Introduction to Electronic Components: A Step By Step Guide | Ashraf Madhoun | Skillshare

Introduction to Electronic Components: A Step By Step Guide

Ashraf Madhoun, An Engineer with +10 Year Experience

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17 Lessons (2h 21m)
    • 1. 2 Voltage Current and Resistance

    • 2. 3 Types of Current

    • 3. 4 Types of Circuits

    • 4. 5 Volt Ohm Meter Basics

    • 5. 6 Measuring Voltage

    • 6. 7 Measuring Current

    • 7. 8 Measuring Currents Lab Experiement Explained

    • 8. 9 Measuring Resistance

    • 9. 10 Circuit Diagram Basics and Basic Symbols

    • 10. 11 Introduction To Resistor and Color Band Coding

    • 11. 12 Power Dissipation and Parallel and Series Resistors

    • 12. 13 Ohm's Law

    • 13. 14 Introduction To Capacitors

    • 14. 15 Capacitors Behavior and Series and Parllel

    • 15. 16 Introduction to Inductors

    • 16. 17 Introduction to Diode Zener and LED

    • 17. 18 Introduction to Transistors


About This Class

>>> This Introduction to Electronic Components course is intended for those interested in learning electronics.  <<<

What students are saying:

  • André stenberg says, "This is a nice introduction course to those who would like to learn the basics of electronics."

  • Mike Mackley says, "It's covering the topic and establishing the basics very well."

  • Sunil Thakur says, "Great course for beginning in electronics, especially enjoyed the water analogy part to make learning easier."

  • Qays Qaysaneah says, "Clear and Simple, and that is so nice :)"

Welcome to this course.

Topics that we will be discussed during the Introduction to Electronic Components Course are listed here in a brief outline.  

  • The Components of Electricity

  • Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics (Measuring Electricity)

  • Circuit Diagrams Basics (Electronic Roadmaps)

  • The Resistor

  • Ohm’s Law

  • The Capacitor

  • The Inductor

  • The Diode

  • The Transistor (Electronic Valves)

Things You Should Know before we start

  • The topics up to and including Ohm’s Law are what we will start with.  

  • The remaining topics cover additional fundamental components of basic electronics.  

  • The course will be in platform discussion, guide practices, and open question format as the material dictates.  

  • The course uses a standardized volt-ohm-meter (VOM) for illustration.

Quick Summary of things that we will discuss through this course

  • In this Introduction to Electronic Components Course, We will begin by discussing the three components that make up electricity. 

  • Next will spend more extensive time on how to measure the three components of electricity.  During this section, we will explore two of the three components (voltage and current).

  • This section will cover VOM basics and allow you to become familiar with the most important and most basic piece of test equipment.  

  • At the next section, Circuit diagrams section, you will learn how to use electronic components symbols on an electronic road map called a schematic or circuit diagram.

  • Many of the symbols will represent new concepts for many of you and these concepts will be fully developed once we finish the section.

  • As a result, you will develop the fundamentals of interpreting circuit diagrams so that these illustrations of the arrangement of electronic components can help you with the remainder of the course.

  • The final of the three components, resistors will be covered next.

  • How the three component are related mathematically is Ohm’s Law and this fundamental law will be covered in detail.  These sections make up the basic, basic material of electronics.

  • Four additional components common to virtually all electronic circuits are the capacitor, inductor, diode, and transistor. I will cover these topics with a level of detail that will familiarize the audience with the function of these components and the basics of how they work and react in different situations.  

  • There are text reading assignments for each section of the course.

What you’ll learn

  • Understand the concepts of voltage, resistance and current
  • Understand the VOLT OHM Meter/ Digital Multi Meter and how to use safely
  • Use Ohm's Law to calculate voltage, current and resistance
  • Use resistors in various configurations
  • Understand and use capacitors
  • Understand and use diodes
  • Understand and use a transistor

Are there any course requirements or prerequisites?

  • A multimeter
  • A breadboard, jumper wires and a battery
  • Resistors, capacitors, LEDs, diodes, transistors, voltage regulators

Who this course is for:

