LaTeX For Everyone and Everything | Mohammad Nauman | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

29 Lessons (2h 39m)
    • 1. Make all your documents look awesome!

    • 2. Installation on Windows

    • 3. Installation on Mac

    • 4. Installation on Linux

    • 5. No Installation - Use on Web

    • 6. Creating the First Document

    • 7. Document Structure

    • 8. Including Figures

    • 9. Basics of Tables

    • 10. Cross-Referencing

    • 11. More Commands

    • 12. Bibliography and References

    • 13. Templates and Styles

    • 14. Internals of LaTeX (Optional)

    • 15. Maths and Equations Basics

    • 16. Special Math Features

    • 17. Accents

    • 18. Symbols and Saving Time

    • 19. Algorithms

    • 20. FancyVerb for Code

    • 21. Listings for Code

    • 22. Presentation Basics with Beamer

    • 23. Making Presentations Impressive

    • 24. Figure Drawing Basics

    • 25. Styles and Time Saving Features

    • 26. The Awesomeness of TikZ

    • 27. Parting Words - Learning New Things

    • 28. Update: Gantt Charts

    • 29. Update: Author-Year Style References

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About This Class

Learn LaTeX from scratch in an easy-to-follow but highly effective way. Get up to the level of professional document writeup, presentation creation and even generating graphics and figures in LaTeX.

What will I learn? 

  • Basics of creating a document¬†

  • Citations and references¬†

  • Mathematics and algorithm¬†

  • Including Graphics¬†

  • Tables¬†

  • TikZ (Drawing figures in LaTeX)

  • Presentations in LaTeX (which don't look like every other LaTeX presentation ever!)¬†

  • Automating stuff¬†

  • Tips to make your documents stand out¬†

About the instructor: 

  • Teacher and researcher by profession

  • PhD in Security and a PostDoc from Max Planck Institute for Software Systems, Germany

  • Designer and photographer by hobby

  • (Have an eye for design)¬†

Target Audience: 

  • Absolute beginners¬†

  • People who want to impress others with their professional looking documents (without spending ages on them)¬†

  • Researchers and educators¬†

  • Grad and undergrad students

*** UPDATES ***

  • Added video on creating beautiful gantt charts using LaTeX.

  • 12/2020:¬†Added a video on author-year style citations.

Meet Your Teacher

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Mohammad Nauman

PhD, programmer, researcher, designer an


I have a PhD in Computer Sciences and a PostDoc from the Max Planck Institute for Software Systems. I have been programming since early 2000 and have worked with many different languages, tools and platforms. I have an extensive research experience with many state-of-the-art models to my name. My research in Android security has led to some major shifts in the Android permission model.

I love teaching and the most important reason I upload online is to make sure people can find my content. If you have any problem with finances and you want to take my courses, please visit my site (link on the left). I am more than willing to give out coupons that will make the course more affordable for you.  

