Introduction to UX Writing: How to Write Great Microcopy | Dr. Katharina Grimm | Skillshare

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Introduction to UX Writing: How to Write Great Microcopy

teacher avatar Dr. Katharina Grimm, Writer & Writing Educator

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (42m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. What is UX Writing?

    • 3. UX Writing vs. Copywriting

    • 4. Good UX Writing: Necessary

    • 5. Good UX Writing: Clear

    • 6. Good UX Writing: Concise

    • 7. Good UX Writing: Useful

    • 8. Good UX Writing: Conversational

    • 9. Good UX Writing: Branded

    • 10. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

“Sign up” or “Oops, page not found!” – tiny words that mark an error message, a button label, or the placeholder text in an input field. Despite their small size, these text elements make up a crucial part of the user experience in digital products. And: While great UX Writing can put a smile on the user’s face, bad UX Writing can be confusing, annoying and even insulting. 

But how can we make sure that our UX Writing is actually good?

If this question is one that pops up in your head from time to time, look no further – this course has your back. 

Who should join

This course is the perfect match for UX designers, UI designers, developers, product managers, and all other kinds of professionals working in the field of digital product development, as well as for all writers who would like to dip a toe in UX Writing.

What you will learn

In this course you will learn 

  • what UX Writing is 
  • what the difference between UX Writing and other forms of writing is 
  • how good UX Writing can be ensured and 
  • how to write your own error message 

Sounds good? Then join this class and leave it with the first draft of your very own piece of UX Writing.

Please note: If you want to take this class but have no premium account yet, feel free to use my referral link and try free Premium for 14 days:

Meet Your Teacher

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Dr. Katharina Grimm

Writer & Writing Educator


I'm passionate about all things writing, language and communication. As an anthropologist, I specialized in the field of effective communication and how we, as humans, can build trust through communication. 

What I do

I had worked as a communication strategist for several years before becoming a full-time writer. Today, I support digital product teams by creating and editing all kinds of writing with them – from tiny microcopy in coffee machine interfaces to essays and blog articles. 

What I teach

My areas of expertise include

UX Writing  Copywriting Content Writing Technical Writing  Personal Writing such as Journaling. 

How I teach

I love making sense of all these forms of writing, discovering their sim... See full profile

