Introduction to Flourishing for the Modern Calligrapher | Bryn Chernoff | Skillshare

Introduction to Flourishing for the Modern Calligrapher

Bryn Chernoff, Paperfinger Calligraphy and Hand-Lettering

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6 Lessons (41m)
    • 1. Class Overview & Introduction

    • 2. Getting Started

    • 3. Elements of Flourishing

    • 4. Considerations

    • 5. Design with Flourishes

    • 6. Practice & Projects

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About This Class


Unsure about how to add flourishing to your calligraphy practice? I was too. 

It's can be intimidating! It can also look old-fashioned or stuffy.

Over my past 11+ years of professional work as a modern calligrapher, I've grown comfortable with flourishing, both technically as well as stylistically.

Modern flourishing can be clean, elegant and beautiful.

Practicing flourishes will benefit your calligraphy overall.

And it's so fun! 


In this 40 minute course, I cover:

  • What does it mean to flourish for modern calligraphy vs traditional?

  • Exercises and drills to steady your hand

  • Shapes and strokes that you can build into more complex flourishes

  • How to steer clear of messy, crowded flourishing and create beautiful designs

  • Projects and ideas to help you practice

Shed your expectations of traditional calligraphy and find your way to a style that fits the way you write.


Ideal for: 

Beginning to intermediate level calligraphers.
(If you want to learn about how to use a nib, start with my intro course, Introduction to Modern Script Calligraphy.)


You can use any kind of pen for this practice.
Check out my favorite supplies at John Neal Bookseller.

There are worksheets, drills, demos and project ideas to help you with your practice.

And I'm here to chat with you on the discussion board whenever obstacles or questions arise.



As always, my goal is to create a relaxing, expansive, enjoyable and productive course. Flourishing can be calming and meditative. Hope you'll join!