  • Anyone with a need to brush up their knowledge of basic electronics


1. 2 Voltage Current and Resistance: hello again Today we will talk about the components off electricity. We will talk about voltage Koran, racist stance types of Karen's, A, C and D. C on different type of circuits, clothes or been and chores. Let's start by talking about voltage current on resistance. As you can see in this image, we can use water to visualize how electricity works. As you can see here, water flowing through our house is a good way to look at electricity. Water is like electrons in a wire. Flowing electrons is called current. So this water that comes out of this Bible is you must imagine it as electronics. Electrons. Blusher is the force bushing water through the house. Voltage is the force bushing electron. So the why are so. We have electrons for water, voltage for brush, our or water Borussia. Friction again is the whole walls slows the floor off water, so resistance is the force that slows the flow off electrons. So when the resistance increase, it will decrease the whole amount of water coming out of the bip. If we increase the brush, are forcing the water. Throw the house by opening up. That's picked the water flows far star on squares further, The opposite happens when we reduced a brochure. The water flows slowly route down to a trickle in electricity of force bushing electrons Throw the I R Cut on is voltage. If the voltage is increased, more current flow If the voltage is decreased. This current flow now imagine keeping the black shark understand and visualize what happens when we change the amount fort are available to flow through the horse. If there is lots of water, the water will flow out at full force. If there is limited water, no matter how hard you Bush daughter will only flow out at small trickle in electricity of there is, um, Bill Kahlon available. It will flow through the Y are at full capacity. If you limit somehow the amount of Koran, then the current, will only flow at a reduced rate. Finally, imagine what happened if you kept the brush are on the amount of water available constant but restricted that the amateur off the horse like putting your finger over the end. The restriction brahmins the old water from coming out, but the water that does come out comes out with greater force it will square further. Also, the water behind that is the restriction. Actual slows way down the way it still Togo out off the restricted hole. The same thing would happen if the interior wall off the house was made very, very rough. The water miracles would run into the rough surface and slow down. There is very much life friction in electricity. The current does not flow through aware without running into something along the way. This is always some are. There is always some friction but electricity. That friction is called the resistance. One of the stands goes up. The amount of current flow goes down. What resistance goes down, the amount of current flow goes up. Now you can examine that yourself with water by on tous different concepts. But this is Ah, I think that we should mention at the beginning off our course so that you know what are electrons? What a voltage! What is resistant on? We tried to make a real life example. He was in water. Now let's look at this image here to summarize what we have learned. As you can see in a we have low brush are so small amount of water Loeb, Russia on small amount photos Coming in a wouldn't be there is high brush are a large amount of water. As you can see, the water will go further since the brush out here is high while in case flowers diameter by As you can see, this Samatar is aware much larger than this. Then large amount of what I will come out Ah, here The brush our is gonna stan But the amount of water that came out of here is a way much more. This means that this Bob has low resistance and electricity terms and this one has. These two has high resistance since they have a small diameter. But this one have ah, high resistant. This is the Beiber example for waters current on resistance. I hope that you got the idea. If you have any questions, please ask in the Q and a dashboard. Thanks for watching 2. 3 Types of Current: Hello again. Now let's talk about type of common. There are two types of Koran. The time is remind, but only by the direction the current flows through a conductor. The first type is direct current or DC floors in only one direction negative toward positive ball off sores. The second type is alternating current flows back and forth because the balls off the source alternate between positive and negative. This means that if the current alternatives from flowing in one direction one minute on, then reversing toe the other direction the next moment the current is alternating current. Now let's look at this scheme. It'd as you can see, this kinetic shores a C Karan vocabulary. Ah, this is the maximum boasted value on this is the maximum negative value. This line on this line. Ah, this is the very Toby matured voltage or Callen, as you can see, starting from zero, it will go in the positive direction. Then it will go in the negative direction. This means that this is ah, a C Koran on S e con. Since it goes in both directions positive and negative, if it only and the positive direction, then it will be a D. C. Clinton. Let's look at some terms here. The point from here. A Toby school one cycle. This is one cycle, as you can see, half of it in the negative direction and other have in a positive direction. We can also call the one from zero to this point, so I kill or one second. This axis is the time access Andi. As you can see, this is the distance traveled in one cycle, which is God with length. These are the basic concepts that you need to understand about A C and D. C In currents and voltage. There are very much the same in D. C. It will be a constant value in one direction while they see it will be a value that alternate between positive on negative direction. Thanks for watching. See you Next lesson in which we will talk about circuits 3. 4 Types of Circuits: Hello. Now let's talk about circuits. A circuit is about got for current to flow. There's three basic kinds of circuit or been close on short or been circuits. In most, the Beth is broken. And if the rob's current flow closed circuit is in which the bath is complete on current floors, world is intended. While short circuit, the bath is corrupted in some way, and Karen does not flow where it is intended. Let's look at this schematic. As you can see here, we have three circuits A, B and C in A. This is a closed circuit. As you can see, this is a battery on. This is ah, ball or bottled light. Ah, two wires are connected directly to buy the battery on current floors correctly. Now, if you look at this committee, the battery and the bottle are connected. But in ah, Mr Boehner, so broken insulation allows wire to touch producing a short second. These two worlds are not insulated. So Khobar appears on DA. If two wires are connected together in that circuit, this means that there is a short circuit here on current one flow. In this circuit, we can see that there's a battery and a ball, but one of the two lines is broken here, breaking while reduce or bill circuit. That's it for types, circuits, and the next lesson will talk about vault or meet our basics on. We will go in depth. Thanks for watching. 4. 5 Volt Ohm Meter Basics: Hello and welcome. Today we will talk about vault or meet our basics Measuring electricity. The common function for volt or meters is measuring voltage A, C and D C on different ranges. Measuring current is C and D C and different ranges on measuring resistance and ranges on Kony. Two new t ah. In addition to measuring semiconductor about four months, Francis sores on diehards in addition to our crab stores. As you can see And this slide, this is one of the basic meters or fault or meter. This is the meter leading digits on these off the scaring D C voltage scale. As you can see here there is ah v bus Asar. In here, the sun means d. C. A civil scare. As you can see Realtor blood on a C sign. Was it a sort of that sign functions Election? As you can see, this blob is used Ah, to choose any function from these, it will rotate in a direction functions election. This one is for function selection bra pops. Um, these two drops are used door measure the components. These are two wires that are connected to components to be measured. Andi as you can see this is Ah very basic meter. Now let's look about other components that this meat or might have, as you can see here, there d c current low. As you can see here, this measures from 200 my crew I'm bears toe 200 milion. Bert, this is for small D. C current. This is for large or high DC currents. 10 amps. Ah, this is the chicken. As you can see, this very sad eyed drawing here on this is the transistor Chika. This is for resistance. Measuring as you can see, starting from 200 arm to 2000 Caro arm. You can choose any of these to measure them. Andi, I think that this is the most common dive, vault or meters. Other type might have other functions on by the window on how much your budget is you can choose Unnie. As you can see, there's three blobs here. This one's for for air. Ah, for murdering amber in D. C. On this one's for measuring voltage or small currents on this is the common must be connected or the time this one is moving from here to here, depending on the amount that I want 30 years. And as you can see, it says 10 a. D. C. Which means that this would be used to each other. Amber Oh, the current in D. C. While this one is used with our voltage the distance on the current in Millie. I'm Bill. So you have to be careful on dealing with these three props. You have to connect each one to the right blaze. As mentioned here. Now, um, we won't use it in practical. We were used in the experiment sections, but you need to understand how it works on how to use it. Let's see the vote or meet our basics, which we mentioned area that will be used to measure voltage Walters type scaling, safety, physical and equipment for measuring current current type scaling Blust safety. Now you have to be careful musing about meter or vault or meter. You can't so much of resistance and do different scaling. We will do this in practice or practical experiment. Next. Um but now you already toe actually use this meter Onda. We will cover these three functions. I will show you have to measure voltage. Then how does your current then have to Mazar is it starts in the slides or theoretical manner at fairs. Then in a practical manner. That's it for now. Thanks for watching. 5. 6 Measuring Voltage: measuring voltage voltage type. There is to type voltage, which is D. C and a C on. We did mention the difference between them earlier. When measuring voltage, the meter of drops are blazed across the voltage source. The volt or meat are used to separate functions on ranges to Mitchell, D. C. And Easy. Because SC is constantly changing. Wherefore measuring a C voltage is not a symbol, mother. This vote on meter measures based with our mass voltage on, we must mention that we're measuring voltage the world on meters used to sam. But the voltage across the source, which is different than when measuring current where the current in the circuit must flow. Throw the Volt or meter Toby. Measure this. Make it far easier to measure voltage in a circuit because the operator can simply bless the broad across the Cumberland as it is wild in the circuit while in measuring car on the bow. Brighter double. It'll must physically interrupt the circuit unsold off and connect. Um, conserved the vault or meter into the circuit so you might have toe unsold a component, removing its connection so that you can measure the current flowing through it born. We must point out that the two faltering measurement ranges one for the CIA and other for the sea Onda. We will see how to measure both of these. Now let's look out this this doll A multi meter or world or meter? Ah, we must skin sit the highest predictable. If we are, um, measuring resistance and we doesn't know or we don't know how much that resident is. We must put the scale at the highest value. Now we the blobs must be inserted into the sharks. As you can see here, Onda, we must No the voltage polarity, as you can see in these two better is this side is the positive on this battery of this side is the positive. So we must bless the Boston Rob here on the negative brought here Qatar Majar the voltage. Now let's look at how we can measure that battery voltage Set up the vault or meter on 600 volt D C. As you can see here we are pointing at 600 volt DC Since that this is a DC battery, we much almost touch it. Bob Toe glass as in here as you can see, this is the right bob on a touch of black, Dropped or negative, as you can see here. Then we must read the voltage to the nearest one vault. As you can see here, this is a nine volt battery sorts displaying line on. Ah, you can try this at home. I'm sure that you have month meet around the battery. Ah, this is a very simple technique, Onda. We must be sure for we choose. Um measuring a d c current here. So I chose Volvo D. C from measuring a CIA Mastro's volts a c So you must take very good care of this set up before start measuring anything on Now let's touch the brought up the negative battery that it brought. As you can see here we are reversing the connection on DWI touch the black prop, the doubles, their slide. We are reversing the connection. Ah, and we read the voltage the nearest one involved. As you can see, there is a minus. Sign here with shows. The world is negative since we are measuring it in the Rivera Smirnoff. And the purpose of this exercise is to show that the vault or meet our can tell the difference between negative and positive voltages. We must point out that some volt or meet our Batticaloa anil type will not be as forgiving that putting the props on reverse voltage can damage the meat Or so If you have an analog volt or meter, you shouldn't try this. Ah, just blazed a positive on the positive side on didn't get they own the negative side. Now let's see if we are to bazaar another, um, To take another example using a vulgar scared that is closer to the actual vault is showing on improvement in the resolution. So if we know that this is a non involved