now, I have my second reference showing here on. That's because I mentioned it inside the document. So if you mention your reference inside your document, then later access. Hey, why you are adding these reference if you are not using it inside your document. So if you are one of those people who just add references because you need to Adam on, don't use them inside the document on Use this just at your bibliography mentally, and you will be fine. Well, this is everything I can tell you about and references. It's a very complete and complex stopping at the same time. I hope you like this video and see you on the next one 15. Creating presentations with Beamer (Part 1): Hi. And welcome back in this lesson. I'm going to teach you how to grade presentations using later. So maybe this is not a ccs creating presentations you see in Power point or you see inbred sea or using Google presentations. I don't know, actually, hate school will Google presentations, but you got the point. Um but in every conference you will see the data scientists or researchers or scientists in general, use latex Ah, for presentations because you have more freedom with respect to add in formulas and figures and all of these things. Um so let's see how we can make a simple presentation using Natick. So the first thing I will do is to specify the document class. These will be Deemer. There is another one. I think it's gold powered up, but I think Beamer is more used. So let's use this package. Um beauty of age. Uh, you d if eight. Sorry. In boot and goading on, we can use a theme by using this comment. Use theme on. There are lots of themes we can use with Beamer, but I think the most common is married. Okay, so now we're going to specify some mental that that here. So, for example, the title. So now in everything that is inside, these brackets will be shown in every slight. So, for example, my first latex presentation this will be shown these steps will be showing every slide in, uh, in the in the bottom on these inside in curly brackets will be shown only on the first is light. So here I'm going to say a later they beg presentation. I can have also a subtitle. So title Ah, yes. Subtitle And I'm going to say a very nice lady deck presentation. What else? Um, I can have the other. So as I told you, everything inside here the brackets will be showing never slide so that with and hear everything inside girly brackets will be shown only on the first slights. I'm going to say that we've a and okay, I'm going to specify, for example, also the institute, so institute will be you as if you if you're in university on this will be shown in every slide on this will be showed in the first is light. So here, I'm going to say east one, um below this, I'm going to say faculty of mathematics. When you better see that San Francisco the ghetto. That's where I started on. I added this in so I can copy and based basted here. So these helps ive Maybe you're collaborating with someone from another university than you will have, for example, inst to and you have a guilty of face. IGs Ah, I don't know how hard on you will have someone here. I don't know, Francis, go the on. So you can specify that he's from Harvard. I'm not from university at San Francisco naked, So yeah, and also you have to have here and then Okay, so and we can also specify the date we can say I want today's date. Remember, this will be shown in every presentation and never slide. Sorry on this will be shown only on the first. It's like on we can also include a logo. So I have important here. These lower here It's Logan. It's well brown circle and chocolate coffee, and I'm going to say logo include graphics. I want to hate to be 1.5 centimeters on the file to be these one. Okay, so the lover will will be showing every presentation on. Well, the other thing I want to do is I want to show a table off contents. Okay, so every time I switch from one section to another, I want to highlight in the what section of the tail of contents. I mean, so you will see you visualize these later, but for now, let's at this command. Add begin and section. Let's say here I want a frame title frame titled to be table of contents, Table off contents. I want on the table off contents to show me or toe hang light the current section. Um, nothing else. I think that's everything we have to do. Okay, so we have just to specify lots of things here in the preamble, but actually, we need to begin the document. So let's begin the document now. We're going to include the first is light when we do this by saying frame and then specifying title base. Okay, so let's compile and see what is the output of what we have written. So I have the first slide. As you can see, a latex presentation is the title a very nice later presentation in the subtitle on As You can see. My first later presentation is showing at the bottom off this light on these three things. Then the first author, the Institute of the first Author, These title here on the date here, these will be shown in every is light, so you can modify that. I remember everything inside these brackets will be shown in every slide at the bottom on this logo also will be shown in every slide. Okay, so now let's actually, um great. Another is light on. We do this by saying first begin frame, begin frame. I'm here worse. We're going to say, Hey, this will be the table of Gun Dent's. So we're going to include the table of contents and nothing else. So that c now what the output This. Okay, so now my table of contents is empty because we have included any section, so that's actually first create a section here. So I'm going to say section this will be section one, and let's begin a slight. So I do this by saying begin frame. So I'm going to say these he's a frame for a section lum Um what does Well, I am including text in these his life. So let's see what the output of business. So first as you can see, um, yeah. So the table of contents is repeating. Ah, because here, this is the table of contents in general. So here it will be shown Section one, section two. So just to clarify this, let's have another section. Section is will be section two. Okay, so you don't get confused with this, okay? So as you can see, the table of contents is showing me section one on section two. But these one is only hide lining me section one because I am at the beginning of this