Introduction to Child Psychology | Elmira Strange | Skillshare

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Introduction to Child Psychology

teacher avatar Elmira Strange, Psychologist, Coach

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

20 Lessons (2h 7m)
    • 1. Promo Video for the Course

    • 2. 1. About the Teacher

    • 3. 2. About the Course

    • 4. 3. What is 'Child Psychology'?

    • 5. 4. Role of Child Psychologist

    • 6. 5. Where Child Psychologists work

    • 7. 6. Why Do We Need Theories?

    • 8. 7. Child Development: Nature (Genetics)

    • 9. 8. Child Development: Nurture (Environment)

    • 10. 9. The 'Attachment' Factor in Newborns

    • 11. 10. Socio-Cultural Factors & Child Development

    • 12. 11. Do Children Shape Their Own Environment?

    • 13. 12. Role of Parenting in Child Development

    • 14. 13. Relationship Breakdown (Separation / Divorce)

    • 15. 14. Schooling Environment

    • 16. 15. How to Counsel Young Children?

    • 17. 16. Language Development

    • 18. 17. Emotions & Feelings: Development

    • 19. 18. Socialising (Benefits)

    • 20. 19. Thank You & Good Bye!

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About This Class

Are you interested in learning about child’s psychology and child’s behaviour? 

Is your first step towards a professional career as a 'child psychologist'? Or would you use this knowledge as a part of your current work?  

In any case you are in the right place!

In this course you will take 19 informative lectures where you will find out many interesting aspects that you’ll be able to use in your own professional career.

Here you will learn for example:

  • what are the 4 parenting styles 
  • how to recognise parenting behaviour type in others
  • what's better - education from public schools Vs homeschooling
  • how can parental separation and divorce affect the child
  • how to counsel young children
  • what is 'attachment' in newborn babies
  • and so much more! 

So, what are you waiting for? Enrol now and I'll see you in my class!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Elmira Strange

Psychologist, Coach


Hey, my name is Elmira Strange, and I am Research Psychologist (MPhil), Cognitive Behavioural Therapist (Dip), and Certified Life Coach (Dip). I love combining my passion for Psychology with Coaching.

The unusual bit: I was born in Northern Kazakhstan (where it's freezing cold in winter -40C), then moved to Russia, then to the United Kingdom.

The interesting bit: I had a life-saving surgery and near-death experience in 2012. The near-death experience made me realise that we are here to share our knowledge, help each other, and enjoy this life.

My interests: Psychology, Online Entrepreneurship, Spirituality, and Paranormal phenomena (no wonder after my near-death experience!)

My previous experience: Whilst I was working at University (Wales, UK) as a Senior R... See full profile