better why chosing a 600 volt scale all if we are off, you know that this better will measure are evolved between one and 20. Why choosing 600? This will decrease the resolution significantly. Ah, In this case, we know that this is a nine volt battery. So we are adjusting the scale Now sit up. You evolved on meat on 200 full d c scale. That should drop the positive on touch Black broke those on the negative. Let's read the voltage. The nearest born toe involved. Not wonderful, as you can see in nine Boring five volt. Which means that we have away my child solution. Ah, this is still there is a zero here. Now we if we did another adjustment on blazed the Volt or meter in the 200 volt DC scale, as you can see here now, let's such that it bob to the postive on the black prop the negative on greed, the voltage their interest born zero involved. As you can see here, Line Born five on zero came here unlike on the previous example, as you can see that zero watts here Now it's here, so we have a much higher the resolution. This is varying good example. Ah, that you must at least have a clue how much the voltage should be or in what range, so that you can get a good result now this sort Let's look at this one boring five volt. Better example Set up the Volt or made up 20 volt. They see touch that it bob on the black robe in the post of a negative direction, using our inborn five volt battery, read the voltage at the nearest born 01 volts. As you can see, it's a tree. Breeding is 1.52 The tool here means that we have a very, very high resolution on that. Ah, we can measure Ah, in many vault range. Not just voluntary. INGE. Now, to see the next example in which we will look at, um ah, battery, but in the middle of vault scale. Now let's sit the vault or meat. Although toe 200 million volts scale the scales reading 1,202,000 bowl all two volts. Touch that drop to the positive on the black blob. Delegate. Okay, now we are using the 4000 minimal scared Well, actually using that overall scale because 1,002,000 volts is the same as two volts. But because that's a play is in mid level, there is no this small born in this case. A reading off 1527 million volt is the same as one boring 5 to 7 involved. So as you can see here we are using the medieval strange on. We are sitting a tear in the world or meter, as you can see now in this one boring five volt battery. We carried the voltage Tony Earth boiled 001 volt on the reading is given as 1500 toe 27 involved. It's equal toe, 1.5 to 7 volt. So is the same. But you just make the resolution away much higher now to see if we want to look at the other example. And this example. We are sitting our volt meter on 2000 level D C scale, and we're touching the red Blob with the positive Onda Negative Rob with the negative side we're using a nine volt battery on. This is clearly an over voltage situation, nor the reading. It's one. So you must know what happens if you use a scale that is to lawful of the voltage being measure. As long as you don't exceed the maximum voltage value off the meter. In this case 600 volt, there will be no physical dimensions. Meet up limiter indicates an over voltage situation by displaying a single digit one at the far left. This over coverage indication is consistent with the over or the other functions Toby looked at later. So I want means that we have over Walters, and we didn't choose the light resolution. Now let's talk out safety and measuring When measuring voltage, the voltage being measured XX is exposed to the operator on flowing through the drops by cautions. Be alternative or be attentive. Watch what you want, what you touch. You shouldn't touch the props. Why measuring voltage? The groups have sharp points so that you can make precious contact. Used the protective shields when Bob's nothing use so that they won't harm anyone. Observe the meter. Maximum limits for voltage and current fuels are a last resort protection future. If you blow a fuse, you made a mistake. A very big one, actually. So when you must spend sometime Ah, in safety eso that you won't get hard or you want to harm anyone around you, the operators off the Volt meter could be exposed to lethal voltage and current levels also in bobbing alive circuit. Careless cross contact on the resulting short circuits could root equipment, damaging livers off voltage and current the circuit under test so you might harm the circuit damage components while measuring or while using digital multi meter or or vote or meter Ah, you must practice before going to circuits. Most blacks with the components, you know, spreads with a damaged serpents, then go to the real life circuits. Andrea Life problems A good technique is the do a dry run off rob placement. With power turned off during the dry Iran, the operator can see if the broad placement is correct on DNA, not short circuiting too damaging voltage and currents. Blacks brought placement and once confident there on the board source to make them a German . Another good technique is to solve all measurement at the high scaling level on, then adjust the scale down or to the appropriate living. They are usually automatic protection features involved or meters, but it is the best. Or it is best not to consistently depend on them. Doing there intended jobs. That's it for measuring voltage on for safety and measuring voltage. I know that this listen waas really long, but I'm sure that you, um, learned a lot of things. And one left shop on DWI ah kept it connected. Since thes all experience are related to each other. Thanks for cheering. See you next in measuring color. 6. 7 Measuring Current: I know today we'll talk about measuring car. What is going on count is the floor off electrons through a conductor. The water analogy is that current is like the water flowing through a hose. Can't is measured in Amber's on show from there. This illustration. One. Amber is a large number off electrons flowing bast a spot in the conduct the conductor in one second. As you can see in this restoration, one number equals that number off electrons. I won't read it in one second. Um, can't in normally, tronics can be in the range off hundreds off arms to millions off an arm micros toe. Billy on Earth often amps Nano's Your General Walk with 10 tens off amps down to my clothes farms. In the typical electric devices, you went there with higher value than 10 arms, since they require ah, special device for measuring them on their menus and factories, not in everyday electronics or in circuits or common circuits. So now let's look at current measurement. There is greatest potential for meat or damage when measuring Koran than any other function . Just as in voltage, there is two kinds of current associated with the world S C and D. C. This meter will only mature D c more expensive meter will measure both currents to measure current. The vote on metal must be inserted into this into the circuit so that the current flows through the meter. There is no way that you bless the postive and negative robes and say a just measure can this won't work like vultures. You must blace it in the circuit, not on the circuit. So we must, um, again mentioned safety during these measurements. Andi, um, we must spend sometime, ah, toe amplify your knowledge and how to use the volt meter to measure currents the right way . And we mentioned that the current must flow through the meter as opposed to measuring voltage when it waas only necessary to Sam. But the voters surrounding the source generally tohave the current floor through the vault or meter on existence circuit must be broken and sold out on the meter blobs connected toe either side of the blake, the four volt or metal then becomes part of the bath through which I can and must flow. There are two current strangers high up in arms on DLowe. Um, 200 million arms or point to arms and below. Internal fuses provide some meter protection for over current situation because there is such a wide range off current scales, there are two physical blobs. Jacks for that oranges. This allows for better protection. Ah hardly fuels toe handle up to 10 arms off gone on a more Fleischer Fuels top critic. The sensitive circus needed to measure or small currents. Now we will see these two ranges in the meter, but we must read that caution. There must be some resistance in the circuit or the crown flow through the circuit will be the maximum the source will produce. On. This currently, well could damage the vault or meter, so your mom must make sure that there is some resistance. You must not connect the poor or meet up to measure can't directly on blessed inside the circuit. In other words, do not connect the vault or meat or blobs directly across the battery. Bro bulls. In the current measurement function, this is useless. Andi it want it will damage your vote or meter. So with no resistance in the circuit, the voltage source will provide the full current available to the circuit. There is essential nor assistance in the world or meter blow blinds. Therefore, if the probes are connected directly across the battery bold, the full current in the battery will flow through the vault or meter honorably blows a fuse , so we must make sure that there is some kind of resistance in that circuit. If they're very very, isn't you must bless a resistance inside that circuit. 7. 8 Measuring Currents Lab Experiement Explained: Hello. Now let's look at measuring Khan and practical. We will be using some concepts You on the count measurement exercise that would be covered in more details later. So please be patient. It will all come together in the end. In the following exercise, you will use various restores to live in the current floor in a sambal circuit. This is deliberate board or the broader war. This is simply a border that you use toe. Um just electronic circuits. You can place your elements here on connect ball. Then you can see how the circuit function before pending, a more bearable and prototype boat stands for Brother Ty being You need to understand the difference between ah, the interconnected holes here. As you can see, each five falls here are connected together horizontally, not vertically on. The same is here. These five are collected together so you can consider them as one bin. The same goes here on here while these two blue 100 are called Bauer rails. So ah, from here to here. So this pen, this is the negative vyrill on from here to here. This is the positive or rail. So if we placed let's say are involved. And down This is the ground wire and this is the line won't wear. If you connect them here, then all of these spins will get involved. You can connect Ah, lead toe he spends on. You can connect oil on take bar from thes spins while the other bends Here in that vertical line are connected to ground. So this is for connected other circuit components. Ah, here and here. The power and ground on. It's really useful board. As you can see again, the vertical rows in the center that have read and brew lines next to them are connected together. The holes and very draw are connected together. The holes in the blue row are connected together. The ball as show our configure toe have these row as a power source is headed for boosting on blue for ground. All negative. There are four black. All therefore banks off horizontal rows. As you can see here, this is one bank second bank failed and forth by. They have to listen together. The horizontal rows are where the components will be interconnected on the vertical center , but all will be connected to the circuit bar Ah to provide the other circuit government with bar. Now let's look at measuring current basic circuit. As you can see here, this is ah, register that we will use the limit current. So we want damage. Our distant multi meter on This is a battery. A nine will better. In that case on this is our vault or meter that is connected. Throw the circuit. As you can see here, this is the positive terminal. It's not like a director. The resistor We cut the circuit on blaze the vault own meter right in the middle so that the current will bust through Ah, the world or meter now Ah, let's look at this circuit and practice fares current Mitchell, sit up the circuit using 100 Orme resist or brown Black brown. You need tohave $100 a store like this one, as you can see. Now connect our the positive bar source and connect another wire to the tab. End off. That is the story. As you can see, this is the most of our source on. This is the negative or source. We must collect the first with the store. Why are positive on we must connect the other while to our Ah, the other chairman of that is a store tow away are then the black terminal off the Volt or meter. We need to sit the vault or meet our current scare to 200 milion. As you can see here, 200 milion on. We need to bless that. It dropped in the right. Um, blaze here in the ah Millie arm. Collect a lot in that in arm connector without collecting laboratory brackets touching the vault or meter blobs to the exposed yr ends. You need to take some time to understand this example before going further. Um, now, let's see this connect or battery on. Measure the current with the world or meter. Sit to the 200 million meter William current skill. Touch the black lead to the while hooked to the Hari side off the resistor in touch, the arid lead to the lead coming from the positive side of the battery. No, the vote on Reda it will give you 89.2 on this is in Millie arms. So the can from it. So that resistor is 89.2. Now you need to understand that we go the reading in millennium. So if we wanted an arms, it will be born 0892 amps. You must multiply that number by ah or different divided by 1000 to get that, um, reading. Now if we looked here, as you can see, if we reversed deviled or meter leads, we cannot that the reading became and negative 88. Boring zero. Um, this is obviousness. We reverse the to drops. We will get a negative reading now. Ah, little tend to the vault arm reads They'll vote on Rob's so their original position that it is connected to the battery change the vault home current ranges down on DNO that simply reading what's the best strange for measuring the current from a nine volt source through ah 100 ohm resistor units that Ah, when you reach the 20 Milly arm brains, it will give you one on. We did explain what one mean. It's means out of range. Ah, and you, miss Ah, Miss Chiu's the right range while in 200 million amb range gave 89.2. Now let's look on Dwight all the circuit with a one kilo ohm resistor brown, black, red. This is that Resistol on measure current with 200 million our brains. Let's see the results. What is the best strange to measure the current through our kill. Ah, resistor. As you can see in 200 million range, give us zero on the left, which means that we can get ah, more precious three anything. So if we switch it toe to a 20 Milly arm will give us nine point. Far for Millie arm on def. We switched toe 2000 micrograms. It will give us out for range. So this is the best. Um, let's say that this strange for measuring you must Ah, just that for so ah, to get clue how much current will bus on what is the best highest resolution scale now, as you can see here. Ah, let's why are that's it with that in Kahlo? Armed with the store brown black around These are the three colors. This measure of the current with 2000 micro I'm bridge, as you can see, Give us 955 micro. Um, these are ah different lab results. Ah, if we did another my German Ah, as you can see the base strange for the 10 kilometers. The store is the 2000 micrograms since if we choose that 200 my crime, that will give us out off range now. Another example. Let's say that this is our last example of this exercise using 100 kilo ohm resistor. Let's start. Ah, the 200 million scale on read the current using issue. The four ranges on record their results. This will be a good opportunity Toe again. Go over converting currents from arms to Millie, arms to micrograms and also illustrate how to deter mined Libby. Strange for the current being measured as you can see a case off 100 Caro arm resistor brown, black, yellow. If we started with the 1,002,000 arm toward us, give us 0.0 line. Andi, going further out will give us the highest high resolution, depending on the range. That's it for the practical bars for measuring con. Next, we will be measuring resistance. Thanks for watching This is educational engineering team 8. 