Japanese Visual Culture | Masaki Hayashi | Skillshare

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Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

7 Lessons (57m)
    • 1. Introduction

      4:08
    • 2. Stone age

      5:26
    • 3. Arrival of Chinese culture and Buddhism

      7:59
    • 4. New Buddhist statues and dawn of Manga

      9:37
    • 5. Samurai era and the Realism

      8:19
    • 6. Muromachi era: Japanese beauty flourished

      10:47
    • 7. Edo era: National isolation period

      10:51
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About This Class

As the visual culture of modern Japan, manga (comics), anime (animation) and games are world-famous, but behind this is a long history of rich visual culture that spans over a thousand years. This course will introduce you about 1500 years of Japanese art history, from A.D. to the Edo period, before Western culture officially entered Japan in the 19th century. The lectures will use a lot of images to visually convey the whole picture of the classical Japanese visual culture.

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Meet Your Teacher

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Masaki Hayashi

Japanese culture talk

Teacher

Hello!

I'm a Japanese, living in Sweden and teaching at a university.

I have always been interested in art and culture, and I finally got the opportunity to give a special lecture on the visual culture of my country at the university. When I spoke in front of many Western students there, I received a surprisingly large response.

Japanese comics, animation and games are world famous and many young people here in Sweden are enjoying and interested in it. However, few people know the background behind how these rich modern Japanese contents were born. In fact, Japan has accumulated a wealth of visual culture for over a thousand years, which is the basis of the modern contents.