section. So I'm I'm saying they take a highlight me these before I start sectional on. This is a frame for a second world. Well, this is just a slide. And here now, I'm being highlighted Section two because I'm going just to start section two. So how did we do this with these These, well, these set of commands here. So these will allow us to highlight the section were in before we start that section. Okay, so enough for now, in the next video, I will show you and how to add special feds toe columns and this type of things 16. Creating presentations with Beamer (Part 2): Hi. And welcome back in this lesson. I am going to teach you how to create special effects on your slides on how to add highlights, words or two theorems or examples and to add columns to your presentation. Okay, so let's start with the special effects. Um, that's great. First on an order list, remember, we're gonna achieve these with itemize, and here I'm going to say one dash inside these angle brackets. One i them to dash item to on I them, um three dash item three. Okay, so let's see what the output off these ISS. Okay, so we have here is lied with Onley Item one, then as light with item one, Item two on a slide with item 12 and three. In order to appreciate these better. I have down noted this example here, and I'm going to pass through these lights. So here. Okay, so we're here, then I best to the next slide on. Yeah, I tend to appears now. If I pass to the next slide, then I'd them three up years again. So yeah, in power point, we don't have to create three separate slides for achieving these about in a dig. Well, this may be a disadvantage. We have two great three new Ah, it's lights to achieve this, a special effect. But you don't have to grade them manually. Natick do it for you automatically on also know that here the three out of three doesn't change. So if I go back three East Steel three it doesn't change to fourth or fifth. It's like, Okay, so that's how you achieve it went well. One way to achieve a special effects. Let's start another frame. So beginning frame. Um, another special effect will be the title of this frame and let's at some text. So these text will appear first on, then use the command boss. These decks Well, a beer, um, next bus and these text will appear at the end. Okay, so let's see what the output of this is on. Let's also download Ah, to appreciate better. These gets the leads. Actually, don't look this, um opened. Okay, so let's see. Let's go full screen on. Let's pass through the slights into it in free. So this text will appear first. This text will appear next on this text will appear at the end, so I I need another beer on C four. Didn't change on. We achieved a similar special effect. Like with it with the items here. Okay, so that's and with respect to special effects. Yeah, I have to meet. Wouldn't have the variety we have in power point or inbred. See, but well, it's not that bad. So now let's start with highlighting things. Okay, so in section two, let's have another frame on. This will be highlighting I lighting. Okay, so in these texts are the following saying tense is important in order to highlight is with they alert on, say, I don't know, the dog plays with the kids. So let's see what the output of this is. Um, a game. So as you can see here now, the text is in red because it's important. So don't abuse these. We can create those blocks. Alert blocks. If you want to say so for this, we say, begin, block and say, for example, remark. Um, obviously, in block on inside this block, we say, Ah, the sentence we just wrote was very important. We can also say begin other block, other block and say, I don't know, some theorem did some fear in here in other luck, and I'm going to say I'm going to say begin equation e equals M C square Don't know on. We can also begin examples being examples on say, um, the formula we just rode. He's used in physics, for example. I don't know. I don't really know what to put here, but you get the point. OK, so let's see what the output is. So as you can see, we have a remarketing it This is in blue. We have a theory. I'm here. Eagles empty square Examples is saying, Hey, this formula is used a lot in physics. So this is how you hide like things that you think are important on. Obviously you can customize is what we want. Um, we won't explain this in this video. You can also using other theme on. These will be modified according to the theme you chose. Okay, so now let's see how we cannot multiple columns in our, um you know, where's lights? So let's have another frame. Begin frame, okay. And these will be multiple columns. The name of the frame. Multiple columns on that same begin columns on, obviously in columns. I'm here. I'm going to say Hey, I want my column to be 3.5 the text with and here I'm going to say on a begin equation, Why equals X squared plus one on some random text. And then, if I want, include some other content in the other column I said, Come again Europe on five. Text with and say, Hey, begin equation here f of X equals. Do you have eggs? I don't know anything you want here and so other around them next. So let's see what the output of this is. Now you can see we have our guns fixed. Our sorry, our content here in the first column on the other, content in the second column so you can have more columns if you want. But we are okay with this. So I hope you like this video. You learn how to do from basic presentations in late IQ. See you on the next one 17. Editing LaTeX documents offline: Hi and welcome back in this lesson. I am going to did you finally, how to edit documents off line. So maybe you are on a trip or simply you don't have connection at all, so you won't have access to ever live on. Do you need to edit your documents? So in order to do that, you need a overland of line editor and they have a in option for you. It's called Tech Maker, so you just go to their page. It's Exam one math that net slash tech makers last download that HTML and you can don't know this for Windows, for Mac or for Lennox. Um, well, here in the looks, I think it's just pseudo up in style. Take maker something like that, but well, just don't noted. I have already downloaded this, so I won't do it again. Just play. Continue, continue, continue and you will be fine. It's not that difficult, but remember, hearing lover leave, I am using some