1. Class Overview & Introduction: Welcome to my introductory course on flourishing through modern calligraphy. I'm Bryn Chernoff, owner of Paperfinger Studio. I've taught several courses on Skillshare before, so perhaps we've met before in those courses. I hope you're ready to enjoy a relaxing and useful introduction to flourishing for modern calligraphy, specifically. This class is really designed to give you practice and exercises, warm-ups, and tools to help build on your skill set, build your confidence, and build your ease around flourishing. It should benefit your entire calligraphy practice as well. I've really designed the class to work hopefully for calligraphers at a lot of different levels, particularly beginners and intermediate level calligraphers who may be new to the area of flourishing. It's ideal if you're basically familiar with the fundamentals of calligraphy. If you haven't, I would suggest you start with my introduction to modern script calligraphy on Skillshare if you want to learn the fundamentals of how to use nibs, ink, all the tools and instruments of calligraphy. That'd be a great place to start. I just want you to feel comfortable using pen and ink on a page in order to get started today. I chose this subject because it's always been one that alluded me earlier on in my own calligraphy work. I always felt a bit vulnerable when it came to flourishing so it's taken me a long time to find my own comfort and my own style with flourishing. I wanted to help bridge that gap for you if you're feeling the same way. It's also just really useful practice. Like I was saying, the strokes and the gestures are going to support your calligraphy work, whether you incorporate many flourishes or not, so it's really helpful. It's an opportunity for us to look again at how is modern calligraphy different from traditional in the format of flourishing and explore my ideas around that and see what your own are as well. What we're going to cover today is basically what is modern calligraphy and flourishing versus traditional, both my opinions and definitions of that as well as some ideas from elsewhere. Then we'll get into really the building blocks of flourishes. What are they? What do they look like? What strokes and gestures are they made up of? How can we do them? How can we practice them? Then we'll get into what are all the different things you should be thinking about when you're flourishing. So what are the aspects and factors that come into play that will make your work stronger and better? Then how can you design with a flourish? Where are you going to put it? Where will you place it in your work? How will it contribute to your design? Here's how I look at modern versus traditional and you can factor that in. Mainly, with traditional calligraphy, and I'll show you some examples of what I think of when I think of traditional calligraphy, but there are really specific set rules and guidelines for how you create the styles. There's names of styles and there's literal, explicit directions of step-by-step, how am I going to construct this letter? What order of events I'm I going to follow? How exactly am I going to hold the pen in the page. There's a lot more control and consistency and standardization, so you get beautiful, timeless work. Sometimes it can feel a little more formal. With flourishing in the traditional realm, I see a little bit more denser work. Sometimes it feels a little fussy, which is a little judgy, but that's part of the vibe that I tend to pick up on. There's often just a lot of symmetry in the design, so it's pretty spelled out. Whereas with modern calligraphy, there's really a lot of room for spontaneity and that artist's individuality and personal expression is what's valued. There's an endless number of directions you can go with modern calligraphy because it's not spelled out for you and there's no set number of styles and it's really about bringing something unique. What I like about that is each of our work is going to be really different and it should be from each other because we're not trying to replicate something and what's important to contribute to the field of modern calligraphy is your own thing, not replicating exactly the way I do it or however you see online or something. So bring your own touch to it and that's what's going to make it different and contemporary. 2. Getting Started: A few basic definitions to go over and I'll illustrate these here as I read them to you. I consulted a few resources to say, "Well, what really is a flourish? How is that defined?" The word flourish comes from the Latin, florere, to bloom. That's just a beautiful way to envision what's possible with flourishing. The creative glossary says, "A flourish is an elongated pen stroke or linear decoration element that enhances a letter's basic form." The Calligrapher Skilled, they get a little bit more specific. Now they say swash and flourish can sometimes be used interchangeably. But the flourish or swash is a decorative stroke added to a letter or to a body of writing. Should only be used when: one, the calligrapher is competent and its accomplishment our goal for today, and two, its location and function are a necessary part of the overall design and balance of the work. Flourish somewhat synonymous with swash. Typically a flourish is more decorative than swash. Now we're going to move right into the exercises and the practice of the course, which is really the heart of what I want to do with you. All you need in order to get started and move forward is to have some worksheets printed. You'll see I've provided worksheets for you that will guide your practice today and onward. You'll need writing implements and paper, and that's really up to you. If you're really just getting started with calligraphy, you're welcome to work even with the pencil today, there's no "This has to be done with a nib." If you are more experienced with calligraphy, it might benefit you to practice