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1. Promo Video for the Course: are you interested in learning about child psychology and child's behavior? Is it your feel step towards a professional career as a child psychologist Or you would use this knowledge as a part of your current work. Or perhaps you want to build your own business or just use this knowledge to get to know your own Children. In any case, you are in the right place. Hello, my name is Adam, your a strange and I'm research psychologist with em field in psychology and counseling. On this course, I will teach you the most important and most interesting information related to child psychology. In this course, you will take 19 informative lectures where you will find out many interesting aspects that you will be able to use in your own professional Korea. Here you will learn, for example, what are their four parenting styles and how to recognize them in others? How does schooling from public schools versus homeschooling affects the child development? How does a parent separation and divorce affect the child? How does counseling young Children really happened? And so much more? You will also understand what is attachment factor in newborn babies and how our society and culture affect the child's learning and development. Are you ready to start your professional path with my course on introduction to child psychology? Then what are you waiting for? Enroll now and I will see in my class. 2. 1. About the Teacher: Hello and welcome to my class. My name is Samir Strange. And I'm your Ceuta at the school. For these course, If you took any of my other courses, you will know quite a bit about me. Originally, I'm from Russia. But most of my life I spent in England in the UK This is where I developed my my passion for psychology and counseling related topics on this is what I've been doing. I've been working as a professional researcher on then as a lecturer at the university and now I am teaching in online schools. Mainly, you will see many of my courses and most of them are related to psychology and counseling. So feel free to go through them on if you like any of them. If you have any questions whatsoever, contact me directly on will be happy to assist you whether it is to choose the right course for you at that time, whether you have any questions about the courses or the certificates that come with courses , whether you would like some discounted coupon for any of my courses as well, who knows? I can help. What? I will try to help you as much as I can if you want to contact me at all than the best way to do it through the school itself. If not, you can also find me on social media such as Facebook because I manage some Facebook groups . This is when you can contact me with your questions. I'll be happy to answer them as well. For you. I'm always happy to hear actually from my students. So thank you for your interest in my course, Andi, I'll see in my next video where I talked a little bit about the course that you're about to take. 3. 2. About the Course: hello and welcome again to the second video of this course where I'm talking a little bit about the course that you are about to take. This is in the introduction to child psychology course. I do have my other courses, which are stand alone child psychology and adolescent counseling, off Children and adolescent courses. They are more detailed than more full offer a certain information. So I go more deep in these courses. In these course, I give you quite a bit of information. It's it's good enough as well, and it's deep enough as well for a beginner, I would say so it's easier to digest, but at the same time it gives you the snippets off everything you would learn when you go into the deep full on standalone course, like a state actually off a child, psychology cores, so in the course will be touch on. So many different topics will be looking at the child's upbringing and what factors influence the development. So it would be social factors and cultural and nature versus nurture debate. So how much off the genetic influence the child has? Only developments on how much of the environmental or parenting star styles and skills that would affect the development. We'll be looking at how Children memorize, how they learn, how they retain information, how they develop their cognitive skills, how they learn to socialize with others. At what age and how do they form relationships with others, how they developed a strong bond with the first K Give us. There is so much more you will find in this course on. I'm pretty sure that you will enjoy so thank you for enrolling into this class on Let's get down toe our first lecture. 4. 3. What is 'Child Psychology'?: hello and welcome to our first section off our lectures in this course, which is called Child Psychology applied. So throughout this section will be looking at waters Child psychology. What is developmental studies? Water. We mean when we say that what it is important to focus on, how better to approach childhood studies? What would you use them for on many, many other things? So I'm welcoming you once again to this course and to our feels lecture in this course. And in this lecture we're talking about Water East child psychology. So let's have a look first at the definition and what exactly eat involves. So Child psychology is one of the specialities in psychology that focuses on starting the four months of years off a child child psychology, also called child development, the study off the psychological processes off Children and, specifically, how these processes differ from those off adults, how they develop from birth to the end of other lessons, and how and why they differ from watch held to the next. Charles psychology is often referred to US developmental psychology, so you might see both terms, child psychology or developmental psychology. While I used both in this course, so you will see both of these terms so child psychologists can be often called developmental psychologists instead. Sometimes child psychology goes together with a study of infancy and adolescence, though that is not necessary that they involved in many textbooks. Child development refers to Charles Darling as one of the influential figures who in 18 forties started making records off growth and development off his own Children well being objective in his observations. So he was objective even when he was observing his own Children. A Ziff you were studying an unknown species later on. Psychology such as William Prayer and Stately Hole suggested more refined methodology for recording developmental stages and differences off Children's growth. Later on, intelligence testing tools were added to the whole field off child or developmental psychology, which is now viewed on a clinical level. Childhood psychology is a specialized branch of traditional psychology that focuses on Children mainly the development and behavior. It is one of the most commonly studied types off psychology. Today, this type of psychology typically covers every child from birth to other lessons. Some areas covered on the childhood psychology includes milestones, behavior problems, social skills, mental and emotional well being and development. So child psychology in composites many things that you can study. For example, you can specialize in cognitive developments such as memory thinking and learning in small Children. Or perhaps so, you can focus on emotional and socio cultural development off other lessons. Or perhaps you could focus your work and research on giving advice to parents off preschool Children or Children with developmental disabilities. Or you can be especially in parenting behavior on the interaction with a teenage Children. Because child psychology is a vast area of study, it is often gets divided into different areas of research and specialty. But also it is studied through developmental theories, which will be looking at later. The developmental theories are important and interesting to study because they give us the answers on how the child is changing through various age stages, for example, since the birth to the first year of age, or from 0 to 2 years of age, which is the in front and total a stage. The stage is a fairly childhood would be very different from those of Middle childhood war . The lessons the child can develop quicker or slower and it would be learning different things in different stages, for example, that might be more focused on being assertive and succeeding in school or in developing the socializing skills or being more independent from the parents. The aims of developmental or child psychology is to understand and explain on often optimize development. It is easier done if it is explained in certain stages, however, it is easier to observe the stages than to explain them especially well, Ryan how they're curing Even though the psychologist identified very stages that are understandable and clear to most in reality, no two people are alike, so the process can be a curing differently in different individuals. As you know, this is why the parents are told not to panic if the child is developing slower in certain areas than are the Children. In any case or ideally, any child should achieve certain milestone off growth and development that is set by researchers, which would indicate the child's normal or healthy development. So still, there are some guidelines, guidelines and step stones to that, and some psychological theories described the child development in a linear fashion, as if they develop in this growing steadily and smoothly, where it would be hard to notice the actual transitions from one stage to the next, whereas are the psychological theories describe child development or something that can be seen us a staircase or steps from one stage to another? Finally, we can say here that child psychology also tries to answer the eternal debates on nature versus nurture or how much influence genetics have on the child's development and how much of the child's environment plays the part in it. So it's it's a genetics or environment or both, and this is what we will be discussing throughout this course on. If you want to know more about it in detail, then you would be interested in my other courses, such as child psychologist certificates. This is the introduction to child psychology, and I do have stand alone child psychology, certificate course and counseling Children and adolescents. So to wrap it up, we can see the child or developmental Psychology is a branch of psychology on a specialty that is focused on understanding human development and growth, typically starting from birth and until they adolescent stage Charles psychology is taken into account many theories that emphasized genetic and environmental influences on the child's development and observes that there's changes that happened in stages or milestones . Child psychology examines the interaction off personal characteristics, social and cultural influences parents are bringing and many other factors that influence Children's development and growth. And finally, child psychology interacts with other areas or specialities of psychology such as educational psychology and cognitive and clean ical psychology, to name a few. Well, this is the end off the first lecture, and I hope you're enjoying it. You know, the next lecture will be looking at their roll off child psychologist what it is you need to know in order to become one, if that's what your goal is. So what the what child psychologist do what is their own, where they work? This is what will be discussing in our next lecture. So thank you for watching, and I will see you there 5. 4. Role of Child Psychologist: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we were discussing the role off child psychologist. So from the previous lecture, you know that child psychologist, very in the specialties, you can specialize in so many different things, depending on the age of Children, all the psychological well being. Perhaps you can work with Children who have learning disabilities or any other developmental disorders. You can work with other license. You can work with small Children. You can work with parents and how they use parenting skills with newborns and with little, well, young Children, for example. There are so many things you can specialize on if that's what you choose. So think about what it is interest you from the start and try to focus on that because Children, they're so different and they're very from from 0 to 18 year old, they're all different. They have different needs. They think differently. They go through different stages. They physiology, changes, the cognitive functioning change changes. There are so many things that differ from one stage to another. So this is why it zee quite important to know what it is you would like to work with with award category off your clients. Who would you see? You know, working, want to want? For example, So one child psychologist can be very different from now the child psychologist in relation to what they do. And they can also work in different settings, like received with pear and so Children themselves. They can work with groups or individuals. The work off a child psychologist can involve assessments and diagnosis off achieved milestones off certain developmental disorders, such as autism or global developmental delay. Often those who want to become a child psychologist study for master degree and then are quite often doctoral level degree. That's to become a clinical child psychologist. They get many hours of practice, which includes volunteer work with Children, adolescence or families, and also paid paid practices well because when studying such important area of psychology, as you can imagine, this requires a lot of understanding off how the process off growth and development really happens. What can go wrong on the possible ways of detecting it as a less possible in order to provide some clinical help, other people study introductory levels of child psychology in order to all this time the basics off behavioral and developmental factors, which then they can use and understanding that all Children or working with Children and other lessons, whether it is on volunteer or paid basis or using this knowledge as a stepping stone in the studies of Korea. Perhaps this is what you do now because this is an introductory level to psychology, and then perhaps you want to carry on to study a bit more. Or maybe you want to use it because you are a parent and you would like to know more about behavior off your Children. Overall child psychologist have an important role to provide the services that can help the clients to improve quality off their lives. So by client women, the child oh, the parent off the family, for example, psychologists typically assess, diagnose and treat behavioral dysfunctions and psychological disorders of the clients, such as learning disabilities, depression and anxiety. And they also promote healthy way of leaving and also teach parenting skills and educate families about prevention of very psychological disorders in the Children. It is known that, for example, around 20% of all Children in the U. S. Display symptoms of various psychological disorders on their own. 7% evidencing extreme functional impairment. It is also known that, if not identified a Lee and provided with appropriate and proven treatment options, Children may go on to bully others, show chronic school failure, engage in serious delinquency, use violence repeatedly on US adults, commit crimes, abuse substances and face employments and relationship failures. So, as you can see, there are definite problems within our society that could not be ignored and left alone. Instead, they have to be detected as early as possible through assessments. And many off the situations can be prevented or improved through education, behavior modifications, therapeutic sessions that involved Children and their parents. These strategies can be developed and tailor to each individual need. And this is the role and responsibility of a child psychologist to have an active stance in preventing, improving and treating psychological disorders that can lead to such negative consequences as being bullied in school, experience of failure in schooling, engaging into dysfunctional relationship with peers and even participating in violence and very substances addictions later on. So this is why child psychologist to be cut me well in order to become a professional clinical child psychologist. This is not necessary you're all on your goal. But generally speaking, to become a professional psychologist, you need to undertake quite quite a lot of years of study and research because it is so complex and it is so important, especially to learn to diagnose and to prevent many of psychological disorders that we have in our society. So next let's have a look where Jews child psychologist work. Thank you for watching. I know we'll see there. 