9 Measuring Resistance: Hello Today we will learn about measuring resistance when the vote four meters used to measure the stones. What actually is measured is a small voltage and current obliged to the component. There are five ranges on out for assistance. Reading will indicate a single one digit. Remember, okay means months double that eating by 1000. Operating voltage should be removed from the home boland under taste, or you could damage doubled or meat. Or at worst, all the reading could be falls at best. When measuring these stones. There is a small voltage supplied by the meter to energize the Cumberland that it brought up. Lead would have the positive voltage the vault armed in Mitchell, the voltage and current flowing through the component and the resistance is calculated using arms law, which will be covered later. You can go through the five ranges. 200 would read upto 200 arms 2000 will read up to 2000. Orme 20 k will read up to toe at 1 2000 home and 200 K were read up to 200,000 home, while 2000 K worried up to two milion arm or two mega home. If they're bar is removed from the circuit, there is little danger that the world home could be damaged, so you need to remove the bar before starting the test. Now let's look at an example measuring resistance. Disconnect the battery from the bald. Remember to measure resistance. The circuit should be on board both the 100 or resistor in place. No additional wires are required. Cilic that 200 range on touch. The broad leads toa either side of their the store. It will read. 90 eight Born Zeal. No, If we look to you, Mr Flares, the probably leads on. Observe the reading. As you can see, there is no difference. It's the same reading. 98 boring zero. So this means that there is a store doesn't have ability. Andi, you can measure at any off these sides. Now let's talk another example where we can discuss the resolution using the 100 arm with the store, this measure of resistance using each with the other ranges. This is the 202,000. As you can see, 08 line on in took a 20 king as you can see 0.10 The 200 k 0.1 The 2000 k 000 So it's like out fringe and we can't possibly measure that resistor, which is 100 arm using the two major on a scale. This will be seriously wrong. Ah, and we won't get a value. Know that the solution off the reading decreases as the maximum arm leading increase down to the point world is difficult to get a good resistance reading, which is in this example. No, if we look at another example as you can see here using ah one killer armed with store on the 200 range. This is what we get. We used one care home which is 1000 home. It's away much larger 200 ohm range. So ah displayed one which means that there is ah are reading that is out of range. We must find the appropriate range to measuring the wrong killer home. So if you used the 2000 home reading, it will give us Ah, 984 home. As you can see here, which is the best resolution for measuring the well kiddo on. So you must choose the resolution wisely. Otherwise, you will get, um, you will get error or you won't get an accurate result. Andi, this will, um let's say that this will Ah, them is your, um, girl collisions because you miss choose the right resolution. So you need toe. Ah, trying different solutions to get the best value with as minimum as possible zeros and the left side. Andan That case, the 2000 did the trick for us. Now you would think your own on 100 kilometers the store first. It might probably arrange to use for each resistor. Second, make the resistance me gentleman. Third, using higher ranges, predict the reading and confirm your prediction by taking images. This is a good practice that you should do. Andi, these are really symbol. Ah, let's say it's a really simple steps that you can apply now. Um, just for fun, use the vault or meter to measure the resistance. So far, you're different body bars. The rotation corrupt used by the vote or meter is not dangerous. So you can make sure that this the resistance throw your body, discuss your observation, and how your measurement techniques could influence the readings you get from the world or meter. Andi, I think that this is a really fun Exanta. Practice blobs across individual Finn finger with around 1.8 may go home props hills between From's and finger, one in each hand with Machar. One point for mega home drops from the skin on the ankle and skin on the hand. We'll get you a scale off reading dries convinces moist skin dry. One mega home moist line to six. Kahlo arm, largely trusting hit Rob's compared to a freemark grasp on the props. Light is one mingle Ah, while firm is 300 Kahlo home. The bond he is that body contact with the blobs. Curing measurement can influence the O meter leading and should be avoided practice, particularly when measuring high values off resistance. You can bring this up again. Ah ah on try it yourself at home. You'll know that once you touch the two drops that will disappear at this time, so you need to avoid eye contact with the resistance with measuring it. Since there this will damage your reading or give you a false reading. So B's take care of this very important. Not when using the vault or meter or digital multi meter dome ajar. Visit starts. Thanks for watching. This is education engineering team 9. 10 Circuit Diagram Basics and Basic Symbols: Hello and welcome. Today we look at circuit diagrams basics, Elektronik roadmaps, basically each diagram on contain one of these components resistors Ground combat. Stir in Dr Diehard runs the store, integrated circuit and other mysterious component. So you have probably try to build a circuit using one or more than these elements. All your search bogan for a schematic on you see out of Imbalance, including V's on You tried to build a circuit yourself today. I will help you with that on DWI Together will build a very small but useful circuit. There are many money diagram symbols. Use simple I the values lifting components, and there are minor variation in the individual symbol to represent variations with a component close. We will discuss and introduce a basic working knowledge off circuit. There. Gramps Circuit diagrams are road maps that show the best ways that current can take from the current voltage source through the the individual components off the circuit. To accomplish some task under return to the current boulder source to complete the circuit . The diagram symbols that will be covered are just mentioned here, and you might want tow bar these components so that you can understand them in a better manner. Let's see. Let's look at this circuit. This is a remote the quarter circuit, As you can see here, this is the integrated circuit or the icy. This is, um, at animal June. Ah, bar supply, which give us another involved. This is ground. This is transit store. This is that is a store on bond. As you can see, it has a lot of components. This is a switch. Ah, this is a regulator. This is a day old on this is our battery. That's which is used of her own. And off that circuit. This is ah, simple example of circuit diagram in this case, the circuit, because the signal sent by a TV remote control on tails on on off electrical relays switches in response to the keys breast on the TV remote. This the graham is a really symbol one on. These are the four. As you can see here. Ah, these are the four switches that we can use. This one, this one. This one. This one. So, depending on what we brace on the remote control, one of these relations will be turned on or off. Now Ah, we will examine, um, the simple circuit imbalance, this symbol on the left. It's for fixed value off resistance, this one the symbol on the right, chores about in show meter or are born tall that can be moved across the resistance to vary the resistance. And we must point out that ah, using values resistance is very common in volume controls on audio equipments demoralized for rooms on a lot of other examples, generally a symbol with a pointed out associated with it represent variable, all changeable component. Any not just the Web visits or any other component with an arrow or a buoyant our water present. Ah, changeable value. Now, if we looked here grounding throughout, first appearance is a symbol topic. This is for ground. This is a simple that we used for resenting ground. It really does have some differences, as represented by these two symbols. For ground, a ground is a common return back to the current in a circuit to the voltage current source . By convention, the ground connection is hooked to the negative ball off the bar sores. So in reality, the ground is the organ ating source off electrons. This seems to be back walls. But this is the standard convention. In the only days off automoviles that was decided with the battery on other voltage, current sources were connected to ground. This is not true today. The term grounding probably comes from the safety 10 related to connecting on electric device toe Amita road driven into the air to provide a safety bath for stray current to flow into the air and not throw the operators body. For instance, Money high structure have lightning roads that are hoped to grounding rods driven into the air so that in the event of a lighting strike, the dangerous voltage and current from the lighting strike flew harmlessly into the air on DNA, not throw humans and the blaze. There are two basic time for grounds, as represented by the two symbol. The symbol on the left that looks like a shovel. The Brazilians a ground connection toe unearth ground the presents I ground. Ah, as you can see here, it represents a get out connection to the ground. Commonly, there is only one connection between an electrical device and an earth ground on that connection. Is Brymer really for safety? This could be argued that the Afghan it is also important for blubber are after four months , but the discussion can be done in more advanced courses. The symbol on the right that looks like our or bitch for, as you can see here, represents a chases ground. A chases. The ground is the middle books or foundation that the electronic device is contained in the simple actual presents. Multiple connection between components and the chase is the chase is. Ground is used to provide the common bath for current to flow back to the bar source to complete the circuit. I know that this is too much understand, but you need to get a clue off grounding on what it really means. Now let's look at these two carpet stores. This is the symbol that was used for a buster fixed and variable capacitor. The function and operation of combustible be covered in some details a little later, but, um, you can describe the internal component the master based on the symbol consist mainly off two blades or two metal blades separated by a space, as you can see here, one middle blaze and other London. There is a space between them. That is basically what acrobats stories took conductor sublet by a non inductive space to give just a brief description of cover story. We must mention that kebab stores can be thought off teeny and very temporary storage batteries. The bus tour store. Electrical energy in electro static field between the blades. Anyone who has clumps their hair or have taken closing out off a dryer knows what aesthetic electricity is. You can make a connection on do that yourself. Now, if we looked at here, we can see the in Dr Symbol. Um, we must point out that there, if there was an arrow, then doctor would be variable, as we mentioned earlier, based on the symbol Ah, this writer describe the internal a structural off that in doctor, we can see that consistently off accord off yr or a coal fire or something inside the coil as a brief introduction toe in doctors. Ah unit, understand that in doctor store electrical energy in a magnetic field that is formed around the coil you have when can't buzzes through it. So if we buses current through here, ah, it will store energy in a magnetic field around that call most if you are familiar with the air's magnetic field. One theory is that the Earth magnetic fields formed because electrons are moving within the molten metal that makes up the eighth court the same that happens at a very Tinus scale in in doctors in a circuit. When you'll ah, low crime to bust through the way out, it will generate a magnetic field around it that will, um, theoretically store energy these through Ah, these three symbols are for diehards the number of divers for various purposes. Onda. As you can see, there girl died that Xena Dude on the light emitting diode, the one that turned around off alive. Ones activated on these three diodes are ah used widely. Now, if you look here at ah transistor, As you can see, this is an and beyond transistor Airbnb transistor on a transistor, there is a trick toe. Hleb, you identify the type off bible a from the store which is looking in the direction of the arrow. As you can see here, if the arrows pointing out it is not pointing in, that is on beyond transistor. Andi, if there was pointing in it is pointing end proudly. That is B and B transistor on the fit. The direction of the I didn't find the material of the junction in the illustration. The arrow is not pointing in its pointing out. Therefore, this represents on be junction fit. Now let's look at integrated circuit. As you can see, this is December. This is how it looks in real life and by their very nature ality with sick. It's are a collection of components that before last busy function, it is not necessarily to know what goes on inside. I see just how I see interface, the first off the circuit. Therefore the symbol provides only information on which been off the icy is connected to the surrounding components. Sometimes there is a descriptive label on Ah, been, for instance, GMD foreground on VCC for the bar source. Now let's look at the final element. As you can see, these arms arenas elements This is a battery speak Are ah full Neat off. This is our fuels. This is antenna. Ah, this is, um, meter. That's it for circuit diagrams and basically current components symbols. Thanks for watching. This is educational engineering team 10. 