your flourishes with a nib since that introduces some other technical challenges and opportunities. As long as it's something that you're feeling comfortable writing with, and that the paper is really smooth, because you going to do a lot of gliding around on the page and we don't want something heavily textured or very tricky to write on, if you have to deal with that down the road, let that be then. But for now, I really love writing with these Rhodia pads, particularly the dot grids. The paper is smooth. It takes all kinds of ink. So if you're working with a pen and nib, that's perfect. Or you can work with pencil or just a regular fountain pen or micron. Well, monoline, whatever you've got. I have some other resources to suggest for you. If you go to John Neal Bookseller online, they're my favorite source for calligraphy supplies. I have in the online instructor section, you can pick paper finger and it will list all my recommended suppliers for calligraphy. If you really want to get yourself setup with some new gear, you could go there. Bottom line, just make it easy on yourself because we're just experimenting. I've been playing around a little bit on the iPad and with the Apple pencil, which is very fun. But if you're just starting with flourishing, I wouldn't start with that tool because it makes it so easy that it might deter you from pen and paper work later, and that's really important because you'll never really achieve the results you get on paper or on an iPad. It's so much fun, but I really would encourage you to work on paper for now. You can play as I've had later when you just want to enjoy that sweetness. 3. Elements of Flourishing: For the first exercise section, I want you to have the worksheets set and ready for you to refer to. What's nice about these is you can always practice them with tracing if you really want to match the strokes, but otherwise you can just have them out in front of you and your blank page, whatever writing instrument you want. We'll get started. The first part is just lines and shapes. This might feel really rudimentary too, but no matter what its a good warm-up, don't matter if you're very advanced or just getting started. We've got lines and curves, the fundamental building blocks of any calligraphy, but particularly for the flourishes. I want you to pay attention to your directions, and also that every time you're practicing a stroke and a gesture, you're practicing the mirror image. Because sometimes we get really locked in to doing and I find this is true for myself, the same gesture and the same direction and the same curving angles, and I never tested myself on the flip side, and it's a mental challenge as well as a muscular challenge, so keep practicing both, so you can do symmetrical shapes and curves. Follow the instructions here and try all these exercises. I want you to start filling for steadiness, for a beautiful curve, a steady curve, and also really just keeping a consistent look to the shapes on the page and filling your practice sheet beautifully, even if it's just lines and curves, it can be a beautiful thing when you've filled in a full practice sheet. After the lines and curves, we move into spirals. The spirals will continue the practice of working on that steady line and the steady curve. But now you're really going to have to start thinking about spacing, which is such a crucial part of flourishing in general. How can you maintain a consistent and balanced white space between your curving spiral lines? You'll see I've given you practice examples of overlapping spirals, switching the directions of your spirals, also more of that mirror imaging. You might practice beating up a little bit and seeing how that goes. That might throw you off. If you slow down too much, it might get you wobbly and starting to look at how the pace of your writing affects your ability to create a steady curve, to control the pen. These are all things that you start paying attention to as you practice. The last section of these fundamental building blocks is the loops and cusps. Loops might be pretty straightforward to figure out. You're going to be changing directions and creating the white space loop. The cusp is that alternate way to change directions, except you're not leaving a white space. So you'll see those demonstrated here and just start practicing, because looping flourishes. It's like pretty common way to achieve different results and change directions throughout your movements, so it's really worth practicing and experimenting with. In general, I hope this type of exercise, all of these exercises are really relaxing too. I find calligraphy very meditative and peaceful. If you just find yourself getting in a group, I think your work will benefit from relaxing into it as well. 4. Considerations: Now we've gotten a great warm up going and this is a handy warm up you could do any day even just to get started with your practice for the day. But we're going to start thinking about more of the aspects and the factors that go into flourishing and flourishing well. In order just to do that, I'll introduce some more complex flourishes for you to practice. But I'd like you to be thinking about these different factors as you move through the exercises. The first one, pretty common sense, but it's about your posture and your position at the desk. This will vary from person to person, but there's a few tips that will help you achieve better flourishes. Generally, how are you feeling so far? Like, are you feeling mobile? Are you sore? Are you feeling stiff? Is there any pain or discomfort anywhere? Take a look at how you're sitting at your desk and where your materials are. Where's your paper in relationship to your body? Where are your tools? Are you in a good ergonomic layout here on your desk? I like personally and this is a bit of a recommendation, but I think it's still a personal decision. A pretty locked but relaxed wrist. Keeping my arm really