You can see all the different ... See full profile

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1. Make all your documents look awesome!: This will add reminded him. Hi and welcome to letrec for everyone and everything. I'm Dr. Norman. I have a PhD in computer science and a post-doc from Max Planck Institute for software systems, one of the world's leading research institutes. Where enough about me. Let's talk about the course. Whenever you look at box, you see that they are professionally typeset. They look really bored. The figures seem to flow, really went together, and the colors have harmony with each other. On the other hand, are documents. It looks something like that. Well, that's plain boring when The reason is books have professional typesetters who understand fonts terminology. They know what set of side on, what bars are, and what one of the other stuff is. Well, we don't have time to take or take care of all of that because we have our own specializations to worry about. That is we are later comes in. It's a professional types that are in your bucket. Typically, data is used to write scientific papers and technical books. However, that's not all. In fact, I use later for everything. Hence the name of the course. I use it to write applications for research grants. I use it to create my exam papers. For instance, I just did the deck that I need to have a question which has three lines for the answer, and it's going to have a score of two. They take care of, right? Creating these dotted lines for me, perfectly placed, perfectly aligned. And it creates a beautiful scored box for me automatically, not only that, it uses the same piece of information that I gave it just once to create this output table for me, they're, the two score is automatically populated. That's how intelligently deck is. Moreover, I use it to create figures. Try doing this in your drawing software of choice. These are 36 perfectly aligned crisscrossing lines, and it's extremely difficult to do in any other software. But in latex, it's extremely easy. I use it to create perfect human diagram, sequence diagrams, class diagrams, activity diagrams. We have a baggage for everything that you can imagine. And of course, who can forget slides. These slides are created in late stack from scratch. Everything that you see on the screen right now has been created in lead EKG, or of course not the window of the PDF viewer, but everything that is in the PDF. Look at the graphs. They look really nice. The font flows together really well. We have very beautiful color combinations. Everything just seems to fit together, perfectly aligned, perfectly harmonious. And the references are to die for. If you tried to do that manually and then you have to rearrange them. It's a real big pain in the back, but it comes so naturally that you'll ask your supervisor to have you reorder the stuff. Well, not really, but you get the point. In this course, we're going to be talking about everything that you need to know about later to get started and to get up to the professional level, we talk about the basics, of course, the installation on Mac and Windows. And we'll talk about research papers. We talk about templates and switching between templates. We'll talk about references and citations, would talk about Madsen graphics. We'll cover how to create slides that look beautiful, but don't really shout out that i was created in later. We'll also have some optional content that allows you to create figures like this one. In fact, we're going to have this one as a case study and show you how you can create really complicated figures, scientific figures really easily, which save you time and create professional delayed output. So thanks for your time and role now in the course, and I'll see you inside. 2. Installation on Windows: Hi and welcome to the course. Let's jump right in. The first thing we need to do is make some installations. We're going to need. A later compiler will explain all of these things in detail later on. But let's just get through the installations first. What you need is to install tech life. Now, some people might tell you that if you're on Windows, you might want to go with Mick tech. But I would highly recommend against going the mic round metallic route may take, Isn't that stable? It has problems. And my experience, even if you're on Windows, you need to go with DEC life. It installs perfectly well. And later on down the line, you will have a lot fewer problems if you go with that life. So it's strongly recommended that you install tech live. If you go to the tech life side, I'll be sharing these links in the course page. So don't worry about the UN. And right now, you need to go to download from a nearby Dan mirror. Okay, click on that. And then it will take you to which other mirror is closest to you. And you need to download this file tech live dot ISO, right? So this is a, an image of the CD and we are going to be working with this because this is a CT image. We don't want to burn it onto an actual physical CD drive, CD ROM. So we will use the software called Vinci D MU, and we will go ahead and download this as well. So that's the first thing we doing. We're downloading tech life and we're downloading when CD D MU. Now, I apologize if I'm going very slowly, but I want to make sure that you get all of these steps right. Because at this point, if you do something wrong, it might lead to headaches. So better to be safe than sorry. So now no-tech life download Vensim AMU. And the third thing you need to go to text to you. Again, the link will be sharing the course page. You need to download this software. In my opinion, text studio is the best editor that you can use. You have choices here. You can go with technic Center. You can go with when EDTA, There are a lot of other options and people might advise you otherwise, but in my opinion, Tech Studio is really the best one that we have. So I went ahead and downloaded all of these prior to starting this video. So we have this available here. So the first thing and make sure that you follow this order of these is that you want to install when CD EM, you first do not install TEX studio first. You want to install an NCD and you, this is going to give you an emulator. And let's just click on Install. It doesn't take too much time. Should be done really quickly. You just need to click on Next and then Install. And it will take care of all the different customizations automatically. You do need to click on this install because it's going to install a device driver for you, which is going to be virtual CD drive. If you already have a CD ROM emulator, you can use whichever one you want. I just found this one to be the easiest to work with. So once this is installed, you need to go to that lived right click and then say select drive, letter and mount. This option would be available, available if you are in CMU installed correctly. So select drive, letter and Mount. Just pick whichever Revenant is available. We're fine with that. Click on OK. Now go do whichever drive letter was just installed for you. G11, for instance, in my case. And these are the contents of the deck live CD drive. Now, there is an option for installed deal windows, but that does not work. It almost never works. Forget about that. Come over to install deal advanced. It's a batch file and install deal advanced. And just right-click on it and start open. You don't have to run it as an administrator. It looks fine even if you run it as a normal user. This is going to take a little bit of time and then a GUI should pop up. Here you go. There's an option. Yeah, yeah, yeah. Continue with fine. So these are the options. We don't have to go through these in detail. The defaults will have just fine. You click on Install tech life. Once you click on it, it's going to remove that while Book. And another one would come on. Come on. And as you can see, it's going to install about 303,415 packages. And this is the reason that I suggested deadlines that live brings in almost all the packages that you're going to need later on down the line. If you don't go with the tech live auction, you might have the installation done really quickly, but you're going to have to keep installing packages whenever you need them. And maybe you have an internet problem. Maybe you don't have access to Wi-Fi, maybe a lot of other things, but if you use mic tech, it's going to be problematic. So probably go ahead and grab some coffee or something because this is going to take half an hour or so. And we'll come back to it. When we're done. Make sure you do not rush into things and tried to install tech studio while this is installing, right? You have to wait for it to finish. All right, so we're done. It says press any key to continue. So we'll press that key. Alright, so tagline was installed and now we're going to install TEX studio, which is our editor. So we started and allow it to make changes. Default location should be fine. This is small software, so not a big problem, shouldn't start fairly quickly. And that's it. Ok, so we can now start x2, y2. So when text video stars, we get this very blank screen. What we want to do is ensure that our installation when finds, so we're going to open. And for this you're going to need to download the zip file from the course page. In that, in that zip file, once you extract it, you're going to see that we have a file called first dock. This open that and you'll get this very small file. Don't worry about what the contracts are. We just want to ensure that this installation went fine. So we're going to go to Tools and build and view. Or you can use the F5 shortcut HipChat that we get a pop-up telling us that the shortcuts for TEX studio have changed. These are for the more experienced ones, so we don't want to see this again and just make sure that you remember that you can hit F5. So F5, and we see a lower, lower here. So we're good to go. So you're installation is done and now you can proceed with the code tutorials. Please make sure everything works fine up until this point before proceeding with the code, we want to make sure that our installation is correct. Otherwise, you'll have headaches down the line. So if you have any problems, please feel free to post them on the course page. Contact me. I'd be happy to help out. 3. Installation on Mac: Installing lytic on Mac as really easy, all you need to do is go get Maktab 2017 or whichever version is available. I'll be posting the link to the course page. You need to go to Mac tech download and simply download the package file that is available over here. The package is really easy. It's a simple step-by-step installation. The wizard will guide you. You just need to take the defaults and everything will work out fine. The next thing that you need to do is install TEX studio. And my opinion, TEX studio is the best lytic editor round. There are other options and some are specific to maxim are Jan purpose. But text video works really when, no matter which operating system you're on. So I highly recommend you download tech studio for this. This is also an OSX DNG, so you simply open it and drag textual data to your applications folder. And you should be good to go after that. Go ahead and start TEX studio. So you see the screen when tech studio starts up, you need to download the code zip file from the course page and then go ahead and try to open a file. So this will be called first dash dot dot tech. You need to open this file and simply go to tools, build. And we'll, and you should see hello world or here. Don't worry about the contents of this file right now. We will be discussing this later on, but we need to make sure that our installations when fine, so that we can go ahead and walk with God. If you have any problems with installation, please feel free to post them on the course page. Contact me and I'd be happy to help. 4. Installation on Linux: Hi, installing on Linux is really easy. Some people will tell you that you can use API to get all your package manager to install lytic and tech live. That's not really recommended. What's recommended is that you go to the tech live official page and download the official latest ISIL. I'll be posting this link on the course page. But you go over there and then you click on download from a nearby couldn't mirror. You go there and it will select the data, whatever the nearest meter is. And then you need to download that live dot ISO file to your graph. The second thing that you need to download a text studio, again, this length will be posted on the course page. You can go over here and search for your distribution. And I'm on you produce, I'll be downloading the Ubunto version, say 16.04. I'll be downloading whichever volume corresponds to my installation, operating system installation. Once we have that, I've already downloaded this over here. And we're going to first install tech lab. So we need to mount the ISO will drive. So pseudo mt minus o, since this is a syndrome image, type Life in 2070, note ISO ON slash D. Alright, so that's founder didn't go to slash m and t and then you hit pseudo dot slash install dot Nash SH. So you get these details and the default start installation to hard disk works fine. You click on AI and click on Enter. Now this is going to take a little bit of time because it's installing all of the packages. Meanwhile, what we can do is we can split this horizontally. And in r dr. We can say pseudo DP k, g dash I fall installation. And you can say a text studio, whichever version is the most suitable, hit enter and create a password. And you should have this installed properly. Not simply wait for this installation to finish. And then you can start IK Studio to start coding. 5. No Installation - Use on Web: Hi, so in the other three videos we've covered how to install later on your machine. Now that's the recommended way to go because you can work with data offline and basically you have a lot fewer problems. But if you're just trying to get started, one of the easiest ways and the least effort ways to get started is to use lytic on the internet. For that, you can go to the www over and simply click on create a new paper. Now there are some other options. Share lytic is another option, but as you can see, they've decided to join or leave. So essentially we are going to have just this one option, but it's a good option. So you go to and click on create a new paper. When you do that, you're going to immediately get an edit review over here. And it has quite a lot of content already put in, right? We don't want to start with something that complicated. What we do is we go to the source tab over here, because we want to have a lot more control. Select all of that, and just delete it, right? We don't want to start with something that complicated. And then go ahead and write this code over here. Right? Now, I haven't done anything else, but you see that this error has immediately appeared. Now, it's saying a lot of stuff and words. We don't have to worry about that right now. Just go here and say recompiled from scratch later on in the course, you'll understand what this error means and why it's expected. But just go ahead and click on recompiled from scratch. And you will see that because this previous set to auto, this should automatically update. So that means the editor is working netiquette combining properly. And in the next videos, whatever code we used on our machine, you can paste here and CD. Same results. But I would highly recommend that you use overly for just the basic stuff and do an installation as described in the other videos, so that you have later on your own machine. 6. Creating the First Document: Hi. So you've done the installation and now you want to start creating documents. So first thing you need to do is download the zip file, which includes all the code. I'm going to explain a little bit what the structure of the code is. So we have a couple of folders over here. We're going to start working with demo one. And as you can see, we have a demo one dash begin and demo one dash instructor. So demo one dash begin has all the files that we need to start working with. And m1 instructor, that is the end product that we will make at the end of this section. So that is just for reference, this demo one dash instruction it is instructor is just for your reference so that you can later on look at the completed code. We're going to copy this demo on dat, dat begin and placed it in a new folder. Now you will notice that I'm using Mac for these demos. But the great thing about later is it doesn't matter which operating system you're using. As long as you're using, you're letting the code is going to run as it is on any operating system that supports later. So even though I'm using Mac, you can use the exact same thing on your Windows or Linux machine. So we're going to copy this over here. Now we have a demo one dash begin folder here. We have a small PDF file over here, which looks like that. And we have some dummy text file, which has some text in it, really useful at the moment. But you come back to this and you have a sub file.txt. So let's forget about these files for now and go to our Tech Studio editor. Now, the first thing that you need to understand is that we have two things over here. One is tech studio, which is our Editor. In this, we are going to write our source code. So this is sort of like a programming language. You define what you want to do in your source code. And then you have a compiler, which is in our case, tech life that we have installed previously. This is going to be our compiler. And this is going to convert our source code into and output file, which in most cases is going to be a PDF, right? So what we want to do is define what our document is going to have to our source code and then tell tech live to create a video for us. So let's begin with a simple example. So we are in tech studio. Let's get rid of that. And we're going to define what kind of document we want to create. So we want to create an article. So you say document class graces, curly braces. We're going to say article now has commands. Commands are defined, are specified using a slash. So we have a slash and then you have a command name, which is document loss. And then we give this command some arguments for this document. Last we have just one argument which is article. So in the curly braces we're going to say that the Document class for this document is article. Now there are several types of document losses will come to more Document losses as the course progresses. Let's start with the article for now. Now what we want to do is we want to say that we have a document, right? So we say slash begin and then we say slash began as a command. And we say that we want to begin a document. Now whenever you begin a document, you also want to end it, right? So between the begin document and document, we're going to have all the content that is going to go in our document, this document that we are creating. So we have a source file in it. We are defining a document. Let's just put hello earlier and then go ahead and save this file. Now we want to save this file in the same folder that we have, this demo, one dash begin that we just copied. As you can see, these three files are there. I'm going to save it as first dash dot, dot t, f. All lytic files must end with a dot tech extension. Alright, so let's save it. And as you can see, this file has now appeared over here, right? So let's go ahead and compile it and we go again to tools and build and view. If you recall, you can also hit F5 directly to build this document and view it over here. So this is what we did last time after we install the software. Now you have this helloworld lowered here. Now what we want to do is we want to specify some other information about this document. For instance, what we want to say is what the title of this document is. Since this is my first document, I'm going to come over here before the document and say slashed idle. So this is a command which specifies the title. And this is my first document. Right? So this is closed. Now I've defined the title and I'm saving this file as I go along. I've defined this title, but I haven't placed it in my document. Right. So I come back to that in a minute. I say slash author. Who's the author? What? Since I'm the author, as anyone, you can put your own name in there. And now in inside the document. By the way, when you begin and end something, this is called an environment. So this within this whole thing, between the end, begin document and then document, we have the document environment, right? So up until now we have a command and we have an environment. So in the document and alignment, I can say slash make table. If I hit F5. Now I have this document created. As you can see, this looks with already. The title is center line. It's in a larger font. My name is there and make tidal ensured that the data is automatically inserted and that's today's date. So it created Office document. It looks nights. It doesn't have much text in it. But we'll get to that in the next video. 