11 Introduction To Resistor and Color Band Coding: hello and welcome. Today we'll talk about the resistor in more details we will take. I would look at registered, define or assistance defined. Ah, resistance values, arms color, code, interpretation, power dissipation on. We will look at resistors and circuits serious Botterill on mixed This is there is a store , simple, as we mentioned earlier. Now let's look at um, the first thing with which is resistance defined. Baluchistan's is the embedment to the free flow off electrons through a conductor. Correction to moving electrons. Where there is friction, there is he generated all materials except some distance, even the best of conductors unit measured in arms. So we measure resistance in arms from one divide by tens off forms to millions off arm. No, let's look at resistor types. There's the vics value, the variable value. The combos aren't resistive material. The wild wound on two barometers associate with the resisters, which is resistance value in arms. Bauer handling capabilities in what's so These are the two most important factor that you must, um, take care of when mentioning there is a store or dealing with out of the store. Now, if we looked here all 100 armed with the store. This is 100 arm, that one. That one. That one They came and different sizes, as you can see so they can hand in different amount of power. As you can see, um, the the diameter of each one is different than the other. But the order was all the same value, which is 100,000 own. Now let's look at this. Andi know that from size between come beside and why are one resistor? As you can see here, combos are tribes. All of these stores could have the same resistance value even throw their relative size very quietly. So as we mentioned in the previous example, these all have the same that resistance which is 1000 home. But they come in different sizes. The same is here Now if you look to year, this is a fixed resistor. As you can see, this is how it looks on. This is another shape while in variable resistor or potential meter. As you can see here that we we use and most of the older devices this is how it looks. Zits. Symbol on. This is how it looks. A real life. Now what really inside out of the store. As you can see here, this is at a store or been, there's stomach tube, a metal into cab. As you can see here on according to connecting wells and the two terminals on Dhere, we can see the printed values, and there is also color bands that represent the value of the resistance. If you don't have a bolt or meat, or you can know its value from the color bands now let's look at reading resistor color codes. First Unit. Understand that issue of this color has a meaning. The 1st 1 is the first band. This is the second burn. Andi, this is the month blow on. This is the tolerance. Now we need to model. How to read a Resistol car accord with, um, any practice and a black this using a one kilogram possessed or brown black red on two neurons band. Let's look at that one. Calm Kerem resistor. There is a store so gold or silver band is at right, so you need toe. Let that ban, which will be either gold, all server in your right side, right hand side. No, the car off! The two left hand carbons, which are here the real on the blue one. The left most band is the left hand value digit. The next band to the right is the second value digit, not the color off. The third banned from the left, which is year over year. As you can see, you must know its color. This is the multiplayer multiple, the to value digits by the multiple, so we will get a two digits from here. Then we will use this multiplayer to multiple them. Um, let's look at Ah, let's say a more solid example. But first, let us look at this. Ah, tell of God's. If it's black on existed in the first digit, then its value will be zero on so on for other cars until you reached the white one, which is lying. If it's the second digit, it will have the same value. While if any of these colors existed in the fair banned from the left, it will be that multiplayer. As you can see, 1 1,000,000 on DE depending on with the right hand band is going all silver. You can add at around five percent or 10% or in case of Nolan local are banned. It would be 20%. This is a very simple Now let's look if we have one kid home with Stuart Brown, black red onto the respond, let's or in there is a store with the tolerance pan to the right, the gold or silver bind. There is no band. We mentioned that it will be 200 toe 20% tolerance to the store. Let's Auriol that resist or so the band are toward the left. Take note that the two significant digit off the resistor value are going to be resented by the to lift most carbon? No, the left most band is brown, which translates to a value off one, as you can see here, Brown means one. Andi, um, we must know that moving left to right know that then expand is black. Black means, Ah, a zero. As we say, Africans, let's say this is the black one. It's the yellow. This is the second visit. So now continue moving left, right? No, that the month Blair Band is red, which translates toe the multiple or multiplier off hundreds. So ultimately that in times 100 it will equal 1000 or one Kahlo home. This is a really simple method to majar. Different, um, values off the stone without off the store without using additional multi meter now reading resist or colored cords. Practical problem if we have an orange or 100 yellow violet morons brown, black, brown, black, brown, black, green, red, red, red, blue grey, Alan's Orange White Morons I need you to get the value of all of these. Take a five to translate these values. Using this table, I will blow the course material so that you can use them. You can use these slides to get more knowledge. Ah, the results will be 3.3 kilo arm for the seven care arm. 100 or one major or 2.2 Kahlo 6 68 Kahlo felt online keno these balls that video and solve this problem before going any further. And the next lesson we will discuss bar dissipation and are the store. Thanks for watching. This is education Engineering Team 11. 12 Power Dissipation and Parallel and Series Resistors: Hello Today we will look at all dissipation, and that is the story. Resistance generate heat on the component must be able to disappear this heat or prevent damage. Physical sighs. The surface area available to dissipate heat is a good indicator. Indicator off how much he bar that is the store can handed. Measured in Watts Human value are 1/4 half 15 10 etcetera. Now let's look at this example. There's a stolen circuit series looking at the current bath. If there is only one bath, a component are in cities. As you can see here, there's only one current path flowing through these resistors. So the stores are in Seles on the main distinction between Siris on berserk. It is how money bath is. The current has available to complete the course from the negative world. Toe the bar sores. So the post, if so bored in this diagram, all current from the battery must pass through both registers. Therefore, that circuit, a series circuit at the burn unit, developed the concept off equivalent resistance. Equivalent Resistance is what the total resistance would be if you saw substituted. I sing girls. The store there is a store that make up the circuit. In this case, if that holds, the stores were Toby combined under blessed with a single resistor that had the same resistance. That singer, the store would be the equivalent resistor. We will get a warrant resistor under place these tours that start with that register now. If we looked here, resistors and circuit Siri's, the government resistor will be the summation off each off these registered that are connected in series, it is easy to calculate their covenant resistance over the stores. In Siris, it is symbol, the some off all the resistance the substance above referred the 1st 2nd on all subsisting resistant or the stands or resistance valued are added together. For example, if our one is 100 home and are too is 200 home, then they recover and resist ills would be 300 arms. Another example. If our one is 50. Ohm Arto is thinking Orme then off and are three is a 500 arm. Then the equivalent resistance for these three of the stores will be 10,505 150 on Now let's take a deeper look at this circuit R one and r two. There's a stolen circuit in Siris on your brother brought aboard or Brit board. Set up the following circuit using the resistance value indicated on the next slide. Calculate the equivalent resistance R E and measure the resistance with your volt or meter , so you need to provide toe. Let these two values resistors in the bright bold on. Calculate the result. Then you can measure the results using your volt or meter on. Make sure that you got it right here. This is a very good example. So you suggest that you board that video, calculate the values here on connect these resistors to Britt Ball, then right down values using level two or meter here and compare the results with the calculated one. Take five to do this example and then return back to this lecture. Now let's look at the stores in circuits battery. If there is more than one way for the current to complete its best, that car on the circuit is better, So the current one to return from here it will be distributed to here and here. Then it will take two ways to return to the bath, so these two are connected and better. Now let's look at the Ah formula. The left hand formula is really just the same as the right hand formula, except it is for tours. The stores and better only on the algebra has been done on the right hand. Former To make it a little simpler, we must point out that by the very nature of a battle circuit, the equivalent resistance will be lists than any of the single. Is the stores that make up the circuit sensitive the audience. Or you need to be sensitive to this fact so that as we go through the exercises, we need to make sure that our results or in our results ah, that government is the store will be list than any of the toe separators the stores. Ah, this makes sense. If you think about it. The feeling back to the West, an illusion. If there is more than one horse for the water to flow through, it's Bath has a relatively normal horse, which is a resistant then what the water sees as it approaches the holes. Opening is not the narrow opening off. Just one horse is the sum or the total sum fall openings, which would make it a beer. That there is one large opening to go through. One large opening is like seeing one low resistance path bath than the individual holes opening. So the thing that you need to run is this formula works for Barras store. If there's only two resistors on, this is for more than one better to the store, so you need to get this right now. Let's look at a circuit example. As you can see here on your bed board, set up the following circuit using the resistance value, indicating on the next slide, calculate the government resistance R E. On measure the resistance with your Volt or meet up. This is the circuit. These are the values on. Please take five to do this example. Now let's look at this barrel challenge. Make a circuit with three of the stores in Belarus and better calculate the equivalent resistance, then measure it. If we have our one 330 on our to think a home are 34.7 Iran. Now let's build the circuit on DSI. Um, what is the equivalent resistance? Let's look at resistors and circuit mixed, which means that has cities on better with stores if the best. If the bath for the current in abortion off the circuit is a single bath, and in another abortion off the circuit has multiple roads, the circuit is a mix off. Siri's Anbar circuits are usually not just Siri's or bar. Most practices are a combination off the tool. In order to analyze the these mixed circuits, you need to be able to divide sections of the circuit and look at the smaller section individually. Then, once each segment is analyzed, the signals can be brought back together to make the whole circuit in this circuit. If you look at the two SYRIZA stores in the lower left off the circuit here, this is the stores are in Siris. The equivalent of these stores is the symbol. Some of the two resistance values. Next, the equivalent combined with store is connected in Barrow, with that's right resistor. Because there are two bath is for electrons going into this portion of the circuit. The government of these tourist stores is our one muscle by our to they provided bar are one blessed Sarto, which is the law that we mentioned in this slide? This one? Okay, no going back to our slide. Ah, finally there is a story at the top is insa grease with the equivalent resistor here at the bottom because the current has only one bath. This is a simple matter of how we can simplify the circuit on give the equivalent resistor . Now, if we looked at this mixed circuit, okay, Okay. If we looked at this circuit, as you can see here, let's start with a relatively simple makes circuit. Andi, build it using orbit board dar one value is 330. Home are 213 our 4.7 care long toe going to Kayla. Um, let's see how we can calculate its value if we take these two resistors R two and r three. This is the, um low to get the ah equivalent the yoke or equivalent resistance from them since they are in a barrel once we get that value, which will be in that case Ah, 1400 98. We can go further on some. These two values which are in Siris now on, give the result which will be 300. Ah, 30 owned plus 1498 home on the final result will be 1900 28. You can calculate this yourself using calculator or using your a billon Baber on. This is a really simple example toe better and one Siri's. Let's look another example. This is our one are toe. All three are for thes are their values respectively. As you can see here, we can start by summing art want our three This as you can see here, the equivalent resistor will be 3.2 Kahlo on going further We can Arianna are for our collection battery so we can calculate their values in this low on the result will be as you can see here there's that will be 2000 230 home since ah the finals that is doing 2230 Orme Ah after couldn't summing the equivalent value off these tourists serves with the store in series here This is that a simple example? I, ah encourage you to do it at home using your bin and Baber Thanks for watching next We will discuss arms long. This is a discussion and joining team 12. 