6. 5. Where Child Psychologists work: Hello and welcome to our next. A lecture where we're discussing where do child psychologist work? Maybe you have some answers and some ideas already. Maybe your you can think off like, for example, a school or a cleaning. So let's discuss it here. So from previous lecture, you know, the child psychologists are concerned with many things, such as Children's behavior or the performance in school. Developmental off mental health, normal mental well being as it should be on preventing and treating psychological disorders . Sometimes child psychologist can be referred to US educational psychologists. But in fact, there is a difference between the two. Educational psychologist is concerned with human learning, which means, for example, how the child is absorbing new information. The based ways to recall after learning or to remember the best environment that enables to the child to learn better. Where is a child psychologist? As we said, Alia is more concerned with detection, prevention and treatment off any underlying psychological disorders. Child psychologist can work first of all in school settings. Here they help Children to resolve these social, emotional and academic issues. Next child psychologist can work in hospitals and mental health clinics. The clients, which typically include a child, and the parents come to see the psychologist by referral from the general practitioner or family doctor. In hospital settings, the psychologist can diagnose and help to overcome psychological illnesses. For example, they might diagnose learning disabilities, administer psychological tests and conduct therapy sessions, amongst other things. So if you decide to become a clinical child psychologist in the future, then your work can be grouped into the areas off assessment, consultation, intervention and prevention. Your clients might include premature eel and drug addicted newborns, Children with schizophrenia, autism developments or trauma survivors. So, as we mentioned earlier, assessment can include conducting various tests such as cognitive and behavioral. But it can also be based on interviews with Children and their parents and observation and monitoring the child's performances. Where is intervention can involve a wide range of treatments such as Courtney different behavioral therapy, counseling based sessions, behavior modification at home and in a classroom. Prevention often includes educational sessions that are aimed at steer Children away from delinquency, substance abuse and teen pregnancy, shield them from prolonged exposure to abusive or neglectful environments, and avoid delays in language and cognitive development. Many councils that work in schools are also concerned with the same aims and work with Children in a very similar manner. What differs them council ist from child psychologist is the council is tend to work with Children who have already being diagnosed with a mental health issue, and they cannot make an actual diagnosis, asked the child psychologist. Would some child psychologists can also work in courts where the help young clients who have come into contact with the criminal justice system help prepare Children to testify in court or work with Children in the middle off child custody disputes in any off these settings, Whether you're working in a law office, mental health clinic or school, your work would often include, for example, advising to and negotiated with parents and teachers, doing some additional research, writing reports, designing educational material, developing and applying new interventions that promote the child's well being and the social, emotional and behavioral development. With these work, you might be expected to travel to different locations. For example, where are the schools or hospitals based on work within multi disciplinary teams, But with this work, you can also become self employed and work on freelancing basis primarily given consultations to a client. So you can be a consultant. You can be even online Consultant, if you like with this knowledge. Finally, we can see that to become a child psychologist, you need to possess the following skills. You need tohave excellent communication skills. You need to be able to experience empathic understanding towards your clients. You need to have assertiveness and persuasion skills and also you should be good at time management and administration related skills. Okay, so this is the end of these later. Where now you know what is child psychologist, what they do and where they work and what you need to have. What sort of skills, what kind of interest in order to become one and how far you can go. Because, as we say, Alia, you can go all the way to professional clinical child psychology. Career away. You can work for yourself and become a consultant, perhaps, and work with parents or Children themselves. You can even work online through Skype and doing consultation that way where you can see them in your home office if you like, as well. The main thing is that you are your gathering. You're learning a really good knowledge of theoretical background about child psychology, and that's the main thing. So next will be looking up theories what we need them for. We call them developmental theories because they're related to childhood studies. So we'll be looking at various theories. And why do we need them? Why do we need to learn them? Because they are complex and sometimes you have to learn the names and the dates and everything else, so they're that important. So let's have a look at it, you know, next lecture. Thank you for watching, and I will see you there. 7. 6. Why Do We Need Theories?: hello and welcome to the next new mortal, where we will be discussing theories off childhood studies on why we need them for the thing is, if you'll go to study child psychology in any environment in school, in College of University, you will be studying a lot off theories that pean that underpin and the knowledge that what we've got now by now about childhood development. So let's talk about why do need theories in the first place. So when you decide to study psychology, you might feel very un prepared about the amount or theoretical information that you will have to go through during the course at college or university. It is all well and good to learn about what makes people tick, why they behave differently when they're on their own, or in a group, why Children don't understand hidden meanings or when they learn human body language. But every one of the explanations that you will find your in your study of psychology will be backed up by several theories. Some old and some year that were based on research conducted by someone else is at some point. The theories would vary widely on the same phenomenon can be explained from so many different points. For example, the child developments can be explained by theories off Sigmund Freud, Erick Erickson, Albert, Pandora and Alice, and they all will be different from each other. You might think, How can anyone fall of this thing? How can you know? Be so confused by all these theories that may even contradict each other? Well, to answer these questions, let's have a look at the purpose off theories in psychology way, in other words, why we use them in the first place, even if they contradict each other. So the purpose of psychology theories. I explained us such the first awful theories. They provide us with some framework. So in other words, theories provide basis for understanding human development and behavior. We understand all the wise and house as we absorb more and more information about human psychology. Each theory provides a context for understanding a certain aspect of human behavior. Behavioral theories, for example, provide the basis for understanding how people learn New things are the theory, such as cognitive. Four psychological theories will give us completely different angle on the same phenomena and issues on. We will see some examples off. Apply theories later on throughout these cores. Secondly, theories provide bases for Phil. The research researchers come up with various theories all the time, but to see whether they are actually true or and violet, they need to be tested. Then they're called hypothesis, which then get tested. The results of the test IC hypothesis give us a theoretical on the standing off some aspect in psychology. These, in turn, provides us with more questions and ideas for more ideas and theories that also archer into hypothesis and later get tested through research. 30 theories can evolve. Theories are not static. They can get tested at certain stages through time. On. The result can be different because the time the culture and people change theaters can be mortified and adopted where new information can be added. While theories are sometimes presented a static and fixed, they tend to evolve over time. As new researchers explored. Attachment Theory, for example, began with a work of John Bowlby and Mary hangs worth and has expanded and grown to include new descriptions of different attachment styles, so theories are not fixed. They can change and be mortified over time, but The main thing to remember is the theories are the corner stones off? Scientific research research in theory, start from observation off a certain phenomena on the guesses off, why and how certain processes are behaviors function. There's educated gazes lead to setting up off her prosthesis before any testing or research begins. Hypothesis would then be tested for its validation. For example, hypothesis can sound like Children who have strong attachments with the siblings tend to have better relationships with a piers. This might be true or might not be true. It's a guess. It's a proposition off a theory. If these hypothesis is valid after we tested it, then we might have discovered some interesting theory. Which van can be added to the whole off. Theoretical information in psychology Explaining how something works is important, and not only for the sake of knowledge itself. Explanations can lead to solutions. You can't fix something if you don't understand what's going wrong. So we need theories because we understand how certain things work, whether it is a phenomena related to social interactions of Children with their peers, the behavior in the group or school settings, the attention and learning processes or the general well being. When we have a theory that has enough evidence invalidity, then we understand how those processes often nominal works and what we can do in order to improve the situation or prevent certain issues. If, for example, a theory that learning disabilities can be improved by certain school in approach is valid , then this approach can be implemented by child psychologists in schools. So by having this theory, we might be able to prevent or even improve this condition in many Children, we can develop for all the theories based on the one we've managed to get evidence for. So in our example, we can not only improve the symptoms off learning disabilities but also find ways off managing situations where the disorder is mostly evident. So now you can see why we need these theories in psychology because we come up with hypotheses, we come up with ideas or our opinions that have to be tested. Way cannot just say it and use it, even if it seems so obvious to others that it's true it has to be tested on then research give birth to our research on this is how the whole off. Psychology is building on pretty much any science, to be honest. So you know, one next couple of lectures will be looking at the developmental theories on some of them will be related to genetics. What we're born with our predispositions and the other environmental and the other psychological theories will beam or environmental because there will be related to the environment. How the environment shape the child's behavior. Onda personality perhaps. So thank you for watching and I will see you know, next lecture. 8. 