7. Document Structure: Alright, so continuing from where we left off, we have this document over here. What we want to do now is to go ahead and create a section. Typically the first section, section that we have over here is an introduction. Let's go ahead and put that in. So the command for section is yes, you got it. It's slash section. Now, whenever we say slash section as new section is, and now we can go ahead and put some text over here. So this is going to be in normal paragraph. Okay? So let's go ahead and compile it. I'm hitting the F5 shorter key. So as you can see, the introduction automatically has a number one, right? So since this is section one, it's already given on automatically given D first number. Now, the format that is coming out over here, we have not specified what should be involved, what should be in a larger font. None of that has been specified by us. All that information comes from this document last article. So if I change this document class or something else, let's do that real quick. So if you call it a bulk sale it and recombine it, you can see that the title has now changed and the introduction now 0.01. because in a book you typically have chapters. So you should have a chakra before that. So this is Chapter Zero and section one. So 0.1. As you can see, the formatting is specified by the Document class. We can change that, but that would be a little down the line. Let's go back to the article rebounded. So let me come back to our normal document. Now what we want to do is create an abstract for this document. So immediately after main title, we create a new environment. We say begin abstract and abstract. Within this, begin abstract and abstract, that is the abstract environment, we can write a piece of text that specifies our abstract right now, as you can see, again, not surprisingly, abstract a centre line. And the formatting is, as it should be. Let's go ahead and open this stemming text file. Let's copy this text and put it in our abstract just so that we can see what the attract looks like. See the margins are different because this is an abstract environment and the article Document last knows what an abstract is supposed to look like. Alright, so we have the abstract and we have the introduction. Let's go ahead and create a subsection within the introduction. So that is going to be a subsection. And this is some background and some more extra word here. Now subsection is 1.1 because it is within this section. We can also have subsection and more texture over here. Okay. So it looks good. 11111. Those of you who work with MS Word and outline numbering, this is painless, whereas in MS Word, you typically have to fight a literal with MS Word to get this work. One last thing that we want to do in this video is to give a DAG to this subsection. I'm going to say that this subsection is a labeled it has a label. This level is not going to appear in the document, but I'm going to use it later on to refer to this subsection. Alright, so I'm going to call it sec colon, drilled down. Drilled down as obvious because that's the heading of myself subsection. And this sec colon qualifier. It's not necessarily that you write it like that, but it makes, it makes it much more easier to refer to it later on, right? So they're going to call this sec. And later when we have other types of things, for instance, if we have the figures, we went to call them fig colon. And if you have tables, we're going to call them, call them tab colon, just to make life easier for us. So we run that. And as you can see, the label does not appear over here, but we're going to, we're going to use it later on, right? So we have some structured one document, and as you can see, we are only specifying the content, what's important for us, or the computer can not guess automatically. Everything as formatting Basian Brain alignments, justification everything is being done automatically. So within five minutes, we created this beautiful little document without much effort. 8. Including Figures: Alright, let's go ahead and do something a little more interesting. We create a section called The more shelf. Okay? And we're going to insert figuring this. Thanks. So let's put that figure yet, obviously because we haven't specified a figure. To insert figure, the command is slash include graphics. And we're going to insert this ADD models based pile as our figure. Right? So the name is ADD models that maze. I don't need to go to PDF over here, but even if I do, it doesn't make much difference. Now we're going to build it and immediately we get an error over here. Now I didn't remove this error earlier on because I wanted to show you what the error looks like. This include graphics, while this is very valid laid-back command, it's not built in, so it's included in what are called packages. As you can see, it's saying undefined control sequence, which means this is a command that I do not know which one. And 2D graphics. Right now, this is one of those things that is difficult for newcomers related to grasp. Why do we need to include a package that's the way it is, right? You just need to know which package for 2D graphics. It's such a common package that you almost always included in your document. How do you include a baggage in your document? You go to this initial part of your file, which is before begin documents. So this is called a preamble. Everything before they begin document is Wanda preamble. Here you say slash, use baggage. And the package which has this command is called graphic X, right? So if you do that and you come back down over here and you try to be burger. Now it's fine. And as you can see, the images inserted automatically in this place, right? And if I have more next year, it's going to be over here. Alright? And if you want to create a new, basically say slash new page, let's do that and see that this figure is being inserted right where we add this include graphics. Now if you come from an MS Word background or a typical Word processor background, this looks very natural to you. I insert the figure when I wanted to go. But in scientific writing, it's much, much better to have your fingers float either to the top of the page or two gotten multipage. Now, this is extremely difficult to handle in MS Word because that's not what MS Word is designed for. But in data, what you do is you have an environment which is a fixed environment. So you say begin figured and after the include graphics USA, end failure. And now you have a figure environment. And within this you have this include graphics. If you build it now you will see that the image has automatically floated to the top. Right. Now, you can make it float to the bottom by putting optional parameters for this. Environment you can in India environment immediately when the environment starts, you can put square brackets and you can say it B, which essentially means that you should try very hard to place it at the bottom of the page. So if you try to build that now that the image has floated to the bottom. Now in scientific writing, it's very important that you have all your fingers floated to either end of the page. They should not be inserted. Where? Well in the middle of the text, right? So this is really important and this is a habitat you need to get into. It's one of the things that is really easy in rhetoric and that's what is expected and court scientific papers. But it's a habit that you have to break if you're coming from a background such as absorbs, right? And it's really not a good idea to explain too late it where the figure should go, they take is already a professional. If you remember, I told you that it's a professional types that are in your pocket. So let's just get rid of this B and luckily tech place it wherever it wants. In general. Later it places it in the best location, right? So the best location, we don't know what that is at the moment. But trust me, legislator do its thing and it will do the right thing almost always, right? So let's build it again. And obviously if you have a figure, you want it to have a caption. So you within the federal environment, you have a caption. My first finger. Right? So there you go. Figure one, my first caption, automatically central line. Everything works nicely. If you want to make this entity models based slightly less wide, right? So let's say we want it to be only half of this textbook. So what we do is immediately after include graphics and before dependencies is in which we define the filename. We go ahead and put square brackets and say the width is equal to. And then you say, I don't know, 2.5 cm. Alright, so that's 2.5 centimeters. That's really smart. Let's make that sound. 157 years, okay? Or what you can do is you can go here and you can say that it should be 0.5 of x squared, right? So texts width is the width of the text on the page. And 0.5 slash next to it is going to mean half of the text width, right? So this is now half of the texts width. Obviously, this should be centralized. And to do that, what we do is immediately after a slash begin figured, we say centering and we have a second lined failure. Now this might look complicated at first, but once you get the hang of it, and you really have to type all this thing over and over again. Once you have a figure, a single figure in your document, you can simply copy it, copy and paste this, and just change this file name. So it's not that difficult, it's not complicated. You really get the hang of it really, really quickly and it becomes much, much more easy because you don't have to fight the software. It's really easy to do once you get the hang of it. One last thing we're going to do is give it a label. And like I told you, if you have a figure, we're going to call it fig colon. Let's say this is a first figure. Alright, so let's build that no change. And next what we're going to do is and do some more interesting stuff with this theater and stuff. 9. Basics of Tables: All right, so let's create a table. For table, we have an environment called tabular, right? And within the cellular environment we have what are called columns. So first we need to define how many columns we have. And we do that by putting in these braces immediately after the begin tabular. We say, I'm going to have, let's say four columns. The first one is going to be left aligned. So I put an lender, the Milton, and the second one is when do we center aligned? The third one is also going to be center aligned. And the fourth one always going to be central line. So I have four columns. How do I know these four letters over here, left, center, center and center. Now, I'm going to start, I'm going to say head one. And then I want to start the second column. So I put an ampersand and then I stayed at T2 and then an ampersand and then a head three and an ampersand and ahead for, so that's my four columns. And then I turn our finished role by putting two slashes, right? So now have had one, H2, H3, and H4. Now this is not looked like a table at the moment. There are two reasons. Number one, just as we had figured, this table needs to float somewhere else. So let's do that first. So for that we have an environment call table, begin table. And it's so as you can see immediately this float to the top. Now, this does not look like a table. Number one, decentering. So that's enters it. Again. For a table we need to have some rules, right? So slash slash, slash slash epsilon is going to insert this horizontal line. That is what we are what we call a rule in typesetting terminology. We also need an edge line at the bottom, right. And what we need is another role. So in this, I'm going to have the values of one. And then we have to, and then I have 34. Now the spaces do not matter, but I'm putting them in so that they are much easier for you to read later. It does not care if you align the emperor sense with each other or not. It's just easier to read this way as we do that. And now as you can see, there is no line in the middle. So after the end of the first row that's aligned these as well. So after the first row is finished, I need an edge lines, so a horizontal line, rebuild that. And now you can see that we have the horizontal lines properly in. Now, what about the vertical lines? Vertical lines and inserted over here. So if you need a vertical line before and the left column or to the left of the left column. And to the right of the right column, you put two pipes and modes over here, vertical bars. And you get these two lines over here, but not in the, not in between the cells. For that, you go ahead and put a line wherever you want and the vertical line to be, there is no line between history and hundredfold because we do not have a line over here. Insert the name in that in as well. And now we have a proper table over here, right? So it looks complicated again. But with a little bit of practice, this is much easier to handle than the way typically work processes handled tables and some. Alright, so now as before, we have a caption, my first table, and we give it a label tag colon, first table. Okay? So now you can see that the table one has been automatically inserted. The numberings for figures and tables that is going to be automatically handled for you. You don't have to worry about that. You just need to place your content and you can see that the first column is left aligned because of this l. You can go ahead and change this to C. And this first column is also going to be a central light, right? What you can do is you can also specify a width by chaining this C to B. And then within these braces for this P, you can say one inch, right? So this column, this is going to be left aligned and it's going to be one page wide. And so depends on what you're trying to do. But that is the flexibility you have. 10. Cross-Referencing: To conclude this section of, let's take a look at two very interesting ideas. So you have a section over here. And we're going to call it more and more stuff and more stuff earlier on. And if you recall, we inserted a label for this section over here. So I'm going to refer to it now, as we saw in the section. And now I'm going to refer to it. So I can say slash refs and in brackets, I can say sec colon drill down, right? We can have more X4 here. And you can see that as we saw in sections 1.1.1. Now, this section 1.1.1 was drill-down and automatically, we did have to write the word section, but the number game in automatically because we use this slash ref and gave it second drilled down, which is the level of this subset subsection. Subsection. Ok. Similarly, we can also refer figure slash ref, colon first triggered. So the number one gets automatically inserted. If we had more figures, let's go ahead and create more. Another figure over here with the same content. But let's just change this to second fiddle, right? So what figures look the same, but they have separate numbering, obviously, that's on this. So my second figure is figure two, and this has the labeled second figure. If you change it to second figure, you can see that we're getting the numbering completely, properly, right? So we also had a table. Also. They will slash ref, right? So it just makes it easier for you to search for tables when you have these qualifiers. So they have also Table one over here. Now, one important point to note over here is that this section is a separate word and this is also SF record. So if you have some more text over here, I'll tell you why I'm doing this in a minute. Alright, so as you can see this section Word has been broken off from 1.1.1. We don't typically want that. So what we want to do is we want to join these together so that there is no line break between them. And for that you use a tilda sign, right? So this is right next to your exclamation mark. If you build that, you will see that section strives to stay very, very hard to, it tries very hard to stay with 1.1.1. And this is something that you should get in the habit of doing. Whenever you have a ref, you should join it with its partner using a dollar sign so that they don't get separated, right? So always do that claim. Just good practices for later. So even if it doesn't look like it's going to make a difference, you should try and definitely try to get in the habit of willingness. So section tilde slash ref and then the label okra here. Now one of the last thing that we want to do in this section is defined or tell you how to structure documents. Up until now, we've been doing work in this just one document. But imagine if you have a research paper and you have quite a few sections in it, everything and get jumbled up. What do you want to do is break things into two separate documents. And this is where our subfile comes in. Alright, so let's open that and take a look at it. So nothing special about this document. It has some later commands over here. So it has a subsection, subsection two input command. And it has some text over here, right? So this is just some text for the section title and then some more extra word here. What we want to do is we want to import this subfile within our main file, right? So we are working in for stock and we have slash input subfile. If we compile that, you will notice that this input has the effect of simply bringing, bringing in all the content of this and this first OK, right, so nothing special going on. You can imagine that this whole content is just setting over here, right? So this is a plane in Bhutan include over here. Alright, so the numbering gets done properly and you can use refs and labels everything as it is, right. Just makes it much, much easier for you to structure your documents, right. So you Elaine, you should get in the habit of structuring your documents or your documents into your papers, your thesis into multiple files just makes it much more easier for you to handle them. There you have it. 11. More Commands: Hi and welcome back. So now that we have the basics out of the way, let's try and work with some templates. So we're going to start with demo do. And as previously explained, this demo do dash instructive is the end product and it's here just for your reference. We're going to copy demo through Daesh began and based it all year. And we'll start working with this. So what you want to do is open second dash doc, dot deck video and next video editor. And we have some content over here. First what we want to do is take a look at what's new in this and what we've already done. So let's just first combine it so that we can view the current output. So that is what it looks like. We've already taken a look at document class article. We have seen begin document. We have seen the titles. Here you see slightly deck which is supplementary command to output later, looking like that, the way it's supposed