Introduction to Designing Imaginary Architecture | Elwira Pawlikowska | Skillshare

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Introduction to Designing Imaginary Architecture

teacher avatar Elwira Pawlikowska, Illustrator / Designer at Grim Dream

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

16 Lessons (45m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. 01 frequently made mistakes

    • 3. 02 inspirations and creative process

    • 4. 03 wooden huts

    • 5. 04 wooden huts CASE STUDY

    • 6. 05 town houses

    • 7. 06 town houses CASE STUDY

    • 8. 07 castles general structure

    • 9. 08 castles obstacles

    • 10. 09 castles details

    • 11. 10 castles CASE STUDY

    • 12. 11 cathedrals general structure

    • 13. 12 cathedrals details

    • 14. 13 cathedrals arches doors windows

    • 15. 14 cathedrals CASE STUDY

    • 16. 15 summary

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About This Class

In this class, an architect by education and a concept designer by profession Elwira Pawlikowska will guide you how to create your very own, imaginary buildings based on centuries of architectural thought. In about 45 minutes, with the help of intricate hand drawings and the whole mass of interesting (and sometimes surprising) facts you’ll gain a better understanding of building structures and elements and learn how to avoid common “traps” in creating building concept designs.

Materials in this class are focused on historical/fantasy domains, but the knowledge provided here can be used in a much broader context.


This course is aimed at aspiring and more advanced game designers, illustrators and all of you interested in creating your own worlds.

Even if you are a “passive” enthusiast of historical or fantasy architecture and hand drawings, you are more than welcome, to take a look at these videos

Meet Your Teacher

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Elwira Pawlikowska

Illustrator / Designer at Grim Dream


Hi there! I'm Elwira - an illustrator and concept designer based in Stockholm. After getting master's degree in Architecture I started GRIM DREAM - a brand focused on hand-drawn illustrations in an old school, vintage style. I cooperate with game companies, book publishers, and musicians.

I find my inspirations in works of Old Masters, fantasy books, heavy, melodic music and long walks in the woods. My favorite themes are related to steampunk, middle ages, and architecture in general.

In 2017 I got silver "A' Design Award" for concept designs of Rampage System.

Here, on Skillshare, I'm sharing my knowledge and experience I gained during my university studies and my professional career related to designing and drawing architectural objects.