7. Child Development: Nature (Genetics): hello and welcome to all. Next lecture, where we'll be discussing developmental theories, what we're born with. So it's all about our genes. Our genetic predisposition is the factors. This, the things that we're born with. Is there such a thing, or are we born with a blank states where we don't know anything on? We have to learn everything from scratch. But then how would you describe Children who are geniuses? And they're very good at something? Do they learning because they provided by the parents the environments, why they're so good at it? So I was one. I'm wondering what is your stance? What is your opinion on this? And you're very welcome to add comments about you know what you think. Well, it's a theory or genetics what is more powerful here, But so let's have a look at the development of theories that explain from these genetic what we're born with point. The main thing to understand about theories within psychology is that they often try to answer the questions, how much off a roll nature play in a certain phenomenon and how much off nurture impacted on it. So it's have a lasting question off nature versus nurture, and what do we mean by that? Let's have a look at it. First. Nurture means our environments, for example, our culture beliefs. The society were born with parent, his skills of our parents, our siblings, the family, socioeconomic status, even on the health off, others around us. Whilst we're growing up, they habits and addictions. Everything can influence our development where it's nature. On the other hand, it simply means our genetic predispositions that we're born with, for example, our personality traits that we might have bean born with, or a certain psychological disorder that was present at birth and have genetic causes. Researchers often debate how much influence genetic half over our development, which is nature on in what degree? Our environment, which is nurture, impact, our health, personality, character and so on. In developmental psychology, we also have these two strong standpoints nature versus nurture. So let's briefly have a look out. Theorists that proposed that nature or what we're born with through our genetics is on what place the major role in our development on the first theorist you need to be aware off is John Bowlby. He's a researcher and developmental psychologists who proposed the attachment theory, which explains the babies are born with a predisposition to form attachments with others from the day they're born. Through the smiles, gaze at the K Give us face is innocent and sweet sounds that they made during this process . They simply make the K give it to fall in love with them. The attachment has to be formed as soon as it is possible because it is vital to the baby's survival. Without the caregiver, the baby can become ill and die as a species. It simply cannot survive without someone's assistance, babies cannot feed themselves, nor they can protect themselves from the environment. On. Bowlby proposed that all babies have this innate skill to form attachments to other people , in particular to a caregiver, which now makes sense right. We will discuss this topic in a more detail throughout this course, but for now, let's have a look it. And now the researcher and practitioner that you might be familiar with the second theories is Sigmund Freud. He's in another influential figure, which you're probably familiar with. Maybe very well. He came up with the psycho sexual developmental theory in his time this theory has both sides of nature versus nurture debate because it explains that all Children go through similar developmental stages. You can no change or swap them, ask their governs by nature, as we say. But Freud explained that our environment, which is nurture, can significantly affect each and every off these stages. For example, at the age of 0 to 1 year old, babies go through what he called the aural stage, which is characterized by the baby's ability to suck. The sucking reflects is what helps the baby to get the sustenance from the feels day off life. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from aural stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and suckling. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers who are responsible for the feeding the child, the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this aural stimulation. The psycho sexual theory explains that any disruption at this stage can significantly affect the individual's adult life later on, because the aural stage is referred toe Orel related activities, so the consequences off any disruption to the babys feeding, for example, can lead to development off negative Orel related habits later, wrong. The person, for instance, can develop addictions such as drinking alcohol, smoking, eating too much food when they're older, so you can see it's all Orel related activities. As you would say so. In the Freud's theory, each stage of child development is important, so they fill their well being in the adult hood and the third theorised it gene PR did. Who is another here? The theories who proposed cognitive developmental theory, which explains the Children, think differently than adults do, and the Children go through several stages off cognitive development. The stage is off this cognitive or intellectual development very distinctive from each other and explain how the child perceives the world on how they develop they thinking. For example, one of the stages is called the Concrete Operational Stage, which accused uring the ages of seven and 11. At this age, the child grasps better. How they cognition functions. They're able to think logically about country concrete events, though they still have a difficulty off understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts during the ages of 12 on into the adult hood, the child is in the formal operational stage where they're able to think about abstract and hypothetical concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning and systematic planning also emerge during this stage off the age of 12 years old. So these are the theories that the while the main three theories which explain the child's in Naples, position or law. As you could see some of them explained from both sides. In any case, you need to be familiar with all three off. These theories on will go to other three in a moment. So now you know that theories can explain they theories from different standpoints. Some talk about how we develop disorders in our adult hood because we have problems at some stage, like Sigmund Freud Saints. If we have problems in our Orel stage than when we become adults, we can develop habits which are related to Orel functioning, such as addiction such as smoking or drinking or eating junk food, for example. Well, addiction to the food, as you would say, and what do you think about attachment theory by John Bowlby Do you think that he's right to say that we're born with the ability to form our attachment, are born with our parents because primarily it's apparent it's a mother. So we attach that born from our Thursday and it's not something that will we learn from others. It's actually we have that in a predisposition, but we will be discussing this topic later on as well. So anyway, let's have a look at other theories that explain more environmental background or environmental factors To Childs devil on developments. Is it that the environment is responsible to how we develop? So this is what will be discussing, you know, next lecture. Thank you for watching, and I will see their 9. 8. Child Development: Nurture (Environment): hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we'll be discussing theories that are related to environmental studies in by environmental factors. So by now, you probably forming your own opinion. How much off a genetic influence We have own child's development on how much of environments, But of course, you will make even stronger opinion after these lecture. So let's get down to it now. Theoretical knowledge that is based on the environment side off, off the argument nurture versus nature is no one asked behaviorism or behavioral child theories. During the first half of the 20th century, a new school of thought known us behaviorism arose to become a dominant force within psychology. Behaviorists believe that psychology needed to focus on Lee on observable and quantifiable behaviors in order to become a more scientific discipline. So behaviorists or the researchers who believe the child formative years depend on Lee on the environmental factors proposed that all human behavior can be described in terms off environmental influences. This means that all psychological factors such as learning memory, personality traits, behavior habits and addictions, and everything else within child psychology, is shaped by individual environment. So, for example, if you know someone who is constantly sod and even depressed. Behaviorist would explain that the person's environment such a way they leave the relationships with their parents and peers, the schooling and so on shape the current predisposition to being sad and depressed. This is Hollywood, Explain is so in this case, the genetic predisposition doesn't play any role as if it doesn't exist. So the person have learned this response off being depressed and Assad rather than he was born to be predisposed to these condition. Well known in psychology behaviorists such as B. F. Skinner, Joan Watson on Even Pavlov focus on Lee on the interaction off individual's environments, and the observable behavior development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishment, stimuli and reinforcement. This theory differs considerably from other child development, their theories because it gives no consideration to internal thoughts or feelings. Instead, it focuses poorly on how experience shapes who we are. So from this quote, you can see that behaviorists are focused on Lee on the behavioral aspect of human developments, which is shaped as a result off reactions to various factors such as rewards and punishments, genetic predispositions and even internal cognitive processes are not taken into account, and the person is viewed as a human who's able to react to very stimuli. John Watson is considered to be a father off behaviorism. He didn't quite agree with theories of Sigmund Freud about human development and instead proposed that people reacted various events based on the overall experiences off previous, similar events. He believed that every person can learn and relearn behavior, given an appropriate environments for learning. In experiments he performed in the alienating hundreds, he showed that he could condition or train Children to respond to a certain stimulus in a way that was different from what a normal response would be. In the absence of such training, for example, Watson showed how he could change the response to pleasant things to the one off discussed or horror. In one of his experiment, he conditioned a young child to fear a white rat which previously was painted and played with by the child. These kind of experiments, as you can imagine, have terrible consequences and now wouldn't be allowed to be conducted because of the ethical considerations. When the child was able to pet the rod, he was conditioned to be afraid of it. As a result, the child whose name was Albert I was afraid of many similar animals. Albert not only feared rots but had been programmed through the experiment to fear most other white and fuzzy objects as well. From colds to Santa Claus beards. Let's have a look at another famous behaviorist, Yvonne Pavel, off even Pavlov's work directly with dogs and in his experiments, where he was able to show that dogs but also humans can be conditioned to certain stimuli. For example, if a bell would be a reigning before each feeding, then the dogs would start salivate as soon as they hear the bell, even if the food is not present in front of them. This is a conditioned response that can be also stopped with time if food is not given for a prolonged period of time. In other words, the dogs would celebrate on Lee a few times when they hear the bell, but eventually these conditioned response off celebrating would simply go away if the food is not given time of the time. Another researcher who was interested in child development from behaviors perspective Waas Edward Thorndike, who introduced us to the term off instrumental conditioning in a similar manner. As even Pablo Edward Thorndike was conducting his research using animals. In his case, it was mainly cats he worked with. Through his experiments, he was able to show that cats are able to learn, for example, the exit from the enclosed container by pressing the right button, after which they would receive food. Each time the cat was placed in the books, the time of finding the right bottom to escape would be reduced, which suggested that cats were able to remember how to find the exit on that cattle, where that the behavior is important to the escape and receiving food. Thorndike also proposed that any behavior can be strengthened through reinforcement, for example, through food or positive appraisal or even through punishment. But the behavior can also be weakened due to the lack off appraisal or punishment. So this is what behaviorists suggest that we learned from our environment. Our environment can shape the way we respond to various stimuli to very situations, and this is how we learn and if it is reinforced by someone's appraisal or somebody give us some gift every time we do something or punish us for something, then this behavior can be either reinforce. We do demand Mawr Oy can be seized, dependent on what's the desired goal is, well, it can be. Also, our behavior can also be weakens by the lack off appraisal. If they stopped giving us gifts for something we do, we tend to see their behavior. So that's in the simple terms, Railey. So now we'll start our next section, where we will be discussing environmental and social and cultural factors. So any other factors that can help the child to develop into the adult eventually. So I hope you're enjoying it so far, you know, way to find me if you have any questions so far, any comments I'm always happy to hear from my students do check the additional PdF's. I often includes some additional resources as well and different tests and quizzes. So have a look at the section with additional information or contact me directly. If you cannot find it on, I will point out how to do it. So thank you for watching and I will see in our next section. And by the way, I wanted to say, well done you because you are going through through these course so quick and so fast, but do take time to learn as well go on the website. Have a look at are the topics if we discuss something like even Pavlov's theory or Sigmund Freud's theory off child development, and you find it quite fascinating to hear about that, go online, for example, or to your library. Have a look with books or what articles about it there. Just read it for yourself because this is how you get the most out off your learning. So anyhow, thank you for watching, and I will see you know, next lecture. 10. 