to look like. So that's the official way that lytic should look like. And so you have this kind of not really useful. So you have the author and we have a title. After that. We have this very interesting kind of line which is grayed out. It's grayed out because it has a percent sign at the start. So this person's sign is a comment comment symbol. So anything after this percent sign is when do we ignore by the later compiler? We can use it to insert comments in our code which does not affect our output. And as you can see, this main document does not appear overhead. If you're comfortable with programming, you will realize that this is just like a parliament in a programming language. If you don't know or you haven't had experience with programming, just notice that this person sign makes lytic ignored everything else. So even though you have it, you have this text in your document, It's not going to appear in your output. So for instance, you have written some very important point over here. But your supervisor says that it's not really relevant. You should get rid of it. And you don't really want to get rid of it because you spent a lot of time. You have put a lot of effort in it. So all you do is you come over here and you commented it out by inserting a percentage sign that at the start of the line. So this does not get printed in the output, so your supervisor doesn't see it. But in case you want to use it later on, in some other paper, you can use this. You don't have deleted right away. All right, so let's bend that and see that it does not appear over here. So in general, you should get in the habit of not deleting stuff, a comment stuff out like that, and you never know when you might need them. Alright, let's move ahead. We have slash section, we have an intuitive introduction section over here, and we have some extra overhead. After that overhead we have a bulleted, sorry, numbered list, right? So in order to create numbered list, you have a begin, enumerate and enumerate. So this creates an environment which is going to be an enumerated list, right? So a number list. And each item is going to be defined using a slash item, right? So if you comment all of this out, by the way, in tech studio, the shortcut is commodity on Mac or Control D on Linux and Windows. Alright, so I've commented this out and as you can see. We have just one over here. So if you want to insert another one, you go over there and they lit. And since we have a slash item and other slash item over here, we have this second item over here. Alright? So the other thing, other thing that you see over here is a slash word command. And a slash verb stands for what button. And what it means is whatever you have between these two pipes is going to be output as it is, right? So, and it's going to look like a typewriter font. It's going to have a typewriter font, right? So this word is used to output chord like elements, right? So looks like it is related somehow to accord, right? So we uncomment all of this back in. And over here, you have this sludge begin itemize and slang slash antagonize. Now notice that this falls within this slash item, so it's going to be sublist, right? So it's going to be a drop down list, and since it is itemize, it's going to be a bulleted list. So you have enumerated for unnumbered lists and itemize what bulleted lists. And within that, you have the same syntax of slash item, and that creates your do Boolean entries within this list. But the wrong, We have another item and can dislodge work. We have slash bibliography style. Now even though this is a slash and this is a valid nato command, but because this is invoked, it gets output as it is, right? So Robert M. Then we have some other comment and in this next item we have a new command, which is site. And so what does a study in which is the MPH? So MPH stands for emphasis. And as you can see over here, if you look at the fourth element in this list, the first-world site is italicized. Now, this is for emphasis. Now y is emphasis identifies because the article class dictates that emphasis is through italics. There was another document that says that emphasis should be through board. It will be taken care of automatically. So you should get in the habit of saying that I want to emphasize this word, instead of saying that I want to italicize this word. And there is a difference between the due emphasis is semantic and italicize is related to the font, right? So get in the habit of saying eNB edge a little down the line. We have another monument, not really important at the moment. We have another section. And here we have some stuff over here. Now what we really want to do over here is basically using bibliographies in data. But we just wanted to go through this document to specify a couple of things. For instance, if you have this better graph over here and you want to start a new paragraph. Paragraph. Alright, so this is an imbedded enough and you'll notice that I have not said anything about creating a new parallel, but later understands it automatically. There's now and you better love. Why is it a new paragraph? Because I have a blank line over here. So in general, when you start later and you haven't had proper instruction, People tend to insert slash slash to create a new light, right, so that's valid, but it's not the proper way. This is saying create a new line. It's not saying create a new paragraph. Instead, what we want to do is get rid of these two and insert a blank line. Again, this is good practice. Insert paragraphs through blank lines instead of inserting slash, slash, right? So it won't look too different over here, but down the line is going to create problems for you if you get in the habit of using Slack national. So the proper way is to insert blank lines to create new paragraphs. Okay, one last thing that I want to show you in this particular video is a very interesting idea. So if you go over here, let's say if you are here and you hit F5, you will notice that this blog highlights. It highlights overhead because my cursor currently is on this line, right? So it highlights this to tell me where my cursor is standing. You can go the other way around if you want your cursor to go to this word, this, you hold Command or Control on Windows and Linux. And you click and you automatically get to the corresponding portion over here now. And this is called synchronization between the PDF and the latex source. And it's really useful in long documents, right? So if for instance you want to go there, you hold control and click and your head. Alright, so people usually have this problem that they don't know where they're working and they have to go back and forth and their source, just look at your PDF wherever you want to win source or control command on Mac, click and you're there, right? So almost there. This makes life really easy for for longer documents. If you hit F1. Similarly, you can hold Control and click on B over here and you'll go to the bit line. You can hold Control and click, and you'll go with air, control on Windows and Linux and command on Mac. Right? So now going through, what we want to do is actually read these documents, right? So it is very small. Let's click on this and bring our external PDF viewer. And let's read this, right? So it saying using bibliographies in high-tech introduction, use and managing using imaging bibliographies in detectors. Very easy. And it tells you what the steps are. So in the next video, we're going to take a look at these steps and do what they're suggesting to do. See them. 12. Bibliography and References: All right, so we're now trying to look at how to cite different papers using latex. So it's really easy. It says create a main document file, right? So we have this main document file earlier already. Collect bibliography entries in a dotted line, right? So for this, you can either go to Google Scholar or you can go to ACM or wherever. I am going to give you two examples from this. For instance, IA came to scholar dot and I searched for my paper, apex Android. So I verified that this really is the paper that I want to cite. But how do I cite it? If you go over here, you'll see that this is a site button. You click on that. What we want though, is to go to this bit deck. You click on this and you'll get a strictly formatted BIP deck and rewrite. So bip tech is like a sister to lay tech. It allows us to handle our bibliographies as the name suggests, what we're going to do is copy this whole thing over here, right? Click Copy, and go back to our editor and create a new file. We're going to save this, and we're going to call this file and save. And we're going to call it the bib file, dot bib. So it should have an extension of dot BIBD, which is what bibliography. We save that. And now as you can see, it has been properly color-coded. Let's just take a real quick look like so It's an int proceedings type bibliography. So it has at, in proceedings at the beginning you don't really have to understand all of this at the moment. But it's good practice to go to the code that you're writing. So this is the key, this is how we are going to identify this paper. I don't really like this format of author year and then a keyword. So I'm going to change it to apex, which is the way I remember this river. Then I'm going to say dash, which is your author, and then I'm going to put in the year. So it's much easier for me to remember hippodrome on ten then the other one, the title of this paper is equal to bracket, bracket. And within this we have this whole title. Authors. It was published the pages, all of that. So let's do a quick recap. The search for the paper on scholar. We clicked on the site butter, and then we clicked on web tech. We got to the deck, we copied it, we pasted it in another file. So we just have to create this file once we can put all of the different entries over here, we'll do that in a minute. Now we go back over here and at the end, we first define what kind of bibliography style we want. So Bibliography style is going to be plane. This is the format which is supported by many, many different organizations. Now are bibliography itself is going to come from bib file, right? So this is the name of the file.bit file minus the extension. So they file.js and it turns into bit file. And now we go over here and we want to cite the paper here after the slash, so on. And we're going to write slashed side. And as you can see, a pixel on 1-10 appears automatically, or here you can use that to populate it. And as with href, we want a non-breaking space character over here, right? So, but tilda, so that the site remains with the dot, right? So if you believe that, you will see that it's going to populate this automatically, right? So everything, the authors get placed at the right place, tighten, everything gets done automatically for you, right? So and so on. We have a one over here, we have a one over here. Everything seems to work fine. So that's good. Now we go back over there and find endless array of citing, right? So you can also go to the ACM digital library search for a paper, and you get to this page over here, and let's say this is a paper, I want to say it. So I click on this and I arrive at the page over here. So over here, you know, you're going to have export formats. If you click on bit BIP tech, this box is going to come up and you essentially get the same kind of thing except the key looks really weird. But we can change that. So you can take this as well. But I'll find the scholar method a lot easier. So let's just go back to the scholar and I searched for deep learning site. I click on VIP tech and I get this citation or here, right? So I copy that. I bring it to my WAV file and paste it over here, right? I go over there, I've searched for deep sac, which is another one of our recent papers. I copy that, I paste it over here. So essentially, the way you do this is whatever paper you read, you can just keep pasting there bib entries into this bib file once. So you take this bib file with you all your life, like you can just put whatever you want in there, right. So we go back to our dock, make sure let's save this and go over here. And because this is already there and the big fight is already there, or we have to do is come on as a left side. And now I want to cite lacunae are here. And in this, after this, I wanted to cite the third paper, right? So I hit F5. And after little bit of a little bit of time, it's going to insert 132. You notice that the ordering is a little bit off. That's because the plane format dictates that, right? So it depends on which format you're trying to use. If this was an activity format, this would come out as 123. But depends on the format. In the next video, we are going to change the formats that they can see how easy it is to go ahead and change the format once you have this basic structure down. Alright, so see you there. 13. Templates and Styles: Alright, so now that we have this basic bibliography down, let's go ahead and open our third dot doc, dot tech. And in this I've created a little bit of a paper, right? So this is text from some of my previous papers. And essentially there is nothing special here, just an article glass with some abstract introduction and background and some conclusions, typical paper stuff. But this is an article format. What we want to do is go ahead and change this to a different file format. For instance, specified by the by the I triple E transactions style. But first let's go ahead and Insert Bibliography audit, right? So we have slash bibliography style, which is going to be pretty and for the moment, the bibliography we just are. So same thing. And let's go ahead and slash sites all of the stuff here. So since this is the same bib file, I can use slash site, like so. And I can say slash side, corner and slash site wherever I want the citation to be. Which one's missing? This one, right? So splendid. And see that the citations are coming out properly. So this is what we did last segment, so nothing new here. So I have 21 and three or so. Let's imagine that you've wrote this paper and use submitted to a journal, and it was rejected. Now to add insult to injury, now you have to submit it to another journal and you have to default metric. Now that's a real pin. Now, how do you handle that? If you are in a word processor, you copy this stuff into another template and spent like half an aisle fixing things around in later. All you do is you go ahead. And since the Document class is now changed, we have the hyperbolic format already sitting here, which is the neutron dot CLS. So class files in CLS. So it's already there. You go ahead and you say I Tripoli TRA and you hit F5 and while up. So you have this thing immediately ready four onwards submission, except the reference time is not right. That's not what I probably want. So for that we go to the bibliography style and change it to I Tripoli. Right? Now, we save it. And before we build it again, it's good practice to clean your intermediate files. I'm going to do an extra video on this. But for now, just remember that if you change your bibliography style, it's good practice to go to Tools and clean auxiliary files. If you do that, it's going to ask you to confirm that I want to delete 33rd doc dot log, ox, BBB and G in an extra video, I'm going to explain what these are, but for now, just to make sure that they are deleted, now rebuild this file and we will see the file has updated. Let's zoom in a little bit over here and take a look at this. Beyond has a double quote at the start and the title has a double quote at the end. So that's the style of this has gone into 123 instead of 132, whatever we had earlier on, because that's what I trivially styles. Now, let's say, let's say, I'm not saying it's going to happen, but let's say this paper got rejected again. And now you have to submit it to an ACM format. For that, we have this sigdange ordinate sitting over here, dot CNS. So all we do is legal ed saying, saying that alternate and end the bibliography Stein ACM uses the plane format so we save this tools clean auxiliary files, go OK. And then you rebuild it and takes like ten seconds. And we have this in the ACM format. As you can see, the ACM permission bloggers also blob is already there. The references are in ACM format and you'll notice that the double doors are gone because KTM doesn't need them. So automatically it takes care of everything that should be taken care of, right? So we've done three styles. Let's go ahead and cover another one. So let's do stringer. Springer is LL, NCS, lecture loads and computer science. Again, the LINCS dot CLS. And these Springer bibliography style file is this SB LINCS dot VSD, right? So all of these are over there. You don't need to really understand this at the moment. Just change this to SP LINCS. And we have changed this two elements. Yes, we go ahead and clean auxiliary files. Okay, and have fun, sorry, five. And immediately you have this inner loop Springer format. You then see that the square brackets and only reference numbers are gone. And the proper format is now, now it's Naaman comma n instead of and common along, right? So we have the Springer form, I doubt. Now one last format is the I Tripoli Computer Society format. We can do that using document class article and use back edge data eight, right, so that's just the way they do things. Instead of defining a new document clouds, they defined a packet. So over here we have by intrapreneurs drawn and we build it, we should have probably gonna end and cleaned auxiliary files. And because this format requires two column, I'm going to go ahead and pass an option to this document class article. But it says two column. So this is how you handle I Tripoli Computer Society format. And just change the first two lines and you have this and italicized abstract and everything else also seems to work fine. And so in a matter of minutes, we've gone from one style to another and another and another until fifth one, right? So this is where the power of their debt really shines, right? You see how much power it has and how easy it makes your life. So if you're going to write research papers, do yourself a favor and stipulate it. 14. Internals of LaTeX (Optional): Right, so this is a, an optional video. You don't have to look at it, but it's really helpful if you want to really understand how it is working and it'll help you debug problems in the future. So let's take a look at this. This is our second doc file, the one that we have already worked with. We created some bibliographies over here, and we haven't built it yet. If you can all hear in the File Explorer, you will see that we only have a second dash dog dot textFile. There is no other second dash dot file. So now what we're going to do is we're going to build it. We've got to do is build and view. So it's going to take a little bit of time. And then it's going to show the output over here, the bibliographies and hair and everything works fine, right? So I'm going to go over here and I hit escape, and that is gone. But that's not important. What I want to show you over here is that alongside second dash doc dot Tech, we have a sink tectonic GZ dot pdf, it dot Log, dot BAG dot PBL. And so now I have all of these different files that have just been created. The PDF is obvious, right? So that's my PDF that has been created. Right, so that's good. But what about the other files? Let's go through them one by one. So I've open these files in a text editor. This by the way, is Visual Studio Code in case you're wondering. So the dot log files can contains the log of the whole compilation, right? So this is lytic telling you everything that it's doing it. So you don't have to take a look at this in detail, but at the end it's showing you that it has written two pages. This many bytes. There are 43 objects, there are some contrast objects. So a lot of information that can be