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1. Introduction: So hello everybody and welcome to this course which is called introduction to your ex writing, how to write great micro copy. And if you have come across your writing before, you probably know that it is a crucial part in creating a great user experience. However, many people who are concerned with writing micro copy, our kind of unsure about how to do it. So if you're one of those people, or if you are a professional working in the field of UX or in the field of digital product development. And you want to get in touch with UX writing, then this course is for you because I will explain what you're writing is, how it is done, what it does, and how you can actually ensure that your UX writing has great quality. And you will leave this course with your very own self written piece of UX writing. And if that sounds good to you, then I wish you lots and lots of fun with this course and happy writing. 2. What is UX Writing?: So we will start this course with answering the simple question of what is UX writing. And when I show you the definitions here in my classes, I don't only want to present them to you and tell you, Hey, this is it. I also want to show you how to read these definitions, how to analyze them, maybe even questioned them, and adjust them a little bit. So the definition I want to work with in this class is this one. This is the definition of your writing that is provided by the UX writers Collective, which is a great institution. You should definitely check them out. And they say You exciting as the practice of crafting the customer facing text or copy that appears within the design of digital products. And we will work with this definition. We will take a closer look at it and adjusted a little bit according to what we know. Okay, and this is what happens in the next session of this class. So stick around. But for now, we know that UX writing is basically the text that appears in your app or your website, the interface of your coffee machine, the dashboard display inside your car and so on and so forth. So the text and all kinds of digital applications. And here are some examples for that. Like this one from Facebook, where you can see a placeholder texts in the input field and several button text and call to actions. Or in this one, a success message from mailchimp that informs the user that their campaign is in the set q and is about to be launched. Or this one from Evernote, where you see a button text that says sign in with Google. You'll see a place order texts in the input field. You see an error message concerning the password and further call to action texts. And I also got this one for you from Airbnb. You see a lot of labeled CR or some call to actions. And again, placeholder texts in these input fields. So a lot of text elements going on. Now, let's see what all these text elements got in common. Okay? As we have seen, they make up the verbal communication in an interface. You've got the visual communication in the interface, which is basically the sum of the design elements. So icons, colors, shapes, animations and so on. And then we've got the verbal communication, which is the sum of the text elements in the interface. Now what's really important about UX writing is that it guides the user. It actually serves a very important purpose. It guides the user and it helps users to use the product while they are using the product. Therefore, it aims to enhance the user experience. So the very clear one and only goal of UX writing is to enhance the user experience and therefore, no meta that tonality or style of your writing you expediting should always be easy to understand. So this is what we've learned about your writing so far. This is what your ex, writing is all about. Now, you're probably excited about how your writing is done. But before we get there, we need to talk about another important thing which is the difference between your exciting and other forms of writing, because this will help us to know enough about your writing to actually start writing. Okay, so see you in the next lesson of this class. 3. UX Writing vs. Copywriting: Let's move on and take a look at the differences between UX writing and copywriting. Because knowing the differences between UX writing and other forms of writing will help us to understand the core of UX writing and the limits of UX writing. So as you might know, there are many different names for UX writing. Some call it technical writing or copyrighting or content strategy. And the problem is that these names get confused and mixed up all the time, which is kind of problematic. So we need to clarify this, okay, for this, let's take a look at the following survey. These are the results of the 2019 UX writers salary survey, which was conducted by the UX writing hub. And not only did they find out about the salary of UX writers, they also found out about the different job titles of the people who actually work in UX writing. And these are the results. So most of them are called UX writers. But please note that the name of the study is UX writers salary survey. So there's probably little bias here because the study mainly addresses people who call themselves UX writers however we want. So the first one is your exciter. Second is copywriter than we got content strategist, Content Designer, and technical writer. And for me, the most problematic term that is used as a synonym for UX writing is copywriting. Because the goals on the rules and the principals and the style of copyrighting and you're excreting a quite contrary to each other. So we definitely need to talk about this. And for this, I want to quickly show you what copywriting is all about. These are typical examples for copywriting. This one is from the hustle and you can just take your time and read this. This is basically about subscribing to a newsletter. And this text tries to