9. The 'Attachment' Factor in Newborns: Hello and welcome to our new model, where we're discussing various factors that affect child developments on the first lecture will start with East. The attachment theory, which you are familiar with by now on the theories, is John Bowlby. Now you remember it, right? So we'll start from that theory because it's an important one to understand that this is from the Thursday off a baby's life. This is what's happening to them. So anyway, you will see what I mean asked. We'll start learning it. So did you notice how babies can be cute without even trying? Did you notice how cute they become off when they're looking at the mom and even other people at times? Are they just naturally cute, or is there something going on there? In one of our previous lectures, we've mentioned one researcher and psychologist who explain these phenomena in a very understandable way. His name is John Bowlby, who in late 19 sixties proposed the attachment theory. This theory suggests that childhood development depends greatly on the infants ability, toe form attachments or strong relationship with a least one of the caregivers, which typically means the baby's parents. When a baby is looking at his or her parents. They would use many strategies toe form that strong born. They would make cute noises. They would prolong the gays. They would stretch the arms towards the parents. They would interact as much as it is possible with a caregiver. All this down with the sole purpose. To make the K giver to feel strong emotions and the attachment towards the baby. A baby cannot survive on their own. They need someone else to feed them, to clean them and to make their life comfortable. The baby cannot be independent at that stage. In fact, it is fully dependent on the environment when the attachment to the KGO is formed. These provides the baby with the stability and security. Without this strong attachment in place, the baby can feel more fearful in the exploration activities. It's like the attachment gives them a secure base to come back to. Where is not having this base means the baby needs to be more careful and aware off the surroundings, which reduces the chances to be open to opportunities. Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space attachment doesn't have to be reciprocal. One person may have an attachment to an individual, which is not shared. Attachment is characterized by specific behaviors, and Children, such as seeking proximity with the attachment figure when upset off threatens so attachment and Children can be seen through the behavior. Children want to be closer to the caregivers, especially when they want to be soothed and calmed. Adults, on the other hand, also display signs of attachment, such as being sensitive to the child's needs and responding to them in an appropriate way. Boby proposed. That attachment can be understood within an evolutionary context in that a K give or provide safety and security for the infant attachment is adoptive as it is, enhances the infants. Chance of survival. John Bowlby started his researching late 19 fifties when he observed babies and their responses to the care givers, especially when the 2/2 being separated. He had noticed that babies would display the signs of distress when they're not in close proximity to the primary caregivers, especially to the mothers. There are several stages off attachment that were identified by developmental researchers Rudolf Schaffer and Peggy Emerson in 1964 for example, from 0 to 6 weeks old, a baby goes into a social stage. At this age, Infants are no that interested in social interactions When you are a stimuli and respond similarly to both objects and people, it has been noticed. However, the babys do have preferences for faces and eyes, so some interaction takes place, but not the full extent us in the next stage, which is from six weeks to six months, which is called indiscriminate attachments. At this age, babies prefer human company to any object related stimuli. They may display signs of distress when a K give us stopping threatened with them. And it has been noticed that from the age of three months old baby smile mawr at familiar faces but can be comforted by any familiar person from 79 months old. They enter the specific attachment stage on this is the stage where the attachment between care giver and the child can be clearly observed. At this age, toddlers have a preference for a specific single attachment figure who can give them security, comfort and protection. It shows fear of strangers, stranger fear and unhappiness when separated from a spit special person, which is often called separation anxiety. Some babies show stranger fear and separation anxiety much more frequently and intensely than ours. Nevertheless, there seen US evidence that the baby has formed an attachment. This has usually developed by one year of age from 10 months off. Age own words. This is what's called the multiple attachments stage. At this age, babies become more independent and form several attachments. The results of the study indicated that attachment were most likely to form with those who responded accurately to the baby signals, not the person that spent more time with Chevron. Emerson called these sensitive responsiveness at this age. Children have strong attachments to a mother's. If there's responded quickly to the needs, the weakest attachments formed between Children and mothers. He was slow in response to baby's needs or showed inconsistent behavior, which can be seen us unreliable and not providing safety, so that would lead to the weakest attachments. So it's attachment, a learned response or our innate predisposition or, in other words, something we're born with. Some researchers that they're referred to, as Behaviorists asked. We've looked up in the previous lecture suggest that babies develop attachment to views who care for them, so it's not. They're born with this trait, but they learn they learn to form attachments to Jews who provides some care. So according to this theory, Children can develop attachments to anyone they spent more time with. But what are the researchers have noticed is that babies tend to cry when they separated from the primary care givers, usually the mother's mawr, than when they do with other people. And they suggest that attachment is more likely to be something we're born with rather than learning from our surroundings. So in these debate, nature vs nurture, nature wins. So I hope you're enjoying this lecture and in our next lecture will be looking at other factors such a social and cultural, the violence and believes of our parents and other relatives and the society were born into . We leave with How much do they influence our development? Thank you for watching, and I will see you in our next lecture 11. 10. Socio-Cultural Factors & Child Development : hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we'll be looking at child's development and other factors on such a social and cultural factors that shape the developments. So I hope you're enjoying the debate nature vs nurture on slowly forming your own ideas and opinions about what's going on in the child's development. So let's get down to our lecture. So far, we've been looking at the child's development and the debate of nature versus nurture on. We know that some degree our genes would add to our girlfriend development, but the development is also shaped by our environments. So what kind of environment and factors we can think off? So so Cultural theory developed as an answer to these kind of questions and was mainly based on the work off. Russian psychologists left Vic got ski, who proposed that the child's environment, such as the culture there growing up with the parenting style off the keg UIs the pier related influences. They're all responsible for the child's development. According to regard ski, the process off learning, for example, is largely based on interacting with other people. Also, the cultural factors such as believes and violence of others around the child would also influence the way the child learns to think and to see the world. So even though some researchers suggest that all Children go through similar stages as we've seen previously, so so cultural factors can make those stages different for every child if they're born in different cultural settings, Children grow up in specific physical, social, cultural, economic and historical circumstances the so so cultural context, all of which will evenings the childhood, a research has shown. The Children's social cultural context can have a large influence on the developments. Development, of course, involves a process off learning an improvement, and Children can only learn when others are there to support them, like parents, teachers and siblings. So so, cultural theory suggests that what the child is learning that would be applied on two levels. At first, this would be applied in relations to other people in connections and interactions with others. Secondly, the child would be applying the same skills on the individual level to him or herself, so they learn skills do not go through stages and levels are. Some researchers, such as John Bowlby and his theory of attachment suggest instead, the learned skills are closely related to the child in direction with others, primarily which do not have particular stages but instead have certain assumptions. For example, when Children talk to themselves during their learning process, this is done for a reason. In simple terms. Regards key thought that it waas by using private speech that the child's biological instincts were made into culturally acceptable ways off acting. He suggested the Children spoke to themselves as a way of guiding themselves through inaction. The goats, he suggested a private speech changes as Children age, beginning as external out loud speech when they're younger but then becoming more internal within themselves. Asked the age. So even when the child is talking to him or herself, the process that is happening at the time allows the child to practice the interactions with others in private, learn and rehearse their own speech and the newly learned words and phrases that will be used in interactions with other people at a later date. Even the make believe play, which Children tend to play when they are on their own or with other Children when they pretend something that they're not. This is also done with an important purpose to practice, test and learn very skills and abilities that can be act out during play. Children put themselves into the adult roles off the culture and practice how they will act in the future. Play takes place before development so Children can start again. The motivation, abilities and attitudes needed for social participation, which can be done on Lee with help off piece on adults, make believe Play allows Children to practice how they would act in the real world. It provides them with a way to gain the basic skills needed to function in the society before they become adults. However, learning these of roles and skills is only done with help from others. In the culture. Water is culture. Culture can be defined us. The set of attitudes, values, believes and behaviors shaped by a group of people communicated from one generation to the next. The majority of Children around the world do not grow up in Westernized countries. Instead, the half influences for many other cultural backgrounds. The similarity off these influences can be seen in that social accepted Children tend to perform better at forming relationships with artists. They can be viewed by peers and teachers. US. Cooperate of sociable and sensitive The differences in Children's characteristics from various cultural backgrounds can be seen in the waste. They respond to challenging and stressful situations and also the ability to regulate behavioral and emotional reactions. So most research that is available to us these days is based on studies that were conducted in the US, perhaps in UK, in Australia. So it's more Westernized country, as we would say, less so in other with other cultural backgrounds. So when you actually look at the articles when you learn the that the new theory emerged in the new research being conducted, pay attention to where that study was conducted because nine out of 10 it wasin the Westernized countries. So it's not going to give the best picture, actually, off the whole world. You know, the Children they develop in all over the world because they cultural background will mean so much more to the upbringing. And there are not that many studies don't steal in compares into what we have now from the more developed countries. So we've been looking at various factors here that shape Children's environment, Children's learning, Children's developments, so can they be independent? Do they learn for themselves? Despite of all these factors, cannot be own independent learners. I mean, Children when they're growing up. So this is what will discuss him in our next election. So thank you for watching, and I will see their 12. 11. Do Children Shape Their Own Environment? : hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we'll discussing whether Children can shape the own development. Can they do it independently, despite off the culture, cultural background and the violence and beliefs of other people who surround them or any other factors? Really, you also know that well, you would imagine the parents and teachers all influence the child's development as well. They even can be born with certain abilities, such as forming attachments with other people. But perhaps even the ability to learn and remember it is still a debate how much of genetic influence we can see here and how much of the environmental influence we can out to the whole picture. But 10 Children affect their own development to. And what about developing their own self concept? When does this start self concept? Or, in other words, the understanding off Children off themselves started around 18 months off age, the around three years of age. This development would be seen more clearly for some. This happens to be a lier for our this a bit later, but these is the age where the star describing themselves, they starts from recognising themselves in the mirror and on the photographs for the clear descriptions off themselves. They can use labels such as Boy or Gil when they referred to themselves short or tall, happy Assad. This is when the developing self image they're building the view off itself on this is when they become more self independence and when they self esteem grows, too. Once a child sense of self is established, they're more likely to remember information that is related to themselves. This is known as the self reference effect on memory and emerges a early on from at least three years old. Children are more likely to remember objects linked with themselves than there is linked with another person. This is when the Children can recognize the objects that belong to them amongst many others . And this is when the memory and attention development helps them in this recognition process. Asked the child girls even more. This is when they start to shape their own development. It is less about nature versus nurture and more about self autonomy and independence. But even then, the child is not fully independent. For example, they rely on the security of the relationships of with the parents that provide them with a guidance and knowledge, often until the rechannel hood. So can we say the Children shape their own development to a lot of research, focuses on the external influences that shaped Children's development and treats them as a relatively powerless. But of course, Children have a role in the own development and in selecting the sorts of environmental influences they exposed to, Even newborns select water to pay attention to buy way they look and how they orient themselves, usually towards the smell of milk. So Children often make their own choices about what or who to focus on and interact with. And, as they learning, takes place through the interactions. This means that they choose water or from whom they want to learn. By the time Children reach school, age there have begun to make many decisions about the environment, such as who to be friends with and what interests to pursue mania. Researchers agree that the nature versus nurture debate is not conclusive. Nature doesn't compete with nurture but interact with a child instead. In fact, for a long time now, biologists and social scientists have been arguing for the active role that individuals play in shaping their own development. So finally we can see the Children do shape the own environment to because they can make choices that can select who awards they want to learn about off from. So they do make their own choices on the are more independent that sometimes we think so. Let's have a look at other factors which is related to family and schooling on how they affect a child's developments, and this is what our next mortal will be about. I just want to congratulate here for reaching this far. You're advancing very far in this course and hope you're enjoying all this information. I hope you make use of all resources on and learning a bit more in the outside of the course as well, perhaps even reading some books now which are related to our topics. So in any case, thank you very much for washing, and I will see you know, next mortal to you. There 13. 