helpful if you're trying to understand the internal workings. That's the log file. The file is dot a-ks. Now for that, we have to go back to our tech file and see, for instance, that we have a site over here. When latex starts reading the file, it starts from the top. And when it gets over here, it knows that you're trying to cite this apex Naaman ten, but it doesn't know what this reference is because it hasn't got around to, gotten around to W bibliography yet. So what it does is it takes a lot of this apex Don Norman and puts it in a special file, which is the Oxford, right? So you see over here it's same citations. You don't have to understand the semantics. But what you really need to understand is that when you, when it goes through the file on the first combination attempt, it connects everything that it feels it might need in the future. Everything goes in the dot oxide. So the first time it takes note of this, this site and the site when it gets to the end of the bibliography, it tends a different compiler. So let it tells bit deck to combine the bibliography. Now, the bibliography goes ahead and looks at the dot ox file, which is the auxiliary files. And it sees over here that we have all of the citations, right? So these are the citations, This is the bibliography style and we have some other stuff over here as well. So when it sees that it generates a BB L file. So over here, so it generates this PBL file based on all of that. Now once this BBN file has been generated, later goes back again. So that's one path and the second pass, it starts reading from these first line again. Right? Now when it gets to this slice site, it knows what this is because now this information is already available in the dot zip file, right? So now this goes ahead. It knows that this site has the number of, let's say 12, right? So now this goes ahead and inserts the number two over here. So essentially what happens is you have letrec, then you have oxide. This is, oxide is generated that is used by big tech, which uses this to generate a DBF file. And then you have lead EKG running again. And this uses the BBN to generate the final PDF, right? So these are called multiple passes over the same source file, right? So what this means is if you're having trouble and your references are not appearing, you might need to run the compiler a couple of times, so that's what you should take home. So you have all of these files and if your citations are not appearing, for instance, this leads to a question mark. You might have a typo in here, or you might need to run a couple of more buses, right, so that the information is found by the later compiler. So that covers the log file, which is simply a love of the compilation, the oxide, which is the auxiliary file which collects information that might be needed by other programs. And then you have BIP deck running, which uses this Oxfam and the main source buy-in to comply Lee BBM fight this BVA trial has all the information that is needed for the bibliography and that is used in the main file. What allowed this BAG? This is the log of the BIP tech combination. So again, we're not really interested in the BMG and the log file. Write not even going to open dot ox file and the file ever, but they're more, little more relevant, right? So let's close this. So we have ox BAG log. The PDF is obviously important. And the final thing is think tectonic GZ. This file is what lets us, let's go ahead and compile this again, and I'll show you what this does. So this sink type file, what this does is it allows the source file to communicate with this PDF. So when you do Command click to go over here and command click or controls like to go over there. That's essentially the responsibility of the sinc test.js file. So that's what all of these files are doing. And if you understand all of that, it might help you down the line in debugging your problems. If you don't understand that, it's not really important because you'll understand all of that with experience anyway. Thanks. 15. Maths and Equations Basics: Hi. So as you know, there's no skipping math. So in this section we're going to take a look at some stuff related to mathematics and how to dissect them easily in the deck. So as before, Demo three dash instructor is our end product and we're going to start with Demo three dash began. So let's make a copy of this over here and open up the math dash dot, dot, dot file. So I've put in some textual here. It's basic article. We have included a package which is AMS math, which is going to let us do quite a lot of stuff. So it has a lot of commands related to mathematics. We have a title and an author may title the typical stuff, right? So let's build it first and see what's there. So the very first thing we need to do is insert an equation. An equation is going to be some collection of mathematical symbols. There are two types of equations. One is the InLine node equation and the other is display mode. So inline mode, essentially as the name suggests, is going to be an equation which is going to be within the lines of the text. So for instance, we're going to have, we're going to have an equation over here. And to start, we should probably start with E equal to mc squared. So we're going to have $2 signs. And within these $2 signs, we're going to have an equation which is going to be an inline equation. Alright, so let's build it and see what it looks like, right? So I'll have to find it so easy equal to MC. Of course that's not the correct equation. We need to put a square after the C. So how do you put a square superscript R and an exponent is put in later using the carrot symbol. So if you say MC, carrot two, that's going to mean is equal to mc squared. So anything after the carrot is willing to go into the superscript. Of course, if you want to put two things in there, for instance, if it was easy to MC rest of our 12, we would have to enclose this in braces. So this brace gets attached with the carrot and it's going to be superscript all the way, right? If he did not do that, if he just said 12, so this one would get attached with the carrot and two would be in the normal decks, right? So of course, we need to make it easier to mc square, so let's fix that. So this is in line mode. If you want to take the same equation and put it in display mode. Display mode essentially means that it's going to take up its own space and exclaimed to have its own block. So for that we have an environment which is called the equation environment. So we have big n equation and n equation and we give it paid labeled. And here we're going to put E is equal to mc square, the same equation as you, as you can see. Now, it has a little different structure. It's sent lined within the text. And it has been given a number, which is the number one. And this numbering is going to be automatically handled by your document class. So now we have an inland in line equation and then display mode equation. Now, what if we don't want to have this numbering in an equation? Maybe you have some cases in which you don't want and equation number, right? So for that, you can go ahead and say beginning equation star. So this is the starting point of the equation, and this comes from the KM as math package that we have already used above in the preamble. We can import the easy equal to mc squared over here. And it's going to output the same thing but without the numbering it. So this is a star rating. These are called started winning yourself environments like Star winner of the equation environment. Alternatively, you can use a shortcut which is slash square bracket and slash n square ragged. And within that, if you put equal to MC squared or whichever equation, this is going to have the exact same effect as putting in n equations trial. So this is very commonly used, so we have a shortcut for that. And by the way, you can read the text. It has some information in there. But we don't really want to read every bit in detail in this video. So we can go ahead and refer to this equation. Since it has a label which has the prefix of AQ. Again, this is by convention. We can give it any name, but we have decided to call it EQ colon mc squared, and we can refer to it using the same href command that we did earlier at Panera on the videos. So equation told us lash ref EQ mc squared leads to this. For example, equation one. So this one comes from P EQ colon EMC. So now we have simple equations and we have this refer to them and we have a way to suppress numbering for these equations. In the next video, we're going to take a look at how to do slightly different things with the equation's different symbols and how to incorporate them. 16. Special Math Features: So now that we have the basics down, let's go ahead and take a look at some other stuff. So we can have addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Let's create a, an equation. Start enlightenment. Using the shortcut we can have x plus two minus 25 slash dimes, 35 slash div and 98. So that's going to produce this output X plus two minus 25. And you've used a slash times to produce this cross. Otherwise, we could have used a static symbol, right? But in mathematics, we typically want to sludge times, so looks better this way, right? We can go ahead and have superscripts and subscripts. So we saw E equal to mc square. For superscript. We can also have it in the subscript if we use underscores instead of t gathered. So now we have this over there. Similarly, we can have this enclosed in braces. If you want to have more than a single character in the subscript. If you want to have this and the superscript, we replace this with the gap. Okay? We also have summation symbols. So we go over here and we insert another command and we say slash some. Now sum is going to take two things, One in the underscore and one in the carrot. So one in the subscript. So we're going to have a sum from i, from i is equal to one to n. And we're going to have i squared. And so that's what it looks like. So sum is equal to i, is equal to 0 up to n. And this now is our summation term i squared. Again later does not care about the space is this is just for hobbies. We can also have a union, so slash cup. And this is going to have the x slash cup lie and is willing to have a union. You can have intersection of that gap. And that produces the intersection symbol. And we can have a union or a set, red slash makeup. And big cup is going to have similarly i is equal to 0 up to n. And we can say x i. So i is equal to 0 to n. So this is big cup. We can also have the cap. So that is going to be an intersection over all of the sets. We can also have integrals. So that's fairly simple. Slash int from 0 up to n. And the integral is going to be x to the. Two. Oh sorry. So we can have this integral over here. So different symbols depends on what you need. We can have fractions as well, not fractions. I one of those things which are really difficult to handle if you're working in a word processor with latex, it looks really weird at the start. But once you get the hang of it, it's really, really good. So you say slash frack. Now a fraction is going to be happening, is going to have a numerator and a denominator, right? So the first set of races is going to be there anymore interests. So we can have x and y, right? So since these numerator and denominator can be anything, we can put E equals mc squared over here and then y. So empty square root by whatever you can put in math mode, you can put in this equation over here. So what we can do is setup something really complicated. So let's start with a frack. It's going to have two things. So this is our first portion, which is the numerator, and this is the second portion, which is the denominator. Here going, we're going to put a sum from 0 up to n of x e to the i. And then in the denominator and roubles and you have the integral from 25 up to 67 of y i, right? So, alright, so since we have these superscript and subscript, we have this really complicated thing. Once you know how to structure your code properly, it's really easy, right? So if you look at it like that, it's very easy to work with it. It doesn't run away from you. I know it looks complicated and start, you have a lot of brackets and slashes and underscores. But once you get the hang of it, it's really easy to drag this way. And in fact, the testament to this is that even Microsoft Word has plug-ins which allow you to input this code so that you can have this converter into equal generator. So this is a really interesting way of writing equations. Anyway, let's move ahead and do a couple of other things. So let me put another equation and we have a square root of x. So square root of x. That's simple. We can have a square root path, fraction of x and y. So square root of a fraction of X and Y. So it's fairly modular approach if you approach it slowly, carefully. So a fraction of, fraction of y and z and subtraction of y could set, or you can have by slight div z. So this makes sense. If you look at it one piece at a time. If you try to do the whole thing immediately in one go, it becomes a little difficult. So these are some of the symbols and relations that we can incorporate. And in the next video, we're going to take a look at some Greek letters and matrices. 17. Accents : Alright, so how about some Greek letters? So all of these are going in the equation star environment because these are odd in math mode. So we have alpha, we have beta, gamma. We also have the capital gamma, and we can have slight theta plus theta. So let's output all of them at once. And as you can see, these were pretty well. Obviously everything else works fine with them. So you can have alpha subscript two is inhabited, so delta superscript two, whichever stopped you need. You also have epsilon seem to come across it a lot. Then we have some matrices for this unit, the AMS math package, but we have already incorporated this, included this in the preamble over here. So let's go ahead and create a matrix. A matrix is defined within the mat board. So this result math mode. And then we're going to have slash begin P matrix and slash end B matrix. So if you try to build it, you're going to have an error here. Let's put some content over here. This content is going to be very similar to the tablet environment that we looked at earlier. So we're going to have 1% 22 sex, right? So let's go ahead and build that. Now you see an editor over here, even though the matrix has come out fine. That's because you cannot have blank spaces of paragraph and link within and within D and mathematics mode, right? So get rid of that. The arrow goes away and we'll find more here. So I wanted to show you this and that if you have a blank space in your math mode, it's going to give you an error and when to say a lot of stuff, right? So the first thing you should check is whether you haven't have a blank line. Alright? So there you go. We can also have a larger matrix. So we can have 598. So that looks as well. We can change the p matrix to be Matrix. And this turns into the square brackets, right? So what are these work fine. We can also have accents. So let's go ahead and insert a hat power d x, right? So this x gets ahead. This too is a beige number, right? So we've got confused. We can have a slash slash Tiamat, right? So for this over there, I met the guy without the dot, and we have a hat over that. We can also have a dot over the x. So we can have a slash dot dx right now. And there are different symbols that you might want to use. So that's about it. And we have a document called a sharp masking guide for lytic. So if you go over to your browser and search for short math guide for later, you get the first thing hole here. And it has a lot of this information, what I've just shared, a lot of other stuff over here. You can go through it and flip through the pages to find out what you, what you need. And you might be surprised that what you're trying to do is really easy. Ok? So that's one way to approach later, search for whatever you want. And almost always you're going to get really, really good documentation on it. 18. Symbols and Saving Time: All right, so for the last video of this section, we're going to do something interesting. Let's say you saw a symbol during your endeavors. This lady lie. Now, I'm not sure what it's called. So since I need to insert it over here and I need to use a command, how would I go about finding out what this means, right? So if I can't pronounce it, how can I search for it? So we have two ways to approach this problem. Let's get rid of this guy and go over to a site called detoxifying, right? If you search for detoxify, you're going to find this immediately. And I'll be sharing the link as well. And in this box over here, you can draw the symbol that you want to search for. It should go ahead and match the symbol that you want. And it turns out that the symbol is this one. So it's telling you that I need to use package latex M, right? So let's copy that and bring it to our code. Let's go to the preamble uses. And then it's telling me that the actual symbol is called slash leads to, I can copy it or I can type it, whichever one, right? So this needs to be in the math Lord. And I can say it exceeds to life. So that works. So that's one way. This is the easy way. I can also tell you the hard way. The hard way or the old way, is you search for the comprehensive latex and the list, and you click on the first PDF and you get this huge document, right? So this is about 338 pages of symbols upon symbols on symbols. So if you don't know what you're looking for and you're looking for inspiration. You can go through these 338 pages and find out which symbol would look good. So I've found this leads to, to be in there and it's telling, telling me that I need to use the getX and packets. So the same piece of information in two different ways. This comprehensive latex and Belgrade is useful if you're not sure what you're looking for and detoxifies really helpful when you know exactly what you're looking for. For instance, if you're looking for this weird guy and don't know what it's called, even search for it. And it's going to tell you that it's called either triangle down or a nabla, which is the proper name, right? So it's useful even beyond lead EKG. So that's one thing over here. But the problem over here is that I'm committing to this leads to, for instance, if I have a paper and I use this leads to symbol 50 or 60 times in my paper. It might be problematic down the line when I go ahead and create this. And let's say a reviewer comes up with the suggestion that this symbol should be changed to, let's say, a symbol which looks like that. Right? So it's very possible. Now I'll have to go ahead and change this and make this change in 50 different places, right? So right now, if I go ahead, is just one so I can find and replace it. And since this is in a MSM, I also need to go ahead and conclude use package a MSM. And this should work. Let's go ahead. This should work, but the problem is that now I have to make the change in many places. Now I know what you're thinking. I can use search and replace. But it gets problematic when you have equations and there are things which are related to each other. Such an address doesn't really work that well. So what we can do is we can give this a better name. I'm going to call it slash flows information. Now disclose information is not a later command, it's not a symbol. I'm going to get an error on this undefined controlling sequence. What I want to do is I want to say that this flows information is semantic piece of information. Alright, so let's call it flows info a little bit shorter. So X flows information up to y, right? And what does this flow in full look like? This looks like a symbol which leads to, so what I can do is I can go to my preamble and create a new command for me. I can say slash new command. And in the first set of parenthesis, I'm