Here, I would like to share my knowledge with you. I will introduce Japanese culture f... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello, my name is Cooney. I'm a substitute teacher of a man who made this video. Welcome to the course, japanese visual culture. I'm an agent of Dr. Moss, AKI Hayashi. Heat is a Japanese living abroad, working as an associate professor at a university in introducing Japanese culture. Sometimes. Of course, I will explain japanese visual culture, showing you many pictures of artworks. The first course will focus on classical works of art. Japan is a country with a very active visual culture. I am sure you are all familiar with Japanese man God, which is a comic strip on email, which is animation and games. The popularity of japanese visual content, especially among the youth of the world is amazing. Looking at this slide, you may know what each one is. The man God is one piece. The anemia is how Yamasaki and the game is over. Yummy. These are all famous works from Japan. It's no doubt that many of these visual works from Japan are accepted and attract people all over the world. However, the history of these Japanese man got on e-mail and games started after World War 2. This means they developed rapidly in a short period of only about 75 years. So what was there in Japan before the war? Actually, Japan has a very long and rich history of visual culture. The culture has continued uninterrupted for over 1000 years. The beginning of japanese visual culture can be said to be around the sixth century. Which means that the country has a history of about one hundred, ten hundred, five hundred years. And a tremendous amount of art has been created in that long history. And this long history is the foundation of the modern Japanese contents. This is the timeline of Japan's visual culture. In terms of visual culture, Japan has undergone three major changes in its 2 thousand years of history. The first was the influence of Chinese culture in the sixth century. And the second was the influence of western culture in the 19th century. After the country was closed to the outside world in the early 17th century. Finally, there was the influence of the American culture that came in after World War II. These three are major transitions in Japanese visual culture. In this course, I will introduce the visual culture that was born and changed in Japan over about one hundred and five hundred years. Starting from the Stone Age before the arrival of China to the 19th century when Western culture entered the country. This is the end of the introduction. Next, we will start from the Stone Age. Well, do you remember my name until next time? 2. Stone age: Hello. Nice to see you again. My name, don't you? So let's start. First. Let's look at the Stone Age. This is the period from about 14 thousand BC to the third century. What kind of things were there in Japan at that time? This is a clay pottery that was made between 3000 and 2000 BC. This period is called the Jomon period. The word Jomon means rope pattern. The name comes from the fact that the surface of the pottery of this era has a rope pattern. Still. It's exotic. They are overly decorated. Also, as you can see, there are Picasso everywhere. In other words, it is very primitive. Aesthetically. It is a perfect subject for modern artists. This is a group photo of German Earth and where they were probably used to boil food or to hold drinks. But the decoration is too intricate to be practical. However, there is no doubt that they are very artistic. People in the Jomon period also made many statues of characters. This is a doll made of clay called dog ou, meaning clay figure. It is a human figure, but very boldly abstracted. And I think it is a good design. This is also a clay figure, but it looks more like an alien. The shape of the eyes is impressive, isn't it? This clay figure is wonderfully composed and made with a good sense of beauty. We don't know what these clay figures were used for, but they are remarkable for their abstract beauty and great composition. The Jomon period lasted a long time in BC. But suddenly something happened. Was it started by people from the continent across the sea. Maybe it was the influence of China. People's lifestyles also changed. They changed from a hunting lifestyle to a farming lifestyle. Against the backdrop of such cultural changes, the form of sculpture also changed dramatically. This is pottery made between the first third centuries compared to the excessive decoration of Jomon Earth and where the design is much simpler, the decoration disappears and the earthenware becomes functional. This period is called the Yayoi period. This is a group photo of Yayoi pottery. Note that the large curves can be seen throughout. The shapes are practical for their intended use. In terms of design. There are no detailed decorations, but rather a combination of large curves that appear. This sense of curvy lines becomes the mainstream of Japanese art works later. Now, the Yayoi people came up with the idea of making a face by drilling three holes in this Yayoi earthenware. This is called Honi was. This is it. It's interesting and it's cute to holes for the eyes and one for the mouth. This is how they make a face. It's a shape that makes you smile, isn't it? Or you could say it is a very childish shape. But the interesting thing is that because of its extreme childish notice, it appears to be attractive to us. After a while. A more realistic Connie y appears. It is a statue of a warrior in armor. But as usual, there are only holds for the eyes and mouth. Many Honi why animals were made? And this is a horse. It also has a hole in its eye. This is a group photo of Honi law. These are the excavated objects from the sixth century. And we call this period the co-found period. Co-funded is a large tomb of royalty made by heaping up the soil on the land. This Honeywell was buried in that tomb. It is said to be an offering to the dead, but the truth is not known. This concludes the lecture. Next lecture is arrival of China. My name is Cooney, as you remember. Anyway, audios. 