Feel free t... See full profile

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1. Intro: - Hi , I'm LV Republican. I'm an architect by education, but I worked as a freelance illustrator and concept design. In this class I will share with you tips, and now that's crucial in junk imaginary architecture. It's really hard, if not impossible, to draw a visible building. If we don't know how the life in such environment could look like or if we don't understand its structure and technical solutions, we will focus on history. Call from process, which means realms, usually inspired by medieval and primitive times. However, many of those steps could be useful in the road. We will take a look at various building types from primitive food and hats gossip. Besides discussing individual types of buildings, I draw your attention to the epic fails in architectural drawings. You should definitely a point. But even in commercial banks and frustrations 2. 01 frequently made mistakes: I don't want to waste their time, so I will go straight to the point of this lesson, which is everything. Frequently made mistakes drawing imaginary architecture. It is said that we learn best from our own mistakes. However, I suppose that it's a little bit faster to learn from mistakes of other people. That's why I've made for you a special least of such mistakes. Number one Wrong Proportions. We've probably all seen this oddities on a few illustrations or observing narrow buildings with doors that are too low, windows placed on the way high or whole story's full work. The easiest way to avoid that is drawing immense silhouette. Let's call him a exclamation right next to the building. Let's say that the exclamation guy is 1 75 almost six feet. This means that most of the buildings you have a story, including the ceiling and floor, about price higher than the guy. Some of them may be a little bit slower, like in the case of a map, but without exaggeration. Some of them, like governs, not mentioning temples should be much higher in general. Doors should be a little bit higher than our guy with just a few exceptions, which I will discuss in the next lessons. Standard windowsills should be placed just about the middle high off the exclamation, sometimes even the result. She won the references. We can see that there are some issues with the building site. Elements like windows, doors or materials like bricks, roof tiles or wooden beams should give us some idea off the sides of the building. If you want to show a really huge front of the building something truly overwhelming, it's totally fine to bend the proportions in the direction. Actually, many 19th century artist even one point of the artists were applying this trick, and the results were just amazing. Take, for example, a Scottish painter. David troubles progeny. Buildings are life heavy, and usually they are meant really long. So individual ernments have to be able to create a durable construction. We should especially remember this when joining hysterical architectures is materials. Yes, there were quite simple world stone. Eventually, Greeks there were no fancy, such as laminated timber or rain forest concrete. Each architectural element has its sickness, and building elements in ancient and medieval times were usually substantial and clearly visible. Construction arrows. I will not bore you with all the info about Flexeril strength or low transfer mechanisms. Within the next licence, I will try to make you our off structures. We should be just invisible under given conditions. Anyway, Dump your blocks from drawing in fear of making mistakes, just Joe conclusions from them. And yep, because that you have learned something to make you even happier, I will tell you there are many other ways to make mistakes in designing imaginary architectures. But don't worry. In the next few lessons you and get to know how to avoid even 1000 steaks and what's even more important, you will get some inspiration. 3. 02 inspirations and creative process: before we moved to the specific types of building. I just have to say a few words about inspirations and references. I was acquainted with the history of architecture in the hard way, namely through studying at the faculty of architecture and learning by heart, last cross sections and elevations off the whole mass of historical building. Off course. This effort is not required from an illustrator or concept designer. However, it won't have to read a book or two about the history of art and architecture, even if you are planning to focus entirely on front of the environment. If you would like, for example, to create an urban village, it's good to understand slender and spiky Gothic constructions and Art Nouveau D days. You probably noticed many historical references in movies like Lord of the Rings. If you haven't, you may be focused on a specific period of time, though it's good to know what influence had previous styles on the side you are so interested in. In general, overview of the history of architecture can be more helpful than you might expect. It would also allow understanding why some elements or structures look away, baby and what was the purpose and creating excessive architect an exit or are about solutions, Even though I have quite a lot references in my head, I also have a collection off them on my computer, where they are placed in many clearly named folders. Some artists also print their reverence photos and place them in the Bendel's or make marks in the plenty of money books. If you're planning to use doors from one reference photo windows from another one and the roof from the 3rd 1 he's done, I could clearly explain why. But just your environment should be your design and not a copy paste Kalash, which could be made by a