13 Ohm's Law: hello and welcome. Today we discuss arms law, A mathematical relationship e equals. I must will buy our we must at first don't do the math. Then we will see cash off long A wayto predictor could behavior. It all adds up. Nothing is lost. Let's fares discuss arms long. Okay, as you can see here and arms long Ah, there is a mathematical relationship between the three Cumberland's off electricity. That relationship is arms low E four balls are for resistance enormes all four columns in arms. The mathematical relationship is e equals r multiple by our we can transform it so r equals e divided by I or I equals e divided my off in the following sequence Off slides We would be doing exercises where we will set up a circuit using resisters on voltage sources nine volt battery Predict parent using arms low on verify our calculation by using volt or meter This is the circle off arms low E i r equals r multiple by our r equals e divided by r and r equals e divided by I. This is a simple way to normalized alone. Now let's look at this circuit. This is the basic circuit that you'll use for the following exercises, the vault or meter will be moved to measure voltage resistance and current. As you can see here, this is here for Koran on its placed here for withering vault, all of the stores Ah, you must hook up this circuit in your blood ball so that you can keep up with the coming slides. Why have the circuit using 100 on resistor without power, obliged? Measure the resistance off their sister, connect the line, involved battery and measure the Volt across. There's a store. Record your data. Now let's see, using the voltage and resistance that I am arms low calculated, anticipated current in this example R equals m divided by our example that result in a current off born 09 arms or 90 billion amps with invited it by it vault by 98.1 alms. These are the practical readings using the vault or meter that is 90. Milly, No. Let's insert of the world or metal into the circuit as indicated in this diagram. It must be in Siris, so the current flow through it. As you can see here, um, using the appropriate current range measure of actual current in the circuit. How does the current compare to your predicting using arms law? You need to compare the two results. They won't be. There would be a slightly different value. Ah, but it won't be that differences. Ah Holmes Low is the same as maturing in the vote on meter, but there is some practical Ah, some practical. Let's say not that we must take into consideration, such as heat dissipation on DCAA bar loss. Now let's see the second exercise. Let's select one kilo ohm resistor and calculate the illustrated circuit. Pretend for this exercise that you do not know what the voltage off the battery is. Measure their assistance with the bar removed on then the current with bar and record. All that s so here. We don't know the full to source. We measure the Koran and we miss out there is the store and using another configuration of forms low, we can get e equals. I multiple by our using. The current understands that an arms low let's calculate anticipated voltage and it will equal nine born seventh revolt This from the practical, a measurement using the world or meter now? Ah, let's connect the vault all meter in the circuit as indicated here, using the appropriate voltage Arrange measure that the actual voltage across the resistor here. How does the current compare to your prediction? Using arms low, it will ah be really close. It will equal liable seven vault in that case on Ah, we measured. Ah, here. 17 volts on the measured value is nine both revolt which are really close to each other. These are quick exercises, um to give you ah for understanding of arms low. Now let's look at this failed exercise. This exercise you'll use on unknown with store. So the 1st 1 the current wasn't known The 2nd 1 the voltage wasn't known. Now that current Ah, that is the story isn't phone so we need to calculate it Using arms low, we must first Michelle the current Ondimba measure the voltage, then using arms low R equals e That right by I will give us the current but will give us Sorry, that is this store value which will be 3.3844 home or 3.8 to Kahlo on so It's really close to the real value and the previous three eggs exercises. We managed to use arms loan toe, get the current value. The voltage value on the resistance value in each case to off the three components must be known so that so that we can, um, calculate the fare Cumberland that is missing. Now let's look at Arm's law and practice. The next series of slides or exercises will both arms low to use to illustrate some principle of basic electrics, as in the briefest exercises, you will build the circuit and insert the vault or meet our into the circuit in the appropriate way to make current and voltage measurement throughout exercises. Record your data so that you can compare it to calculations. Now let's build this circuit. These are the list of values Siri's Barrel Siris on. The three are connected in series together, and here we have on a meter. No. If we look at the circuit on blaze first, let's a measure of the current flowing through the circuit using this a meter, then move the world or meet on the other side of the circuit and measure the current here. The Koran should be the same as the previous measurements. Since the calf throw off Long throw here is the same. That going back here? No. Ah inside the vault or meter at the indicated location and measure the current here. There should be no surprise that the current is the same 4.65 billion arms. If you are doing this in your Brit ball this is the reading over there. I mean time now much of the voltage across our one here using arms local clean the voltage drop across a rank Your only sister at the current humidor Here we can calculate the voltage drop If we image of the voltage here using the current Andi there is a store. We can calculate the voltage so using arms low equals I multiple by our e will equal 4.65 Vote As you can see here the value is four point Okay, 4.65 volts. This is the calculated value Onda the voltage on the test bed using the volt meter waas 4.6 . There is no 65 So this is a very small difference between that wholesale kids now in the next step. You will in serve the world or meter in the circuit at two places, illustrated at one on to here and here. Record your talent readings for both places at the currents and compare and contrast to the current measured entering the total circuit. So if we had these two currents, they must equal the main current or the main source. No using the current middle throw number one on the resistance value off are too one kid on Calculate the voltage drop boxer across that resistor like Woz do the same with the current measured throw number two on the resistance value off are free to go into a care home Come back on contrast these two values or voltage values Ah, as you can see in number one Ah, the value will be 3.21 vote and about the value will be 3.168 volt. The value are essentially the same on they should be since the the voltage is ah the same In battle As you can see, the elders here must be equal the water here. Measure the voltage across the better resistor and record your answer Compare and contrast the voltage measure. So the voltage drop calculated the middle value will be 3.17 That is bed on. Do you can see that there is a very small difference, but they are basically the same values now. Ah, if we looked at this example, this is sort of the vault o meter into the circuit. Here. This compare. I could trust the results. It will measure 4.6 million arms on if we did. Um, usual the vault here. Ah, using the current. You just Mitchell Under the cells are four. Calculate what the voltage drop back clothes are. Four should be to equal 1.52 vote. Listen, self volt or meet our into the circuit as illustrated on measure the voltage. This is the practical value. Combat and contrast the middle, the measured and calculated voltage. It will equal one boring 56 There are basically the same. Um, this is one final new German to complete this portion of the exercise and serve the vote or meat are indicated here because the three vultures Mitchell previously across our one after a three on r four at these free Walter together and then compare and contrast. The result with the total vultures just mirror So through our one twas 4.6 after 13 itwas three point ah 17 while in our for it was one born 56 the total Mitchell voltage Waas three Boring Oh, mine Born 33 So what? You observed waas The sum of the individual currents waas equal to the total current flowing through the circuit the the some off the voltage drugs was equal to the total voltage across the circuit. This is catch off Slow on is very useful in the study off electric circuit You also know noted that arms low obliged throughout the circuit Ah, that's it for arms low. I know that I did it really quick but I will a blow the slice so that you can grow each of these exercise one by one on a blithe in in your test bed. This is basically a really symbol only difference But you need to understand it correctly. Thanks for watching On next we will explain the bus stores This is education engineering team 13. 14 Introduction To Capacitors: Hello Today we will explain combat stores. The buster defined physical construction type. How construction of fixed values on dvoa ratings. We'll also talk about combustible four months with a C and D. C. Karen's Yeah, Boston's values numbering system on DCA Masters a Circuit Siri's Barrel on Banks. Now let's look at this symbol example. Forca Buster. As you can see here, this is a battery on. This is the talk of Buster Blade with on insulation between them. The positive is charging the bush too late of the combustible, while the negative is charging that I get a plate of the car buster. No. Ah, let's define like a restaurant outworks device that stores energy in electric field. That is the definition off the combat store. It consists of two conductive blades. Civility by a non conductive material electoral accumulate on one blade, forcing electrons away from the other blade, leaving a net positive charge. As you can see here, this is Ah, I was so combustible. Charging on this is a positive on. This is a negative charge in each of these two blades. Think off aka Buster as a very small team battery storage battery. Since this battery charging that cab restaurant will hold its charge for ah, um, a small amount of time. So it's a timber Romanoff. Now, if we looked at here, we can see CA Busters on different rating. They are rated by the amount of charge that can be held. The voltage handling capabilities, capabilities, insulating material between blades. So the depending on the's threw for three factors. Investors are rated on each of these three factors and makes a very big difference between one can master and the other. The basically combustible is different. Single followed reality can hold a very large amount of Charles and in electronic circuits on the amount of cover. Stills is usually in the millions and billions off Rod Michael. For Art Deco Farrar Down off a rod, the bastards are identified by the type of insulating materials between the conductive blades. Air Mika tell you, um, ceramic on Bullis Terrien. So now if we looked at year, its ability, ability to hold a charge. This is the positive. Late on. This is the negative one. Ah, the ability of the capacitor told. The charge depends on the conductive laid surface area that area space between these two blades on the material that exists between these two blades can be air ceramic on any other type of material. Eso the amount off service area off the conductive late. The larger the surface area, the more charge on their for the higher Galveston's value. The distance between the blades, the clothes are the conductive blades are to each other, the stronger the electrostatic field that is developed when the blaze are close together, the interaction between the opposing poles is stronger. The closer of the blaze are together, the higher the covers van insulating material between the blaze. Certain materials are more conductive to separating the balls than others. This allows investors to handle higher voltage or to hold a charge longer. Certain materials are very fair, Mally stable and will not expand or contrast as much with temperature changes. Therefore, making the capacitive, or the Kurdistan's value more