3. Arrival of Chinese culture and Buddhism: I'm I'm coming here to serve you. So let's start. In the previous lecture, I introduced the statute called Hannah NWA, which was made in the sixth century. And I called it childish. In this lecture, I would like to talk about the process by which Chinese culture was introduced to Japan in the sixth century. And Japanese culture was dramatically transformed and further digested as its own. The main factor that Chinese culture clearly influenced Japan was the arrival of Buddhism. Buddhism is said to have been officially introduced across the sea in the middle of the sixth century. So what was born in Japan after the introduction of Chinese culture and Buddhism? Yes, this is it. This is one of the oldest Buddhist statues in Japan. The era has changed from the co-found period to the sukha period. It is a typical Buddha statue with Chaka in the center and biostats who on both sides. But don't you think something amazing happened here? This statue has replaced the hand while in the previous era. And it is astonishing to see how drastically the form has changed. How on earth did the Japanese people of that time endorse such a drastic change, the rapid change from the childlike form to the adult form. And I think this could be the starting point of japanese visual culture properly. Incidentally, this sudden change of form is a motif that appears repeatedly in Japanese culture. This is called tension and Japanese meaning transformation. If you are familiar with Japanese man got on, He may or games, you probably know that this transformation appears everywhere. Pension is one of the key concepts in understanding Japanese culture. Now that Japan has acquired such advanced Buddhist thought and advanced modeling techniques, it will continue to develop in this direction. In the seventh century, a 100 years after the arrival of Chinese culture, Buddhist statues like this one were actively produced. They are wonderful in terms of modelling, but their faces are still those of China and Korea, indicating that they were faithful to the images that had been introduced. Then, what about the painting? Paintings are more prone to disappear then sculptures. So there are not many of them. This is a famous mural which is technically advanced, but the image depicted is still under the complete influence of India and China. And nothing unique to Japan has yet appeared. In fact, in Japan's visual culture, sculptures flourished first. And when sculptures declined, paintings flourished. And when paintings declined, manga and anime were born. It's from 3D to 2D, then to movies. Another 100 years later. In the eighth century, Japanese Buddhist statues began to have their own style and reached their first peak. It has been about 200 years since Chinese culture entered the country. Look at this Buddhist statue. By the time of this, there are hardly any shades of China, India, or Korea in its face anymore. It has become a Japanese face. It may be difficult for non-Asian people to understand the subtle differences. But this is a Japanese face with no doubt. I also want to draw your attention to the curves that appear in this statue. The round shoulders, the lines of the face, the hair, the folds of the cloth and so on, are all very elegant and intricately arranged. It may remind you of the curves of the potteries and the Yayoi period. This is a statue of a warrior, while the previous one is a statue of a bot sat. So the expression of the warriors in their armor showing anger and movement is excellent. Let me explain the typical pattern of Buddhist statues. The Buddha image is divided into four subjects. And URI, both sat so Milano and 10 Bu. Each of them has its own meaning as written in the slide. But visually speaking, they are divided into two main categories. The two on the left are gentle, come and static, while the two on the right are emotional with strong expressions and movement. Now, these are sheets tend no statues depicting for warriors, each with their own role. They all stand stumping on a small evil demon. They are protecting the Buddha from evil. This is a close up of como Cotton's face. The strength of his emotions deep in his heart is fully expressed. These are the expressions of the four warriors. The variation of facial expressions, the expression of subtle emotions, and the high degree of perfection are all wonderful. These are all works of the narrow period in the eighth century. And this statue that you see now is the most famous of them all. The name of the statue is, I'll shew rock. It is one of the eight variations of the gods that guard Buddhism. This statue is one of the pinnacles of Japanese Buddhist art. It is an oddly shaped statue with three faces and six arms. But it is amazing how this quiet expression reveals a warrior in battle. His six arms are long, perfectly cylindrical, and without muscles, which look difficult to fight. The expression on this young man's face is perfect. The decisive mouth is contrasted with the sorrowful eyes and eyebrows, which are troubled by something. And this statue with it's extremely subtle expression of both pity and severity, is probably the best of the early Japanese Buddhist statues. In this lecture, we have seen how the art of Buddhist statues peaked after the introduction of Chinese culture and Buddhism. In the next lecture, I will talk about the new art form from McKeown and the new, an impressionist painting. I enjoy my job, although I don't smile at all. Anyway. Adios. 