convince the user to do just that, subscribe to their newsletter. So it doesn't try to enhance the user experience for the user. It tries to sell something. Okay. Let's take a look at another example. Again. Another one from Mailchimp, which aims to motivate the user to go ahead and check out the different plans. Again, this is not about guiding the user or giving the user a great experience. So this text does not act in the interests of the user. It acts in the interests of MailChimp because it tries to get the user to buy something from them. Okay? Just like in this example from Moose Jaw, who say, okay, Follow us or don't. This is clearly not you're explaining because it does not help the user to proceed with using the product. No clear instructions here, a lot of ambiguity and we don't understand what we're supposed to do. It does not enhance the user experience. However, it is funny, right? It is kind of provoking and we want to keep reading. Now, take a look at the text which goes, check out our Instagram for cool pix gear giveaways, docs, and captions that my mom brackets to have friends about. As I said. This is funny, but there is no clear instruction, and this is not about using the product so clearly it is copyrighting. It aims to convince the user to engage with the brand. So this text is basically a marketing tool. So you can say UX writing as far the people for users and copywriting is here to market something to make money. No shame here because we need both, okay? But copywriting is here to get potential users to use the product. And you expediting is here to help users use the product while they are using the product, okay, they're already inside the product. So let's get this very, very clear. We got the characteristics of UX writing here. And as we sets UX writing as the verbal communication in an interface, it guides the user, aims to enhance the user experience and it is easy to understand. Now, copywriting can be verbal communication and an interface, but it can also appear in a printed at or on a billboard because it is marketing copy, right? Copy that is used in advertising. However, it can be an interface in an interface as well, but it does definitely not guide the user in the sense of helping the user to use the product and reach their own goals. It only tries to convince the user to sign up or buy something or test something, and so on. Therefore, it does not aim to enhance the user experience in that sense. And it is not necessarily easy to understand because sometimes copywriting plays with words or uses jokes to grab the attention of the target audience. It tries to make users love, excite them, inspire them. So provocative emotion that motivates users to engage with the brand. So we can say, if it's copyrighting, it is definitely not UX, definitely not everything you X related, you know, UX research, UX design, UX writing aims at making everything as easy to understand as possible. The user should have a smooth walk through your digital product while copywriting makes users stop and stare and it hooks them. Okay, now let's return to the definition that I showed you in the first lesson of this class. The one from the X writers collective. And you know, I love the x writers collective because they share a lot of battery valuable knowledge and resources. But I have to say this definition is not quite accurate. And we can say that based on what we've just learned. Because the first thing is UX writing does not see the human that interacts with the product as a customer. It sees them as a user. Okay, so let's change this first. And of course it does not include all forms of text and copy and the interface because we learned the copywriting also appears in the design of digital products and it is definitely not your exciting. So let's add the kind of text and copy that we talk about here. It's the user guiding texts in the interface. So another thing that I want to share here is that in this definition right here, you can understand text and copy as synonyms. Okay, copies just another word for a text. It's the word that professional writers like journalists use for single pieces of texts. Now, it's time to put our knowledge into practice. Okay, so let's do a little exercise. Now, look at the following examples and decide which ones are examples. Flaw, UX writing. Take a pen and paper or open your notes app and I'll show you some examples and you can guess which ones are UX writing and which ones are copywriting. So the first one is from Wells Fargo. You can pause here, take a closer look at it and take your time to think about this. And if you're ready, you can press play again and we proceed. We can proceed with the next example from H&M. You'll see different text elements here as well. But what are these? Again, you can pause and we proceed when you're done. And the last example is from forward. Again, you can take your time and see what's happening here, okay? And what this text thus. And if you're ready, we can take a look at the solutions to this little exercise. All right, now let's do this. These are the examples that I showed you. The first one contains different texts elements, headline that promises to solve our problems, three benefits and a button that gets us to bullring or credit. Now this is clearly an example of copywriting because it tries to convince us of certain products and services and it tries to get us to look at these certain services or products. Number two is H&M. They allow us to sign up or to sign in. No promises, no convincing. It just clearly and simply tells us where to leave our information. And that probably would be, probably means that it's UX writing. Now take a look at number three. Did you recognize what's going on here? You might have realized that this is a 404 page, so an error message and this errorMessage comforts the user and tells them how to proceed. So actually it guides the user and it helps the user to use this website. And that means it's clearly UX writing. Now, let's think about this for a moment. Did you find it easy? Which one was easy for you? Which one was tough? Now take a moment to reflect and when you're done, I'll see you in the next lesson. 