stable over wide operating temperature. No, let's look at this concept off charging a cover story. As you can see here, Um, let's spend some time talking about how commercials charge lets you know what off their Malaysia that we used earlier to explain. To explain it is the stores in this illustration. Water electrons are entering Ah, the tank, which is a combustible here from the right. As you can see, Onda read that the water electrons enter the tank, which is like a pastor Depends on how much brush our voltage bushing on the water. So depending on how much is the militia, more water will go up. The outlet valve on the right is closed so water can ah, which is left likes cannot escape when there is no water in the tank, which is a capacitor that reversed brush a voltage from the water. Electrons in the tank would be zero on the water would rush into the tank, which is the master when the time came. A store has all the water electrons. It can hold the reverse pressure off the electrons would equal the voltage pushing the water electrons. And so the tank, which is the master on the floor off water electrons, would stop Andrabi in Afghanistan. The tank, which is the capacitor in, is in a charge state with the brush our voltage inside the time master equal to the brush our voltage off the water electron supply in the beginning. The water electrons rush in at a bit rate because the opposing brush our voltage built up as the bottling brush our vaulted buildup as more water a trans interval attacked, which is the capacitor, The right off water or electrons flow slows until it virtually stops when the time is full . So basically Ah, this gets close. Water will enter or lift. Runs will enter from this gate. Andi, it will enter fastly at the beginning. Since there is no voltage here, then slowly it will decrease the speed of flowing electrons as the world tertiary increases cost of these as two tanks, one with nine, Let's say 10 vaults and one empty. Ah, these will equal each other until the two times have five volts. So think of it. I like a tank that you are filling with water. Um, as you can see here, this is how the master look Really. In the following activity, you will charge the crystal by connecting about Source. My involved battery Taka Buster, you will be using and left through electrolytic Kabir store like a buster that use ability , sensitive insulating material between the conductive Leight's to increase the charge capability in a small physical package. Not the component has bloody identification blasts or miners on. Do you need to take good care of these polarities Since missing missing with them, We're result in blowing the cholesterol. Now touch the two leads of the combust altogether. This short circuit that have a store to make sure there is no residual charge Lift in like a master using your vote on a measure of the world. A close. The reads off the car buster. No could make the commissar as in this circuit, the post If the positive the negative, the negative terminal wire up the circuit on charge. Blockbuster Bar will only have Toby obliged for a moment to fully charge the capacitor quickly remove the alabaster from the circuit on touched the vault or meter probes. The combat store leads to measure the voltage. Carefully observe the voltage reading over time until the voltage is at a very low living down to zero volts. Now, as you can see in this illustration, this is yours To discharge a capacitor, we will close the inn. Ah inlet Andi, open the outlet then Ah, charge will come out just like water through the outlet until three issues the rival this installation appearance with the water tank and alleged toe help show what happened after the investor is charged. Onda allowed to discharge the intake valve on the left, is closed here on the outlet valve on the right is opened in the previous activity, when the vault or meter was connected, likable store a bath was opened for the electrons to flow from the master, the world or meat or does take a little bit off current to make the readings. Initially, when the car buster was for the charge, there was approximately nine involved. Off brush our bushing the electrons down the conductor as the voters rob in step with the reduced charge. The brush our bushing. The electrons also decrees, causing a decrease in electron flow. How the shored up on the world or meter waas, An initial rabid volt drop that showed down to crowd. In reality, I could. Buster Rules is charged only after a prolonged period of time. The waters drop is a sympathetic to zero never reaches zero. Now the Batavia Ah cholesterol behavior in D. C. And a C on connecting capacitors in series and Barrister Barrera will be discussed in the next lesson. Thanks for watching This is education engineering team 14. 15 Capacitors Behavior and Series and Parllel: the car buster behavior in D. C. When exposed to D. C. The couple store charges and holds the charge as long as the D C voltage is applied like a buster essentially blocks DC voltage from busing. Throw Once back a bestow reaches full charge. The forward voltage equal the reverse pressure. The current seizes toe follow. It stops. It is essentially blocked like a buster behavior in a C. When a C current is applied uring 1/2 of the cycle like a buster except a charge in one direction. During the next half of the cycle, the car buster is discharged, Then the charge in the reverse direction. During the next half cycle, the battle reverses. Essentially, it appears that 80 current passes through a capacitor on. This is going to be to take a little more explaining during the most devotion of the cycle . Electrons are drawn from great one, Andi added Tablet to the car. Buster is charged with blade to being negative and late one being positive. After the week off, the positive cycle, like a buster, beings to this chart begins to discharge. When the cycle begins to go, negative electrons are added tabulate one on drawn away from late two. The cover story is charged with Blade one being negative on blade toe. Being boasted. If the audience looks at just one blade, the blade goes from positive to negative and back again, just as if the blade were source off a C. Now let's look at the Capitol behavior. A cab Mr blocks the message of D. C A. Campus tour buses A. C. We need to summarize it. This, um, it just blocks D. C. Once for the charge. While a C can pass through that cover story. Let's look at Boston's value. As you can see, the unit off Galveston's is the followed single. Far out is a huge amount of cobblestones. Most electronic devices are kava stores that have a very tiny fraction off a frog. Come uncover stunts. Ranges are micro nano bqool my full means. Ah, then ah, multiple by six and ah, negative six. No, nothing to the board off ninth minus Mt. Nine b Co. 10 till about bar off minus 12 On this is their sign. Micro nano on bqool. Now let's look at the pistons value that Mr Identification depends on like a buster type. Could be color bans, dots or number wise to keep investors organized and defied to prevent out off work. Trying Tory Identify the value, since their value can be really hard toe calculate. As you can see here, this is 100 and it Blust toe blocks or minus two person Theron's This is 104 said on carrots. Identification can be a little tricky and complicated. These two registration shows the typical numbering system. Some common examples. One making for odd is a little by 105. Boring toward Michael Followed is written by 104 As you can see here, boiled Dear One Micro for our little by 103 1000 be cough allowed equals 19 off around equals 100 to born. 047 Michael Fallout equals for 73 or 473 on Born 0 to 2. Maker fraud equals 123 so it's a little bit tricking to read a capacitor value, but you need ah to do your best off. Use that a sheet or simply use Google Search combusted in circuits to physical factors affected by stores value. Blessed spacing. Flat surface area in Siris blades are far about making cobblestones. Lists charge Blaze far about. As you can see here these are two masters. They are treated like air the stores and better see one month. But see two at afraid. But he one blast Sito one, as you can see here. Que busters in circuits in Barrow, the surface area off the blades. Add up, Toby. Greater on close together. As you can see here, while here they are about that was a negative. This makes like a distance more the car buster. So the blood area is more. This means that canister is more so. The total will be see one blast. Sito. This is a symbol method. Another way toe Memorize. This is so Consider the Aqaba store. Ah ah, The reverse off a resistor. There was a story in Siris equals R one plus r two, while cholesterol in Syria in series are the same as the Historian Barrel C one plus multiple by sea to divided by C one Blust See, too, As you can see here here the investors in barrel C one plus C to r the store in Barrie equal are one multiple by our to develop bar R one plus R two surface area off the conductive blades in Barrow Robusto. Add together the electrons on the blaze connected the negative balls off the source. Bread out across both master blade. The positive change absence of difference on the blaze attached the worst of all of the source. Also spread out. The blitz are still only separated by the same distance as if there waas just a single cup a store so there is more Veterans are exposed over a greater surface, but at the same distance. Therefore, the couple storms will be more the symbol some that's it for a couple stores. Next we will discuss in doctors and more details. Thanks for watching this education, engineering. 15. 16 Introduction to Inductors: now turning to the in doctors. We will talk about inducted as defined physical construction. How construction affect values in Dr Performance with a C and D C currents. As you can see here, this is the in doctor symbol and decayed, and doctors are essentially calls or fire that are used to store energy. Tim barley in a magnetic field and doctors, when combined with capacitors, are used in many different kind of electronic circuits because of their brutality. Postal eight or ring energy in one component feeds dollar back and forth in an insulating or ringing man are at a specific frequency. This phenomena is gold resonance, additionally, but build in doctors in closed proximity with overlapping magnetic field allow energy toe floor from one doctor to the other by inducing a current in the other. Doctor. This is basically how a transformer words These concepts are beyond the scope off this basic course. However, the alien should be aware of the basic function off the conductor. No, there are two fundamental principle off electron ICS. One. Moving electrons create a magnetic field to moving or changing a magnetic field caused electrons to move or to move on doctors. A call of fire through which left removes on energy is stored in the resulting magnetic field like a masters in doctors. Tumor store energy Unlike other stores, doctor store energy in a magnetic field, not on electric field. When the source off Elektronik electrons is removed, the magnetic field called labs immediately. As you can see, this is a conductor that has current passing through it on. This is the magnetic field. Now then, doctor are simply 1/4 foil can be air one. Nothing in the middle of the court. Off the court, just like this one can be one around a bear, maybe, but can be wound around Obama rolled material. But here that concentrates magnetic field, just like this example, or this example can be wound around a circular form droid like this one. On the second example of this one while and if nothing is in the middle, it's like this one. So depending on the core, it can have different abilities. And distance is my job in Henry ah, Henry's amateur off the intensity off the magnetic field that is produced typical indicator values used in electronics are in the range off Millie Henry. Wonder what? About 1000 and micro him. T one divided by one by one milion. Um, let's look at the amount of in doctors. Ah, as we ah, no. The amount off everything is affected by a lot of value. The amount of inductive is influenced by a number of factors. Number of coal tales number off the stones, the emitter, of course, the diameter of this coil. This is the method from here to here, spacing between 10. The special finish one on the other size of the world used the size, the thickness on the type of material inside the corn. So if it's air, if it's, um middle course, it will affect the amount of in doctors. As you can see here, this is the Air Corps. This is the Ireland core. This is the soft iron core. This is a large diameter. This is a so mole diameter. This is Ah, close basing between turns and doctor on. This is why it's spacing between course and dr all of these effects. The induct ins off in doctor now in Dr Bear. Four months with the sea currents. When this account is applied to an in Doctor The Wire In the In Dr momentarily appears as a short circuit onda maximum current flows as the magnetic field bills charges. There is a tendency for the current floor to slow down utan opposition because in the charging magnetic field or the changing magnetic field. Finally, the magnetic field is at its maximum on the current floors to maintain the field. As soon as the current sources removed, the magnetic field begins to collapse and creates a rush off current in the other direction , sometimes at very high voltage, while in doctors bear four months with a sea currents when a C current is applied to an in doctor during the first half. The cycle the magnetic field bills as if it were a D C voltage during the second or the next half off the cycle the current is reversed on the magnetic feed. First has to decrease the reverse polarity instead, with the change in current depending on the value of the doctors, these forces can war against each other, making for a list than seven bill situation. Now, because the magnetic fields are down, Lee Allen doctor can cut across another in doctor and close proximity. The change in magnetic field in one can cause current to flow in the other, which is the basic off transformers. As you can see in this example, this is a symbol. Transformer bears off conductors in close proximity is another border issues, often doctors in little clinics. That's well, transformer that Converse 120 volts, a C world current into current that will run at will vel d. C. Radio approval. Use a transformer on the other staircase to do the conference conversion. It is important to go back the two from the minister principles stated earlier in this unit . Moving lettering Soviet magnetic fields on changing magnetic fields cause electrons to move . This would be a good appreciated Work your yourself through the process while ah see how those four model of the world In the next lesson, we will talk about dinosaurs. Thanks for watching This is education engineering team 16. 