4. New Buddhist statues and dawn of Manga: Hello, there is coming to you at Masao keys command. So let's start. After the first peak of the Japanese Buddhist statues. They also acquired many different styles. From the narrow period to the hay on period. A different school of Buddhism was introduced. This school is called Mikkel. Mckeown was brought to Japan by kooky and others who traveled to China. Here, let me briefly explain what Buddhism is in the first place. The basic Buddhist understanding of the world is that life is suffering. Therefore, people want to escape from this suffering and go to a world where there is no suffering. In Japanese, the world we live in is called gainsay, and the world without suffering is called Nihon. This Nihon is called nirvana in English. In order to reach Nirvana from this world, enlightenment is needed, and this enlightenment can be attained through Buddhist practice. Enlightened literally means to become lighter, right? In other words, enlightenment means to drop all the burdens that you carry in this world and become lighter. Then you will reach Nirvana. Mcu is derived from the basics of Buddhism and begins to be interpreted in a different way. Furthermore, kooky, I took McKeown as a base and gave it his own Japanese interpretation. When Kook was entrusted with the touchy temple in Kyoto, he arranged 21 Buddhist statues and developed a group of sculptures called the three-dimensional Mandela. The statue in this slide is called Von 10, which is one of them. What do you think? It is quite different from the previous narrow period? It is often described as sensual. But what does that mean? First of all, the faces, not very Japanese, but rather Indian. Look at the feminine body within robes, exposed skin, and plump and curvy beauty. And above all, the goose is supporting the Brahma are impressive. Don't you think that this form, with its head leaning back and neck bent, represents an erection. The power felt in this statue is sexual and reminds us of the affirmation of life. Buddhism teaches us to abandon this world, which is full of suffering. But Cu Chi brings into it the inverted truth that this world is beautiful as it is, even if it is full of suffering. Many Buddhist statues reflecting this unique McKeown were made during this period. This is a statue of WHO down below, the God of anger. His face is scary with teeth bared, but his body is still curvy and has a feminine and gentle atmosphere. In this statue, the line of the feminine body is almost exaggerated and the fat face has a soft expression. As you can see, many of the Buddhist statues influenced by McKeown have sinc waveforms. From some of the statues. We may feel the joy of life in them. But what about the paintings of the same period? Buddhist paintings are still like this. And there is not much of a sense of uniqueness of Japan. If I was told that this painting was made in China, I would say so. By the end of the Hadean period. But a image had become more formalized and there were less fresh discoveries. This is a big statue of Buddha made in the 11th century by a talented sculptor called Joe Chill. The aristocrats of the time hope to live in a glittering and elegant Utopia in Nirvana after they died. In an attempt to recreate this on Earth, they constructed the Biada and temple with this statue of Jojo at its center. This elegant Buddhist statue and perfect composition, which Jojo achieved, became a model for future buddhist masters. Everyone imitated this image and began to make similar Buddhist statues. As a result, the originality of Buddhist statues naturally faded away. But what about paintings? This painting expressing the sorrow of the Buddha's death is excellent. But again, it is still under the influence of China. And there is not much that is Japanese in it. In the end, religious paintings depicting Buddhism are still under the influence of China and are more or less formalized. However, suddenly. A new style later called Men God appears in the world of painting. This is the dawn of men guy in Japan. This is an illustration of a story drawn in the 12th century. The world of the aristocracy depicted in the Tale of Genji. A great piece of literature was written by morose AAC is Chicago who is a female novelist in this period. And the world was depicted in picture scrolls with unique composition and expression of people. In contrast to Buddhist painting, this can be seen as a genre painting. The former is official and formal, while the latter is private and depicts customs. It was around this time that the Japanese phonetic character Hiragana was born. The characters on the left are the Chinese characters which had been used for all writings in Japan until then. On the other hand, the character on the right is Hiragana, a new character invented by women of the time. The two are contrasting in many ways. The Chinese character Kanji is used in formal documents and is a men's culture with many straight lines and each character has a meaning. Hiragana, on the other hand, is used for private writing, such as diaries and stories. And is a woman's culture with curved forms and phonetic characters. This contrast may be seen as a direct correspondence between Buddhist paintings and genre paintings. This picture scroll is called showed you giga, caricatures of frolicking birds, animals, and humans. This picture drawn about 800 years ago is now said to be the origin of modern man. Got the frog throws the rabbit. The frog wins, and his fellow frogs are overjoyed. The artist used