going to say sludge flow, info flows NFO. And in the second one I'm going to say slash leads to write. So whenever I types like flow info, it's going to mean slash leads to wait till I come over here. And I tried to build this again. And now because flows in four has been defined, this turns automatically into this. So even if I had flows in for three times over here, it's going to look like that. And if the reviewer says, change it to left-right harpoons, I can say left to right is clearly at all or whichever, right. So all of them get changed automatically, right? So this is really helpful. It's one of those things which you should use in the deck to make your life easier and it's very difficult to do in MS Word. You can create symbols, you can create auto-completes. But when it comes to automation, this is really, really helpful. For instance, preliminary Mian, Another example. We have this thing in our area called TPM e, right? So what this looks like is a TPM and it's going to have an underscore. And then of course the underscore is going to be in the math more. So I have to enclose this N this dollar records, right? So this is what a TPMT looks like. If I have write this like 50 or 60 times and a paper, it's going to get boring really quickly. So what I do is I cut this. I come over here IS a new command. And since this is TPN E, I just say slightly BMI and then I put this over there. So I save this. Now whenever I'm I want to say TPM V, this is sludge TPM ie put stuff, right, so TB ME automatically appears over here. So I've made my life easier by defining a new command. You should get in the habit of defining these new commands in your preamble and using them wherever you can. 19. Algorithms: Hi. So in this section we're going to take a look at stuff that is little more related to computer science. So they're going to be looking at algorithms and we're going to look at inserting code listings, right? So let's first take a look at a demo for dash begin. And as always, Nemo four dash instruction constructor is for your own reference. So let's take this over here and open up a lot of them dot-dot-dot deck, right? So this is an analog to them. Now an algorithm. Let's first CD output. This is what the typical lytic and Garland looks like. It's very impressive in print. And in papers it looks really good. Instead of you having to take care of all the boards and different things. Now, the way you do this is you use baggage and gotten them. And I'm good at MIT. And just as we had doubled. And then at time you learned, we're going to have an algorithm which is going to be a floating environment. And then we're going to have any algorithmic, which is going to have the actual algorithm just as tabular had the actual table and the table environment handy floating bit covered. We're going to have a slash require command in all caps. And this is going to find the inputs to the algorithm. So this comes over here. Then we have slash insure, which defines the outputs generated 19th. For instance, we can have this guy takes an int n and returns the Fibonacci. I don't know how to spell that number of corresponding to n. So okay, even algae. So if you build that, this is what this looks like. Thanks. So we can also have this in math ml over here to make it look a little better. So n Fibonacci number corresponding to n. Now we have statements so that slash state, there's going to be x equal to two semicolon. You can have anything over here, right? So even stuff that doesn't make sense obviously. So even have Neff's. So you have a capital F and then you have braces and within that, you define the condition. So slash to define this arrow. And then you can have a state within this f, and then you have an else and I'm done all you can say tan x. Essentially, the sludge return takes care of the proper formatting for you. The inundation as well. I'm indenting it all here, but even if I don't, it's going to come out fine. So the indentation is taken care of by this algorithm package. Now the interesting bit here is that we can go ahead and give this, allowed them a label so that we have Angolan first. So this is going to appear as enrol them one. But what's more interesting is we can also refer to specific lines. For instance, we have slash hreflang colon implant. So let's say this is a very important night, so I give it a label and I'm going to call it line, coordinate line. And this line is also very important and I wouldn't call it a corner most imp. Alright, so after that, I can refer to these specific lines, line three or length flight, right? If I go over here and insert a new statement, lets say y minus minus. The line number for this x plus plus is going to change obviously. But this is when do we take it and dig and kicked off automatically for us, we don't have to worry about updating the line numbers, right? So that makes our life really easy. 20. FancyVerb for Code: So in the previous video, we took a look at a lot of them. This time we're going to take a look at how to output called. Thanks. So let's say these are three lines and we want to output them looking like cold. So the very first thing that you can think of it is begin Robert M, environment, right? So within this environment we can have, we can have this quote. So this looks somewhat like goal, but it's not all that impressive. So let's change that. For that we're going to use the fancy word package spawn that's got word that. And in this, we are going to capitalize the v. So this capital, new urbanism and urban comes from The Fancy Web. And as the name implies, it's a verbatim environment which is a little more fancy. So what we can do is we can go over here and first billet and see that there are no changes. Yes. But let's go ahead and give it some options. So you're going to have a frame is equal to singles. So this is where to put a frame around our code. So that looks good. We can give it a label, we can say is equal to some level. And you have this really fancy label over here. Then we can also say that we need numbers to the left of our code listing, so we get numbers 123. Now you can refer to these lines using the same method that we had earlier. We can say a slash label and we're going to say line colon and blind. The problem here is though, that because this is a verbatim environment, the sludge level gets treated overburden, and it's simply output. What we want to do is tell Robert M, environment defensive of environment that the slides should be treated as a command characters. So we say comma command charge is equal to, so we want the slash to be a command character and we have to escape it with the slash. We say that the brace should be starting race should be a command character and the ending place should be command character. So that's how you should read it. Starting slash, the starting grace and ending with these should all be treated as common characters. Now, once you do that, you can have the label over here. Now that level gets treated as a, as a command and a label is defined and then you can refer to it using the slash ref tomorrow. So as before, now, even if you change this to something new or hair, this line gets changed to three. And because this is a dynamically calculated, our references are automatically and beauty as well. So this makes our code look much, much prettier. Now I'm going to give you a few extra things in one of the later lectures. And there are other options here, and just rename it here so that you can look it up if you want. Melted. Because another package with which lets you output this, And it also lets you do pretty printing color syntax highlighting a lot of different options at their invented if you want to and look at that. But I believe this for print versions of papers, this fancy web environment suffices. 21. Listings for Code: So for the last video of this section, we're going to take a look at another method of generating output of code. So let's open this file over here. And the package that we're going to use is listening package lets things back edge. So this is a very popular package. And the way we use it is that we use a begin environment. And the environment that we wanted to do is LSD listing. And you end it already. Now within this, we want to output a c plus plus code. So let's say we have that follow here. I copied it and before starting this video. So this output, it just looks really weird, right? We'll move on to fix that in a minute. What we want to do is first to ensure that this is a C plus plus God. So LST set, we're going to say lambda ij is equal to c plus plus. As you can see, the four immediately gets bold because now LSD listing knows that it's talking about C plus plus n. H should highlight the keywords, right? So that's one thing. We can also say that it should be given a caption. So LSD set caption is equal to some code and we get less than one some code. And we also want to have a frame is equal to single a frame around it. And we need these braces overhead for the listing compatibility. So now you have a frame around it. But still the font looks weird, right? So what we want to do is make it look like or so we're going to call it basic style is equal to slash td family. So tt is teletype. And this looks a lot more like code over here. So this is another option. You can go ahead and take a look at the documentation for listings and I want to tell you how the documentation works. So you go to any search engine you want and you can say latex listings package documentation. So the listings package, you get really good documentation with almost any genetic package. So if you go to the listings package, you get, let's see how many pages, 6000 pages of options, options of on options of how to work with it. You can go ahead and find something that looks good for do you, for instance, if you want to underline the eight Alex and the keywords, and then take a look at what options you need to set for this. If you want to have stuff like this, you can and just browse this document and whichever option you want to go with, you can have the details in this. That's how you approach almost any problem in data. Find the documentation, and see the example, and then try to fit that to your own task. 22. Presentation Basics with Beamer: Hi, welcome back. So we've come a long way. Now what we want to do is start another aspect of our course. And this is going to be related to creating presentations. So as before, let's go ahead and copy over our startup code. This is going to be Demo five dash begin. And as always, there are five dash instructor is your end goal. So let's copy it over here and open this up. So as you can see, we have set this to document class article. We have a title, date and author, begin document may title and document. This is our basic skeleton. So for a presentation, the first thing that we need to do is change the document last group, Bieber. So Beamer package, which lets us create really good-looking presentations in the deck. Though, most of the code that we write within this begin documented and documented is going to be later code with only a few differences thrown in because of the Biemer. And the first thing that you need to know is that on Beamer, documents are composed of frames. So if you come from PowerPoint or Keynote, The frame is the equivalent of a slide. So we say begin and end frame. So within this begin frame and entering the R window, it slides. So let's create our heroine presentation. Let's build this. And you will see that we get a proper made tidal created slide. This is the title slide. Now, this is the same MQTT item that we used in the article. It had a different effect there. It has a different effect here, right? And we have this single frame over here which says hello world. So we have two slides now, one for the title and one for our hello world. Now let's proceed with another frame. So let's create and sludge end frame. And within this, we want to write some text. Now you'll notice that the text is being centrally aligned vertically. So that is the default in the deck and it has a lot of pros. It's generally recommended that you keep it that way. But sometimes you want to talk a line, the slide content. So in order to do that, we're going to pass an option of t to the beginning for him environment. It, what that does is it takes this text and places it to the top of the frame. Now, because we don't have a frame title over here, this looks weird. So let's go ahead and insert a framed. I think in the first frame. This is going to be my first frame. O, when you build that, we get our title over here. Now there are two ways to insert different idle. One is this one that you just saw and the other is to Bassett has a, has an option. So introduction. So this one gets an introduction dike lower here. And some text is over here. You can do a paragraph break and insert some more text. And this seems to work fine. Now, I understand that looks, this looks a little weird. So that's one of the limitations. So to say, of using Beamer that your slides are going to look bland at first, but we're going to fix that. I promised you that your presentations are not going to look like they were made in the deck, like every other single presentation that is ever made in the deck. So we're going to come to that in one of the later videos. Just trust me on that. For now. Just stick with understanding the syntax of Beamer, right? So the first thing that we need to do now after our basic structure is to insert some sections. So if you remember, we had sections in articles. Here we have another section. So let's say this is the background section. This has this one frame over here. And it can also have another Frank begin frame, another background section. And we have a slash section in production overhead. So we have a section that is fault introduction. Let's put this over here so that it's much more visible. If you regard this as a comment so it will not affect our output. Let's build this and you will notice that nothing has changed. But we're going to change that in a minute. So after ME title, we want to insert a frame. This is going to be a special frame. And it's going to have the title of outline. And the reason for that is we are going to insert a table of contents here. Now if you hit F1, you get the outline page which has the sections listed over here. If you click on that, you go to the corresponding sections. So if you click on background, you go to the background section. Maybe we should go ahead and change this introduction to background frame so that it's much more visible. So if you come over here, you click on background, you go do background frame because that is where the second is starting from. So now we have the basic structure of a presentation. We have a way of creating outlines, we have a way of inserting frames. We can always go ahead and insert, for instance, equilibrium. And this is equal to mc squared RPL equation. This is going to go over there and it's going to look just as it is supposed to. So that's the basic. In the next slide. In the next video, we're going to go ahead and take a look at a few other constructs that are available in Biemer and then change the outlook of our presentation. So stay tuned. 23. Making Presentations Impressive: All right, so let's go ahead and insert a new frame. And in this we are going to insert a block. So blobs are used to highlight a certain piece of information. So begin end block, and within this we are going to give this block at idle. So this is an observation and this is a very important piece of information. Let's go ahead and see what it looks like. So this is a title and this is, this is a very important piece of information. Now this does not look very highlighted. That's because the team, the default theme of Beamer, white, it's not that good. So we're going to change that in a minute and we'll see what difference it makes to the block. But let's go ahead and take a look at another interesting idea. And that is the idea of putting some content n, which appears one piece at a time. So we don't want to say putting one some content in. And the second one, we don't want the second column, the second line appear immediately, right? If you do that, you're going to see that second line is appearing immediately. What we want to do is instead of kind of make it appear. So we say pause. Now, in this, as you will see, one of the lines has disappeared. While it hasn't really disappeared. It is invisible on this slide and it's going to be visible on the next slide. So the effect it's going to have is if you are running in presentation mode in your PDF viewer, this is going to look like the content. The second-line content is appearing, right? So let's take a look at whether it's look like. So we opened this in our external viewer and the changed the view mode to single-page. So this is going to look like the presentation now. So as you can see, putting some conducting and when I hit page down next to the second line appears. So it looks like the second line is appearing on click. So that's the way Beamer handles and emissions. So to say. Anything beyond that, thanks, fading in things, sliding in. Those are considered bad design, especially in technical presentations. So those are not very easy in Beamer, but really you want miss them. So let's go ahead and insert another bottle here. And the third line. And this is going to have the effect of only showing the first line on the first slide. Second line on second, third line, third. And this doesn't really make a PDF grow too large because this is just text. And unless you have really, really heavy content here, this isn't going to be a bad idea at all. Just takes a little getting used to. So if you recall, we had a problem with this observation. So this looked pretty bland. So let's go ahead and fix that a little bit. So the way we do that is by changing the theme. So we're going to use theme. So this is a beam command and we're going to say Copenhagen. And so this is a beam or theme. You can find other things as well. If you just search for Beamer themes. But we're going to fix that in a minute. I'm going to show you a better way. So use team Copenhagen and you will see that this presentation now looks like every presentation that was ever made in later. So everybody takes this team, at least 50% of people picked this theme. And the moment you see it, you bored out of your mind because you'll be thinking of some really bland presentation, right? So that's the impression that goes out. And that's not really what you want. What you want to do is engage people and we'll be seeing how we can remedy this problem. But just for the sake of completeness, I am showing you how you can use this thing. Another thing that is very, very popular is called, and Harvard actually built that it's going to have a really, really bad yellow color. And somehow people think this is really interesting, right? So researchers seemed to really like this team and they pick this for their presentations. This is really a nine, right? So I'm going to get rid of it. But Copenhagen is better than this one. So if we go over here and see that our problem of the observation block being very bland has fixed, has been fixed. So this is now standing out from the other text right up. Let's go ahead and put some other stuff over here, some intro stuff. And then we have an observation which is an important. And then we have some other stuff over here. So you get, as you can see, the observation stands out. So this is, this is a very useful command to remember and begin block and block. As I said, I don't like this team at all. So let's go over here and pick a theme that most people do not seem to know about, right? It's still a standard theme in today's laid-back, but people just don't seem to know about it. So metropolis much, much, much better. So it's very well designed. It has a lot of options that you can fix. As you can