cleverly regime computer program. My creative process looks like that maybe you will find a myself more convenient for you. Brainstorming. I can look at hundreds of various images, more or less related to deceptive, for example, But not so long ago I was designing door van doors. I broke even through our most with Celtic market, the most striking images of safety in my folders. We could go through them once more. Some native sketches Some designers make about 50 Combinator sketches before they go to the next more details stage, however, I make about three or four of them. At this stage, I really look at reference. Fancy are drawing, which is based on Lee on my campaign. I don't look at references to avoid the copy France effect. Though the general idea of the style and atmosphere remains lots of talking and only a few drawings in the next lessons, it will change. 4. 03 wooden huts: let's start exploring primitive L and medieval architecture. This lesson concerns simple and poor wooden huts. Sounds boring, maybe, but such primitive hats can be, in fact, a very picturesque subject, and they appear in many founders of video games, books and movies. Usually the whole adventure begins in just such environment, so let's begin. Actually, many early medieval hearts were just simple Pete houses or airflow ges. But we will focus on a little bit more sophisticated dwellings. Walls were usually built from massive flocks connected to each other. In the quite fancy ways, gaps in the walls were sealed with moss and clay. Probably the 1st 1 is associated with the most primitive solution. It may be a good idea to exercise, drawing all these joints before drawing the whole building. Another action toward the Newell Construction was a post and plant structure in the areas of today's Poland. Similar constructions were present even in eighth century before Christ on white ground beams, growth balls were set. This balls were connected with specifically cut horizontal beams. Part of walls could be also with from tweaks, quite popular option. In the case of picking houses, little could be then covered with help. How about troops? They were a large part of the whole body of the building. There were a few ways to design them, and in my humble opinion, this one is most impressive. On forked poles partially buried in the ground along a horizontal beam was placed. The next step was placing structural beams in the direction off the roof. More slender beams were placed per particularly to the structural beams, and finally the whole structure was covered with Stroh from the outside that we could see protruding beams. This construction was first known in Slavic trips, but in the 11th century it became very popular also in Scandinavia thing. This means, however, that if you are planning to draw an early Viking house from, let's say, the 19th century, it's probably not the best idea to choose this structure. The other option is a rough construction based on gable walls. Long horizontal beams are placed, it spaced intervals about them. There is obviously recovering, which can be simply made off grass or wooden planks placed in the roofs. Direction along horizontal team, with a fancy sculpting on the top off the roof will at some extra character here is a very popular, even nowadays rafter construction. Well. Today it's maybe a little bit more refined. These bottom beams are locks were placed at more or less regular intervals, and they were connecting clothed bearing walls. Here I presented quite a simple way of transferring clothes, though in the case of churches or wealthy city houses, the construction could be more sophisticated, like this one. For example, remember the larger number off protruding structural elements, the more interesting the hat looks. An important note. Don't be afraid to emphasize the mass off the elements is they were massive. Doors in Hades, build in Dark ages and later in the Middle Ages were really low. Despite a popular view. The reason for that was not the high off people living them. Actually, an average high of a man in medieval Europe was about five feet seven inches, which means that these people were nearly s high as people living today. The real reason for low doors was a need to keep houses as closed as possible. If there was a window opening, it was really small. The window could be closed with wooden shutters are covered with animal blood or skin. However, very often there were no in those at all, and the only sorts of light were tiny gaps in walls and a small call. So yes, it was strangely dark there. Another oddity was a high doorstep in so called bargain times. Ashes off family members were buried under the Dorset. Their spirits guarded. The house greeting over the doorstep could make them angry or even bring evil powers from the outside world to the house. That's why, even today, people avoid greeting over the doorstep, at least in many parts of Europe. In the next lesson, I will discuss illustration based under knowledge handed in this video. 5. 