the full length of the scroll to depict the animals playing like humans. Everyone seems to be having a fun time. The sketches of the animals behaving like humans are incredible. This work is truly worthy of the roots of men got from the latter half of the Hadean period, many pictures of cartoon like stories and genre paintings began to be drawn. This painting depicts a legend, but the movements of the characters are remarkable. In the past. People in Buddhist paintings were mostly static and had few facial expressions. But in this painting, movement and facial expression are vividly expressed. Monks, commoners, and officials are all in a frenzy of joy. This is a brilliant depiction of over dramatic movements and intense emotions that had never been seen before. It depicts a man placing a rice bail on top of a big bowl as told by a monk. And the men around him are looking with amusement. But the gestures of each person are extremely cartoon like. We see that the technique of depicting people in Japanese men GA style had already reached a very high level in the 12th century. In this lecture, I talked about the new image of Buddha under the influence of McKeown and the birth of the original men guy in picture scrolls. This concludes the lecture. In the next lecture, I will talk about the changes in visual culture caused by the rise of the samurai society. Look at my cool yellow pants. That's Mooney. Anyway. Audios. 5. Samurai era and the Realism: Here Comes pony again. I'm here, substitute teacher. So let's start. Then. At the end of the 12th century, the era changed and entered the comma who were a period. This was the era of Samurai warriors who established the Shogunate government. The comma coup or as Shogun, it was based in comma camera in the east, far away from Kyoto. Comma camera is located a little west of what is now Tokyo. In this way, the center of Japan was divided into two. There were two centers in Japan. The imperial court with the emperor in Kyoto in the West and the samurai Shogunate in comma camera in the East. The imperial court in Kyoto is the aristocracy, while the Shogunate income OK H2RA is the samurai. So their personalities are so different as to be opposites. The portrait here, painted in the ICU or a period, depicts the emperor at the head of the imperial court and the shogun at the head of the Shogunate. If you look at the mood of these two paintings, you can see the difference. The emperor is elegant and the shogun is stern. In the world where these samurai rained, the visual culture has changed. The content is more realistic and pragmatic, and the trend is to emphasize facts rather than beautiful dreams. And the sculptures began to work as independent artists. In the UK who were a period. The sculpture reached its second peak in terms of realism, following the narrow period. These two sculptures are by Coben. He humorously depicts a demon standing with a lantern. The realism of these muscles and they're imposing physique is worth noting. What's more? These demons were once evil demons who were trampled by the guardians like this. But these same evil demons are now standing proudly on the ground, lighting up the world with their lanterns. It's a moving transformation, isn't it? This is a statue of Congo Ricky SHE by k. It is a huge statue, more than eight meters tall and is very powerful. It is muscular. And the way the muscles are attached does not seem to be anatomically correct. But it is a work that is typical of the samurai culture that shows off its power. This statue is the counterpart of the previous one. And while the previous one has an open mouth, this one has a closed mouth of the same size. These two statues stand on both wings of the NAND gate. This is the on-demand gated TO dodgy. It is the largest gate architecture in Japan. This is a sculpture by item k, one of the most famous sculptors of the comma, or a period. During the comma or a period. The technique of inserting glass eyeballs from the back called glucagon, was widely used to sculpt figures. This technique made it possible to create sculptures with a life-like expression. Although the wood carvings are cracked and the paint is peeling off, this still has a life-like presence and the power of expression is astounding. This realism maybe comparable to Michelangelo's realism. But this was 300 years before he appeared. We can say that the comma, or a period is the peak of Japanese sculpture in terms of the power of realism. On the other hand, the cartoonish expression that began in the previous period was further developed. This is a picture of GKE, meaning hungry ghost in a picture scroll called RockYou dog picture. A hungry ghost is a monster that reincarnate is after a person who has done bad deeds in life dies, hungry ghosts are always starving and thirsty, always suffering in search of food and water. Here we see hungry ghosts playing with bones in a graveyard. The representation of corpses in the wild is also interesting as a depiction of the customs of the time. This is a scene of a public toilet at the edge of town. It's interesting to see how people behave where young, old women and men's to altogether the hungry ghosts eat the feces and urine to survive. This is a picture of Hell. Anyone who does anything worse than becoming a hungry ghost will die and fall into hell. This hell is for those who killed, stole, or did evil acts before they were born here. They suffer here almost forever. In this hell. Maggots breed from their bodies and eat them up. The red, black, and gray colors of both hell are striking and they look horrifying, but they are uniquely aesthetic and excellent. The last painting in the rock codon picture series is the Yamal, you know, Satoshi