4. Good UX Writing: Necessary: So welcome to the next lesson of this class. And after we answered the question, what is your writing? We will now talk about what is good UX writing. I will introduce Six quality criteria to you and we will take a look at some illustrative examples that show you how to translate these quality criteria into writing. And if you're ready for that, Let's go. Let's start with the first quality criterion which is necessary. First of all, before you even start writing, make sure you're, you're expanding text element is really necessary. And that means that good UX writing should solve a problem that cannot be solved by design. All that can be solved better by text than by design. So why is it important to check whether you are writing is really necessary? Well, in many cases, design consult problems more intuitively. For example, instead of involving texts elements that say click here, you can highlight a certain section and put it into the user's focus. And of course, unnecessary writing causes cognitive load that can be avoided. So I will show you an example of how to check this quality criteria. A very classic example are 404 error messages. They appear when you type in an invalid URL or you click on a sub page that is somehow not available right now. Now, many websites have 40, four pages where the uses season error message, just like this from Dribble. And you see, hey, okay, this page is not here right now. So the user knows what's happening and users are also being informed about what they can do next. So in this example, click on one of the designs or search for designs or a designer's down here in the search bar. So these elements try to keep users on the website and just redirect them very gently. So some websites use these to show the users that they have lended here. And others, however, don't show you this page. They just redirect you to the home section again, like this one, the website of Whole Foods. So imagine right here you see the locations of Whole Foods Markets in the UK. But imagine you live in Chelsea and you're a 100% sure that there is a Whole Foods Markets. So what you do is you type that in your browser bar, okay? Now this is an invalid URL because there is no Whole Foods Market and Chelsea, but you don't know that. Now, Whole Foods does not work with 404 error pages. They just redirect you to the home section, so you will get back here. Now. You don't know what happened. You don't know what you do. You are just right here where you started with no information on how to solve your problem. So nice try Whole Foods, but you're not helping users here. So this, in this case we can say, yes, we do need UX writing here. So this was an easy example on how to decide whether or not UX writing is the right solution to a certain problem. Carefully consider if you need UX writing here on not an always talk to the designers on your team to maybe discuss this decision together. Okay, Let's move on to the next quality criteria. 5. Good UX Writing: Clear: Okay, Now we have discuss the quality criteria and off necessary, which is always the first quality criteria to ensure when you are working as a UX writer. Next up is another important quality criteria, which is clear. And that means that good UX writing is unambiguous and easy to understand for the user with a special emphasis on the user. Because it's not relevant whether you understand it or your design team understands it, or you just ask your project manager and she understands it perfectly. Nope, it's important that the user understands everything that's going on here. And we would probably think that we've come a long way here because error messages used to look like this. This is an error message that used to pop up in Windows and authentic era has occurred. The function requested is not supported. So a lot of technical vocabulary that might be easy to understand for developers, but, you know, regular users probably don't know what's going on here if they're not super tech savvy. However, we all know that this is a long gone. We're not doing that anymore, right? But that doesn't mean that we're doing things better now. It just means we fail differently. Because look at this. This is an example that I found in a blog post about error messages. It's from dashed this. And what they do here in their 404 page is they refer to a Lord of the Rings quote. And the chart here shows the shape of the tower of Sauron, I think. So. Basically, whether or not this page and the UX writing on this page is clear to you, depends on whether or not you have watched a certain movie. Well, just never ever do that. Okay. Don't do that. Keep your your ex writing clear and easy to understand for everybody. Now why is that important? While clear UX writing avoids misunderstandings, of course, it allows accessibility and inclusion because it means that you don't have to be a very tech savvy person to understand what's going on. And of course, clarity here also means to make sure your writing is accessible to all user groups. And last but not least, it enhances conversion because it helps users to feel confident about what just happened and how to proceed. Now, this is of course important from a UX perspective, because it motivates the user to keep interacting with a website or the app. But it is also very important from a marketing perspective. As you can see in this very popular example that you will find in many, many blog posts. And by the way, I will write down all my sources for this course in a sheet that I will upload so you can track everything that I involved in here. Now, this is an example from the Google hotel