04 wooden huts CASE STUDY: Here is the first case study in discourse. An example of an illustration based on the info from the Proview's video dedicated. The simple medieval wooden huts I titled The Islamic Is. It presents a hot build in the construction ist widely by Slavic tribes, but later also known in other parts of Europe, the one with forked poles supporting the main roof beam. Let's imagine a handle hunting mythical creatures living in a deep prime medial forest. He lives somewhere in the swamps in a hat proudly decorated with some off his trophies. Remember when I was talking about very small doors and no, or very small windows? Well, I remembered about it anyway behind the head. There is also a ship for our hunter can keep supplies and process the animals off course. He wouldn't be able to handle all these incredible creatures without the help of the upper first. In this case, they got peril depicted under stone, surrounded by smaller stones with magic symbols. That's the general idea I came up with during drawing this illustration. I usually come up with ideas of what should be drone during the process of drawing. Not before that, so If you don't know what to draw, just grab a pen and paper. It starts with a horizon line and some basic composition. Maybe the enlightment justify Nofal wouldn't element for other components made of natural. Almost true, Macias don't have to be geometrically perfect, especially in the case off quite primitive architecture. The touch through also requires regular reports so we can see some level of deterioration here, and that's all for now. But in the next video, you will get to know more about town houses. 6. 05 town houses: in this lesson, I will tell a little bit about tenement houses flanking, narrow, crowded and well there the streets in medieval towns when it comes to medieval city houses , there were two very characteristic construction techniques, and both looked exactly the same after plastering. In both cases, the construction was made of wooden beams and polls. Wall feeling could be made off breaks in the case of oppression walls or a combination off clay, sand stroh and animal dunk. In the case of water and dope technique, we can see massive beams on the foundation and on the top off polls. Horizontal beams can be added also right under and over windows. Polls were placed quite tensed. Everyone 1.5 meter corner were strengthened with they're gonna beams. In the case of medieval buildings, more is more so. We can also add this quite cute short beams, creating ekes under and over the windows. We can play a little with different materials using a logical gradation off materials burden. And so, for example, the bottom part of walls could be made of stones higher. We could design impression walls and finally Eldon attic. Don't worry if our medieval house looks a little bit grotesque and chaotic because of some additions or randomly placed windows that short comings fit medieval ages very well. Roofs were rather sloping, 45 or even more degrees. They were covered with ceramic tiles, slate or wooden shingle. Fancy chimneys can also be a nice visual addition to the roof. Many rooms needed their own fireplace hitting, so chimneys were usually grouped like in this example. I do this from imagination, but they really could be so extravagant in the case of rich houses. Off course, a gym new. Is it up like a cathedral tower? Why not? However, in some cases, roofs were a creeped on Lee, with the low over, quite popular and very good looking Cruyff. Elements were also roof windows. You've probably noticed an what shape of medieval town houses. It happened quite often that each next story was more and more protruding than the one below. Why the streets were very narrow is it was important if it as many buildings as possible in the relatively small area surrounded by city walls. This'll technique called jetting, allowed to obtain some extra living space. Remember, jetting should be supported by densely late horizontal beams. Ground floor's off townhouses were often used as commercial spaces, market stalls, Barrows or other elements suggesting the type of business are very welcome, especially infant as illustrations as they help to imagine life in your city. And don't forget about catches sign boards. It's estimated that only about 10% off people in Europe could read around 13th 14th century . Now a few words about windows. It's very important to remember that they were usually unglazed seems obvious, but still here and there. Some illustrators forget about it. Protection from cold and rain was provided by wooden shutters. Sometimes seen animal brothers and the parchment were installed in windows. After soaking them in oil, they were more or less transparent. In the late Middle Ages, the most wealthy people could finally afford glazed windows. However, glass elements were small, thick and strangely similar to bottoms off bottles. In this lesson, I've been talking about depression all in the context of medieval times, but this construction was very popular even later. Also, it's really important, from my point of view, is its rich steampunk style so well. Next, I will show a case study for this lesson, 7. 06 town houses CASE STUDY: here is an individual town with the fantastic twist. Actually, medieval craftsman really loved fantastical motives. Gago's Dragon's Que miras or other evil creatures were very popular in middle ages, as they were meant to scare away evil spirits and eventually one people from going to the dark side. Welcome to the tiny market in a decaying town. The town used to be wealthy until some closer, unspecified event related to the track and field. A cure headquarter off the dragon Guilt is located in the middle of the sea. I let myself to equip this house. We've glazed with those characteristic for late middle Ages. Normally, they appeared on Lian wealthy merchant houses closer and cast, but they should feed the dragons guilt as well, right for a change. The window on the right is under glazed, and the four people residing there Onley shut the shutters to protect themselves from cold and rain. On the right side, we can see the tiny little door storage space under this, so an adult man would have to family bow his head together. But that's how spaces under stairs often work and lastly, some foreground objects typical for the medieval environment rainwater Barrows signs simple trolleys and firming. Use rats breeding the best lands three weeks to make your project mark convincing, I think elements indicating that someone is or was using the building Possibilities are many rainwater, Barrows, trolleys, drink clothes, even garbage. Avoiding general sense designs should be clear and understandable, but trillion original tiny little details and avoiding exaggerated regularity in a building's for sale can be helpful. Size of the deterioration, the only at charm and feeling of credibility. So the lack off a roof tile here and there, or some dropping plaster is a good idea. 8. 