12. Role of Parenting in Child Development : hello and welcome to our next model, where we're discussing schooling and family related factors in child development. And in our first lecture, we're looking at parenting and how exactly shapes the child child's behavior and personality. Is it just being apparent enough, or do we need to be some certain type of apparent other apparent in style? So anything like that that we should be aware off? This is what will discussing in this lecture a parent east, the Childs first teacher and should remain the best teacher throughout life. Functioning as a coach, the parent exposes a child to age appropriate challenges to encourage development as well as to experiences that allows the child to explore on their own and learn from interacting with a environments The parents are role is that of a teacher who positively encourages supports and teachers to engage into various learning activities. Though these activities the child develops psychologically, physically, emotionally and socially parenting styles is what can give us a clear picture in the child's developments or how different can be in various families. So let's have a look at various parenting styles that you should be aware off in psychology in psychology. It is a recognized that there are four distinct parenting styles. Authoritative, neglectful, permissive and authoritarians on. Each of these styles have the own characteristics, and each of them can have a different impact on the child's behavior. So the 1st 1 is authoritative. This parenting style is considered to be as the most effective and beneficial for the child's behavior. So here the parent is very aware off the needed balance between 43 and the child's independence and given them they total support. Parents he used authoritative style provide the healthiest environment for the child's development. Authoritative parenting is characterized by reasonable demands on high responsiveness. While these parents might have expectations for the Children, they also give the keys the resources and support they need to succeed. Parents who exhibit this style listen to the keys and provide love and warmth in addition to limits and fair discipline. If we look at specific characteristics off this approach, we'll see that these parents would do the following when interacting with the Children, for example, they would listen to a Children on would encourage independence, they would place limits, consequences and expectations on the Children's behavior. The Express warmth and nurturance. They would allow Children to express the opinions. They encourage the Children to discuss options freely. They administer fair and consistent discipline. So now you know what this authoritative part parenting style is. What ever say that about the next one neglectful parent in style as you can judge for its name, neglectful parenting is characterized by demonstrating some negligence towards the child's needs. Uninvolved parents make few to no demands off the Children and they often indifferent, dismissive or even completely neglectful. These parents have little emotional involvement with the kids while they provide for basic needs, like food and shelter there uninvolved in the child Children's lives. This UN involvement or negligence can be the strong or weak, but in any case it is very harmful approach. The child's development. Neglectful parenting is characterized by, for example, being emotionally distant from the child or being unavailable for the child support and assistance, having little or no demonstration off love and affection towards the child. Having a little no expectation from the child's behavior. This parents may justify the behaviors having too many things going on in their lives and having no time for tending to the child's needs. But the problem that can be evident when the child grows up is that the child can be emotionally distant from other people, including the partners and friends. When they're older, they can develop fear off becoming too dependent on others. They can suffer from anxiety and stress because they don't have a strong support from the parents. They can also have an increased risk off, becoming addicted to alcohol and drugs during their adolescence and adulthood. The next type is permissive parenting style, which is characterized by positive attitude, full support and responsiveness. The parents tend to avoid any confrontation and allow the child to engage in tow. Almost any behavior the parents may seem very nurturing and loving, which is the main benefit of the style. The downsides of the style, however, is that the rules that are placed for the child very minimal and very inconsistent they can put the child into the situation where they're not sure what is allowed and what isn't because the rules can change from day to day. This lack of structure causes these Children to grow up with a little self discipline and self control. Some parents adopt this method as an extreme opposite approach to the authoritarians I'm bringing. While starless are simply afraid to do anything that may upset the child. Here, the parents put themselves into your friend position rather than a parent. This parents tend to be the polar opposite of this so called helicopter parents. Instead of hovering over the Children's every move, permissive parents are incredibly lax and rarely may going force any type of rules of structure. The motor is often simply that kids will be kids while they usually warm and loving, they make little or no attempt to control or discipline the kids. The downside of this bearing his style is the Children can have self control issues when they're older. The thing is, when they're growing up, these Children, they don't have structure skating to adhere to. They also often asked about the opinions in relation to major issues which supposed to be solved by the by the parents rather than by the Children. On this, all can lead to the child's low grade in school, having no concrete plants in relation to the future, life or career just more difficult for them to make this plants because they didn't get used to making plants or having some sort of structure looking forward to gold, sitting up any goal. These Children can display aggression as well, instead of emotional understanding. And there would be unable to manage the time and habits even when they grow older. Saw the last type East authoritarians parenting style, which is often known us strict parenting. This style is characterized by high demands and less responsiveness. The parents expect the Children to follow rules and guidelines with a little on. No questioning that I love between the parent and the child is minimal in comparison to other parenting styles. Authoritarian parents can be seen us cold and harsh. The May yield Children instead of giving them explanations, neutral voice. And they don't give Children options or choices because they don't trust that the Children are able to do that to make the right decisions and appropriate choices. So how the authoritarian parenting style can affect the child's development? The Children off authoritarians are bringing often half low self esteem difficulties with building social relationships. With Alice, there might be more aggressive, went outside of home, and they may suffer from depression on excited later on in life. So now you know that there are four distinct parenting styles that you need to be aware off on its authoritative. It's a neglectful. It's a permissive style on its authoritarians, which is strict parenting, and you probably can recognize some Children that you're wear off and their parents which style they belong to, because I certainly can. I can see some Children that I know off, no off my friends or extended family members that fall into one or the other category on. This is the main point that you could recognize their styles. So read about the styles a little bit more in more detail again, online or in books. If you like eso that you really grasp this material because it is quite important for a child psychologist or anybody with a certificated child psychology, they should be aware off these parenting styles. So in the next lecture will be looking at another family issue. Is the relationship breakdown, particularly between the parents when they separate or when they divorce, when they about divorce, how it affects the Children? This is what will be discussing in our next election, so thank you for watching, and I will see their 14. 13. Relationship Breakdown (Separation / Divorce): hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing relationships in the family. So how does relationship off the parents the KGB is can affect the child, especially when it comes down to separation or divorce or anything like that. How does the fact the child's learning and development This is what will be talking about in this lecture? So far, we've looked at how parenting styles can affect the child's behavior and development. What we've discussed was applied to fully functioning families typical with two parents presence on, as this is often what is represented by the research. So how does the child's development get affected? If the parents are going through separation or divorce, how does it affect the child's behavior and the relationships with others? Around 50% and in some cases, even more off couples are divorcing these days in many countries, such as U K, U S Australia and some European countries such as Spain. In the majority of cases, the couple has a least one child who has to go through this experience as well as you can imagine. Separation Divorce doesn't involve Onley. The couple. It involves the whole family with Children and perhaps even grand parents. When parents no longer love each other and decide to leave apart, a child can feel as if the world has bean turned upside down. The level of upset the child feels can vary depending on how the parents separated the age of the child, how much the understands and the support they get from parents, family and friends. When the parents are so involved with each other and the relationship related issues, they can behave as if the Children became invisible. The parent discussed the issues of raising their voices and not noticing anything else that goes on around them on that includes the Children but us, their suit shows. By doing these, the parents said, some patterns for the Children's future when the Children grow up there tend to repeat same behavior they observed in their parents. And, moreover, Children notice when their relationship dynamics change in the family, they noticed that the parents don't love each other anymore, and they're struggling to communicate with each other. Children have to cope with their relationship behavior in the way that is most accessible to them. When Children sent something is wrong between the parents, it often increases. They're excited in perpetual war e. They may start doing things to get off the emotions. If they're afraid, sod or insecure, they may try to numb these emotions with such behaviors US overeating or excessively playing video games If they don't feel they can talk to the parents or the anger or hurt involves their parents, Children may start showing the feelings indirectly, throwing Ton Trump's over toys, getting unusually clean it towards a parent, losing interest in school, getting in a fight with other kids. So Children show in their own way that they're also affected by what's going on in the family. On this is down through the behaviours and attitudes at home with peers, and it's cool. The parents may notice that the Children behavior has changed, but this is only because of the whole Off the family relationship dynamic has changed. What emotions can Children feel when they go through difficult times that just the pair and separation or divorce well feels the full a sense of loss? The child can feel that they're losing one of their parents on also the way off life that's been established for so long. Secondly, it's fear and worry. The child can can feel afraid that he or she will be left alone and even abundance in the process of parent or separation 30. They can feel anger the child can feel and great one or both off the parents for their relationship breakdown. Fourthly, it's guilt. The child may feel that the relationship breakdown happened because of them, or that they could have made the situation better if they try hard enough. Next, it's rejection and insecurity. The child can feel that if the parents reject each other, they can also reject the child in the same way. And finally, it's frustration and even depression, particularly when a child needs to make a choice. Which of the parents that want to leave with after the separation, the child's development on academic progression can be affected the most. For example, exported a couple conflict can affect Children off ages, including babies, and can manifest itself as an increasing anxiety, depression, aggression, hostility, antisocial behavior and criminality, as well as deficits in academic attainment. This is why Children of parents who are going through the relationship breakdown have to be reassured through open dialogue for example, the Children needs to be reminded that both parents love them equally and that the parents separation is not the child's responsibility. Well, in many cases, the separation is something inevitable. It might be beneficial. Long term for the better is to separate that done to stay in the dysfunctional family. And that includes the child, the child's feelings as well. But what the parents can do is to remind the child that he or she is still dear to them that they, both of the parents, love the child unconditionally on that. It is not the child's fault that the parents are separating, and also it is important to focus on the child's needs even much more than usual during the difficult time. By making us few changes as possible in other areas of life, the child should never be asked by the parents whose side he or she's on, who the child would like to stay with after the divorce or separation, or to invite the child into criticism off another partner. Okay, so now you know how the separation or divorce can affect the child on how to minimize the negative impact on the child So next in the next lecture will be discussing how schooling environments affects the child. Do actually benefit from going to public school or Somalia or staying at home and be, Ah, homeschooled. Is that the better choice? This is what will be discussing in our next lecture. 