Introduction to Texturing for Film and Television | Joseph Roberts | Skillshare

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Introduction to Texturing for Film and Television

teacher avatar Joseph Roberts, Lead Layout Artist

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (1h 59m)
    • 1. Introduction

      0:33
    • 2. Project Setup - Substance Painter

      5:05
    • 3. Blocking in Materials

      24:53
    • 4. ExportingTextures

      3:28
    • 5. Introduction to the Arnold Renderer

      18:39
    • 6. Setting up Materials in Maya

      9:33
    • 7. Painting Additional Textures

      18:01
    • 8. Adding Alphas and Decals

      15:45
    • 9. Additional Details

      16:23
    • 10. Final Notes

      6:47
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About This Class

In this class I will be going over the process of texturing and rendering an old school, Leica M2 camera. This class only covers the workflow behind Texturing, Lighting, and Rendering. In the source files for the course you will be provided with the camera model and a Maya scene ready for you to jump in to.

What will I learn in this course?

Over the 2 hour course content we will go over texturing in Substance Painter before bringing our project into Maya where we will light and render the final piece. While following industry defined workflows I will explore and explain how to keep the project as dynamic and customisable as possible so iterations can be made with ease.

The course is broken up into 3 sections:

  1. Going over the basics of substance painter, this course is suited for those who have never opened up the software before, while also handling more advanced concepts. We will go through how to prepare a scene file for optimal use before setting up our main materials.
  2. Next we export our project to Maya where I will be showing you how to set up and light a studio environment to test out our project. We will go through how to optimise some render settings to get the most realistic and efficient lighting. During this step we are able to assess the look of our camera before returning to Substance Painter with creative notes on how to successfully iterate and improve our textures.
  3. In the final few chapters I will cover more advanced techniques in Substance Painter in order to achieve photo-real materials and effects. Armed with a suitable lighting setup in Maya we will make iterations on the project as they do in a professional setting until satisfied with the final result.  

What tools are required?
Autodesk Maya
Substance Painter 
Arnold Renderer (Comes preloaded with Maya 2018 and above)

All required tools are available with free student versions

Recommended tools:
Drawing/Graphics tablet

Expected Class Outcomes:

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Joseph Roberts

Lead Layout Artist

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Welcome to this introductory course on texturing photo real assets for film and TV. In this course, are we going over how to texture this camera that Leica M2 in substance painter before bringing it into Maya, where we'll be going over setting up the materials before doing our final lighting and render in arnold. In the source files provided, you'll find a high resolution and low resolution version of the model, which have already been UVA IID and is ready to go along with a series of reference images. However, I encourage you to also gather any references that you may need. 2. Project Setup - Substance Painter: So for this project I'm using substance Painter 20.120, which is currently the newest version out. You might notice that my UI is a little bit different. If you start up for the first time. Basically all I've done is just moved a few of these tabs around. Usually their texture set preferences and the texture list. Or on this side, I'd like to just spread them out across either side to give me a bit more room to work, basically. But you can easily just click and drag from the text and reposition things as you wish. So for anyone who hasn't used Southern Spain before, the first thing we have to do is bring in our model. And so to do that, we just go to File New. And then we select our file here. Once we have it there, you'll see at the top we also have the template, which is basically the files which are gonna be exported based on the different program that we want to export it to. So there's a bunch of different programs that you can send it to from key shot, too, unreal to re, re. And basically you can change this at anytime. It only affects the texture on the output. And of course, because we are using Arnold, we want to use the Arnaldo renderer. So for you, Arnold might not actually be named in the list. And if that's the case, then you want to change it to the PBR metallic roughness algorithmic setting. This will output all of the right texture maps for Arnold. From there we can go down to the document resolution. And much like everything else, the settings are fully dynamic. So you can come back afterwards and change them even after we've started texturing. So usually what I like to do is start with a 2K texture map, which is 2048. And then if need be, I up it to a 4K map, a 1096 resolution. All of the other settings we can leave the same because this model already has UVA's attached. We don't need it to mess with any of that sort of stuff. So this is all good to go. So we can just hit OK to import it. And we wait a moment. And here is our model. You can move the camera around with the same camera settings as Maya, which basically is, you hold down the Alt key and you left-click to rotate. You right-click to zoom in and out. And you middle mouseClicked to pan back and forth like that. If you hold down the Alt key, you can see it also gives you a handy little cheat box down here. So this is our geometry, but we can't start texturing on it just yet. What we've gotta do first is to bake out these mesh maps. Now mesh maps are substance painters way of telling itself where the edge of geometry is, where the crevasses are, how thick and objectives. And these are all super handy for when it comes to applying the smart materials that come with substance painter. Because it basically uses these maps to add all that detail. So this is the first thing you always have to do when you first bring them all in. There, just click on big mesh maps. And you can basically leave all of the settings the same. There's no real need to play with them all. The only one that I do adjust is under the common tab. We can set the size of our baked mesh maps. And now these mesh maps never leave a substance painter. So you don't have to worry about getting a nice high res 4K, 8K texture. All they need to do is have enough resolution for substance painter to read what's happening. So usually as standard practice, I like to put my output size as about half of the size of the actual texture. He can make it as big as you want. It'll just take longer to generate it. And again, you can always come back and remake these at a higher res later on if you want. And apart from that, I just add a little bit of anti-aliasing to help smooth out the image. Usually a four-by-four. If it's going to be a 4K or an AK texture map, I might then do an 8K anti aliasing. And that's what you need to do here. So we just take them out. And you can see it's generating a whole bunch of information on top of our geometry for us. Don't worry, it doesn't get stuck. It just can take a while. Okay, and once that's finished, we have done our basic setup and we can start texturing. 3. Blocking in Materials: Now that our geometry is prepared for us to start texturing, I'm just gonna quickly go over some of the additional settings and UI elements that you might want to adjust and explore in southern Spain. And right now we're looking through the perspective 3D view in southern Spain. And this is really handy for analyzing the model and seeing it from a whole bunch of different angles. While we're in this view, we can also hold the Shift key. And then if we right-click and drag, we actually spin the light around the geometry. This can be really good for assessing highlights and seeing how it looks when it's in shadow or when it's in bright expose light. Now, we can also look at a few different views. If you hit F1 on the keyboard, you can bring up both the 3D view and the UV view. This has all of the movies attached to the model. And you can see even when we hold shift and right-click, we're also moving the light around the movies. If we hit F2 on the keyboard, we returned to just 3D perspective view. And if we hit F3, we go to just the UV view. Now the UV view is good for if you want to draw a straight line across a bit of geometry. And you don't want the perspective getting in the way of that. But usually I prefer to paint in the perspective view. So we'll pick up some additional shortcuts as we go through. But for now we're just gonna start blocking in the colors and the textures while our image. Now, I'm just going to use this as the reference for the different materials and colors. And really the first blocking stage is to get the colors and to get rough materials in terms of how shiny it is and how Matt it is or how dirty it is. Then what we're gonna do is take it straight into Meier. We're going to set up our scene, setup, our materials, do our first renders, see how it looks, and then assess that, come back to sultans painter and continue to make changes. Basically, we do this because it's not going to look the same in Maya as it does in substance painter, substance pain. It doesn't use the same rendering process as in an actual renderer like Arnold. And so this is really for setting up the 2D materials and textures. But the render is king because ultimately that's what's going to be seen on screen in whatever kind of lighting setup or render settings that people have. So keep that in mind. So over here we have our layers tab. And much like Photoshop, this has all of our layers in. It. Seems pretty self-explanatory. So my workflow for substance beta is I almost exclusively use fill layers. Now up across the top here we have a few different settings. We have an artifact which has basically all of these settings just in it again. Then we have add mask at a pink layer, at a fill layer, at a Smart material, and add a folder and delete or remove a selected layer or folder. Now masks. Used to basically mask out parts of the model. We're going to use those in conjunction with the fill layer to really keep a non-destructive workflow. The paint layer is kind of the default layer that we have right now. And this was allows you to paint straight onto the model. However, I find this to be quite destructive. And you'll see why in a second. The smart materials will play around with later on and folders or just for organizing things. So first of all, we're just going to left click and add a fill there. And if you want, you can select the existing layer and just hit Delete for now. Now that we have this fill layer, if we come down to our properties, you can see all of the properties attached to that layer. So if we come down to the base color, we can start playing with that overall color. So for now, we'll just set it to a. Now we'll just use an example, California. So we've set it to red. And then we have a few extra settings down here. Now height, you're not going to be able to see anything when we move the slider right now. But roughness, we, you will. So basically if we reduce the roughness all the way down, you can see that our material becomes very glossy and shiny. You can see it's very reflective. And if we increase the roughness, you can see that it becomes a lot flatter and more Matt. As well as that we have the metallic, which is kind of the same to the roughness and the reflectivity. However, metallic properties are slightly different. And you can see that in metallic reflection, the color of the metal actually tense the overall color of the reflection. Whereas in a just a very glossy smooth material, you don't get as much of that. And these can be used in conjunction to give you a kind of a brushed steel look for a nice shiny chrome look, depending on what you're going for. So I encourage you to play around with those and have a look at what effect they give. And now with our fill layer, what if we want it only to a fact part of the geometry? Well, that's when we add our masks to it. By right-clicking on the layer, we can open up this window here. And I like to add a black mass to start with. Basically, a mask uses black and white values to determine whether the material should be shown through or not. And white material or a white mask will show the entire material through it. A black mask will hide everything. Now I like to do this so that I can then bring back the information that I want. So you can see now with my mask selected, if I was to just drag across my model, it looks like I'm painting it, but actually what I'm doing is revealing the color from underneath the mask. So this will be handy for when we get more into the hand painted stuff later on. But for now we're still in the blocking stage. So I only want to really cover entire bits of geometry. So the best way to do that is if we come up here to polygon fill. Left click on that. You can see that now we have this wireframe mode. And we have some settings here in the Properties tab. Now we have triangle fill, which will fill just a single triangle. If your model is broken up into triangles. We have polygon filled, which will just color a single polygon or phase. We have geometry film Nashville, which will color an entire piece of mesh. And we have UV trunk fill, which we'll cover just a piece of the UV. And so we can use these in different ways. So the first one I'm gonna do is with my mask layer selected. With the selected, I'm gonna go to my mesh will. Now this is the color which is going to fill it with. You really only want to use one or 0 because we're using a black and white mask. You either want to show it or not show it. You don't really want to start playing around with half values to have it half showing through the mask. It's a lot easier and safer to adjust any color settings after the fact, as opposed to try and dial it in with a semi-transparent mask. So we've added a black mask. So we need to fill white mask to show parts of our model. So what I'm gonna do now is phi just left-click on a bit of geometry. This entire piece now has that mask applied. Like so. So I still have the example of red and we'll just change it to a black, like so. And we can start adding in all of the other black metal pieces which make up our model. Something like that. Now the cool thing about masks is you can also apply a mask to an entire folder. So because we're gonna be doing a lot of hand painting and smart materials. We wanna keep them all together. So what we can do as opposed to having the mask on the fill layer, is we can put a mask on to a folder itself. So we can right-click and add a black mask. But if we've already been doing the work on this fill layer, we can right-click on the mask and we can go down to copy mask that we can cart to the folder. And we have to add a mask before we can paste into it. So we just add a black mask. And now we can paste into that mosque. So now this has the same