packages for example, this input including and packages on. Maybe this package is not available in your local computer, and you will need to download it. And in order to do that, you have to also download this, um called Mick back. So this is lie the package manager for latex. So if you don't have any package, then Mick, that will, uh, the work of mythic will be to download that back cash you don't have. So again, you can stall it on Windows, Mac, Linux. You can even have a docker image of this on dso you just downloaded. Um, again. You just have to continue. Continue. Continue. Breast. Continue multiple times until it is installed. Nothing too difficult. Okay, so now that you have these two programs installed on your machine, then you have two options first. Well, if I click on these many here, you see that I can sing this file into Dropbox g, get help. But the fact like here, for example, it says tried for free. Let's see, um, I think I can try for seven days, and then they will charge me $15 per month on I won't pay $15 per month. So the other option I have is to just download the source code. Um, well, I noted in my desktop on then I'm going to strike the content extract here. No, I have a folder with my two files, the logo and the means of tech file. So I'm going to double click these tech file on. As you can see, I can edit my document here, So let's just compile this so it's a little bit slow. Um, well, my machine is also slow, so we have to wait a little bit. Process exited normally. And as you can see, I have my presentation here, So yeah, it's another option you have to edit documents. Off line Handbag maker is I think it's the most common used off line editor and will Then you have to to worry about the Internet connection and all of those things. But as I told you, had a bad experience, I got my laptop, Rob. So I said, Well, I'm going to have everything online, so I don't have to worry. Ive I lose my content in my computer. Okay, so I hope you like this video and see you on the next war 18. Adding code to Jupyter Notebooks: Hi. And welcome back in this lesson. I'm going to teach you how to add later code to give eternal books. So you have already master the basics off latex, so I didn't code to you. Bitter notebook will be a piece of cake on with this, you will be able to document your models explaining things with latex, and you will have more professionalism in your in your models or in your Jupiter notebooks . Okay, so let's open this one gold spark test. I think I was testing sparked with Python in these notebook, but I don't think the code will work because I use Mawr Lennox than Windows. And I don't think I have installed here spark. Okay, So let's, um, change the cell to mark down on in order to create a new nine equation. So I'm going to say this in order to great and in line equation. Do this just at the $2 science, just as we did with late check and write your equation right there. So I'm going to say limit of X asked. Intense to infinity of the Division of Ever X, divided by G F X is equal to one So let's see what the output of this is. Okay, so I have my in line equation here. Um, let's say I want to create a center equation just like begin equation, then just at $2 signs and inside this total are signs, then just right during question. So I'm going to write Green's theorem That is the closed integral of the kerf l the eggs plus And you, I'm is equal to these double integral in this domain left brand disease. Um, division off partial m divided by Well, it's and partially aerial def Frag Marshall L. Marshall. Why, Right? Brandis is on. Let's say the output of this. So, as you can see, I have here my equation center, just as you will have, like with beginning question. So let's just replace these double dollar sign with begin equation and equation and you will see that they're sold is exactly the same. So nothing changed because those $2 signs are equivalent to begin equation. We can use some other environments like lang on one note here. You can use all of the environment in in Jupiter notebooks, obviously, but there are certainly some ones that you can use. So here I'm going to use these one of length to write a multiple equations here. I'm going to ride the term in int of I'm going to say the matrix and be made drinks hearing into, say, a B C D. On this is equal to a B minus. Busy. So let's see the output of this. So I have multiple equations, these one on this one. So it's straight at that. Just one block here on. Well, we can also export all of these. We've here file don't know deaths. Ah, be the FBI later. Okay, so now this is compiling everything, and we will have our code underlay tick equation in a pdf, you can also, for example, downloaded as latex directly. But if you don't want to do that, if you don't want to modify, then you download the pdf. And now you see, the pdf was successfully exported. So let's open this on, see what's inside. So I have a sparked as the name off this Jupiter notebook. Today's date on. I have my questions here, their number questions on my goat here. So if you don't think this is awesome well, I don't think anything will surprise you in his life. Well, that's everything you need to know. It's better to document your models with later because you cannot complex equations here. Sociable. You're doing some K means and you want to add all of the complex math behind it. Then you can do it with late IQ. So I hope you like this video and see you on the next one. 19. 19 Congratulations: Congratulations. You have finished this course. So let's review what you have learned. So now you know latest basics. How to write equations, Matrices, vectors least so etcetera. You know how to customize your lady document by changing the phone science from families from styles. You know how to have figure stables by than code or any other burger Mundane. Which goat? Hyperlinks, etcetera. You know how to grow the reference Everything in your document without having toward too much about immigration labels, etcetera, etcetera. You know how to great professional presentations using Beamer, adding a well structured bibliography added your documents online and offline on add later to Jupiter notebooks. So you have learned a lot again. Congratulations. Don't forget to follow me on social media. LinkedIn instagram on YouTube. See you on the next course.