15. 14. Schooling Environment : hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we discussing schooling environments and how it affects the child's developments on learning and behavior. So, as you can imagine, school environment is very important to the child's learning growth and development. Ideally, the school's role is to bring each student to her individual maximum academic potential. A significant amount of school work throughout the grades is dedicated to helping Children become expert problems always and solution seekers skills that will come in handy in just about every personal and professional aspect of a child's adult life. But learning problem solving and solution finding skills is not enough for the child's development. Social skills, self esteem and self confidence are equally important to even though parents are considered to be the Children's fills teachers. Schooling provides structured education for the child's intellectual, physical and social development, and also for the psychological well being, too. Aside from learning academics, a child will also learn hardly important life skills such as teamwork, good manners, unity, sharing and responsibility. Children are like sponges that will absorb almost everything that is still to them by allowing them to learn in a school setting while they're young. they can be molded into good, responsible and hard working individuals. It is known the Children start learning from the day they're born. Parents can teach the child many essential skills, from social related skills to verse that are based in academics. Schooling also provides that, but in many different ways it can be very postive experience for the child, where it can be negative in some ways to, in essence, school provides the child with the opportunity to force to the independence and social skills. This is the place where the child use everything they have learned previously. For all their parents and peers in the preschool age, the child is learning to form relationships with the teachers and classmates. Apart from learning the academic related information such a small thematics and reading and languages. If the child fails at the social development in school, this can make him or her struggling with the own self esteem, inability to form positive relationships with others despite off his or her excellent academic achievements. So school also teaches the child to form of values and beliefs, to follow discipline, to become aware off other people's needs to have respect, empathy and compassion towards others. As the child grows up, the school also offers the opportunity to take part in debates and discussions, which is an essential element of the child self esteem and self understanding. But in what cases, schooling becomes a negative experience for the child. Well, firstly, if the child has learned disabilities, which means that the child has difficulties with reading, writing or grasping new or complex information, the school can become less than positive experience for him or for her, especially if they don't have enough support provided by the school. Secondly, if the child undergoes high or constant amount of stress and has a difficulty of corporate with it on, this is where the child, for example, experiences bowling all find it difficult to cope with a preparation for exams. Food lee If the child has any other mental health issues, which means that the child is either has an underlying psychological disorder to some degree or is suffering from one excited depression, So in these cases, the schools can be less than pleasant experience for the child. In any of these cases, the parents have to collaborate with the child teachers on behalf, perhaps school counselor to understand the reason for the child unhappiness in the schooling environments and for taking some action in order to improve the situation. So what can we say here about homeschooling environment? How does it compare to the public school? Some parents decide that homeschooling environment would suit the child better for various reasons. So how does home schooling affect Children? Home schooling can provide the child with an environment that is more effective for learning than what is provided in public schools. Off course, you might be thinking, How is it possible for the child to learn everything that the school can teach? Or how the child is supposed to learn the social skills if they at home? Interestingly enough, research suggests that home schooling can provide a more positive experience off learning for the child. If we're talking about academic achievements than these, are the fact that will help you to understand that home schooling has its own benefits. On average, home school Children outperform traditional students on standardized tests. In the year of 2010 the Department of Education reported that homeschoolers tend to have higher grade point averages, a city, schools and graduation rates done traditional students. In addition, it is not uncommon for home schoolers to place well in academic competitions. Such a spelling. Bees and geography bees, a home school student warned the 2000 and 13 Scripps Howard National Spelling Bee in 2013 according to the ABC News website, over 10% of the finalists in the competition We're homeschoolers. So it seems that if we're looking at academic side of learning, we can confidently say that home schooling, even though it takes a well thought out planning, can be as good, if not better, than what public education can offer. But what about what can we say about the social side of things? We know that schools provide the Children with so many opportunities for the development of the social skills on how Children to become independent thinkers. Surely homeschooling cannot provide any of these right. Well. In reality, research suggests that such opinion off many people is not accurate at all, thinking that homeschooled students like and social skills is a false assumption that individuals sometimes make when they don't understand home schooling. When you home school a child, he isn't exposed to peer pressure, drugs, bullying and other forms of violence that the traditional students may encounter. A child who interacts more with family members than peers, according to the family education website, is more confident and has a higher level of self respect and self worth. The side shades that independent studies found homeschoolers are socially well adjusted on how few behavioral problems than traditional students. So home schooling can equip the child with more skills that you might have thought initially home school. I can interact with a siblings throughout the day, but also with other Children who get home based schooling Children at after school clubs or community groups, scout groups and various glasses. This way the child will not miss out on any social related opportunities. So this is what you need to know about schooling environment on how it affects child development. Thank you for watching. I know we'll see. You know what next lecture 16. 15. How to Counsel Young Children? : hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing how to counsel young Children. Almost all my courses in this course in this school are related to counseling and psychology. And I often touch up on both of these areas where I teach psychology on some sort of subject. I often touch up on counseling related material as well, because I think that most of my students they're interested in both how to work with people . So they need to have counselling skills, even to some degree and the knowledge of psychology again. Even if your counselor I would like to use counselling skills in your work, then, of course, the theory off psychology is really good what you need to know. So because of that, actually, I have to do a self promotion. Check out my other courses in this school because you probably will find something else interesting to you because I teach on related to Children to other lessons to idols. Andi. I'm creating the moment courses related toe all the ages well on day very between, um, mental health conditions on various circumstances. So anyhow, check out my courses on getting contacted. Me Teoh to receive your certificate of completion as well. So saying all that that's out of the way. As they say, We'll get to our lecture on counseling young Children just in essence, what you need to know. Well, generally speaking, when counseling clients, the importance aspect is to understand where the client is coming from, understand the client's story, what they're going through and what help they need from the council. Young Children can also be counseled, and this is often done by a school counselor. Though not always, young Children can have a very different understanding of the world that adults have. And when the child grows and becoming a teenager, then this transition can be even more dramatic as it involves a huge amount of change for the child, him or herself and for the parents. While for the whole family. When the child is growing, he or she is constantly going through the process of developing social skills and emotional intelligence, physical and cognitive changes, even though that this process is highly complex. This doesn't mean that the child should be confused. Unhappy The natural way is that the child is transitioning through all the stages comfortably, confidently and emotionally stable when the child finds themselves that they're not happy, sad, confused or depressed. And if the child starts engaging in tow unhelpful behaviours such as lying, stealing, engaging into addiction related activities, it's keeping lessons in school, engaging into violence type of behaviors, then the assistance of a counselor can be exactly what it is needed. Some off life events can negatively impact the child's development and could be the reason why the child is feeling unhappy. This, for example, can include parents will divorce or separation, as we've discussed in our previous lecture, if this could be a birth off, a sibling in the family, all the death of someone close in the family off the child's Pierre sexual physical psychological abuse that happened previously. Oh, even currently also becoming homeless by child Hema herself. For my whole family going through financial crisis, witnessing or being part of domestic violence by the child moving to a new place. A new CTR knew Aaron New District changing schools taking on more responsibilities than it is age appropriate. Also, if the child seems to be lonely and experiencing any behavioral issues showing signs of exciting stress possibly having them eating disorder. All of these factors is a good enough reason to seek counseling. Help for the child. What you need to know here is that the child doesn't have enough coping strategies. US adults and 1/2 By the time we become adults, we know how to avoid a surprise to the negative feelings. How to distract ourselves from our problems, how to deal with conflicts or overwhelming dilemmas. A child has not have many life experiences just yet, So the role of a child counselor is to teach the child coping skills and to normalize the situation so that they were able to deal with it well. One of the main counseling approaches is cognitive behavioral therapy. This is used to help the child to change the emotional and behavioral responses to difficult situations. So, for example, that the child is taught how to respond in a less aggressive way to a certain provoking situation, or how to question instead of reacting it straight away or how to ask for help instead of letting themselves get into a bad mood. According to be hero therapy can teach the child to minimize the exciting on to find an alternative way of behaving. It can also teach the child that they feelings and emotions affect the behavior. Children with a D H D, which is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and any other behavioral problems, can greatly benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT. In short, another strong counseling approach in war give Children is play therapy. Play is a natural medium of expression for a child. Through plea, Children learn and refined skills, which allow them to opt out tears, fantasies and feelings. Play can also be seen as a special language through which the counsellor may gain an understanding off. The child's world plays also fun and can help to promote report between the counselor and child. As you can imagine, a child of any age can be involved into play therapy. Playing with toys during the therapy can reduce the Charles unctuous feelings or any resistance that they would have otherwise. The council. I can initiate the play if he or she sees the child being unresponsive, afraid, hesitant and so on. The council would pay attention to how the child approaches the plate material which toys the child chooses on, which wants he or she avoids the way the child place with the toys, for example, quietly or aggressively play therapy is especially beneficial for cases where it is expected that the child is bullet or abused suffers from depression and behavioral programs . Bley therapy can involve a variety of materials, such as books, toys, puzzles, son trace storytelling cards, dolls and puppets. On any other general games, it is known that the child who suffers with any psychological issues could greatly benefit from counselling on. The sooner the child is taken to the counselor, the quicker and more effective the treatment can be. Well, this is it for this lecture, and now we'll proceed to the last model on cognitive and emotional development. Thank you for watching, and I will see their 17. 