information. So if we just right-click on this and remove the mask, can see that once we put the fill layer into the folder, it then inherits at mosque. And now anything that we add into there will have the same properties. So that's what we're actually going to be doing. We're going to be marching out folders most of the time until it gets to the more specific hand painted stuff. So we started walk that coloring. Now that we have a good idea of the pieces which are gonna share the same material. What we can do is now come back and play with our material settings. So this metal is quite glossy and reflective. So I can really bring the reference down a bit. And the metallic as well. Just because an object is metallic, doesn't necessarily mean that the metallic value will help in any way. And basically it's just a reflective property. But if your metal is painted or it is like brushed or it's been well-done certain way, then maybe the metallic value won't be as useful to was definitely somebody to just play with and just use as a value, not as a definition for the material. Okay? So that's how you do a basic color. And the reason why we use a fill layer is because of this. So if I just add a painted layer in there, you can see that in my properties for that painted layer, I have all of these settings that I have in the fill layer. This height, rough, metal, normal, and color. And I can turn them on just by clicking on the little buttons there. But you can see if I start painting with a very shiny chrome material, just kinda throw something on that. And then after the fact, I decide that I don't want it to be a shiny, I can't change that in any way. If I come back and change this value, it only changes the brush. And you can see now, I just start painting again. There's no way to modify that stroke that I've already put down. So that's why I prefer to use fill layers because they are far less destructive. And you can modify all of your material settings after the fact. And I only ever like to brush or paint on top of mosques. I'm just gonna get rid of that one. Now. Most of this camera is just a black metal material. But the actual case itself is made of this nice and dark leather. So what we're gonna do for that is dive into some of the materials that come with substance pain. They're both materials and smart materials. Basically, materials are just plain textures that can be applied to a model. And they just put the same material and color all the way across it. It's not using any of these mesh maps, which we begged before. It's purely just a basic texture. And the smart materials do take use of these mesh maps which have been baked out. So if we find a very obvious one, such as a scratched metal, you're typing in there. For nice painted metal like this. You can see that all the way around the edges. It's looks as if the paint has been stripped from the model. And where there are more recesses and Doug in sections, there's more dirt that's been placed there. Now this is using all of these maps to generate this. But you can then come in and play with all of the settings that they've applied. So for the letter on this case, I actually found that just a regular material worked best. If I look for leather in the materials, I used, the leather medium grain. So I'm gonna just drag that onto my layers and out. If I drag it in here, it's just going to apply it to everything. Times. Going to drag it over here like this. And I'm gonna put this into its own folder. And just to keep everything nice and neat, I'm going to double-click on this folder. And I'm just gonna rename it leather. And I'll rename this metal. I made sure to drag it in like that. And then I'm gonna add a mask here. It just shows up on their this is really pretty good, pretty close for what we want. And we just need to tweak the color and basically the overall scale of the grain. When I'm looking for my basic materials or smart materials to start with, I'm always looking for the actual texture itself or the property of the material. I don't care about the color of it because that's the easiest thing that you can change. So just keep that in mind. If you're looking for a blue aluminium, then you can absolutely use the red one and just change it to blue. You don't need to download a specific Lou Allen minium texture. So if we click on our letter medium grained, you can see that it's set up a little bit differently in the Properties tab here. All of the materials have their own settings and unique layout need to adjust for. But the main thing is we wanna change the color. And we will change that to a routine, dark, pretty dark black. I would always want to have a little hint of brown maybe and in a, in a leather texture to show that it's a bit more natural. But we can start with the black and we can dial that in later. Then we have the actual normal intensity or the height of this pattern that goes across our model, across our texture. And when we adjust this, you should be able to see that the texture gets a lot more intense cross the surface. Now, for anyone who hasn't ever use a normal map before, it's not actually physically changing the geometry in any way. What it's doing is it's just giving the illusion of some kind of textural pattern cross the surface. For really high res, models and geometry. What you actually want to do is use a displacement map or sculpt the texture directly onto the model. But for what we're doing here, it's fine just to use a normal map to just hint at the fact that there is a textured surface. That feels pretty good. But I do feel like the overall grain on our reference image is slightly bigger. So what I can do for that is scroll all the way up to the top of my properties. And I can change the size of the UV. Actually, knowing it's smaller. Then 0.8, maybe, maybe that's more. I feels good. And basically that's just changing the scale of the texture across the movies. You can also change the rotation if you wanted. And the offset is just a left to right or up and down offset. For some of the texture like this, which is very generic, these offsets won't really make a difference. But if you had a more specific texture applied, there might be a section which lines up incorrectly or you want to hide slightly so even just offset the texture of it to move it out of the way. So really the only other material well, there are two materials that I can see leftover is the glass, which will deal with another time. And also this kind of brushed nickel or steel that we have there. So what I'm gonna do is add that as well. I'm gonna make a new folder for it again. Actually let folder is outside of that. We'll just call this as total. And we could look for a material like a shiny metal material. But I think just for this stage, I'm going to create one myself. So I'm just going to put a fill layer there. I will tweak these materials here. So usually before I start masking out any fill layer of older, I'd like to change my base color, does something crazy like that. So I can see exactly what is being covered and what isn't. Because by default it just goes to the flat grayish white. And you won't be able to tell what is masked first. Walk just has no material applied to it to begin with. So I'm just gonna make a crazy like that. And then we're gonna mask out the folder. So the rest of this actually is the same black metal texture, so I just need to add that into the mosque. If at any point you want to remove something from a mosque, will you have to do is change the color value? And we go from one all the way to black or 0. And now if we click on a bit of geometry, give removes it from the mask to if you accidentally click on something you want, that's a change you back. And actually this section, this back panel here, it also has the same leather textures. We need to add that as well. Alright, so that's pretty simple. Changes read back to a metal as well when I'm done. Let me know. I can just change this to some spectrum of white to black. And then I can just up the Eigen reduce the reflux because this is quite a shiny exposed metal and just up the metallic bit and didn't increase the roughness because it's not a perfectly prone material. Excellent. So that's the basic block out of all of our different materials broken up into different folders. So now we want to start just adding this warn painted effect. Now I think that the metal itself is actually meant to be this brass color. And then they've painted black over the top of it. And over time and wear and tear, the paint has come away and expose that brass color again. But what we're gonna do is actually do it the other way round, where black is going to be our bottom layer. And then we're going to add another layer on top for this exposed bros. So metal folder. Now we can add another fill layer. Actually drag it in. And you can even go as far as naming these textures as well if you want. Now on this warn brass texture, we obviously don't want it to show up everywhere. So what we'll do is we're going to start with one of the smart mosques. Now, much like the smart materials, these smart mosques take advantage of all do these mesh maps that we begged before. And it's going to only apply our texture is certain areas of the geometry. So what we first need to do is find one that works for us. Now, again, we don't care about what it's actually called. We just care about what it looks like. What we want is kind of like that painted metal that we tried before. Really one where the edges are far more exposed than the rest of the geometry. There are a lot of edges, ones, we might look at these first, just take an edge. And if you mouse over them and wait a second, it'll give you a little preview of what it's looking for. So I think edges strong, scratched, looks pretty good to start with. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to just drag that up onto my fill layer. Now you can see we have this. Now I can change my fill layer colors and material properties. So we want definitely more of that yellowish brass color writer. And even though the painted metal is pretty shiny reflective, I do think that the Bras would be even more reflective because we've worn down to it and we've made it quite smooth. Just add quite a bit metallic and we can come play with that later. All right, now obviously it doesn't look anything like our photo right now. This is just us throwing something together to get the rough idea of how it all should look. Getting our materials and colors on there. And from this point, we're going to export our textures and get them straight into Meyer again. We're going to set up our scene, start the render, and then we can assess all of the changes we need to make, including doing our own custom hand painted sections and adding the textures and details to it. 4. ExportingTextures: So now I'm just gonna go through the process of exporting our textures. Like I said before, this is just really quick and dirty, growing something down on the model. Just to get it into the render Phase. I prefer to do it this way just because it stops you from getting really stuck down in the weeds of it all of getting in there and spending too much time detailing everything before you see what it starts to look like. Before you're able to read the details in the correct lighting. Before you're able to see what this metallic texture looks like in an actual render. So what we want to export something which you have to go to File export Texas. The shortcut is Control shift E. And then we come up with this window with that little if. Now. Now here we can choose where we exported to. We can set our older and put that into like texture. So and again, we can choose what we want it to export as. Now, when we actually get to this stage of exporting, it is actually showing us the Arnold section, the Arnold settling. So we should now switch it from our PBR metallic roughness up to the Arnold AI standard. Now, the AI standard is the material that we'll be creating inside of Maya for Arnold. So if we create these texture amounts for that, they will all be correctly named. What we need, such as the diffuse map, specular map, reference map, things like that. Now, the rest we can keep the same. You can change the file type if you want, PNG, tiff, target, things like that. And again, we can now change the size of the texture before exporting. So let's say your machine wasn't very powerful. And so you couldn't always view a 4K texture map. At this point. You could be working in a 20 k or 2 thousand, that's very 2K or a 2048 pixel texture size. And then on export it will appraise it for you to a 4K to extra. You can also see that there is an 8K or an 8,192 pixel texture map. Now in the latest version of substance painter, they actually took out the ability to work in an 8K texture size. I assume it was something that they were still developing and it wasn't quite stable yet. But what you can do is still export in an 8 thousand and we're in a day k texture map. And we were not gonna have to go that crazy with this. Obviously the tradeoff is it takes a lot longer and the file size is a lot bigger. What we're gonna do is just a braze it to a 4K texture map for our export. The dilation infinite, it's fine. And we're all good to export. So you can just hit the Export button. Excellent. And once it's done, you can just close this. And now we can head into Meyer. 