diseases and deformities. It depicts various diseases of the time along with the customs of the time. In this painting, a fake doctor is performing a surgical operation on a person with an eye disease. He cuts with a blade and blood is spurting out. After this, the person's eyes became even more blind and he lost his sight. These rock codon paintings come from the Buddhist concept of six realms. The six realms are hell, hungry, ghosts, animals, fights, humans, and paradise. And that this world is made up of these six territories. If you look around the world today, don't you think you can actually find these six realms? Buddhist wisdom is amazing. At that time, many works were created using six realms as motifs for both sculpture and painting. In the comma or a period, realism reached its peak in sculpture while painting carved out its own world. But what about Europe during this period? In the 12th century, Europe was still in the middle ages. Christian paintings like this one are extremely formalized and their eyes are not on reality, but consistently on religious doctrine. We have to wait for the Renaissance of the 14th century to see the emergence of worldly free expression in Europe. This is the end of this lecture. Next time we will look at the art of the morrow Malachi period. The next era. The Japanese beauty flourished in many fields. I think I'll go for a beer or something after this. Anyway. Adios. 6. Muromachi era: Japanese beauty flourished: I think I'll come once or twice more. And today is the same pruning. So let's start. Then. The morrow Malachi period came. The morrow Archie period was also the time of the samurai Shogun it. But the economy and distribution of goods became active. And merchants and farmers were particularly active in society. Under these circumstances, japanese visual culture has developed and blossomed in many fields. The Moro Malachi period began with the establishment of the Shogunate in Kyoto by our Chicago taco G. The comma who were as Shogun, it had been located in comma camera in the East. But now the Shogunate was moved to Kyoto. The Imperial Court is still in Kyoto. So the court nobles and the samurai are in the same area in Kyoto and had a cultural influence on each other. This is the king Kikutake temple in Kyoto, a symbol of the morrow Malachi period. The king Kikutake temple is a combination of three different architectural styles. One above the other. The first floor is a shrine style structure. And on top of it, a Japanese style Buddhist temple is built further on the third floor. Zen Buddhism style temple is connected. The first floor represents the style of the court nobles. The second floor of the samurai. And the third floor or the latest style of the Samurai, which is really a synthesis of the two different cultures in three different styles. Nevertheless, the perfect composition and beauty of the entire temple is truly magnificent. The morrow MRCI period was also a time of power struggles among Samurais. The central Shogun. It was very powerful. But many Samurais, including local Samurais, fought each other. At the end of the morrow Archie period. It eventually turned into a period of war called the Senkaku period. In such a situation, local Samurais built their own castles to show off their power. This picture is of the castle inhomogeneous, which is not only practical and strong, but also excels in it's clean form and unique fortress like design. Also, armor for warfare at that time was made in various unique ways. As seen here. A large number of colorful, beautiful variations of armor were produced using intricate combinations of metal clothes and strings. In the midst of power and elaborate decorations, a world of minimal decoration has emerged. This is the Japanese tea ceremony scene. And the tools used are neat and simple, creating a so-called minimalist view of the world. This art of simplicity, including the tea ceremony, was influenced by Zen Buddhism, which was the mainstream of Buddhism at the time. This unique Japanese sensibility is sometimes described as Wahhabi Sabi. It is the concept of finding beauty and imperfect, impermanent and incomplete. The house in the photo is a tea room where the tea ceremony is held. It is simple and fragile, such as wood, mud, TomTom and mats and tile roofing. The bowl on the lower right is asymmetrical and distorted, where you can see the beauty of the natural distortion of the bowl. This feeling of Wahhabi Sabi is also utilized in a garden such as this one. It is a Japanese rock garden where large and small stones are randomly arranged in the sand space. It can be said that this is an imitation of a landscape painting born from Zen Buddhism. And it can also be said to be a Japanese aesthetic sense seen an irregularity and fluidity. Buddha statues that have existed for a long time have not developed new sensibilities and have declined artistically. However, interesting non-Buddhist forms emerged during this period. One example is the no mask. No is a classical Japanese dance. There have been many Japanese dances with masks in the past. But in this era, the dense gained a unique interpretation and became a genre of its own. The dense form of NO has the same tendency as the tea ceremony, Wahhabi Sabi, and minimalism that we have seen so far. And although it is extremely formal, it has created a unique beauty. There are dozens of different types of no masks, each representing a certain character of the role. This is a young woman's mask. This is the mask of a demon expressing anger. This is an elderly woman. And this is a wicked mask expressing evil. Looking at these exaggerated facial expressions, you can see that the facial expressions of the characters in