see, it's inserting the section headers automatically. The fonts are much better and we're going to make the human better later on. Everything seems to work really, really well. So metropolis is one aspect of what you should almost always be doing. And we're going to tell you how to customize this. So let's start with some options. So in this, I'm going to give it an option of outer slash. The progress bar is equal to x. So let me do that and do that. You'll notice that we are getting a very small thin progress bar over here. If you go to the next slide, it would have progress further. And on the next line it would have progress even further. And on the last slide is going to be all the way through. So this looks really good on a presentation. And even though it does not seem very visible here on a, on a large screen. And this looks really good. Of course, if you have a progress bar over here, we don't want these numbers over here. So we can change, alter numbering is equal to and that will get rid of, sorry. Is equal to none. And that's when you get rid of the numbering model from the slides and you just have the prominence dot. So it depends on your own preferences. If you want a progress bar, you can give these two options. If not, you can simply comment them out n, just have them sit in your code for future reference, right? So, so this metropolis team also has a very useful construct. Let's demonstrate that begin frame and end frame. So let's say you have this frame. And in this you'll learn to say, thanks for your attention. And you want to make sure that everybody is actually looking at it. So you wanted to stand out. So you say stand out. And that is willing to make this very different and very focused frame. So just by adding stand out, you can create a send out frame. So you can say, pay attention here, but maybe you have some really useful result. Definitely want people to see. So you can use a standard or not. This is not standard latex or even if you're not using the Metropolis team, this is going to give you an error. So make sure you're on the metropolis team. If you want to use standards for the metropolis team, let's do another thing over here. Let's go ahead and use package hex colors because we want to define some colors. And let's define a color. And we're going to call it. And you're going to have an HTML. And that says that we're going to define an HTML colors, which is going to be 911146. This is a curve that looks good. And then we're going to say set Beamer, colored and frame dilute. Two equal VG is equal to o. Because of that we just defined it and immediately get customizations. So all you have to do is modify this, lets say 11146 and you get a different color. So this is a very easy way of customizing your own themes and make themes stand out. For instance, I really like this other color. Let's call it slash define color. And that's called the arpanet and is also going to be an HTML, but the color combination here is going to be Treaty Six, six cc, so slightly bluer. And let's set VMware colored VDS equal to turn that. We can comment this out or leave it. It doesn't make a difference because we're setting it over here. And this looks like a very fresh blue color. So your theme does not have to look like everybody else's. There are some other customization options in the metropolis team. You can simply go over to match the slash and theme. Github repository, slash maps these ashram theme. And over here you can take a look at all the different options that are available. It has a detailed manual. You can click on that and take a look at the different options. One last thing that we want to do is tell you how to change these fonts to better alternatives, right? So for that, we can simply use package and pass the option SFD vault so that the san-serif fonts, the default function on default fonts for albumen gets set to source sands. So this is a very good font. You can see this looks really, really dealt polished, and so the font is much better. The colour combinations are your own. Oops, let's get rid of this one and then rebuild it on. Again. Fonts are on, the colors are on, and this does not look like an obviously later presentation, even though it has really good quality in terms of texts and other font that I really like is used package. And this is going to be fine. Sands. Sands. And obviously we want to look at SF default, right? So vital signs also looks really good. It's specially designed for the screen and it looks really good. And large screens, especially on presentations and LCDs, modern entities. So that's all I have about presentations. And you can always go ahead and look at the tech doc manual for Beamer to 3-node more options about. But really you don't want to overdo your presentations. Simpler the better, except you don't want to look like everybody else. So make it stand out, but don't overdo it. 24. Figure Drawing Basics: Alright, so welcome to the last section of this course. As I promised, I'm going to have a case study of drawing figures using latex. Let's go ahead over here to our demo succession begin as always, demo six dash instructor is the final product that we are trying to create. And hell, I told you, we're going to try and create a figure that looks something like this, right? Except we have box three. So here we're going to create six of them. Let's go ahead and open our file. As you notice, we don't have an author title and a main title over here this time. Because we're trying to create a figure, figured in itself does not have an alternate title. It gets embedded into another document that has that has this piece these pieces of information. So let's go ahead and change first this article blast to stand alone. And in fact, let's first start with the article and see what the difference is. So let's go ahead and keep this document structure and begin our figure drawing procedure. So for that, we're going to need the package ticks. Ticks is a package that lets us draw figures and we're going to have a begin takes picture and end takes pictures. So within this environment willing to alcohol exposure. So let's go ahead and create a simple node. So everything, every text that you want to place in a text document is going to be through a node. So let's go ahead and place a NOR that is willing to have for content guard at one. So let us implement them to have an H1 over here. Nothing complicated, just an edge one. Let's build that and see what happens. Now, as you will notice that the article class uses the standard A4 letter size paper. And we don't want that. We want to figure that is only as large as our content. It does not have, it should not have page numbers and everything around it. So for that, we have a very special document class called stand alone. And from this stand-alone, we can have the image or the page of the image only as large as it is needed. So you have an H1 over here, nothing else. So our page, so to say is when do we only this wide? So we haven't naught H1 over here. What we want to do is we want to name this north something, so we want to call it X1. So this one over here is the name of the node. And this one over here is what is appearing on the page over here. What we want to do is we want to make sure that this is an edge superscript one. So we call it and put it in the math mode and use the cat. So you can use math, right? Whichever map that you can use fractions over here, you can do square roots, whatever you want. We just want to keep it simple. So we have one over here at one and we want to place it at. We want to place it at location. Let's say two comma three. So this is the hex, this is the x-coordinate and the y-coordinate. So we're going to work with coordinates over here. So let's build that doesn't make a difference because steadily going to clip the page around it. But the difference will be seen when we put an edge over here. So this is a node S2 and it has been placed at four comma three. So your x location and now changed and x2 gets placed over here. You can go ahead and create another one. So h3 is going to be placed at 246 and this is going to be three. So we have three, S1, S2, and S3. So you'll immediately notice that the output of this as looking somewhat like what we were trying to make, We also need to have some excess. So we're going to create a node which is going to be named x1 is going to be true. So right below H1 salt instead of three and we're going to have 0 for the y-coordinate. And here we're going to say dollar x underscore $1. And so I realized this looks like too much work, but rest assured we're going to fix this in a while. So we have X2 over here and this is going to be at four comma 0. And then we're going to have x three. And this is going to be at six comma 0. There you go. So we have X1, X2, X3, X1, X2, and X3. Now, what we want to do is create a path between X1 and X1. And, except we're going to call it an edge, right? So an edge that should be drawn, right? So the way to read this is create a path from one to x_1. And the path itself is going to be an edge that when we draw, right? So there are other options here, but we're going to stick with the simplest ones. So there is a path from x one to x one. Now you'll notice that because we are defining that a path should go from x1 to x1 and we are not limiting ourselves to specific locations. If I move X1 around, let's say if I move this X12 minus2, the paths may do follow it along. So this works out really well. Once you have the diagram ready, everything just seems to work really well. So we also want, and about from X1 to X2, we also want to X3 one-to-one from X, X1, X2, X3, and so on. Now, we also want, this is getting really, really annoying, right? So representative except in a little while. So S2 to S3, X2, two X3. And we also need to go from a CH3 over here, right? So that's fixed. But we have a couple of problems. We needed circles around all of these. And this is really, this is really difficult. If I had six of these boxes here, H1 to H6 and X1 up to F6. I would have to write this thing 36 times. I don't want to do that. It's not as bad as a word processor or visual for instance. But still I don't want to do all of that Kraftwerk, right? So we're going to fix that in a while. 25. Styles and Time Saving Features: So the thing we want to fix in this particular video is that there are no circles around this and these nodes. Now, what we want is that these X's should be slightly gray circles. And these actions H2, H3, these should be blue circles. So let's go ahead and create a style. So immediately after the begin next lecture, we're going to have a takes set and record bracket. And within this, we are going to put some styles. So the first time that I want to create is my default mode. So a node Slashdot style is equal to bracket, bracket. That's just this index. Again, it has some meaning, but we don't want to go into that. What do we want to do is we want to have this drawn and we wanted to be a circuit. Also. We wanted to be filled with a blue color, right? And we're going to say that this is a in-order. Alright, so this node comes from over here. So maybe we should just call it in and patch it so just to make it different from the north. So, so you can see that has been drawn. And let's go ahead and use this edge. So H2O NH3 as well. And let's go ahead and create another one. Excerpt. Slashdot style is equal to bracket, bracket. And this is going to be an EPSRC, except that it's going to be filled with, great. So we need to turn this, explain that this is a, this is an X, so, and so is this X2 and X3. These look to duck. Let's make the capacity exclamation mark five. So that's an obesity of 5%. So now this looks really good, except the problem still remains. I'm having to write this thing again and again and again. And this is difficult and these are just three. I wanted to make them six or even ten. How do I do that without going nuts? So in the next video, we're going to fix that. 26. The Awesomeness of TikZ: So welcome to the planet video of this section. What we're going to do is we're going to get rid of all of this mess, right? But before we do that, we need to take a look at it and study that lift. But you'll notice that with repeating ourselves over here and everything else is remaining the same, right? Everything else is the same. What's different? We're going from 123, we're going from one to three. We're going from 4-6. So that's essentially one into two into two into three. Right? So, sorry. So we're again going from one to three, so that is a loop. Alright? Similarly overhead 123123 and wanted to do when to do the three to do. So, we realized that we are repeating ourselves and this is a loop over here. So what we do is we go ahead and comment this out. And we come out here and we write slash naught, src sentinel, or they are etched and we leave the thing that has been liberated, this guy what is being repeated. And then we have a two over here, comma three, sorry, this remains the same and then we have dollar, dollar edge, and that's it. So we need to put 1-2-3 or here, we need to put one to three over here and we get to put 1.2.3 over here. But where do we get that 123 over 23 that we need to put in? We get it using the far each command. So we say fart each slash n. And it's going to go from one comma dot three. It's going to go from one to three. And it's going to repeat this body over here. And we're going to have edge slash i. So i is going to be 123. We are going to get X1, X2, and X3. So we're going to get slash i into 22 that come to be I wanted to do to introduce, to introduce. And we're going to have an edge slash i. So this is going to be X1, X2, and X3. So we got rid of these three lines and we now have just these two lines. If you build that, it's exactly the same. Because we did the same thing. Right? Now, let's get rid of these guys and take one of these as a template and put this in a font each. Actually, maybe you can just go ahead and call this an ISO L1 comma dot-dot-dot column three bracket, bracket. And let's go ahead and call this slash slash two. In fact, we have slash I introduce and slack. I run that and it still remains the same. What about the edges? Now the problem with edges is we have S1, S2, and S3, and within that we have 123. So that's a nested loop. So what we want to do is copy one of these things. Comment this out, and go ahead and create a It's like foliage slash i. In. The outer loop is going to work on 123. And then we have an inner loop slightly in one column, dot-dot-dot, CO3. And here we're going to have this path. This path is going to go from i to X we, so first it's going to go from one to 11 to 2123, and it's going to go from two to 1222223321322323. Okay? So if you build that, you have this exact same thing, no difference except the real difference is, let's take this die down over here. Now the real difference is, now if I want to make it six nodes instead of just three, I go head and go 666. And I have discussed gloria, let's bring this down as well. It's six wallah. Takes like three seconds. So how about that? Right. So you would not redrawn this anywhere else. Now, where is it useful? Trust me, if you are working with machine learning or anything related to neural networks. These are very common, right? You tend to draw them, not ten nodes, but at least under six. These are very common. In fact, the original diagram that I showed you, this one is from one of my recent papers. So the takeaway from this is that once you understand that you can find the patterns in your technical diagrams, there are always patterns because we are coming from a scientific background. So once you find the pattern, you can use that pattern to define your figures. And because you are using the underlying pattern, they're much easier to remember, much easier to manipulate, much easier to work with, for instance. And we can go to, you can make this seven and then made these out. So if this was a neural network, you would have six on six nodes and one layer, seven nodes on another layer, and everything seems to work fine. Alright? So once you understand the semantics, you can create really complicated figures and everything just works out fine. And the beauty is if you want to turn it green, is go ahead and change the style ones. Everything changes. If you want to make this thicker, you say fleck. And all of them turn, take Ottoman really quickly. If you want to turn them into rectangles. Rectangles, it, you'll notice that we have very close margins over here. So let's go ahead and fix that as well. So we're going to say border is equal to 0.2 cm to the standard on package and gives you a little bit of border around your notes. So that's it for the text. And what you can do is you can search on text manual and PDF is the underlying engine. So you get the PDF manual, you go over there and you get 880 pages of really good documentation. You would not see such good documentation of anything anywhere. So it has tutorials. So for instance, it's a step-by-step guide to creating this really cool failure. If you're teaching math, you might want to create a Petri net. So there's a detailed tutorial step-by-step taking your, taking you from scratch, privileging this complicated figure. There is another tutorial for drying this. There is another for drawing these different graphs, bar graphs. And It's really long and it has a lot of options. It's a world unto itself so you can keep exploring and create really cool figures. In fact, if you remember the promo video for this course, I showed you this architecture over here. This has been created intakes from scratch. I made this far. One of my recent papers in all three of these figures are from that same paper. And they look really good. And it created from scratch and takes nor the drunk software has been used. It just looks good. As you can see, everything is aligned properly. And it was a, it was a blast to make this. Hope you had fun with this tool. 27. Parting Words - Learning New Things: So we've come a long way and I've covered all the content that I wanted to cover for this basic course. But as you can see, is a huge world. There are several people putting Rs into Rs of their daily lives free of cost into this system. And it really is a beautiful system to work with. I'm very passionate about this system. And it would really mean something to me if I can get more and more people do come up, do lytic to create better professional-looking documents. In this last parting video, I want to leave you with some helpful hints that might let you move ahead and explore more of later can get better output. Offer documents using these tips that I've learned over the years that I've been working with a deck. So the first thing that I want to show you is the lytic font catalog. If you want to, obviously you shouldn't be using too many fonts, but you should be using the right font. So if you're searching for inspiration, you can go to the lytic font catalog and it will show you all the fonts that you can use any attack without having to install them or anything. So you can go over here and for instance, and then click on set of fonts. And you will see all of these fonts that tech can be used to make it easy to in presentations. In fact, I've got the fire us and smart that I showed you earlier in one of the videos from over here. So what you can do is you can go ahead and search for the font, whichever one you like. You click on it and you get to this page. And it shows you a example what this font looks like. It looks much prettier than it's appearing over here. It looks so much better in print and on screen. So it also shows you how to use it. Simply go ahead and copy all of this and paste tricking your document and it should work fine. And it gives you some variations on here as well. And other font that I really like is a robot a thin. This is very good for on-screen and presentation mode. It's good