5. Introduction to the Arnold Renderer: So in the source files for this course, I've also provided a scene ref Maya file, which just has a very simple wooden textured cylinder in it, along with some reference balls and a small environment that you can use to render your s2. We will be going through how to set this up. But if you specifically want to use the wooden turn table, we need to set up the project so that it reads in the textures for it. So in order to do that, you need to go to file set project and then navigate to the source file folder that I provided. Then once you've selected that folder, you can create a default workspace. And now it should load in all your textures normally. So for this project, I'm using Maya 20-20. Again, for the past few versions, there haven't been that many major updates if you're using a previous version of Maya. However, Arnold, since I believe Maya 2018 now comes bundled free as a plugin. Recently, Autodesk, who owns Meyer, bought the onload renderer in order to package it with their software. So if you open up the scene ref file, which comes with the source files, you should get something that looks a little bit like this. Now some basic Maya controls just in case people haven't used it before. Again, like substance way enough. If you hold down the ALT key and left click, you can rotate around middle mouse pans back and forth. Right-click, zooms in and out like that. Another little tech note before we get into it is sometimes by default, Arnold isn't set up as a plug-in. So if you're Arnold tab is not appearing at the very top here. What you can do is you can go to Windows, settings preferences, Plug-in manager. We load this up and we get a whole bunch of different plugins. We scroll down to where it says Program Files, Autodesk are lot Maya 20-20 or whichever Meir version using. And it should be called MTO a dot MLL. You just need to make sure that this is ticked on loaded and auto load. And then you'll have access to Arnold to render with. Excellent. So we've done that in this scene ref file that I provided. It has this nifty little turntable, which already has a texture applied to it. And then it has these two extra balls here, these spheres here. Now I'm actually going to remake these to show exactly what they are and what they do and why we have them in our scene. And then we have just this outside very generic soft box with a nice gentle ramp off into the background. Now, when you first use Arnold, It's important to note that you should only use the Arnold lights that come with it. If you use the generic lights that come with Maya, they're not gonna render correctly, they're not going to be physically accurate or anything like that. So definitely stick to the armored lights. Now you can even get to them. Through the Arnold tab here, or just from the Arnold button up here. We've got Arnold lights, lights. So first of all, I'm going to create just a generic area light. Comes in at the center of our scene. Again, some more basic Maya controls if you've not very familiar with it, if you hadn't w, you can translate or move things around your scene. If you get E, you can rotate things in your scene. And if you had r, you can scale things and you're saying, we're just going to scale it up to about the size of the turntable, just so we can see how it looks. And then rotate it down for so we're aimed slightly down at the base. So now with this light inosine, if we go to Arnold, open render view, will get actually a rendered view. And this is gonna show us what the renderer sees. So if I just hit the law play button in the top right-hand corner, you're gonna see that it's going to come up black still. And this is because the light isn't bright enough to show us anything. So with our light selected, either in the outliner or just in the viewport. And we go to the attribute editor and move this out of the way. And we go to our area light shape on the, on the tab here. And this has all the settings for lights in it. What we wanna do is up our exposure. I would like to say around ten to begin with, and then we'll see how it goes. You could in theory, up the intensity. Instead, I prefer to leave the intensity of one and only change one of the values. So now you can see we're starting to get a little bit more information and it's still not quite bright enough. I'm gonna put this up to 12, 15. Yeah, it's time to look look decent. So we start to get something that looks like that. Now, I'm going to bring in those spheres again that we had before and set them up as material and explain why we use them. So I can go to create polygon primitives. Sphere. And I have a sphere like Origen time. It's going to move it over to the side a bit and scale it up. Put it as if it was resting on a little turntable. And now with this sphere selected, I'm gonna hold down, right-click and go to assign new material at the bottom. And now because of our Arnold plug-in being loaded, we now have an animal traders out there as well. So I can click on that. And I'm just gonna set it to AI standard surface, which if you remember, was what we exported, our substance being a preset hours. So I'm just gonna click on the AI standard surface. And now this has a new material attached. And you might see some of the similar values as in substance painter, as in mental illness and specular and color and things like that. First of all, I'm just going to rename this because we're gonna make a few of these materials. I'm just going to call this M for material. And we'll start with a chrome ball m. Now in order to retrieve a perfect Chrome material, we Festival need to drop the weight on the base or the color. So basically it has no color attached. Then I wanted to just drop the roughness on the specular so that it's a super Earth reflective, smooth, shiny surface. Now you can up the metal illness if you want to a value of one. However, I found it doesn't really improve the quality of what we're going for here. So I'm gonna start rendering less and we should see what it looks like. Here we go. You can see if I change the metal is not going to affect it much. In fact, what the metal is is doing is adding a funnel effect to the material, which basically pushes the light information and the reflexivity around to the edge of an object. You see it a lot on car windows and other share reflective surfaces like that. But it's not really something that we want because we want to be able to see everything that's reflected in this object. So next, now we have this chrome ball. We want to create a new sphere, which is just the gray ball. So with my sphere selected, I can just hit control D to duplicate it and move it out. And now with this sphere selected, I can just right-click again, assign new material. Arnold shader, AI standard surface. I'm just going to call this gray ball. Now the gray ball should basically be a perfectly gray sphere. It should be perfectly between black and white. Now if you were to click on the color here and put the value to where you think the middle section is. You can see that it's about 0.187. It's not. No.5 is just the way that the spectrum of color works with this color space. But I do believe that null 0.187 is the exact center. So we're just gonna put that in at all, 0.1, it's seven like that. And I like to leave a little bit of specular on it, but I upped the roughness quite a bit. And you'll see why in a second. Another handy note for when you're rendering, if you only want to render a very small part of the scene, you can click on this crop render, now a crop region button. And then when you click and drag, it will select just a small region to render. And this can help speed up render times quite significantly. And then if you want to get rid of it, you just click on this button again, will remove it. You can see we have quite a nice generic gray ball. If I lowered the roughness, you'd see it's quite a shiny, glossy ball again. So you just want a little bit of a highlight that spreads across it as opposed to a perfectly Matt object. Okay, now or why do we have these balls and are seeing? Now, these are called reference balls. And basically what they do is they help us to diagnose the lighting in the scene. It's almost like showing you're working out when you're doing maths and stuff like that. Basically, the chrome ball will show us all of the lighting information in the scene and how it responds to reflections, basically showing us what the most reflective object would look like in our scene. This helps us to see if there's anything in our HDR a which we'll get into in a second, which shouldn't be there. Maybe you're using a reference photo from set and someone just slightly off the edge of the camera is sitting there reading a sandwich or something that might be captured in the reflections. So we use that to diagnose those reflection. Then the gray ball is what we use to diagnose the overall brightness of arsine and the color temperature of our scene. So this is meant to be perfectly flat, colored grey, and even, even between white and black. But if I was to up our light intensity too much, that's way too much. Even that, yeah. You can start to see that, you know, along with the rest of our scene oversee that this ball is very blown out and white like that. You can see that in the crumble. You can't, you don't get the same information, which is why we need both of them working in tandem together. But basically, if you're gray ball looks like this, your scene is way too bright TO bring it down. Somewhere around there is good. And again, if it's too dark, then it's, it's too dark. To looking for a nice neutral, soft grey with a nice soft gradient going across it. And same for color temperature as well. If you were to set up your color temperature and you made it super cold, then your gray ball word starts to look blue. If you made it very warm, then your gray ball starts look very orange. Now in certain situations, this may be what you want and that's totally fine. But what we're doing here is we're setting up a generic studio scene file where all of the colors are very neutral and very flat so that we get a good basis to reference our textures from. And then after that, if you wanted to set up your scene in a much warmer or darker or brighter or colder environment. That's totally fine. But we always want to start from a good base. So I'm pretty happy with the values that I'm getting. They're either just this one light isn't very interesting arsine. So now what we're gonna do is add a HGRI. So HGRI stands for high dynamic range image. And basically what that means is it's a special lens on a special camera, which takes a very special picture. And it looks something like this. Now that's quite low res, I should have a higher or as one. It looks pretty crazy, but basically it's designed to map perfectly onto the inside of a sphere to give us a full 360 degree set of lights and reflections to work with. So you can find these, you can just Google them and look them up. I've included the one that I've been using in this scene file for you to use if you want, but definitely play around and experiment with them. I basically look for very kind of plain white studio ones. Because again, we are going for a nice white space to work with. But I'm gonna show you how to plug them in. So we have the area light like this. But if we want to add HGRI, we need to go to Arnold lights. And this time at a skydiving light. So we take on that. And now if we zoom out, you can see we have this giant sphere encompassing our scene. So in our attribute editor with our sky dome light selected, if we go to color and click on the little checkerboard next to it, we can now add an input to that color. So I'm just going to pick file. And now in the actual editor, I