modern Japanese manga originated from these masks. The last one called Hananiah, depicts a woman who has turned into a demon. It is a woman with two horns and an extremely frightening face. It is as if years of resentment and anger have crystallized in a single face. In this way, the age of sculptures came to an end, but instead, painting flourished. The age of painting has come. Here. The so-called Japanese beauty blossomed and came into full bloom. During this period. Ink painting, which originated from Zen Buddhism in China flourished. This is by the most famous painters says Show the scenery is of Chinese nature, but it's twisted in a unique way. Csu traveled to China where he learned the art of ink painting and returned to Japan to paint many pictures. In Chinese Zen Buddhism. Painting landscapes in ink is important to the essence of the religion, which is based on seeing and feeling. This feeling seemed to be perfect for the Japanese who had a thriving visual culture. This period produced many excellent ink painters, including says show. Here is another ink painting, bisexual. First glance. This is almost an abstract painting. However, the hairiness of the landscape and the force of the water are beautifully expressed by the shading of the ink and the accidental brushwork. In the latter half of the morrow Malachi period, when the world was in the midst of war, a new school emerged called the Kano school. The school produced colorful, beautifully composed paintings like this one. There is no so-called perspective, no sense of air. But on the other hand, individual birds, flowers, and trees are depicted with stunning realism, like miniature paintings. The composition is also brilliant, contrasting the purity of the primary colors with an artistic sense. He seems to compose many components without carrying about the real colors, shadows, and shadings of the actual landscape. This painting of two lions, also by the condo school, as you can see, depicts an imaginary animal. The mane, tail, and skin patterns already have the feel of an abstract design. At first glance, you may feel that this is completely different from the world of painting in Zen Buddhism. But in Zen Buddhism, it was important in a religious sense to depict an imaginary landscape rather than a real landscape. Therefore, when Japanese artists painted in Japan, they did not need to capture landscapes with flowers, birds, and the moon from reality. But it was important to capture what exists in their minds. It may be difficult for us, modern people who are accustomed to the realism of copying reality to understand this feeling. But these paintings tell us it. In addition to the Kano school, there are many other great painters. This is an ink painting by hacer Agarwal Tohoku, who is one of them. It is a large folding screen painting of a pine tree in the rain. And the expression of the atmosphere is nothing short of magnificent. In this way. The beauty of Japan blossom during this period. But what about Europe at this time? Yes. There it is. The Mona Lisa. The Renaissance, which began in Italy in the 14th century, mark the beginning of European art as we know it today. And European art has developed rapidly since then. In this lecture, I talked about the beauty of Japan that blossom during the moral Malachi period. The next lecture will be the final one. I will talk about the mature beauty of the Edo period. Next time we see will be the final. Until then. Adios. 7. Edo era: National isolation period: I'm sure you are used to puny walking in. But today is my last day. So let's start. The last one is the Edo period. The Edo period began in one hundred, six hundred and three and lasted for over 250 years. This period was a special time for Japan. For one thing, it was a period of more free piece that lasted 250 years. The other, as is well known, is that the country was closed to foreign countries shortly after the Edo period started. It is a peaceful society with little foreign influence. And culture has evolved in a unique way. It has created a lot of beauty and even grotesque things. Let's take a look. This is the famous Tom Maria. So tat sues painting of the god of wind and the god of thunder. If you look at the muscles and limbs, you see that they are far from realism. But you also can see that this exaggerated expression is directly related to later Japanese man God. And if you look at this as character design, this is a really great job. Tom aria. So tat Sue can be said to have been the one who brought out the design sense that later shaped ETO painting. This is by another famous painter, Ogata core in with a river flowing in the center and plum trees and flowers. The depiction of the plum tree and its branches and the small red and white flowers is remarkable and continues the tradition of colorful and miniature paintings of the condos school of the previous era. But what about the central river? This is already completely patterned, isn't it? It is the graphic pattern itself that occupies the surface of the river. Oh God ha, core and created many abstractions with such patterns. The School of artists with Tom Maria, so tat Sue and Oh God, how corn is known as the rinderpest school. R1 because R1 is derived from Ogata chlorines Rin. This picture of viruses is also famous. But what is surprising is its design feel. Irises of the same shape are randomly arranged in a row with no depth. And only three colors are used. Green of the leaves, blue of the flowers, and gold of the background. The feeling of filling a wide plane with such a simple structure is quite impressive. It could be said that the originator of Japanese graphic design is the Renuka school. Watanabe cosines portraits were well-received