search. And in the upper section of the screen you can still see the old CTA saying, book a room. Now, what's going on here? So users entered their preferred dates and then they had to click on book a room in order to check the availability of that certain room for the period of time. Of course, users were probably afraid to click on that button because it seems like you enter your data and then you already make a reservation by clicking on that text. So what Google did is they changed the texts from book a room to check availability. And this alone increased engagement by 17 percent. So clarity is really, really important. And I also want to show you some examples that show you how it's done, right? The first one is Walmart, and this is nothing too exciting, nothing too flashy. It is not branded and it's not super, super brilliant, but it's honest work. Okay, very clear, easy to understand, concise, efficient, and helpful. Linkedin also does quite a good job here concerning the clarity of their message and the clarity of their button text. It says page not found. Oh, we can't seem to find the page here we're looking for. Try going back to the previous page or see our Help Center for more information. And then you click on go to your feet. To be honest, it could be a little more concise probably, but concerning the clarity, this is a great example. And I want to show you another very interesting example. This is from the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Please don't look at the UX and UI design of this because the overall design, the font choice, the spacing, the weird whitespace is not that great concerning the quality of your x, but the writing here is interesting. So it says we are working to improve our side and some pages have moved. So what they do here is they tried to explain to the user what happened, which of course increases trust. And then they suggest what to do next. So let's turn back to our very own example. Let's imagine you have this very basic draft for your 404 page, 404 error. The requested page could not be found. And now you want to make it clearer. And then you could edit your text into something like this. The page you were looking for could not be found. So it's already way clear than it was before. But let's move on to the next quality criteria to make this even better. 6. Good UX Writing: Concise: So we were just talking about the clarity, which is one of the most important quality criteria for UX writing. And now we will take a closer look at the third quality criteria, which is concise. And that means that good UX writing is efficient so users can navigate through the product smoothly and quickly. This is important because users read your text. Not because they want to read your text, but because they want to use the product. So keep it short and easy to skin. But why exactly is that important? Now, concise UX writing allows users to quickly absorb relevant information to and therefore makes the user journey smooth and economical. And of course, simple words and short sentences reduce cognitive load in the interface. And I'll show you some examples to make clear why this is important and how this looks in practice. So let's first take a look at what Mercedes Benz this in their 404 page. So they don't even say what's going on here in a clear way because they use a lot of metaphors like please make a U-turn. And then there is this huge texts that tries to tell users what to do next. Now, just for your interests below that text, there are a couple of links to several sub breaches up that website that the user can click on. But this is a very, very long texts, hard to skin, which means the user really has to sit down and read the whole thing to get a vague idea of what's going on and what to do next. Now let's take a look at another example. This one is from Facebook and a ghost-like piece begins with us. We believe that kindness and love can change the world. Join all of us at Facebook and observing and International Day of Peace today and spreading hope one person at a time. Now, to be honest, I don't even know what's going on here or what they are trying to tell me. I have no idea what to do and why I should do something at all. They just simply talk about themselves and what they believe in. And it's kind of confusing for me. And I think they might've just, you know, mentioned that this is a community and we should join to be a whole community that's, you know, celebrating the day and the whole community spirit is not really coming across here. So actually that's kind of bad writing to be honest. They usually do a great job, but this one is not very clear and not very efficient. Now, let's take a look at a company Desktop does quite a good job concerning the conciseness of their writing. This is the Sony 404 page. And I'm not a fan of the headline because it contains no information at all. But look at the longer text below. We can't find the page you are looking for a police, recheck the URL, use the search box or return to the homepage. As I said, a decent job. Very efficient, very nice. Now let's turn back to our own example. Remember, we will also working with the example of a 404 page. And after we edited the first draft of our text-based on the quality criterion of clarity. Our texts looked like this and making it more concise, more efficient, it would probably look like this page not found. So you see way shorter, easier to skin. Very, very efficient. But to make this even better, Let's move on to the next quality criteria. 