have a file browser. I can click on the little folder icon and now look for our images. I was gonna start with maybe this one like that. I instead open, bring it in. And you can see that it looks very low resolution there. That's totally fine. We're not worrying about capturing very high resolution images with it. But now you can see if we render arsine, it should be a lot brighter. And I want to up the intensity on HGRI. But you should be able to start seeing in the chrome ball and we can see the reflection of everything that's happening around us. So we have this very large rectangle here, which is the area light. But you can also see now reflected in here. We have windows and doors and other things being reflected. And that's coming from the HDI. So it's a really great way of getting a lot of interesting lighting information without really doing much work. So now I'm going to up the intensity or the exposure. I'll up the exposure. And I can start making it just a bit brighter to write five those data. Now if I zoom out all my scene as well, you'll see that that brightness has been brought in. Ross, everything else. And really what I'm going for is a very crisp white seen definitely when you're onset and they're filming, set reference photography. They usually set up something like what I have here. It's a little soft box or a little white studio where they have something like this block of wood, like a Lazy Susan on the ground. And they input this tape on it so that they can capture it from uniform angles. They just rotate around the lazy Susan to the next tape, and then they get like 9045 degree angles, etc. So that's why I just set it up as something a little bit of a fun reference to that. And then they would take all of the references from set and they would put them on this little turntable and they just take the photos as neutral and as bright as they can. So that's just what we're emulating here as well. Basically. Today you can see the NHGRI does a lot of the heavy lifting when it comes to the lighting. So you might decide to actually just get rid of this area light. You can either do it by getting h to hide it or hitting the Delete key to get rid of it. But what I'm gonna do is I'm actually going to leave it in the scene still. I'm just gonna make it a bit darker. It's good practice to use HGRI and a series of lights and basically heats your eyes are very powerful in giving you a good set of reflections and a nice even amount of lighting across the scene. However, there are only drawback is because it's an image, a 2D image, which is projected onto the inside of a sphere. There's no concept of depth in your scene. So if you had a lamp on a table and you had the sun outside, the lamp and the Sun, as far as Arnold is concerned, are basically at the same depth. Even though the sun is a 1000000 million miles away and the lamp is on the desk in front of you. So this can start to make things a bit tricky when you're moving through a scene. And you're wanting to get that like parallax and interaction as you pass by objects. But that is the basic setup for Arnold. So next we're going to bring in the object itself and set up those materials and see how it looks. 6. Setting up Materials in Maya: Now that we have are seen setup with a basic lighting rig, we're gonna bring in our Leica camera and start applying some materials to it. So what we need to do is go File Import and navigate to our source files folder. And you want to bring in both the body and the glass. I separated and the body and the glass basically because we're not going to be texturing the glass in any way and we're just going to be using a separate material for that. If you can't see these files, make sure to change your file type to OBJ. And it should look like this. So with our main camera body selected, we need to apply material just like we did with the reference balls. We need to right-click assign new material and go AI standards surface. And I'm just going to rename this to m main camera. You can call it whatever you want. And now we need to start looking up all of those texture maps that we just exported. Now if you want to see what those texture maps look like, you can just open them up if they're just regular image files. And it looks something like this. Now this is the base color texture. This is the height map texture, which you can only see is so far effecting the leather sections of our geometry. Then we have the metal Alice, which is a black to white mask. And then we have the normal map as well, which also deals with the overall height. And finally, we have the roughness, which again is a black and white texture map, which deals with the material roughness. There is actually a plug-in for substance painter which automatically applies all of the materials to an object like this. However, I found that it's not always reliable and it sometimes sets up a displacement map which we don't want. So I think it's a lot easier to just know how it's all set up to begin with. And then you can go ahead and play with the substance plugin, which would appear up here. But basically, if we come over to our material tab, we wanna click on the little checkerboard next to color, pick file, and then browse to our texture. Now I only need to pick one of each element. So you can see that there are three base colors based on the three sets of movies. I only need to pick one of them. So I hit open. And now what's very important is I need to change the UV tiling mode to use them. So when I change it to you to marry, it now says that it's found three tiles, which is what we wanted to say. And actually what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna come up here and turn on the textured mode. And hopefully we should start seeing some of our textures come through as we set them up. Now you can see that it looks pretty horrific in the viewport. This is totally fine. This is not what we are going to be seeing in the final render. Its just so I can keep track of which ones I've started load n and which ones I happened to. Now in the specular, we want to set up the roughness map. So roughness, we hit checkerboard, file browse. And then we want to pick our roughness maps. And we wanted to do the same. We go, you dim Mari. However, there's one extra step for the roughness map and also for the height map and the map on this map, actually, if it's just a black and white mask texture like these are, you need to also come down to color balance and turn on alpha is luminance. Basically what this does is it converts that black and white texture to an alpha. Now we can also set up our mental illness. The actual order that you do these n isn't important. Unless n, Remember again to turn alpha is luminance. And if we actually start to click the generate Preview, that's how we should start seeing some of that color comes through. We've set up our three main texture maps for the color. We also need to start adding the bump map in or the height map. Now the height map comes in under the geometry tab, under bump mapping. So again, hit the checkerboard file so easily to click on this little input arrow next to the bumped value to go one level deeper. And now we can browse to op we want. So I'm going to use the height map. You can also plug in the normal map. It does the same thing at this point, but I prefer the height map. Height map. You'd M alpha resume luminance is already turned on for an object like this. And you can start seeing at normal texture as well. So that's how you set up the basic materials using the textures we've exported. And next time we want to export an uptake them. It will automatically update into a Miocene file as well, as long as we overwrite the same image files as far as the glass material. And we're going to set it up in a slightly different way. Now with your glass objects selected, First of all, under the poly surface shape or the glass. We need to come down to the Arnold tab in the attribute editor. Arnold tab, we need to uncheck opaque. If we don't, then the glass will not be transparent. It's just an extra little check that Arnold has to it doesn't have to process as much information each time if it doesn't have to. So we've uncheck that. Now with my geometry selected, I can right-click sign new material, shader, AI sanded surface. I'm just gonna call this M glass. Glass one. Now for the glass, there's actually a preset which comes with Arnold, which we'll just set this up for us. So we can click on our little presets. And you can see there's a whole bunch of generic materials from copper and clay and Chrome and balloons and blood, which you can definitely play around with. But for now we just want Glass and we want to replace. You can blend it between any material that you currently have selected. But because this is straight-up glass, we just want to replace it. And you can see it's played with some of our settings and move some things around. It's basically changed our transmission value here. Now. I really see it because it's transparent. But when we render it, you'll be able to see that it's glass. So this is the basic material setup for our camera. So I'm gonna do a quick render to see what it looks like. And this is when we can really start to see what we need to address. And when we returned to southern Spain, I was gonna start a render. And the first time that you start a render with the new material, it needs to convert some of the image files. I'm scrolling this render so we can see what we have. And now that the renders done, you can start to see how it relates to the reference that we have. Now I was pretty close with the reflectivity of the metal paint. As you can see here. We can actually see the reflection of the lens in the back panel. And we can also see it here. But you can see that my overall leather material is probably a bit too shiny and reflective. And the brass color could be a bit yellower AND paler. Now in the reference that I provided, you should see that there are a few different types of Leica camera and some of the ROLLUP more glossy than others. Overall, I do think that I'm gonna make mine a bit more mat or less reflective. But you can definitely experiment with a bunch of different styles and loops. And I definitely would encourage you to render it from a couple of different angles in order to see how the light affects the material. You can see that when we render from above, there's a very strong highlight, the passes over it. And this is coming from how metallic and reflective This object is that we're going to want to dial that down a bit as well. They definitely would encourage you to render a few screenshots. And once the renders done, you can go to File, Save Image, and just save it as a regular image, then you can have it to compare to later. But that is the basic setup for our material. So now that we have this setup, we can return to someone's painter and start addressing some of those notes on how the materials look and also start hand painting. 7. Painting Additional Textures: But now that we're back in substance painter, What I'm gonna do is take you through how to start manually painting onto our texture. Now with this camera, there basically is only two colors as the black metal and then there's, there's worn brass color. Now in some of the reference, you can also see there are some slightly duller dark spots. And these also duller, more orange spots here, which we can paint it afterwards. But for now we're just going to cover all of this additional bras. And really what I'm going to be doing is trying to get as close to the reference as possible. If you're working in film and TV and you need to do a proper placement. Or it needs to transition from photo real or live action to your CG element. Then even the textures have to line up as close as possible. So the aim is to paint it as this references. So I'm gonna leave the reference there just so I can see it. And we're gonna paint our texture right onto the mask. Now you can see that that procedural edges strong that we used before is still pretty low res here. So really we're going to be replacing most of the texture all the way across most of the mask, all the way across this. In order to do that, we're gonna go to our worn brass material over here. You can see you can turn on and off with the icon. And when you click on the black mask, it then opens up this little curvature tab down here. Now this was created from the edges strong scratched mask. As you can see when you turn off there and look at that. We can add additional things to this warn brass mask. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to leave this texture here, even if it's purely as a reference. But where I should be painting across the edges. And what I'm gonna do is right-click on my warm brass mask again and I'm gonna go add paint. This adds a paint layer to our mask. So now I can paint across it in black and white. And you can see that I am revealing and hiding parts of the texture. So this is a way of basically modifying the mosque after the fact. You can't paint directly onto this curvature mosque. They just won't let you. And that's where I need to add a paint mask on top of it. Make sure you're in the paint mode and then you can paint across it. You can add to it or overwrite it. So with this paint layer selected, I'm just gonna go to my brushes and something like this. I want a pretty hard paintbrush, but I also want a little bit of texture around the edge just to make it interesting. So I'm gonna go with this charcoal texture, I believe it's called charcoal full-frame. And in order to scale up or scale down your brush, you can use the square brackets, just like in Photoshop. And I'm going to make it pretty small. Now what I'm using is a drawing tablet for this. I definitely would recommend having one for hand painted work like this. It's just gonna make it a lot more accurate and a lot more easy for you. Most of our brush settings, we can leave if you want to adjust them. You can change the size jitter, you can change the spacing. And you can see up here it gives you a quick little representation of what's happening in the scale, increase their changing the flow of the capacity. But I'm not gonna change any of those for now. I think it's all fine. Really, the one thing that you want to changing back and forth is between a black mask and a white mask. Now the shortcut for this is just the x key. And this will invert that color. So much like I said before, you only want to be dealing with a black or a white or 01. I can paint alpha mask on there. But it's going to lead to a lot of difficulties later on as it's a pretty destructive workflow. So we just want 01 and then we would change the overall brass color or texture if we wanted to change the look of it. I'm just gonna come here and use my square brackets to scale down. And then I'm going to start painting in among these lines, keeping him pretty defined and small. I'm just setting x to basically use the black mask as an eraser where I'm not happy, as opposed to using an actual eraser. And you're gonna notice that the actual resolution of your painting is going to be determined by the size of the texture map. So the only unfortunate thing about hand painting is that if I was to now up raise this to a 4K texture map, you should be able to see that we got a bit more information in all of this procedural mask. That's because it is a procedural mask. The machine is still handling all of the data. And it can make it a high arrays or a lower res image as we go and see if I drop the resolution and gets a lot blurrier. However, with hand painted stuff, this resolution can't and dynamically increase or decrease. It just goes on as you painted it. So I would recommend, before you start hand painting, set it to the highest resolution that you can be a machine that can handle, because it can't get any better after that point. So you can see that this looks a little bit chunky and blocky. It's still a bit blurry. But now if when I've upped the rest to 4K texture map, it just comes out just a little bit crisper. And really what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna knock back a lot of the procedural stuff. You can see that it just kinda leave these weird blurry straight lines across everything. Whereas if I do this and to start breaking those up a bit and adding a bit more interest. And obviously on this idea, this whole area is just one big exposed section. Then we can paint it. And you can see because all of this is happening underneath the folder which is masked. I'm painting over here on the leather section. And you can see that nothing's happening. So that's why we prefer to mask out the folders themselves because then anything that's underneath will respect that. In this n, constantly looking back at my reference. And you can see as well the procedural texture. It's as powerful as it is and as amazing as it is, it's not going to get you a photo real representation of an object. So for this mask, we used a scratched edge mask. And it basically just takes every edge that it can find and it just puts this texture across it. But you can see in certain areas of our reference, there isn't any heat exposed or scratched edge. And this is because this edge down here is a lot more tucked away. And this outside edge here where you would assume someone would put their hand that every time that they were taking a photo. And so there's definitely a lot more real world wear and tear, which you can't represent with just these procedural mass. And that's when you have to get in and actually do your own texturing and hand painting. So that's really the basics of it, is just going back and forth in the paint layer between black and white and painting in using a series of textured brushes. So if you're not happy with the charcoal one, you can look at a whole selection. Will you have to do is double-click on them to apply them. If you have photoshop installed, I believe it adds some Photoshop textures in there. So I'm just gonna time-lapse most of this to get through it. And then we'll get into some more complicated material setups and refining some of the stuff that we saw in the renders from before. Alright, so that's the basic painting of the bros done. You might have seen as well during the time-lapse that I added a few more objects that I missed back into the mosque. And I also made a copy of my metal, and I quote a gray metal just because I can see that on these front lens dials, it's more of a silvery metal. Then that brass color. So I basically made a copy of this entire thing, put it in a new folder, just masked out these front sections. And then I change my Fill Layer Color tomorrow gray color. You can see when I turn the layer on and off, you can see it just adds to it like that. And because we're using masks, everything is very non-destructive. So I can even go back to my painted worn brass and I can hide that and we can see what it looked like before. So basically what I did was I just eroded a lot of what was already there and clean it up and that made it a lot tighter and made it look a lot more accurate. I'm just gonna show one more painted layer that I want to add. And that's very similar. It was just what I was talking about before with the slightly darker sections like this, I'm gonna make them on a separate layer. I can add them into my metal folder now. I can add a new fill out. Just double-click on the name to rename it. And I'm gonna call it patches and add a black mask. And straight away, I'm just going to start painting on this. I'm just gonna go to my black mask and add a paint layer. Technically, you can just paint straight onto a regular mask. But if I then wanted later on to add a smart mosque to it, that would destroy all of the work. So if I add a paint layer, I can then come on later and add a smart mask if I wanted to. Again, it's all about making work that's reproducible and non-destructive. So you can always cycle back and forth as you need. Now for these patches, I'm putting it uses a different brush as well. Something that's a bit softer, maybe like this artistic soft fingers just to see how it looks. And then we can go to and we can change the color. And because this area feels a lot more dirty unless worn, I would say that it would be less reflective than the rest of the metal. So we've got to make sure that whatever our metal base, roughness and metallic is, that our worn patches is rougher and less metallic than I can up the reference here and you can see if you angle it correctly in the highlight, that it becomes a lot more apparent because it's becoming a lot less reflective. And do that and I'll make it just that little bit of roughness for a bit of. Reflectivity, but it's nowhere near as glossy. So you see when we start rendering as well, we get a lot of interesting areas like that where it just breaks up the highlight just a bit. And so we can also do the same for this lens dial here as well, which was really a slightly flatter, more vibrant yellow then this brass. So I would make that enter new layer. I can put my medal as well. Now across this model and across the reference, it looks like everything has been worn down over a lot of time and there's no real big scratches or dense or bumps or paint this chipped away. It all seemed very smooth and glossy. If you had something where you did want to cut in to your model or make it look like it was standing up above the rest of it. That's when we would change our height value. So now that we have a masked area like this where there's actually an edge. You can see the effect of that. So if we increase the high, even just by a little bit, you can see that it starts to look like it's standing up on the surface of the model. This can be used for an extra layer of dirt or to show where some paint has been removed or added. So we can add some tl height or you can remove some for the height and take n like that. But I don't think that this actually needs any values like that for this because it would be such a such a tiny amount that it's barely registrable. I'm just going to modify some of the materials based off of the renders that we saw. But then it's on to projecting some of these decals and these textures on width. I'm just gonna go back to my leather, which the leather was two, glossy and shiny. So I'm just going to up the roughness on that. So about here. And then the overall metal base, I was going to up the roughness as well. Just a bit metallic. And then the overall worn brass decided needed a bit of a color change as well. I like that. Epsilon. So this step definitely takes a bit of time. It's really something that you can zone out and just start painting much of details onto it. So take your time and when you feel like you're ready, we'll move on to rejecting some details and textures. But of course, given that it's a non-destructive workflow with a bunch of masks. You can always return to it and add or remove things whenever you want. 8. Adding Alphas and Decals: So the next step is to add our extra decals and textures. So if you look in your source files again, you'll find a series of alphas that I made with all of the text and the fonts that you require. So there are a few of them that you can bring in. Basically the main text image as all the pieces that you need and the writing and writing one just have the top image which sits on top of the camera, but at a slightly higher res if you need it. But for now we'll just use the text alpha. So all you have to do is take it from your folder and drag it down into the shelf down here. And substance Painter. When you do that, it comes up with this import re resources box. And what you need to do before you can actually import it is you need to define where it's gonna go. So because this is an alpha, we're gonna put it in the alpha. If you are dragging in a new texture or a new HGRI, you would set the texture, texture. And if it was HGRI, you would set it to environment. Now we're just doing alpha. Then you also have to choose where your resources going to isn't just going to be in the current session. As in when you close substance Painter, It will be removed, isn't going to be saved just in this Save File? Or is it going to be saved permanently as a default in the shelf? So for this, I would just choose the project because this alpha isn't relevant to anything else. And now we can hit Import. And now you can see in the alphas, we now have this text along with all the other defaults that come with substance banner. It's called text. So much like everything else that we've been doing. What we're gonna do first is we're just going to add a fill layer for this. We don't need to put in a folder and we just have a fill f will get out a black mask to it. And now onto our mosque and add our paint layer. And then down here in your properties, we're going to scroll down to the bottom and where it says stencil and where it says no resources selected. You can click on this and search your text alpha. Or we can just drag it from the shelf onto that stencil like that. And now it sets on our screen and we can move around and it stays in place like