17 Introduction to Diode Zener and LED: that I would The seeming conductor phenomena there would be reformers with a C and D c current will be discussed. Their tires basically angina. This is the basic symbol of the road. Ah, the that line indicates that this is the cathode on. This is the under Bart that is I divide that allows current off law in only one direction. There are specialized does the light emitting diode and, as you know, died that will be discussed later. However, the basic principle is the same here. The current will flow in one direction. If current flows floors attempt in the opposite direction, the floor will be blocked, died finds Find yours and money Electronic circuits Nowadays, Um, now let's see the day of the semiconductor phenomena electorates in a metal free form a sea off electrons that are relatively free to move about. Semiconducting materials like silicon and germanium have fewer free electrons. Impurities added to semiconductor material can either at the free electrons or create an absence of electrons, which is holes. So if we looked at this Ah, small schematic, this is the UN type and this is the B type, which which is holes on type are electrons. As you can see here they are equivalent Karan's ah difference and holds This is the castle . This is the unload. On this in the middle is the glacial vision or the junction of the dialogue. Consider the bar off silicon at the right one side of the bar is dubbed with negative material exists electrons the cathode. Ah, while the other side is docked with a positive material excesses hole that I know in between is a no man's land called the B injunction. This is the abolition and the religion. This is be injunction that forms Ah, they are now. If you're locked here, consider now blind Negative voltage to the Donald on I was devoted to the Catholic. If we did that, the date is reversed by us, meaning local until floor on this region will be away much wider, which means that fewer electrons will bass or more electrons at all. This is the reverse by us off the day on When this man, if you connect the negative abortion for electron considering our buying a busted for Donald Onda negative to to think I thought that is forward by us, meaning current will floor. Since this area is minimized on the electrons applied here, allow these electrons toe Go to that junction on. But the bulls devil you applied here allows whole to go to this side. This will make that area. Ah, that depression area as, ah, small as possible, which would allow Iran to flow. Now, if we look at this circuit, set up the circuit. Illustrated on the Boto Brit Board are the store diet Onda battery and sure to know the cathode bandit end off the board. The cathode is connected to the store. Use a 330 home to the store that is store in the circuit is a current limiting resistor. So we are using it to limit Koran so that it won't blow the day. Or now sit up the circuit illustrated in the broader tie insure Tono the cathode. The comfort is now connected. The battery negative terminal on them is connected. That is the store. Andi examined The difference between these two circuits, um billed as the chair kip, measure the voltage drop because the data that is forward by us, it will equal born seven, which is the amount of all that ah required to build ah, for world by us um, situation for the day on This is the simplest model to say this. No. If A C is obliged to adulthood during 1/2 off the cycle that is forward by us on current flows during the other half of the cycle, the diet is reversed by us on stops gone. This is the brushes off rectification, allowing current to flow in only one direction. It's commonly used and changing a siento d. C. As you can see here, this is the SC signal on this is out with the dialled. It only allows, um, a see the flow as you can see the positive abortion off the signal on the floor. The negative is zero, since it's reversed by us for the day old Ah, this is commonly used in rectification circuit for telling SC signals to D C signals. Now let's look at the light emitting diode. In normal dates, when electrons combines with holes, heat is good used well. Some material when electrons, combined with holes for turns off light are emitted. Leads are generally used on as indicators throw. They have the same abilities as a regular David. But in a state of dissipating here there are dissipating light. This is a symbol circuit that can light a lid. Build originated circuit on the brought aboard. The longer lead lead is the old and the New York. You will see two leads along one on a short one. The wrong is the busted and the ah short is the negative that affairs the lid on observed what have them now you need to reverse that led Onda. Observe what will haven't you'll know that once they're alone? The current limiting was the story not only limits the current but also controls lit brightness. So a few plays Ah, let's say a 1000 home. Ah, the store. The light will be damned if we blessed 100 restore the right will be that it would be brighter. Next we will look at Zaenal dude. Okay, this is the symbol off. Roszina diaries and iron is designed through appropriate the dubbing so that it can conduct at a bridge. It'll mind reverse voltage. So the difference between it Onda normal does is that it does operate in the reverse direction that it begins to conduct and then maintains that brittle mind voltage the over voltage Onda seated current must be dissipated by the diet as he it, as you know that is constructed so that it will conduct were reversed by us above certain voltage. The axis, voltage and current then is conducted to ground on the energy is dissipated as heat, as you know, acts as a symbol voltage regulator in the case on involved source, as you can see here, his bus throw count limiting resistor to group The vault is somewhat to take. The brush are off the scene up. If there's in our was not in place, the amount of voltage drop across the resistor would depend on the amount of calm being down from circuit. With the vaccine are in place, the four points are involved would be maintained by the Xena, acting as a bear for the Axis Cullen that is not being drawn off This exists current has to be dissipated as he therefore, there are currents limits on the notice that the designer need to consider that's it for diodes. Next we will ah discussed around the stores and more details. Thanks for watching This is education engineering Team 17. 18 Introduction to Transistors: that runs the store today we will thus discussed runs the store. Ah, and how they work on inside. Look, then we'll talk about basic types on beyond. Beyond be. Then we will see basic transistor circuits Switch on amplifier. This is that runs the store symbol. As you can see here on this is the internal unstructured over The fans of store consists of collector base image Our electoral estimate are to die hards throw. You cannot make a transistor simply by putting two days together back to back. It is useful to look at the transistor as made up of diets to better understand what is happening inside. Now let's see this symbol transistor registration. Take a look. A. This representation of the inner walking off Airbnb transistor close inspection reveals that there are two doors with their be balls connected together. This is the people. The beyond junction is represented by the novel but black line in an actual transistor that be material would really be just a very narrow strip off material not as represented in this graphic. But this is for making things easier to understand. In this circuit, our sources applied between the base on diameter. As you can see here, this is the based on This is the emitter that was devoted to the base is negative to the emitter on additional bar sources. A blood between the collector on the base When you get involved. The base that was devolved the collector the best image. Our diet is forward by us, which remember caused that day, or to conduct electrons, allowing the electrons to move left to right on the holes right to lift. No. Ah, As you can see, something interesting happens in this case through the transistor effect. As the lift runs from the base image child, I would go across to be injunction. The B layer is so thin on there are so few holes to accept electrons that the restaurants continue to flow right on because the basic will lift all day to start conducting and allowing the current Tobias throw the transistors collector in effect, a small forward bias on the best emitting diode caused that runs the store the Tehran on Bhaskaran. Throw the imitate art collector junction. So basically you have you. You can either forward or reverse bias a transistor by controlling its base voltage. You need to forward by us one of the junction toe. Allow it toe flow. We will see this and more details once we go next. Ah, in the switch on amplifier circuits, this is the same circuit. But in out of their spy, a small manner. This space is connected. The negative bowl, as you can see here. So, um most difficult. The negative will increase these two areas isolating areas. So no conducting is here while in the briefest example Uh huh. One in the previous example, as you can see here, boasted and boasted is connected to this positive Ah, terminal. So it's forward by us on boasted holes will go there on their connected with electrons, so this area will be reduced. This answer insulating area on it will conduct, while in the second case the negative on boosted ball negative will attract the postive holes which will make this area wider on will allow electrons the boss. Now, if we looked at that once the store there are two basic types Francis for bending off the arrangement off the material beyond beyond and beyond. As you can see here as easy phrase to help remember of appropriate symbol is to look at the arrow B and B bunting and loudly and be on not pointing in on. Do not be pointing on in B and B, pointing in proudly. So this will help you remember the arrow direction on and ah, identified transistor depending on that at all. The only operation difference is the source banality on be, um, not pointing in B and B pointing and proudly, no, if we looked here Ah, transistor as switch. During the next two activities you will build It runs the store switch on a transistor amplifier. They've been out of the two on 3904 runs. The store is indicated here, as you can see. Ah, you want spare shares it or you can simulated using brought us the transistors as a switch with the circuit. Ah, As you can see the circuit, use hoca boil serve as switches to connect the current transistor base here. What happens when you first apply bar when the base is left floating, not connected Now, as you can see here we have a little 300 home to the store 330 on resistor in the collector . No limit the current flowing through the lid. Remember when the fancy store begins to conduct the bathroom? Magister. Valuable resistance Without the current limiting resistor, too much current will damage the component. Addition of the 1000 onto the store in the base circuit. Also limits current in this case, will the best commit up tired conducts? There is a low resistance path Without current, limiting the transistor can be done ish when the circuit is completed. Nothing should happen because the base emitter died of that surrounds stores not by us, so that when the store does not conduct now, when we when the base is connected, the nine involved the best metal diet is forward by us on conduct. This in turn turns on the transistor and current floors throw the lead to turn it on. You should know that that it goes off when the base voltage is removed Now full of at ah and replace the hookup Wire connection with our connection to a 1.5 volts battery has joined what happens when blast 1.5 world is applied to the base. What happened when the battery is revealed on 1.5 World is a blood Lebese. Examine this on your brought aboard or just bench. Then get back to this video to see the result When the voltage is positive. On the base that runs the store, conducts on delayed is lit. Um, there are concluding a much larger voltage with us. More voltage. This is the base. Ah, this is the goal from fifth Circuit to show you that we can control using a transistor looking control. Ah, high vaulting out. But using a small vote in both in the transistor base. Ah, this will become more important in the following Turk it Ah, when a transistor amplifier is explored. But for now, you can You need to understand that we can use small vote on the best to control high voltage our boat. Okay. No, um, Let's see this serve, kip. The project was the variable. Resistor is the battery voltage. The weber off the variables store taps off. There is a store at different places, depending on how the screw control on the variable resistors it the Barry because the store become a voltage divider so that the voltage on the base can range from ground No voltage Tono involved and all vote in between. When the circuit is well, you cannot just challenge until that it is fully lit using the vault or meet our Mr Revolted off the base off the transistor and record the value on the list. But the voltage waas born 78 volt. So this is the multiple that is required so that the lid can fully lit. Next. You can disagrees. Ah, decrease the voltage by adjusting the variable Ristorante that it is just barely visible on again. Measure the base voltage. When the bid the voltage was born 68 Volk finally moved. Available is the store until the lid is fully off on record The voltage on the test bed the voltage was born six revolt, as you can see, depending depending on different value off the base, Walter Ah, we can different Ah, we can examine different behavior off the lid