07 castles general structure: medieval fortified castles were almost impossible to destroy, especially with me develop weapons. Such a castle could be defended for several mouths, and the common reason for capital ation was simply like a food and fresh water. But how such structure was built. Each element was carefully foot out from the location off the fortress to every tiny opening in the wall. Fortified castles were usually built in hardly accessible places on rocks, hills, river escarpments, wetlands or islands. Common materials were off the speaking stones, mostly limestone in the highlands and break in the lowlands, where it was often hard to get limestone. Many elements were also made of wood. Off course. Fantasy World offers much more options. Crystal castles, ice castles, underwater castles sculpted in rocks and so on and so on, especially in the case of Highland castles. The shape of defending quarrels could be very irregular as it depended on the environment. However, lowland castles and there's those placed on irregularly shaped islands were quite often built on the rectangular plan. There could be one or more circles off defending quarrels in the latter case, each next, more inner wall was protecting more important buildings and so the landlord's castle or tower was placed within the inner walls, while external walls surrounded inhabitants and area supplying the castle. The structure should be very company, as a smaller circuit of walls is obviously easier to defend. Most activities in the castle were concentrated in the courtyard. There were stars, kitchens, esmie fee, a chapel and the Lord's Tower, also known as the keep. If possible, there was also a well, very important. During sieges, buildings were placed right next to the defending quarrels, as this place was so called blind spot for Attackers. However, sometimes the landlord's tower wasn't attached to the defending calls. Now let's focus on the whole list of obstacles hindering Attackers from conquering the castle. 9. 08 castles obstacles: not all of these obstacles upward in every castle, but they are very characteristic and interesting, I suppose. Mode field with water, savage and other ways and the dry mode with snares, spikes and other popular medieval gadgets. A trowbridge, a short wooden bridge connecting an entry gate with a permanent bridge made off stone or bricks, sometimes also before the permanent bridge or in the middle of it. There was a defending power, an entry gate, a place off the most concentrated attack in defense Gate drinks could be, for example, said in a tower with market relations. I'll talk about them and other irritants into next video. Massive defending Qualls walls were wider in the bottom. Not only for structure of the reasons is bottom levels off stones, Kareem or burden, but also to hinder digging a tunnel. Defending towers were usually placed on the bench off the wall. The round one were the most effective is it was especially difficult to crush them with a battering from, and they enable, targeting an enemy in all directions. If Attackers managed to cross the gate or dig a thana, they could meet state winding cramps, which prevented them from transporting buttering crumb and, additionally, disorientated the invaders. Another surprise could be stairs with very diverse size of steps, which made the attacker stumble and fall. And finally, number seven they keep It was the main central tower hardest, Okun queer. It housed rooms off the Lord, a food warehouse, an armory and the bottom level with dungeons where prisoners were kept. Attempts off piece castles were also judicial centers. Entrance to the tower could be placed a few meters above the ground level. In the case of attack, wooden stairs or ladders could be easily destroyed to complicate the take over a little bit , there were also other ways to disrupt invaders. Mission. If you have your own ideas for designing and the invader cinders, go ahead. Now you have an essential knowledge about the structure of medieval fortified castles. In the next video, we will take a look at castles. Details until a few words about common mistakes enjoying material castles 10. 09 castles details: In this video, we will focus on tiny little details that had a great influence on the level off defense. But from our aesthetic point of view, they added a lot off charm to the huge mass off medieval castles, thinking it was quite a sophisticated element on the left and the right. There were openings with chains used for moving and trowbridge up and down. Another nice feature was a wooden or iron part colors. It start tried before the gate leaves. It could be moved up and down on ropes or chains and finally vacate leaves. They could be studied, which not only looked great and cream, but also made it more difficult to crush them with an ax battlements reminding TIF and enabling Arges took cover behind the thief and in between them here is a funny, common mistake. Too low battlements, I think, as balcony railing and not like a cover with shooting possibilities. Another lovely details were stolen magic elation or wouldn't Harding? They could be placed right over the gate and in many other places on the wall as well. These facilities were very helpful in discouraging Attackers who managed to get