that. If you want to move the stencil itself, you hold down the S key. Right-click scales at middle mouse, pads that around and left-click rotates it. If you need to rotate it. If you hold down shift, that will snap it to every 90 degrees. So you can return back to normal. But basically from here what I'm gonna do is I'm just going to reposition First of all, our Laker logo roughly in this area of the screen. And then position it over our model. So it's about the right size and position. Now because I'm just painting through a stencil onto the image. I'm just going to change my brush to just a basic hard brush. I don't need any texture to it. I mean, if I was to show adding a texture to it, you can see that it adds a bit of interesting wear and tear to the edges. But usually what I do is I prefer to brush it on nice and solid like this and then go back after the fact and paint in a bit of wear and tear if we need it. So if we just want to remove the stencil, we can hit the little cross here to get rid of it for now and we can load it back in anytime. And now we can see what it looks like on our model. And because it's an OFIL layer, we can do everything that we did before, including adding just a little bit of negative height to this or something like that. I feel like most of the text on the camera is just painted on this top section as a bit of an indent. They then filled with ink. So if you're happy with that, then we can move on. If you're not happy with it and you want to get rid of it, you have to close down this tensile. Then go to your pain channel, and then switch to a black paint and painted out again. You can't painted out while the stencil is active because it will try and paint out through the stencil. So we have that. I'm just going to add it back in again. Search for text and use with the serial number my run there. And you can either scale up your model or scale down the alpha to get it in the right space. And I just want to paint in this direction. And you can see if I'm not careful, it bleeds down a bit into another part of my stencil. And this is where if you haven't moved just tensile and then you can switch to the alpha and block it out. But you can see I'm getting a bit of bleeding around the edge. So really what I'm gonna do is remove the stencil and then paint it out like that. So that's already looking a lot better. And what I can do then is just change this slight yellow. And it's probably again, less metallic and reflective than. Actual metal that's sitting on. Awesome. So because we've indented this, we can't put anything else on to the same fill layer because anything that we paint onto it will also be indented. So for the rest of the textures, what I'm gonna do is just create a new file there and call that one like a logo, and make a new one. And I will just call this one text, like mask and a ain't. And now it's just about going around the rest of the image and looking for wherever there is any additional texts or d tau. So you can see there's a little, a little arrow that we can add. So I added a few different arrows that we can pick from thinking this is the one I use in the end. So in order to get to their orientation, I can just left-click and rotate it around til we get something that so. And then we can grab that. Paint that in. Make your own Alpha if you want a different font or different text on there. As long as the background is black and the actual text is white as the most important part. Now if we want to apply a texture to the lens like this, you can see that we can't project onto this very cleanly. We can only project basically in a 2D form. So trying to apply something to the inside edge like that is just gonna be basically impossible. But what we can do is if we hit f x3, we can switch back to our UV mode. And because I UV everything correctly, all of these camera rings are actually defined as straight lines in the uv. So what we can do is apply a tensile. We can look for the correct information, matches this, which is all of this camera information. And the Wexler, somebody likes 50 mil. Now we can just move it here. And if I remember correctly, it is this section, which is that camera. And so what you can actually do is if you hit F1, you can see it in both views at once. And we can see what happens when we painted in. So I can just start painting and see where it appears. We can see that just appeared. There we go. Now I can just paint in this text and a straight line, and it will curve around our model. And same goes for the f-stops across the top of the dial. Just need to remember in relation to the ui's. To get the I just, just throw a paint brush down is to see where it would appear in the 2D section. So I know where I need to paint these and then add my text. And so back. This is awesome. So if you want to draw a straight line, basically to just capture one line of text as opposed to waving around like that. What you can do is if you just tap your brush on 1 of the canvas and then you hold down shift. It will give you this dotted line, which you then if tapped again, we'll just draw a line between those two objects. And then that will give you a nice straight line like that. If you want a super straight line, you can tap it, hold down shift, and then hold control as well. And that will snap it to a certain degree. And the kids every ten to 20 degrees. And that will make sure its going perfectly down. And there's also this information stored. So something like this. The numbers are actually spread out over different pieces of UV. Which just means you have to spend a bit more time on the line them up. Then you can play around with the actual scale and positioning to get them as close as you possibly can with the minor a little bit too big possibly. But this is just to show you how to, how to place things. Then there are numbers on these dials. So I just created a set of numbers, which I will then have to paint around this object. For this set of numbers, is this 124815 all the way to 1000? Excellent. And then we have these logos below the buttons. And again, well this is back to being a pretty simple rejection like that. So I'm just gonna do that straight onto the 3D side. Little button. And then same for this little plastic dial on the back. The numbers are projected around the outside edge. So I'm just going back to that actually. Actually two sets of numbers for this. It's this 4810112040, etc. So this, this is why you could save a bit of time if you had planned the circumference first and then you could default on the numbers around it and then just project it on once. And straightaway, I think just adding a little bit of man-made detail to it just makes everything look a lot more realistic and a lot more manufactured. This little numbers and dials and narrows and buttons to show how to use this, bring it to life so much more. But this is all pretty painted onto the very most. You might want to add just the tiniest amount of height to it as if it was a layer of paint or something. But it's going to be so small that it's probably not going to be readable most of the time. Okay, so that's rejections. Now we're just going to add a bit more complexity to the materials himself and then bring it back into Arnold and see how it looks. 9. Additional Details: In this session, we're going to be adding some more complexity to materials. We're going to be adding a little bit of dirt, some extra scratches. Nothing too extreme for this. Just enough to kind of break up all of the color and the surface that we have here. And some of this I'm gonna do specifically to certain parts of it, like the leather or the metal. But also I'm gonna do a few just generic passes across the entire thing. So maybe we'll start with all of the generic passes first. So I'm just gonna create a folder at the top that I just call something like misc where ms square into and then just add fill layer in there. And this one I'm going to call skirt. And so we're now scratches. We're gonna start with a basic material, basic smart mask actually. And we'll throw one and that just scratches first of all. And we'll go with stains, scratches that feels like there's a good good coverage on that. We'll just throw that on there and see what we get. So pretty extreme right now. What we're gonna do is dial that back. So with the smart materials, much like the smart masks, you can actually go into them and start playing around with some of the setting. We haven't really done any of that yet. We've just been doing hand painting mostly. But here in the masculine and now we have a bunch of additional settings that we can play with. So a lot of them you don't have to worry about. Basically anything from image inputs down. No need to play with. This is just all of our baked mesh maps and the textures which is using to create the scratch effect. But what we're gonna do is play with some of these things up here. So the global balance is basically defining how much coverage there is. So if you see, if we reduce the global balance, it's going to reduce the amount of scratches that we have. If we increase the global balance and increases the amount of scratches we have, a global contrast. We reduce that issued, soften out the edges of the mask. And if we increase it, it should make everything a lot crisper and a lot harder. Most of the smart materials and smart mosques have the settings. Now Few will have a few additional ones, but these are really the universal settings they all have. You can also play with how much the texture actually appears in the mask. I tend to leave these the same. And those are really the only settings I would play with. So we don't want it to be this messed up. This is a lot of scratches and pretty crazy, but I'm just going to drop the global balance down just until we start getting just a few of these little bumps and next fall across it like that. Nothing crazy, something small. And then what I'm gonna do is in my fill layer, I'm actually going to untick everything but the height value. If I uncheck color rough, that'll normal. I now just have the height information so you can see there's no color change, there's no roughness change or metal change. But as I drop this down, you can see now we're starting to get the next and scratches all across it. I'm gonna make it not very extreme. And again, just a little bit that, and if you want, you can click on the text and actually type in a number. Well, so I'm just adding a few. Nothing crazy like that, but I could add my own if I wanted by just adding a paint layer and then entering onto it like that. Because I use a smaller brush in ten, some tiny little dents and scratches. The surface like that. You can see, you can see what it's doing there. So again, it's all super dynamic, super editable. We can change anything that b one. If you don't like a very specific scratch on here, you can then paint it out. If I thought that this scratch here was a bit too long in uniform, I could just hit of it like that. So that's our generic scratches pass. And you could add a few of them with larger scratches. You could add, you could use something like the crumbles mask to, to add a lot of dense to it. I'll show that as an example. And you can see it starts to make the object look very dented. It is easy to get carried away with all this wear and tear settings. I'm always a fan of subtlety. But if the objects requires it, then they absolutely need to use all the sort of stuff. I'm just going to delete that, get rid of it. So I've added a few very subtle scratches everywhere. Now I'm going to add just a general breakup of all of the materials. Just so that when we look at it through a highlight, we get a lot more of what's going on with this stain, where it just breaks everything up ever so slightly. And it's going to add a lot more interest and realism because nothing is perfectly shiny or smooth or clean, especially a camera this old. I'm just going to go bad. Stuff's Scollon. And I'll add probably just the crumbles. It's quite abroad mask like this. And much like with the scratches. Now what I wanna do is turn off everything except from the roughness and the metal. So I'm not going to change the color of everything. Everything, everything can retain its own color. And I'm only going to be affecting how rough it is. You can see if we increase it like that, we start getting this really awesome break up across the surface. Now, depending on how many materials you have across the model, you might need to add the scuff specifically to the metal over the letter and things like that. But I'll leave