7. Good UX Writing: Useful: So we were just talking about the quality criteria and concise. And now we're proceeding to take a closer look at the quality criteria enough useful. Now what does that mean? It means that good UX writing helps users to use the product and to continue their user journey. So you can do that by suggesting to users what to do next or motivate them to continue or comfort them in difficult situations, and so on and so forth. Now, let's take a look at why this is important. Well, first, it keeps users inside your product or on your website. It makes users feel safe and secure so they will feel good about using your website or product. And finally, it helps users to reach their goal. Now again, I want to show you why this is important by presenting your some examples for gnats, good UX writing first. So what I wanna do here is, uh, once you to meet the Queen, the mother of none useful error message writing, which is Google, which I don't understand because they really have some of the most amazing writers in the world. But this is what their 404 page looks like until this very day. It's quite technical. It says For four, we crested you are all not fallen on server and they just go like, that's all we know by the user has absolutely no idea what's going on. And it is pretty unclear what the user can do next. And users are also not comforted and they're not motivated to continue their journey. So this is actually a very weird. But Google is not the only great company with non useful writing. Take a look at this. This is a popular example of an older version of an empty state texts. They don't use that anymore I think, but it used to appear on the interface when you read all your messages and there are no unread messages left and Slack. Okay, So this is sweet and kind of cheeky and a bit funny, but absolutely not useful and it doesn't really make any sense, so well. However, let's take a look at an example for good and very useful writing, which is dribble. I already showed you this one very quickly, but let's take a closer look now. This is actually not only good writing, it is also great UX design in general because this page suggests several designs that you can click on to continue your journey. Or you can play around with this slider down here and the color changes. And the writing does not waste too much time on being sorry for what happened or explaining the arrow. It's simply suggests to leave this era page by following your curiosity. So great job, dribble. Now let's return to our own example. Remember, we took a super basic template for a 40 for ERA page and we applied the quality criteria clear and concise. And what we got was this page not found, but this is not very useful, right? Users get the input that the page could not be found, but what are they supposed to do now? So we need to edit this piece of text again and then we might get something like this page not found. Click here to return home. So users know exactly what to do not to get out of that debt and path they are walking on right now and return to a safe space, the Home section, in order to continue their journey. Looks quite all right, I think so. Let's move on to the next lesson of this class in order to make this even better. 8. Good UX Writing: Conversational: So let's proceed. We just learned about the quality criterion of useful. So now we know our writing should be necessary, clear, concise, and useful. Now, what else? Well, in order to allow your writing to connect with users, our UX writing should be conversational. And that means that good UX writing should be natural, non-technical, and empathetic to give users a smooth experience. So basically, right, like a person and not like a machine and make your product or website communicate like a human. But why is that important? Now, conversational UX writing respects users as human beings, which invites the user to engage with the interface in a natural and comfortable way, okay? It actually allows users to feel confident because they feel like they're engaging with something well known. And finally, it helps users to build trust because communication fields, Familia and natural. And again, I want to show you why this matters. Take a look at this example from PayPal. Of course, many of us experienced tech savvy users know what's going on here, but many people out there may not. There is no explanation here, no human touch, no politeness, no guidance, and they'll comfort. So if you're not familiar with the process, this does not appear very trustworthy, I guess. However, here are two examples that actually do quite a good job when it comes to a conversational tone. The first one is from virgin. Now, I know that this is not very efficient, not very concise, but it's kind of interesting for its conversational tone. So let's take a look at it. It says, whoops, we're, we've looked everywhere, even down the back of riches sofa. And we can find this page. Our IT guy, guys call it a 404 error. You might find what you're looking for from one of our virgin companies. So you see how, first of all they involved the founder here, Richard Branson, who was super famous and many people associate him with this company. So the writing tries to connect with the prior knowledge of the user and what the sentence, our IT guys call it a 404 era. The text tries to empathize to show solidarity with the user who maybe doesn't know what a 404 error is, o, what those IT guys do. And the last sentence just sounds like the customer service talks to you in a very natural way saying, you might find what you're looking for from one of our virgin companies. Now I know, not concise, not a 100 percent clear or efficient, but very, very conversational. And there's another one that I want to show you. This one is from MAC Cosmetics. Again, please don't pay attention at the all caps funds and the weird artsy spacing here. But look at the text. Okay. Sounds exactly like customer servers is talking to you. Sorry, that page doesn't exist. Can we help with something else? So, great job on the very natural conversational tone. Now let's turn back to our own example. So remember this is what we turned our text into. Now let's start by making this a little more polite and conversational. Sorry, page not found, please click here to return