mobile and a little bit of finger control, but not a turn. Really a lot of the control of the movement is coming from my forearm. In order to feel almost mobile with my forearm, I like having a lot of vertical space in front of me at the desk. Sometimes I sit really sideways, especially I'm pregnant. Here about like hide the belly out from the desk. But either way, I like sitting by the side of the desk and making sure that I had plenty of space to move my arm forward. I don't like feeling cramped in, so if you find that your elbows really in your ribs, if you're writing like close into your ribs, you'll find you have limited movement. Moving everything forward, even literally writing of the top of your page I find it really helps me. As I get to the bottom of a page, I should move my pad forward or my page. In a way that I want you to experiment with your posture and your positioning and see how it plays out in your flourishes just to try this first exercise on worksheet B. You'll see I've given you one flourish stroke to do over and over again. But each time change something about the way you're holding yourself and your arm. For example, the first time, I don't want you to move your forearm or your wrist and literally just try to achieve that stroke just with your fingers. If you only control that, how does that feel? I'm trying to convince you that that shouldn't feel great and that it limits your ability to move around on the page because it's really just about how far your fingers can reach. As you work your way through these exercises, you see I'll have you opening up more and more so that the movement is controlled by your arm, not by your wrist or your fingers and if you're controlling your arm and you're gliding, whether you're sliding on the table or you're completely lifted off the table, just resting your wrist. You can get so much more motion, you can get much longer strokes and then even at the end I have you stand up, which I feel like is an incredible tool for liberating your flourishing or if you're doing really big piece or you just want to see what's possible, just like get up and do it standing up. Try each of these and see where the sweet spot is for you or where you start to notice an improvement. All right, so that's posture and position. The next thing to think about, just in the back your mind even is breath and sometimes you might find that paying attention to your breath helps you calm down to achieve a steady or line. I like to even think about, out-breath on down-strokes are creating a rhythm of my breathing and my writing when I'm warming up. It's not that I'm always considering up, but it's worth exploring. It's a part of helping yourself slowdown and calm down. It might add to the quality of your work. Occasionally holding my breath is really useful if I have a moment that I just need to pull off and I don't want any disruption. Play around with that as well. Okay. The next thing to start thinking about is spacing which we touched on a little bit in the warm-up exercises but particularly this idea of hots-pots, which is something you want to avoid with flourishing. There's a few different ways to define that. I have some exercises for you to practice. Continuing your spiral work, you looping work and this will really help you keep the spacing thing in mind because there's a couple of things to think about. One is just that evenness of white-space. Does it feel balanced? Does it make sense across the whole flourish? Is the white-space used similarly? If you have too many lines close together, that's one way you'll achieve a hots-pot that you don't want. It will look bad or it'll look wrong, or it will draw the eye. I'll show you some examples of hots-pots and how they develop. These close lines together is one way, it starts to get a bit of a hots-pot here versus if we really opened those up a little bit better, we're getting a little less angle as even open them up more. We start to feel like it's a little less tense. Even just too many lines close together. The lines have started cross at less than 90, but they're also just crowding up and we get this. It just tends to get muddy and yucky looking and so that's another version of a hots-pot that you'd want to avoid. Another thing to think about when you're crossing over lines is, can those two lines cross at close to a 90 degree angle? If they're crossing at much less than a 90 degrees, you'll start to notice it just also looks wrong. It starts to clog up that spot visually and create a hots-pot. That's one thing you can just think about even as you're moving around and you're playing around with creating your own flourishes. Whenever you're ready to cross over another line, look at the angle at which it's crossing. Now, granted these are not, there is not a hard and fast rule, there's ways to pull it off. But you might find that it tends to look worse if you're using less than a 90 degree cross. Later on, I a have a list of great books where I've gotten a lot of good resources and ideas and also guidance on flourishing to help contribute to this class, but Lupfer's book is beautiful. It's just full of incredible and inspiring images. But this quote stood out to me, in his description of flourishing, "For the law of harmony and flourishing is the same as in love. As long as everything goes smoothly, harmony prevails. But as soon as some rival crosses the pathway, especially in a diagonal way, there's likely to be trouble in camp." That's just like dorky, calligraphy humor, but who can resist it. Keep all these things in mind as you practice and you'll start noticing that your work will improve. The next factor to consider while you're flourishing, I'm calling the smoothness, which is not the smoothest of words, but it just feels like it covers really an important concept. The steady curvature of your lines is really what we're going for. Now, some of that is just through practice. Practice, practice, practice, being