right to the wall or gate through floor openings. Defenders could throw stones or heated son, which penetrated Attackers armors in a very effective way. Pouring boiling quarter or molten lead was also a common practice. Very narrow arrow sleeps placed in defensive towers and walls from the interfere site. They were wider, which enabled more or less comfortable aiming. And so we came to another common mistake. Still are during those in defending parts of a castle. It would be a perfect target for Attackers, even if sometimes we can see castles with large windows. These were built or rebuilt much later when the customs lost their defensive function due to the common use of gunpowder. Speaking off errors avoid also tiny little parrots with a capacitance of a small dog house . Another not so great idea are turrets looking as if they were suspended in the year and connected with the rest of the castle on Lee with a narrow and fragile breach which, considering that it would be made with stones or bricks, should break under its own ways. By the way, 11. 10 castles CASE STUDY: now, when we discussed the structure and the function of media stronghold, it's time to take a look at the case studies This one fortress, The fortified castle, has been located in a place hard to acquire in the middle of an enchanted swim, with hostile all seeing trees and other mysterious creatures perfect hidden just below the water surface. And it's slightly marked with churches, which can be easily taken off in the case of an oncoming attack. The next hinder is a wall made off sharpened wooden poles. The architecture itself is quite standard. The castle is built mostly off stone blocks with Onley. Minor wooden elements like hoarding wolves could be really nervous, even 50 meters high. And if you need to create a higher world for the needs of your friend as a work call for it , it's just important to remember that this structure has to make an impression off. Some think really massive and you're able not slander, and each corner off the defending cool is provided with the tower. However, each of these towers have a slightly different shape to achieve a diversified form off the whole forges off course. There's also a cave with all the necessary fancy stuff. And behind the walls you can see the main power so called the Keep all the tower off the last defense and that's it. In the next lesson, I'll be talking about the most amazing medieval buildings, namely Gothic cathedrals. 12. 11 cathedrals general structure: And so we've reached the climax of medieval architecture, namely the Gothic cathedrals. Why is this subject so important? Well, silhouettes off Gothic cathedrals dominated above other buildings and their significant elements of medieval town fuse the complex structures and intricate details can be a source of inspiration, even for those who need to design fantastic castles or other types off buildings. Moreover, neo Gothic chapels and cathedrals can be found in many horror and funders, books and games said in 18th and 19th century. At that time, the Gothic style had its revival in the form off neo Gothic architecture, which was often even more impressive than its archetype. Gothic constructions can look confusing at first, but it's a logical continuation of a quite simple and compact Roman style from the beginning off medieval era. All these core bills, buttresses and arches look almost surrealistic, but they were necessary from a construction point of view. Let me explain. A complex vault with ribs was more durable than previously used. Simple bolt buttresses were supporting walls, flying buttresses and waited external walls even better, and transferred the low to the ground. Also clustered columns were more effective than the simple columns in transferring pardon Gothic constructions were often results off. Trails and errors and errors have been quite often tremendous. Building catastrophe A cured from time to time, I stumbled upon an estimation stating that at least 17% off all ministerial cathedrals experienced catastrophic collapses. Many elements were also redesigned during the building process, when it was clear that the originally designed construction wouldn't be hard enough, one off the ways to make the unstable structure stable was adding strainer arches to the previously designed arches to help them resist the inward pressure. Oh, they look like typical elven details. By the way enough, a characteristic feature of Gothic architecture was off course. A very steep roof. The inclination angle should significantly exceed 45 degrees. All these efforts together were made just for one purpose. The retire entire. The total high off a Gothic cathedral could successfully exceed 100 meters. The highest one reached about 150. If for the purpose of your front of the environment, you would need to create even higher objects. This class go ahead as long as you remember about the system off supports 13. 