for headlines headings. You might want to use it using the US package such and such, and another muse package. It. So it's very useful if you want to have different fonts in your document. So we'll just head over to lytic font catalog. Just make sure you don't overdo it and include too many farms in a single document. And other thing that I want to share with you is the document that got me started with latex. It's called the not so short introduction to let Jack. If you search on that, you will find this as the first PDF. And if you open it, you're going to see that it's 120 pages, which for the deck is quite short. But it's still got not so short introduction to later. So you can go over here and it has a lot of examples. It talks about bibliographies, indexing fancy headers. Lots of examples, SIMD, code and Hochberg side-by-side. For instance, you can go to fancy header. Fancy that it's explaining what this team and what your core should be and what the output is going to be. Title. This is a very good document to go through if you have time and you want to make your latex skills even more, even more powerful. If you get stuck with a deck. Of course. I'm here to help even ask me, but I do have my own limitations. I maybe pseudo expert in leader, but there might be things that I don't understand. For that you can go over here and take a look at one of the best question and answer websites on the internet, hands down and not I'm not talking about StackOverflow and talking about Sister of Stack Overflow, which is called the tech dot Stack Exchange. Now you might have heard of the horror stories that newbies have with the Boston question on Stack Overflow. It's not the case on tech Darmstadt exchange. This is a very, very friendly community. If you ask questions over here, you're going to get a really good response. You're going to get encouragement for trying to learn. They take your currently giggling to get useful answers. You're going to learn a lot if you tried to pass it over to here, don't worry about getting ridiculed. That's not going to happen on this website. Just make sure that you approach the problem as professionally. And it's a really good say to learn. In fact, I learned a lot of what I know from over here. Most of these 2 thousand PER reputation points come from asking questions instead of answering them. So please try it out. And I'll just leave you with one example of the question answers. I posted this asking and that I wanted to create a cloud that looks like this instead of this. And I had this guy go ahead and manually create these two clouds, right? And this is a guy with 68 thousand reputation points. So he's got, but he's very friendly as well. That's rare to see. And there is another unsolved hair as well. So don't be shy to ask questions over here. Obviously, you can post on the course page, and I'd be happy to help out. But these are professionals who are creating ligate analytic packages. So this is a very good resource to have under your bag. So I hope you enjoyed this course and I hope you can create documents in latex, share them with me so that I can know that you learned something from this course and that I was able to help out someone with creating latex, goodbye and have a nice journey. 28. Update: Gantt Charts: Alright, so this is the first update to discourse. And what we're going to do here is take a look at one of the advanced concepts in later. So this is going to be a completely optional video. You only need to see this if you want to cover this use case, if you don't, you can skip it. But this is going to give you a feeling of how later can be used to grow beyond the basic documentation structure that we are familiar with. So what we're going to look at is the concept of what is called a Gantt chart. So if you worked with research, if you work with research proposals, if you work with any business project, you would have seen this, that you have certain tasks and they need to be completed in a certain amount of time. So you have a schedule and you create this Gantt chart which shows these bars for each task. And in the columns you have the time which is incrementing. So you define tasks and you show their dependencies through these arrows. And you have milestones which look like these boxes. And the dependency between milestones and tasks is shown through this Gantt chart. So the reason I picked this is because it's one of those things that everybody needs from time to time. And there is really no tool available that does justice to this diagram. So, so Gantt charts, if you search for Gantt chart on any search engine, you will see these really, really weird-looking images, right? So this is one of the better ones. You see stuff that looks like this, really horrible to print. If you print it, it's pixelated, it looks really bad. You see people making stuff like this. So again, looks very crude and very unfinished. And this is another example. So people try to do these in Excel, and they tried to do these in dedicated tools, but even dedicated tools really don't look really, really well. People resort to tables and filling the boxes too short tasks. It's a mess, right? Whereas if we are working on later Jack, we have a very simple concept, right? We define our Gantt chart using the semantics of what a task is and how long it's going to take. And we get an output that looks like this. So it's extremely simplistic, its minimal. And it shows the whole concept in a very clean interface. And because it is a vector, it has the properties of the vector that we've come to know. Foam latex rates very high quantity. It prints really well. It looks really good in presentations, so that's what we're going to do. So enough motivation, let's go ahead and take a look at our code. So as with all of our structures, we have these two folders over here. So o, u, that's for updates. 0-1 Gantt Daesh began is where we're going to start and dash instructor is odd n products. So we go over there and we open up our proposal Gantt complete dot textFile, ICT. So this Gantt dots die is our style file which we are going to use within our tech. Fine, alright, so let's take a look at that. So we have this file over here and the document loss standalone just as we had it index. And we have put a border of 12 points in these options so that we have some margin around our feeder. So we have our begin document and our end document. And the first thing that we're going to try to do is incorporate our packets. So we're going to say use package, and we're going to say GAD. So this isn't a standard package. In fact, there is a standard package available, but we're using one that is over here. So gatt dot psi, so you don't have to incorporate the dots TEI file. And here you just say use baggage Gant and this will be incorporated in your main file. Then what we want to do is we want to define a color. So we're going to do that using our new command. And we're going to say def color. So this is my new columns name and I'm going to say read. The reason for doing this is that if in the future I want to change the color of my bars, all I have to do is change this red and everything else is going to change automatically, right? So let's go over here and get rid of the a and then create our environment. So our environment is going to be get. And obviously we need to finish it as well, right? So this is going to hold all of the Gantt chart. Now we want to pass some options to it. And the first option that we need to pass it is the number of vertical block. So this is going to be 11. So let's go over here at our finished product. So this vertical, the number of vertical lines on the number of lines or number of rows is going to be 11. And the number of columns is going to be, let's say 24, right? So we say 1124. So these are the two options that we pass to our Gantt. We also want to draw the horizontal line so we pass in square brackets and option which is drawn ledger line is equal to true. So we'll see what this does in a minute. So let's go ahead and make this. So because we don't have any information in here, so this is what it looks like, right? So kind of what we're going for now, what we want to do is we want to first define our title, right? So this is this guy over here in the years and the months. So because this is the package, it has a very specific syntax. So we're going to say slash begin. And this is within the Gantt environment. And here we have the Gantt title environment, right? So slash and again title. So that's again title. And this title, we have a title. And the label is going to be 2012. And we're going to have this start from month number three. And it's going to have the given again. And then we have the number of months that we are going to have in this year. So in 2012, we're starting from the third month and going up to the tenth month. Alright, so let's build that and see what this looks like, right? So this is what it looks like. So you don't see the three and the ten overhead because they are going to be in the next row. But here we see the 2012. Now, we also need a 2013. So 2013 is going to be the whole year. So we have 2013. And this is going to start from one and it's going to go up till 12. And let's go ahead and build that to see what that looks like. So we have 2013 and in 2014 we are going to have just a two months, right? So from one to 33 to yep. So that finishes up our column, right? So this needs to go to 2014. And there we go. Alright, so 2012 starting from the third month, going up them the second month of 2014. So that's our two years which happens to be 24 months. And we have element different Rosel area. So that's our first Gan title. Now let's go ahead and create our second row, which is also going to be again titles. So begin again title, end title. And this is going to have again a non title, and this is going to be 31. So starting from them on three with step of one and going up to 12th, and the width of each box is going to be one, right? So let's build that and see what it looks like. So this goes from three up to 12, and the width of each box is one and the stride is also one. So if we change this to two, this is going to go like that, right? So each box is going to take up two columns. So you can experiment with this to figure out what this means. But I'm going to do the typical use case. So an untitled, we're going to go from one to the step of one up till 12 and each box is going to take one. And then finally we have starting from one, we're going to go up to two. We just run, right, so there you go. So we have three to 12 and then one to 12. And then finally we have 122, right? So that's our basic structure over here. Now what we want to do is we want to create a couple of rows over here, which are going to all the tasks. For that, let's first create a milestone. So for that we have the option of Gant milestone height. So this is going to be get milestone with a double t. And this is going to be proposal defense, right? And here we put the column where it should be, so at 0. So you can see that at column 0 we have the proposal defense, right? So because it's a milestone, it looks like a diamond. Next, let's go ahead and create a bar. So this is going to be Gant bar. And we're going to say color is equal to, in fact, this is going to be in the square brackets. Color is equal to slash def color, and that is where our new command comes in. And then we say, let's say Android security, right? And then we are going to tell it that you should need to start from 0 and go up till three. Alright, so there you go. So we have a bar that starts from 0 goes up to three. Then what we want to do is we want to create another one. And because this second bond needs to be continued from the previous one, so it has to be linked with the previous one. We are going to say Gantt Bar continues so CON. And same thing. Let's say this is literature review, whatever. So this is going to start from three. And this is going to go up to, let's say two. Alright, so there you go. So starting from three, it goes up till two months and it is linked with the previous bar automatically, right, so we have that. And then let's go ahead and add a couple more. So we have another Gantt bark on. And this is policy mechanisms starting from five going up L one. And then we have a milestone which is also connected with the previous one. So this is up until sixth, right? So when we do that, we have all of these connected together and we have two milestones, first at the beginning and at the end. Now what we also want to do is we want to group all of these into one major task. So for that we have Gantt group and group goes at the top according to Gantt Chart structure. So we're going to have Gantt group and we're going to say, let's say background study. And this is going to start from 0. And it's going to go up to six month, right? So we have a borrower here, which looks like that, right? So we have all of these coming in together. So finally, let's go ahead and create a bar of a different color. So this is going to be Gantt Bar and we're not going to connect it. So it's not going to be gone. And this is going to be our documentation. And this is going to start from 0 and it's going to go up until 24. And the color that it has is going to be right. So we hardcore bluer here. So there you go. We have this guy starting from this 0 and going up until 24 months. And so we have our very clean, very well-structured Gantt chart over here, which prints very well and looks really went in presentations. And because we have a couple of rows over here missing, so we can go ahead and reduce this to nine. And that should fix everything. So now there's no reason to create ugly-looking Gantt charts. Whenever you want to do a Gantt chart, open up your text editor and create one using cantatas die. 29. Update: Author-Year Style References: Welcome back to the course. In this video, we are going to take a look at a very small concept, only a few people needed, but those who do struggle with it. And I've had a lot of people ask me how to do this. So I wanted to create a short update on this. So what we want to do is we want to cover the concept of a different type of citation. Sometimes some journals are books require you to cite your references in a specific format, which is called the author year format. And it looks like this. So in the text, you are going to write the author's name and in brackets you write here if it fits in the sentence. So here we are saying that the Shephelah guy said something, something. So we say so in shuffling in 2011, it was suggested, so on. So and if you are just trying to present the paper as we did earlier on, so we can write it in square brackets over here. So these are two styles in one in which the name of the author blends into the sentence that you're writing and the other one in which it is completely disconnected. So this is called the author year style. And we are going to take a look at how to do this in this lecture. So as always, we are going to go into our demos seven dash instructor, and open up our file, which is going to be author year dot deck. And we also have a bibliography file called first onboard here. Now I'm not going to create a begin folder separately because there are only a couple of commands that you need to change. So we are going to start with this and just comment out the stuff that we require. So this is our first-order file in which we have three papers that we papers or books that we want to refer to. And this is our document. So we are going to first combine this and take a look at what the current output rate is. So this is our basic citation that we've done earlier. So let me show you the output. This is what it looks like. So we have the normal I Tripoli style format. So we have a numeric reference over here and numeric references in your reference list. Let's take a look at the code that generated this. So this is what we have done earlier on. So we have an article class and ignored the commented out portions for the moment. So we have a document, author, title and abstract and a section over here. We have the usual Site command over here, and we are citing these two guys. Then we have the bibliography style as plain and bibliography, which is our first object file. So when we combine this, we get this out. What we want to do is we want to change this to an author year style. Now the very first thing that you have to do for this is you go ahead and you clean your auxiliary files. So you need to delete all of these files, and this is available in your text video by default, this is because you're going to get really weird errors when you change from this tile to the author year style. If you don't clean your observation fights. So let's go ahead and import the packages that are required. So first we are going to require the Bible package. So this is kind of like a general package which provides different language functionalities. And we are giving it the option of English over here, right? So you won't see this package functioning, but it's required for what we're trying to do. The other reference package that we want to use is not web. So this package is, it's a very powerful package. It has a lot of options. We're going to cover only the basics in this video. So let's enable this package. And now what we want to do is we want to go over here and change the bibliography style from plane do abbreviated NAT, Right? So this is abbreviated NADH style. This is going to take care of everything for us. Now. That is all that is needed to make this go from a basic pneumatic style to an alter your style. However, there are some options over here. So if you recall, we had two things. The first variant was when the author's name was embedded within the sentence. So because it's going to be embedded within the text, we are going to call it Site D. So you need to change your sight commands to Site D commands. So site text. And the other one was when there was a parentheses around the outer name as well. So that is called the Site B. Alright, so that's how you remember this IT and site we. So when you change both of these, you can go ahead and build your document again. So as you can see, we have this almost working fine, except instead of parenthesis, we have square brackets and overhead as well. So we are going to change this in our options. So we have a set sight style command over here in which we are going to pass the option of authored year. And for Open VR going to set the starting patentees, patentees, whatever the singular is as our option. So take a look at this very gratefully. So we have opened is equal to and we are specifying the starting penalties and foreclose. We are specifying the ending bracket. So when we do that and rebuild our document, you will see that this works perfectly fine now. So this is the psi t and site we variant and the author names have been arranged as well in the references. So it's only a matter of including these two packages and changing the site commands to Site D and site weak amounts. That's it. Finally, there is a problem that if we have this shifted by writing another piece of work in 2011, how do we differentiate between the two? So, so for instance, we have this mitochondria by this guy over here in 2011, and the same guy wrote another book in 2011 again. So how do we differentiate between these two? We don't have to worry about that. We are simply going to cite The other book as well and rebuild. And it's going to modify the reference accordingly for us. So this is going to be 20112011 B. Let us will take care of you automatically as it always does, right? And this is going to be fixed in the references as well. So that is the author year style with some people need and really struggled with to get it working. Sometimes they don't include the bailout package or there is a variant. So this is the clean way of doing this and hopefully this was helpful for you.