warmed up, thinking about how much coffee you had? Did you eat enough today? Some days I'm able to write much more smoothly and steadily than others and I'm not even sure why. There's a bit we can control with it and a bit that just depends on where you're at for the day. But I do want you to think about what are some ideas to help you achieve smoother and beautiful, curvier work. One simple thing is, I like to practice movements in the air before I write them on the page. A, it helps you plan what you're going to write. If I've got a simple flourish in mind, I'm going to hold my pen and before I'm ready to do it, I'm thinking it through as a gesture, because then, I'm building that muscle memory in, of what way I have to go in order to achieve it. I might even do it right over the page, just not placing the pen to the paper, and that helps me warm up. Sometimes that is a really useful tool in order to pull it off on the page. Like we said, the tools and the paper you're using are definitely going to help you write more smoothly and to create a steady line. The posture and positioning, of course, is all connected, making sure you're thinking about all those posture and arranging your desk to support your work. Occasionally, you might just want to move the page. Don't feel locked in, there's no rule to flourishing. I feel like one of the great things that was opened up for me early on was, when you see this masterful, incredible, ornate flourished done by another artist, you think, "I can't just sit here and like, draw that entire thing right now." That's not necessarily how it was done. There's a couple of things that probably went into it. One, it was likely sketched out and advanced and planned. You can always draw with pencil and plan your designs. I want you to practice some of that as well. You can move your page around. If you want to write upside down in order to pull off a certain stroke, that's completely legit. There's no contest here. It's really just writing however you're going to best pull off what you want to achieve artistically. The others component that's really good to practice is, how can you start and stop mid flourish without revealing that there was a start and a stop? I have a couple of exercises for you to practice that idea, and one simple way is, can you start your flourish if you need a break, like you need to literally just lift your pen up for more ink, or you just need to catch your breath, or you want to turn your page and reorient? If you stop right at the point that your line meets a cross line and you don't actually cross through, you will be able to pick up and continue where it would have just crossed right over, and if you do it skillfully, no one will ever know that that's where you picked up and put down again. That can be done with a nib, it can be done with a monoline pen. Here's some demos of that as well as some examples for you to practice with. That's one great way to sneak in and set yourself up again. You can continue where you left off with a thick, and it will, most likely, be invisible. If you're trying to pick up and put down right at a hairline, continuing to a hairline, it's very hard to conceal that, but if it's switching to a thick, no one will notice. If you are working with a nib, practice that and try it out and see how you can achieve a more complex flourish that looks like you're just a wizard hand, and actually you did it in multiple pieces and components, just the way calligraphy letters are written as well. There's no pride around this in terms of how you pulled it off, just pull it off. The last factor to consider is just the actual tools you're using and how that impacts the flourishing that you're doing. Remembering that, if you've got a really thick chiseled pen you're working with, and I'm drawing loops, it's going to change the scale at which I am able to write, just in the way as it would if I was writing actual letters. If you've got a very fine hairline, you might be able to fit in tons of detail, nastier curves and your parallel lines really closely together. You just have to consider that what you're writing with will change what you're able to achieve with your flourishes. You don't want to disregard that element entirely. We've gone over a bunch of factors, things that you want to keep in the back of your mind while you're practicing. It might feel like a lot, but it will start to feel automatic and a little bit more natural the more you're practicing. Next step, we're going to really get into building your own flourishes, and working on how to design them, and how to fit them into a bigger design. How to place them in context with other calligraphy work you may be doing and other projects. What you can consider in terms of where flourishes are best placed, etc. That'll be fun. 5. Design with Flourishes: Moving into flourish design, I wanted you to start now with taking some of the building blocks and the fundamental strokes and elements that we've been practicing and piecing them together to create more complex flourishes. These three strokes I broken up for you in this one exercise; we have a loop, we have another loop, and we have a spiral loop. What happens when we put all three of those together and create a bigger composition? I do number 1, number 2, and number 3, and now I have another one. That's three elements I've combined. You could take just two elements, a spiral and a loop, see how that looks or a cusp in a loop. Start just looking at your earlier practice sheets and saying, okay, I want to put these two together or I want to layer these two on top of each other and create a design. So even when you're layering separate flourish strokes on top of each other you still need to apply all the same factors we've considered like spacing and hot spots. The same rules will apply even if those lines are not attached to each other and they're just overlying. Then I have a bunch of slightly more complex flourishes