that to you to experiment with. Stuff like that. I might add another one that's more specific, plus1. And there's a bunch of dirt mask as well. Go with the dusty, quite dusty. I'm looking for one really that sits more in the recesses of an object. Maybe somebody like shopped. Instead. If I want to get rid of this mass, I can just hit the little X next to it and delete it. So this one does sit more around a tight spaces and corners and edges and stuff. And so you can see with this map, it has settings like grungy mountain Chrome scale as well. I don't want to go crazy with it. I'm just going to add a little bit into the recesses, paint out some of that later on. And it's not really about adding crazy amounts of detail or variation to it, is just about breaking it up just enough so that it reads is not being this perfect CGI thing. And you can see that the texture is actually starting to bleed onto the lenses with the glass texture. That's totally fine, that purely here as placeholders. And in the Maya file, we've replaced them with the glass material already. So we'll see how will this kind of extra breakup reads in our render. But you can definitely, you can just keep building these layers, layers by layers and adding a bunch of different color breakup and height breakup and metallic and roughness breakup all across it. Ok, so now I'm going to add something which is specific to the metal. And go down to the metal. I'm going to add a Philip. And I'm gonna call this metal spray. And this one, I'm gonna go to the base color and I'm going to click on where it is a uniform color. And now I can actually choose as the texture which is going to flood the entire object. And I want a generic noise texture. And this let see how this works when it loads. There we go. So we'd most metals like this, they are usually painted by spray painting onto them. And when that happens, it leaves a very slight stippled texture and break up to the surface. So that's what I'm trying to replicate here. So I have my metal spray. And what I'm going to experiment with now that it has this texture on, is changing the blending mode. Now if you ever use Photoshop, these are basically the same. And what we can do is just play with a few of these because there's a black and white value in here. I either want to use like an overlay or a soft light or multiply probably. Let's have a look. So if we do the overlay is basically invisible in the black section and it's very visible in the brass section. I also wanted the other way around. Just because I feel like the brass metal itself will be a lot smoother and the paint would be the section that is that's been spray painted. I'm just gonna play with some of these settings until I find the one I want. So if you can't find a good blend setting for this, what you can also do is just copy over the mask and the lawn brass onto this. So I can go here and I can go copy mask and I can go to my metal spray and change it back to normal for now. And we're gonna go add black mask. And with it selected, I can go paste into mask. Now. You can see it just there. And if we want it in the other section, should be able to invert this mask that we go, you right-click and go invert mask to now it's just affecting the painted metal surface like this. And then really all I'm gonna do is just bring the opacity way down. And there may be all I'm gonna do is we're gonna reduce the color, so it's not affecting the color. I only want it to affect roughness. And I'm hoping that I can get it to a point where there's enough information on it that it you can see like a very slight stippling. Of course I'm not going to change the mask settings and he's changed actual material settings. So originally I had the value in the color to get this breakup. But if I wanted to break up in, say the roughness, I need to actually add it to the roughness channel so I can leave the color and I'll turn off the car for now. And just in the roughness, I'm going to add the same procedural texture. And now we get a lot more of this interesting break up like that. And, but of course we want to reduce this as well because it's quite intense. That's ruining a lot of what we have. If we go into the noise settings now. You can try and play with so many settings to see if it reduces the contrast up. And it looks like the position is doing that for us. The position is basically changing the overall black and white values of the noise. So we'll see how that looks. It still makes it look very aged. So next to make it even less apparent, what we're gonna do is we're going to just reduce the opacity of the roughness channel itself. So right now, all of these opacity levels are set for the color mode. If we come up to this drop down here, we can change this to one of these other settings like roughness. We can change it a roughness. And now if we reduce this down, it's gonna make it less apparent. We can see right now it's still looks a little bit more like dead than like a spray painted breakup. But we're gonna go with for now and see how it looks. Maybe we just need a finer texture. Yeah, if we just play the scale, you can see it's getting a lot smaller than the breakup. And Alex as well when we render it. So once you have it with that, it's just about exporting a Texas again, we're gonna render them admire, have alert, and then just keep looping that process. That's really all it's about. A lot of people fall in the trap of thinking. You finished in substance, you render it, and then it's done. But getting to the rendering stage is only about halfway through the process. Because once you're there, you need to render it, re-assess how it looks, and then keep iterating on that. So just a refresher on how to export textures. We just go to File or textures. It should've saved your settings from before, but just check that they're the same in the same directory. And then export. If you have Maya opened currently, you need to go in and close the render view window before doing this. Because sometimes what Maya can do is it right, protects the images that it's using to render with. And so you won't be able to overwrite these images. And also another point on that is that when you come to rendering, if you've already had it open in Maya, it's not gonna refresh those textures. So before rendering this, you need to close down the render window and then reopen it so you can re-render it. So that's saved out. And then in the next video, we're just going to load it back into Meyer. Have a quick look, reassess, take some notes, and then readjust. 10. Final Notes: And now we're back in my I just want to clarify what I was talking about with the rendered view window. If you go to Arnold open render view, this is that window. And if this is open when you're trying to export textures, sometimes it will stop that from happening because it's still try and read those textures for the render, even if the render is paused. So this window has to be closed. Even Maya can be closed. Then you can export your textures from substance painter. Then you can re-open this. And then it will refresh those renders. Five, exporter my textures, and I just want to see what they look like now. And now that the renders done, we can re-assess based on a reference that we have. And we can look at the areas that I was trying to address beforehand and see if we hit them. And I do feel like the specular or the roughness on the leather is probably a lot more realistic. Maybe we could make it a little bit less rough Now, just to get more of those highlights, the overall roughness of the metal. I think I am more pleased with that. You can't see as much as of the reflection in there. But based on the other references that we have, not all of them are this glossy and black. The overall extra painted detail that we have is clearly way better than what we had before. But you can see that my text can probably do with a bit of work. And this front metal rim, which is all this exposed for a metal, I need to work on that a bit more painted out up. But really from this point on, it's a lot about just tweaking those values, adding bit more roughness and a bit more detail in a bit more interest until you get what you're happy with. So from here we're gonna jump to my finished texture purely because there's nothing more to show. It's just about adding that detail and fiddling with the numbers until you're happy with what you have. So this is the final texture that I came up with. As you can see, I actually left that speckled metal texture across the entire metal surface just because I thought it gave a nice little bit of breakup across everything. I also added a lot more wear and tear to the letter itself using one of those scratch masks. And you can see in the final renders that I'm going to show that you can't really see much of this information on the leather. So I had to make it super prominent in substance painter so that you can see even just a little bit in arnold, I redid my font, redid my text just to make it a bit smaller. And I also added a very slight indent. Some of this text as well. They'd be hard to read. You can see a little slight indent. I redid my noise and my scratches is to make them even more prominent on the front surface like that. Overall, I just added a bit more discoloration across all of the surfaces. Just aged a bit more basically and add a bit more color and break-up everywhere. I put on the little Leica button on the back. And yeah, you can see it's just just as long it takes as long as you want. To kind of get it to a point that you're happy with adding that detail. Still trying to keep a lot of these bare black areas. You don't wanna go crazy and just have lots of law scratches and dents everywhere equal to have moments of rest for the I. But now we're gonna jump back in our old and see what this looks like. And this is what the final render looks like. So a few extra little notes to help improve your renders. First of all, in the arnold render view, you can see there's as little camera button down here. And when you click on that, it stores a snapshot of all of the rendering. And you can always come back to it later and save that image out. So you can see this isn't a one-to-one render because I accidentally move the camera between renders that you can see the comparison of where we were just before and where we are now. So you can see that I don't eat up the leather is little bit better. The last one, just to add a bit more color and difference into that. I also repainted somewhere my textured sections and added more of that smudge breakup, redid the front of the lens. And overall tried to make it look more like the reference. If you're renders aren't coming out very clean and crisp like that, then we can change some of the Render Settings. So if you go to this little clapper bored with the cargo on it, this is the Render Settings in the common tab. First of all, we can change a few things like the resolution and the size of the image. If you want to do nice big ten ADP images, you can definitely do that for if you're rendering out smaller, quicker images, you can render out a small alone for now. But most importantly, under the Arnold tab, we have these Render Settings. Now these settings are what increase the quality and also the render times of your renders. So if you are still getting very noisy shadows, then you want to up the diffuse settings. If you're getting very noisy highlights, which you'll see in the chrome ball. And are any glossy reflective surfaces. You wanted to up the specular settings. The transmission handles the transparency of glass. And apart from that, the cameras AA or the anti-aliasing helps to smooth out any harsh or jagged edges across your image. Now a lot of people fall into the trap of thinking that you can just up the AAA. And this will increase the quality of all these other settings. But it doesn't. It will increase some slightly because you're smoothing out shadows and you're smoothing out highlights. But it's going to up the render times immensely. You'd have to put this up to a value of a 100 to even come close to just a few steps up on these. So just play with these Render Settings and see how they increase the Renner times. You can see these numbers are what worked for me and this render took about five minutes to do. And they go, I hope you enjoyed this little tutorial on how to texture and substance painter for photo real assets. You can also see in the Source file my final renders that I did of this. I picked some different angles to look from. So see how you went and good luck.