12 cathedrals details: well, I hope that the previous construction lesson hasn't bored you too much for a change. Now we will discuss some fancy elements. Gargle served a sports conveying quarter away from walls. They were often portrayed a strange creatures animals, but also, as ordinary people like monks Grotesques Intern didn't need to serve any practical purpose . They were meant to be some kind of warning for believers, servants and vassals. At the same time, they were meant to scare away evil spirits. So both my Martha's and evil forces should be aware. Off stone figures, external buttresses could be joined by flying buttresses with external walls. They're decorated. Pigs quite often resembled mini shrines, so you can freely pulled their some atmospheric sculpture's not necessarily figures off saints. Pinnacles are despondent bigs on the top off parrots and the batteries is they can have quadri, lateral eggs, agonal or whatever you want base within the reason off course. Crockett's are small, repeatable ornaments appearing on spires and pinnacles. In the real world, they usually resemble fern leaves, but for your factors architecture, they can be formed in dragon heads, close or intricate flowers. How could manipulate people make such sophisticated details in such quantity. Using a so called fake stone appeared to be the key to success. Many in Gothic decorations were, in fact repeatable castings off grout and sand made in specially shaped forms. Still sounds like a lot of work for me, even if making all these details didn't require curving them in stone, would you like to know more about the graphic details? In the next part, I will tell about artist doors and windows. 14. 13 cathedrals arches doors windows: Now it's time to get acquainted with the Gothic, urges stars and dwindles. If you want to be true through the historical style, you may want to follow this part more strictly. However, if you would like to create your own fantasy style, which would be on the inspired by Gothic architecture, feel free to create the details much more freely. Here are samples off cathedral elements in various fantasist styles there based on the same structure and proportions, but the tapes and materials are clearly different. Let's start with arches, even if the first picture coming to your mind when you think about the Gothic arch looks like this, it doesn't have to be so simple. You can add some personal touch by joing creative decorations or even supporting elements like Strainer Out. Just discusses a few videos ago which ever art teachers remember about one important matter . Keystone's In the case of Around the Arches. The middle part of it consisted off one. You're able stone often bigger than the others. Common mistake just owns meeting each other at the highest point off this kind of arch. This part receives the strongest loan, so it has to be the most durable. Besides, it's a great opportunity to add some atmospheric dictates. However, pointed arches works a little bit different, so you may see also Arges, with two health keystones meeting at the top off the arch. Both windows and more significant doors in Gothic cathedrals consisted off pointed arches. In contrast, a rounded arches used in romance style earlier in medieval times. Yes, those with significant Keystone's windows is they could be really huge were often divided with one or more columns, which had a structural explanation. Additionally, this solution created space for pretty off some around elements. The options were endless. Gothic windows could be as high as 25 meters, but remember they were field with relatively small parts off glass. Joint with lead, though the most characteristic type of Gothic windows was not a slim, soaring window. But a huge round shape throws window with the central composition off symmetrical divisions . Again, the number off patterns variations is endless. The color off state glass wasn't random, and it depended on the world's directions. At the same time, ordinary people had to feel their little windows with animal membranes, ST skin or parchment. Getting back to cathedrals, portals were just as much, or maybe even more impressive than Windows they consisted up is proportionally huge doors, often divided with the magnificent decorated pillar There's could be made of wood metal or mix off this still, and obviously they were richly decorated over the entrance. There was a temple, normally free leaves or a rose window with stained glass usually presenting some important scene. Arches could be decorated with figures off saints or floral motives, but you can really use your imagination here. In the case of many Gothic portals, there was also a steep cable called I actually Forgot to mention that sometimes, even when those could be decorated with this kind of gable horizontal section off pillars could look, for example, like these. Now let's move to the last case study. 15. 14 cathedrals CASE STUDY: time for the last case study in Discourse, the Magician's Palace. I've been joining France off cathedrals quite a few times, So this time I decided to choose a backside. Few Probably. It's also a better angle to show the structure off. This type of building with all this side batteries is my imagine. The building is not the sacred building but Imaginations Palace in Gothic style, with three separate floors. In the case off churches, the main name was one huge space from the ground up to the rich. Standard troops on gossip cathedrals had no or small windows, but in this case, I chose to design a relatively large windows. Is the attic would be a private residential part of the building. Bottom parts of Bachus is look more solely is they have to carry more load, while the upper parts are more open work, as they should be. Relatively light sculptures in middle times were quite stuff. But if you are planning to design a phantoms and not a historical building, you can add more dynamic sculptures. That's all for now. 16. 15 summary: In this brief course, I presented some essential examples off building types and for your elements. Don't worry. Following symbols will not limit your creativity. Just treat them like guidelines and the source of inspiration. If you remember the general rules and steps you will be able to create credible in panic architecture, Elvin houses and whatever is in your mind, I really hope that you found this course helpful or interesting. If so, you can recommend it to your friends and colleagues. Any separate of this kind would be highly appreciated. If you have any remarks, you can leave a comment here, right? Me and Amy.