that I've designed and created through my work that will help you with your own practice and might inspire you to come up with some other ideas. So using that worksheet and set c to just start practicing these more complex gestures. It might feel a little nerve-wracking at first to plunge into them. All of these on the worksheet were done in single gestures, even if they were then overlapping lines. If you want to break them up into multiple steps where you pick up and put down. You could try that out. Remember all the things we've talked about, like practicing it in the air or hovering above your page before you do it. Penciling it on the page first to see if you've got the hang of it and then tracing your own pencil work with the pen, you can always erase the pencil underneath and no one will know that you had to do a practice round. There's a lot of different ways to just get to an end results. So just practice as much as you can and the more you're doing it, the more comfortable you'll get, you might find that you kind of build a little library of flourishes that come really easily to you. I have a few that are just kind of my defaults of like, "Ooh, I need a flourish here" and I tend to always like this one, so I throw it in, right in this spot. So the more you're practicing, the more your library will build up and the more readily you can access them in your calligraphy work going forward. So now we're just going to go over about the design using flourishes and where do we actually put them in our work? So the first category of flourishes and where they would go would be attached to a letter. That might be kind of self-explanatory, but I'll go over the basic types of locations that you can attach a flourish. So one is any cross stroke. So the crossing of a T, perfect, easy location ripe for flourishing. Any entry or exit points. So at the beginning of a word, the end of a word, the beginning of a line, the end of a line, and you'll see some demos of that as well. Ascenders and descenders are really great spots to throw in a flourish attached to a letter, and I have a bunch of examples of that. It's a place to build sort of even a consistent flourish that you might use in every ascender and descender, or perhaps it's just one shining moment or you throw in a big swash. Lastly, in a cap so if you want to highlight the capital almost like in the form of a drop cap, but perhaps you just flourish up that one capital in your work and the rest of it is written in your standard script or your standard style. That can be a great access and highlight point. Capitals are formed differently. So perhaps there's different points of entry and exit for you to flourish that off. All these artists that I'm referencing in these images as well have great examples for us to get inspired by or experiment with or tried to emulate in our own work. The other category of flourishing is when it's not attached to a letter. So there's a few different places that you can think about it in terms of the composition of any kind of calligraphy piece you're working on. One is it could be interacting with the letter, it could be overlapping, it could be interacting with a flourish that's already attached to a letter. One simple thing is adding a double line of the flourish, so kind of paralleling and existing flourish off of a letter. That can be a great spot to add even a different color or just adding a secondary line and engaging with the flourishes and the words themselves. Another natural way to use a flourish around your calligraphy is as a frame. So perhaps you're creating some sort of frame for the word or the piece, it could be just decoration, ornamentation around it. It could be an actual border that you use flourishes to create that border, the word or border the entire piece. I find flourishes also in their sort of ornamentation value can be really helpful, little dividers and sort of section breaks. I have like this invitation I designed where it separates the text, just having a little bit of flourish. So it's connected to the calligraphy, but it's its own little piece providing a design function as well. There's endless ways that you could use your flourishes to create separators to create different areas and zones of your design work. So you could think of them as you would in any kind of graphic design context too. Another way that a flourish might serve your design is if you really just want to bring attention to one particular word or spot. So you might have this nice clean design, but you really want to highlight this one moment and that's where your flourish might be. So it might draw the viewer's eye to that spot in a way that only a flourish could. Another consideration for design options with flourish is that it's a really useful way to fill space if you need to balance out your design, perhaps it's kind of leaning too much to one side and you need to use some white space to even out the whole design in general. I have a lot of examples of this in some traditional work as well as contemporary, where it can almost be a filler. When you're filling space with a flourish is just making sure that it doesn't detract from the calligraphy or the text itself. So it might be really advantageous to use a very fine hair line. Make sure that your calligraphy is standing out more prominently, maybe a little bit heavier. Some people use flourishes decoratively really as illustration, and that's not something I've done very much in my work, but I've seen some beautiful examples of that I wanted to show you in some of these books. It might be a bit more traditional and often the bird theme is when you'll see a lot in traditional flourishing, but you know, there's endless ways that you could use flourishes to create an illustration of sorts. So that's a really fun direction to play with and explore and probably could be a class in and of itself. So now we've covered basically all the places you could put a flourish, what