and he painted many of them. Although there is no shading and even simple, the sketches and properly represents the person's personality. Ito jacket shoe is an IDO painter who has gained a lot of recognition, especially in recent years. He further develop the tradition of Yamato at a Japanese style picture that is not influenced by China and produced many colorful, detailed and beautiful paintings like this. Speaking of Edo period paintings, woke EUS is world-famous. Well key you add is a woodblock print depicting life at that time. Based on the original picture drawn by the painter. Carver makes a plate from a block of wood. Then the ink is placed on the plate and printed in multiple layers of colors. This is a work of low takeaway Hiroshi gay. A large plum tree in the foreground is blocking the view where people are walking around in the distance. Well, Quichua has created a series of bold compositions that have never been seen before. This is a rainy seen by the same painter. Hiroshi k first portrayed people crossing a bridge over a river. And lastly, he drew a lot of straight lines at random to depict the rain. This representation of rain is also a kind of symbolic design of rain. And we can see that the painting is not based on realism, but on a sense of symbolic composition. These various expressions of well ketone are not found in western paintings based on perspective until then. And this expression had a great influence, especially on the Impressionist painters. These two oil paintings are copies of the previous two Ukiyo-e you paintings by Vincent van Gogh. Among the Impressionist painters, Van Gogh was especially influenced by well Qiu at this painting of waves by cops Usha Hokusai is probably world-famous and you probably know it. It is one of a series of paintings depicting the 36 landscapes of Mount Fuji. The claw like expression on the tip of the wave in the foreground is impressive. The curve of the waves and the curve of the boat are in perfect harmony. Mount Fuji is far away and seems to be watching over this hardship. This is a genre of woke EOI called BGN God. When God is a painting that depicts a beautiful woman, kinda go, whoa, tomorrow's BGN God was especially popular. However, the female faces in while Qiu at are all similarly stylized as in this picture. You might say, is this woman with the same phase as the others? A beautiful woman? But the pretty girls with the same face in modern Japanese men God may be due to this tradition of drawing in Edo period. Next, let's look at the actors portrait. Yacco shop at tau shoe size Chirac, who became popular for his paintings of actors. The identity of Chirac who himself is not clear. And he is still a mysterious painter, which makes him even more popular. This is a portrait of a Kabuki actor from the Edo period. Notice the exaggerated facial expressions and above all, the distorted fingers on both hands. In fact, even in the real-world of theatrical Kabuki performance, real actors play such distortions. This is not only the creation of share AACU, but also the Edo culture. The modern word man, God was born in the Edo period. The visual form of Mangold goes back to the hay on period. As I have mentioned before. However, in the Edo period, many works that directly led the modern man GA style were drawn. Here. We'll talk about Cooney Yoshi's painting of cats behaving like human. And Hokusai manga are two such examples. The word Yochai refers to monsters in various forms. Although Yochai have been around since the hay on period, it was especially during the Edo period that the image of Yochai was created endlessly. Animals, plants, vessels, and natural objects of all kinds were transformed into Yochai and strolled around. Well key you had was not an art form in the Western sense, but something that ordinary people could enjoy. Shanghai is a walkie you are painting depicting sexual scenes and many were produced. It seems that these Shang and we're not special because the same ordinary woke EU at artists was making Xiang at the same time. A modest version is shown here, but many of the expressions in Shanghai are very open and spontaneous. The last part of the introduction of walkie you add is the graphic depiction. This painting depicts a scene from a Kabuki play in which a child intervenes for a father who is committing Marie Curie and is about to cut off his head with a sword. There is blood everywhere and the emotions are greatly exaggerated in this horrific scene. Many grotesque scenes like this were created during this period. As we have seen above. Various cultures were born one after another in the Edo period as if they were fermenting. Now then, what was the West like at this time? This is rococo. You can see the huge difference in field from the visual culture of the Edo period. In fact, impressionist paintings started around the end of the Edo period. Francisco Goya was already there in the Edo period and he was creating paintings that lead to the next impressionism. Finally, what exactly is the difference between Europe and Japan? Don't think, feel right. It is Bruce Lee speech line though. Anyway, this difference in visual culture between the West and Japan is an interesting theme that I would like everyone to think about. There is a lot of visual material on the internet. In addition to this lecture. Please take a look at them and feel their works before you think about them. Okay. This concludes my introduction to Japanese visual culture, and this is the last lecture of the course. Thank you very much for your time. As a next plan. Dr. Moss AKI is a yes, she is working on a new lecture, visual culture in contemporary Japan. Hopefully we'll see it in the future. Until then. Adios.