home. And this way it does not sound as technical as it did before, and it sounds a little nicer. However, this still sounds a little technical. So let's try this. We've got a whole sentence here. It says salary, we could not find this page. Please click here to return to home. And then note this is not as concise as it could have been, but here's a rule of thumb. Choose wisely went to trade conversational style for conciseness. If you write an error message in a forum, for example, when the user enters an incorrect password or an invalid email address and you have very limited space to tell them what happens. Choose conciseness over conversational style. Same goes for button texts where your space is also very limited. However, when writing a 404 page, you have plenty of space and it's okay to take up some of that space to make your writing sound more conversational and natural. Because that's a good reason to not be perfectly efficient. Okay. Now let's take a look at the quality criterion, which is brand driven. This is what we will dive deeper into in the next lesson. See you then. 9. Good UX Writing: Branded : Let's take a look at the last quality criteria that is brand driven or branded. And that's a pretty easy one and theory and because it means that your ex, writing should represent your brand, why is that important? Well, it allows your product to be your brand ambassadors. It makes your product stand out of the crowd, so it gives your product a distinct identity. And ultimately, that helps users to build trust with your product and your brand. Now, that makes a lot of sense, right? Well, for many UX writers, this is actually the hardest part because you got to figure out what your brand is all about. And then you gotta get a little creative and translate your brand identity into your UX writing. And that is exactly the reason why many people who write in UX don't brand their writing. And I want to show you what that looks like. Now this is a classic 404 page and you've probably seen something like this before. It goes, oops, something went wrong. Sounds quite okay. Doesn't it? Sounds kinda funny. Sounds kinda nice. Well, this is Skype. This is un MS, this is Microsoft Teams, and this is YouTube. So all of these examples are kind of branded. But I want to be honest with you, this is lame because it all sounds the same. It is not unique. It does not represent a certain brand character. And that means that this writing does nothing for your brand. So this is a chance. However, you also shouldn't get too wild, like in this example, coming from Cloud zygoma, another error message, and it says, Oh no, you found our junior developers homepage. Despite sleeping on the couch most of the day, our junior web developers still finds time to do some coding. This is not clear and concise, not useful. So it seems like most of the effort here has gone into adding some funny character to it. But in the end, this is just shaming a fictional junior developer. So not very nice. Here is how it is done right? From folks button. And they say If only everything was as reliable as a folk song because their brand identity and Wolf's producing reliable cars. I mean, that's kind of weird because they basically say that their own website is not reliable, but that's a different kind of story. Now, let's turn back to our very own example. You might remember that we created this piece of text right here. Sorry, we could not find this page. Please click here to return to home. This is necessary, clear, concise, usable, and conversational. Now, we started with the example of whole foods. So a supermarket that is down to earth friendly, not too humorous or witty. So we might do something like this right here. Sorry, we could not find this page. Seems like this is a one-way click here and we'll take you back to freshness. But I really, really, really wanted to point out here that there is no one solution, not the, not the one and only way to do this correctly, okay? They are many great things you can do here. This is another example. Salary we could not find what you're looking for, but we'd love to show you our fresh fruit, tasty phase 3, vitamin rich vegetables. In this example, you just get more links to different subsections of the assortment of foods so users have more options to continue their journey. So we have talked a lot about how to do this and now it is time for an exercise where you can show what you got because this is your class project. And it goes like this. Take this basic 404 error message and rewrite it for a car manufacturer of your choice. So think of a car manufacturer that you know all. You can also research one and check out what their brand might be about. Just play around with this a little OK and take your time. Work on this, edit it, try out new things, enjoy the process, okay? And of course, if you'd like to please share your results, share with us your amazing work and let's discuss. And if you've done that, you have successfully reached the goal of this class, which was to get you to write your first piece of UX writing. Congratulations for that. And if you want to, you can join me on some final remarks in my outro. 10. Final Thoughts: So this is it. Thank you for joining this class and congratulations on completing this class. Now, just some final remarks before I leave you with all of that knowledge, I created a cheat sheet on which you find the most important information about UX writing and that you can keep close to your heart when you are working on your writing. Now the only thing that's left to say for me is always keep your users in mind because UX writing is actually always a service for your users. And that means that your UX writing should be three things, clear and simple. And if you bear that in mind that nothing can stop you from becoming a great UX brighter. Okay. So with that being said, I wish you a great time writing and see you soon.