it could look like, and what you need to think about in terms of placing and using and designing flourishes. But also just like does it match the aesthetic vibe of what you're creating? So even starting simply with what kind of style of calligraphy are you using and are you flourishing in a way that fits that style? So I have a couple ways for you to practice that. One simple thing is to try, let's write one word three times in three different styles of your own in calligraphy. How can you make the flourishing different in each of those versions that makes sense for the static and the style that you've created. They might be very different from each other, you might make different choices about designing with flourishes based on that overall vibe. I also like to encourage you to look at really traditional flourishing and say, "What can I do here to make it feel more contemporary? Would I subtract 80 percent of it and keep this one little moment. Or maybe I'm going to switch up some other aspect that's gonna make it have a bit more of a contemporary feel or fit my style of work even better." So that can be agreed, just exercise if you pull out any of these books and get some ideas. I'll try an example of it as well. To wrap this up in terms of design and flourishing and what you can be thinking about, really just work with intention, not with an agenda of kind of pulling something off that looks crazy or is really wowing. Just the whole less is more. Philosophy is really useful, especially in the realm of modern calligraphy. So if you have one gorgeous flourish in one moment, and that's it, that might be better than adding 10 more. Just focus on beauty of your design where you actually want to achieve and keep it simple. So that might be the way you flourish or maybe you like to do really ornate flourishes, but use them only when it really counts. Considering all these things and keeping them all in mind, all these factors will serve your calligraphy and your flourishing work as you move forward. 6. Practice & Projects: That wraps up the structured exercises and the worksheets for this whole course. But I have a few ideas for you that could be fun design prompts and exercises for you to continue your practice. One, I'll demonstrate this idea here, is basically come up with frameworks for your design. If you give yourself space for one word, one phrase, these could be great little gifts or just fun projects to make for yourself. If you set yourself up with this limited location and layout, how would you flourish your piece differently based on these layout specifications? Another idea is because I work a lot on wedding invitations, even just starting with a simple body of texts, this could be an invite text, or you could just choose a quote, or passage that you love. Center it on the page. Write out simplified calligraphy right in the center, the passage, the invite, whatever text you choose, and leave yourself plenty of spaces where you might add flourishes. Don't add anything to your entrances or exits. Maybe you don't cross your Ts. Maybe you don't extend on every ascender or descender. Finish the body of text, go back in, maybe you scan it even and give yourself a couple of versions to work with, and then go back in later and say, "Okay, I'm going to just flourish this now as a separate activity." Another exercise inspired by some of the examples I found in [inaudible] book is just writing a letter and structuring it layout-wise, like a traditional letter. If you've got your two line, and you have the text of the letter, and your signature, and you leave these structured spaces on the layout of the page, how might you fill it with flourishes? Or how might you fill it with one or two flourishes? Using the concept of filling space through flourishing for the purpose of a letter that you could send to somebody. Even just making a card for somebody, and setting yourself up, it could be their name, or happy birthday, a simple phrase, and leaving yourself a blank slate for where you might add flourishes to the letters themselves. In this example, I might do happy birthday and not fill in any of my entrances or exits, or not finish my descender, and then go back in and flourish separately. Maybe flourishing with a different tool, combining materials and colors, playing around with that. Another great way to continue your practice is doodling. Doodling flourishes all the time. If you're sitting around or you're on the phone, it's just such a good way to keep the muscular practice going, and just like your calligraphy, the more you do it, the better you'll get. Hopefully, you even feel better now than you felt when you just started with the class earlier today. I would love to see some of the things that came out of the class, so on the project page here on Skillshare, if you could post one of your favorites or a couple of your favorites. It could be something small, or it could be a real finished piece, whatever it is, show us some of the flourishes you may have developed, or come up with, or any of your favorite ones to practice, it would be great to hear from you. Also, please share any questions if you feel like there's things that didn't get addressed today that are burning questions or you're having any trouble with, in particular. It can be an ongoing conversation, we can keep the discussion boards going, and I'm happy to weigh in and help you out as you go. It would just be fun to see what work is coming out of this class as well. Finally, here's the list of references and resources in book format as well as online that I recommend for consulting, for inspiration, or actual detailed guidance. There are loads more out there, but these are ones that have supported me, and I think you'll find at least it helps you get some great ideas for flourishing going forward. Thanks for joining me in this Skillshare class. I would love to hear from you, and I appreciate you joining me here online. Thanks.