16. Language Development : hello and welcome to our final model. So you are whizzing through this course well done you So in this last model will be looking at the emotional and cognitive development off the child. So we'll be looking at how the develop the emotions and feelings towards other people and towards have some objects because that's what we do as well or two towards animals. And how do they develop those emotional emotions and feelings at what age they are aware off them at what age they can label them appropriately and manage them in the again in appropriate weight. On Also, we will be looking at the cognitive skills, cognitive development to the brain function, the memory and learning. So it's all good and interesting on. We'll start with our first sexual this session, where we will be discussing language development and cognitive development off the child. I hope you will like it, So let's get down to our lecture. Our language and cognitive development is what makes us different from animals. Through language were able to express ourselves, we can think and ponder. We can share ideas with each other. We can explain what we like and what we don't like and why Children must have language with an amazing speed. Between the ages of three and six, you would notice how rapidly they vocabulary expands. At the age of three, the child is able to speak around 900 words, but by the age of six, they spoke in the cabaret can consist of any way between 8000 to 14,000 words. Babies and total ists are able to understand more words than they can speak on. As the language development is progressing, they're able to express more and more words in the spoken language. As Children moved beyond using two word sentences, they start to learn, understand grammar rules, all English speaking Children for irregular seconds. When using this rules, for example, Children feels begin using simple, pure ALS like cats and possessive forms off mountains such as Daddy's car. Then they put appropriate ending. Some verse jump becomes jumped. Then they use propositions in the street, for example, then articles such as their AM on on, then various forms of the verb to be, which is These are where it's a trip and so one so we can see how quickly Children grasp the concepts, off objects and who those objects belong to. Some Children can develop the language skills quicker than others, and this would depend on various factors. For example, some Children are slow learners, but they will catch up with others by the schooling age. Some Children have learning disabilities that would be detected later on during the school years were even afterwards. Research also shows that the child's are bringing environment can also help or hinder the development. For example, it was found that Children who grow up in poverty tend to perform more poorly on cognitive tests than Children from non poverty background. Also, any adverse conditions such as postural mus abuse, parental separations and so one can affect the child's language development. Cooperative development, on the other hand, is concerned with the child information processing, such as understanding concepts, developing perception, an ability to think and understand. And of course, this is all related to a language development. To one of the most well north theories and current development is Jean Piaget, who proposed the theory off cognitive development. The theory of going to development includes four stages off developments, the sensory motor, pre operational concrete operational and four more operational period. Each of the stages is characterized by the child's ability to, for example, develop understanding off own emotions constructed on logic, becoming M passing towards other people's feelings, understanding more abstract concepts and so on. What can we say about memory? How does memory form in Children? Memory is the ability to encode, retain and recall information off a time Children must learn to in cold objects, people in places and lay to be able to recall them from long term memory. Young Children cannot remember as well as all the Children and adults, too. Young Children have not had a full brain development that would help them to memorize and recall. Also, young Children tend to be more easily distracted, which doesn't help they learning. However, the enjoy learning and the eagerness to try and remember can often make up for the low ability to memorize. Preschoolers learn, meaning new words. Parents see blinks peers. Teachers on the media provide opportunities for preschoolers to increase the vocabulary. Consequently, the acquisition of language a curious within a social and cultural context. Socializing agents provide more than just words and the meanings. However, these agents teach Children how to think and act in socially acceptable ways. So Children's cognitive and language development is happening alongside the cultural background to the way they speak, express themselves to conform, developed the believes and values all greatly depends on the family background, the country they're leaving, the religion and the culture off the families. Many Children are by legal these days, too, and they able to speak more than one language fluently at age of four. Finally, we can say that the child's cognitive and language development can directly affect the child self esteem, self confidence and ability to socialize with others. The daily and the quicker the child will start grasping the new words and phrases the quick it will be learning about the society's values, norms and behaviour on the quickly there will be able to form relationships with all this around them. So this is it for this, like champ, Thank you for watching, and they will see in our next lecture 18. 17. Emotions & Feelings: Development : hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we're discussing, How do Children develop the emotions? So as we know, Children develop fast. In many ways, it's sometimes surprising to observe and learn about it. When we realize how complex this development really is, the child needs to learn how to speak and remember socializing relate to others recognize all things and objects that don't belong to them. I feel that to learn how to read and write how to do complex tasks such as buttoning, own coat and tying shoe laces, the brain and cognitive functions in the child developing very rapidly whilst they're growing. But so do the overall physical, social and emotional states. Emotional development is another very important area to look at on. We need to understand that emotions matter. But why? Well, because Children's responses to the different feelings they experience every day have a major impact on the choices, the behavior and on how well the cope and enjoy life. As Children grow and are exposed to different situations, the emotional lives also become more complex. So when Children feel certain emotions, this process often drives the behavior. And, like adults, they're unable to suppress the emotions or attempt to ignore them. Instead, they're more likely to respond to situations and events, depending on how they feel at the time. The first emotions you can recognize in babies, for example, babies can experience joy and sadness, fear and even hunger. Later on. When they develop US Children, the emotions can become more complex. For example, they can experience such complex emotions. US feeling shy or getting surprised. Feeling guilty, all being proud, off own achievements. Very young Children's emotions are mainly made up of physical reactions like heart racing. Butterflies and stomach and be here is asked. They grow. Children develop the ability to recognize feelings. The emotions are also increasingly influenced by the thinking. They become more aware off their own feelings and better able to recognize and understand other people's. So the emotions and feelings that the child experiences at three years old will be very different from those of the 10 years old child. At 10 years of age, a child typically can identify the only feelings. Manage them in a more appropriate way, act no, just on impulse, as young Children tend to do. Now let's have a look at what we mean when we say emotional intelligence, What does it mean when we're talking about it in the relation to child's development? Emotional intelligence, understanding and managing wants feelings wisely is really important for healthy development. Children can really flourish when they're able to recognize reason, understand and manage emotions. So emotional intelligence is an ability to identify and manage old feelings and emotions, recognizing them and act appropriately and not on impulse in Children. This would, for example, include being able to identify and talk about one's own feelings and and feeling so fathers such as happy, sad, anxious and angry. Also understanding that feelings direct thoughts and behaviors When im sahd, I might also cry when I'm happy, I may laugh. When I'm angry, I may want to hit working all the ability to control or redirect feelings. For example, when I'm angry, I may want to hit, But heating is not okay, so I will stop my feet and say, I'm angry instead a law. These takes time and practice to learn that and and then the learning how to get along with peace and others. I feel happy to play with joining. I feel upset when I made to share with joining, I will say I'm not Radian. Offer him something else. How a parent could help the child to develop the emotional intelligence for these, that a parent would given opportunity to, for example, experience a range of feelings and emotions to help a child to recognise and talk about their feelings, opinions, options and decisions that the child faces. The parent would encourage the child to solve our own problems as appropriate for the child's age and also to let them to take part in very social settings. The parent would encourage the child to observe are the people's emotions, and the parent would allow the child to experience negative feelings without offering them a quick fix. Also, it is important to take time and listen to the child to discuss the emotions and feelings about very situations, and they behavior. In reaction to those feelings, Children should never be told how they should feel about some situation. For example, it is not beneficial if the parent is saying this is not saying you shouldn't feel about it that way, instead of respecting the child's emotions without making them. Less important is the way to help them to develop emotionally. Well, okay. This is it, Felice Lecture And I will see you in our next lecture where we'll be talking about socializing with others. 19. 18. Socialising (Benefits): hello and welcome to our final later off the scores, although there will be a couple of features after that to say thank you and goodbye. But for now, we'll proceed to our last lecture off this course where we're talking about socializing with others when the child is learning how to socialize, how they formed relationships with Dallas. So let's get down to our election. Throughout the course of we've been discussing the subject off socializing many times, though indirectly from this course, you probably have a good idea off why Children need to socialize. For example, in the previous lecture, we've been talking about the emotional development and that letting Children to participate in various interactions and social situations can help them to understand and manage the emotions and feelings as they grow. Previously throughout this course, we've been discussing interactions off the child in school settings with peers on with family members. And if you remember in the beginning of the course, we've been learning about attachments where the baby develops a strong and secure born with a K, give its So let's have a look at what else we need to know about child's development and they socializing with artists as they grow older. So what benefits does the child get from socializing with others? Socialism, opportunities in a great variety help the child to develop confidence around other people. The child can, at any age, can become more independent and less anxious when they're away from the keg us. Secondly, the child becomes more opens to opportunities to explore the world around them. They have less fear and can experience more interest and curiosity about others around them . The child learns to understand other people's way of behaving on that all people are different in the way to think and response to very situations. Socializing in very settings help the child to become an independent thinker quicker, where he or she will be able to make the choices independently from others rather than merely following them. And finally, socializing can help a child to develop the cognitive skills they learning and memory related functions. So what would be the best way to develop socializing skills and Children? Parents need to be encouraged to develop secure attachment from the day they're born. We've been discussing these in our Alia lectures. What is secure attachment? This is when the parent is sensitive and responsive to the child's needs, and the child sees that the parent, the is the secure base. But at the same time, child is encouraged to be more independent and explore the world around them. And research shows that Children who developed these type of attachment with caregivers tend to score high on social competence, which means that these Children are able to have greater problem solving skills in relation to social situations. They tend to be more impossible towards all this. The tend to feel less lonely on do tend to be more generous with artists. You can probably add a few more points toe why socializing is so important for us on why Children need to be exposed to various very situations that will teach them to direct with other people with animals with anything around them with the world around them. The more they exposed, the more confident they can grow us adults. So this are this is it is the end off this lecture. I know it's been a really quick Joni, probably for you to go through this course, but do remember this is an introduction to child psychology course. And I do have a standalone course on child psychology, which goes deeper into every off these topics. So thank you for watching this video, and I will see in my final video where I say thank you and goodbye. 20. 19. Thank You & Good Bye!: Hello and I want to say to you goodbye at the same time, because this is the last video off these course. I sincerely hope that you enjoyed listening to this information, and you've learned quite a bit from its on. You will take away quite a good chunk off interesting information related to child's development and child psychology. I hope you're interested enough so you will look into my other courses, which are related to psychology and counseling to Children, adult and adolescence. I am often creating new courses, so I would be grateful if you send me an email or text or contact me through school to say whether you enjoyed it. I didn't enjoy it, whether you expected something else on. If you have any other idea on the future courses that would be useful for you, I will definitely consider it because I'm always open to new suggestions, especially from my current students. Always try to give discounts as well. So do contact me if you're interested any off my courses on, Maybe I can help you with information on discounted coupons or anything like that. I'm always happy to hear from my students. You can also find me somewhere and social media like Facebook, for example, because I have some groups that I managed as well. Well, thank you once again for interest in my courses. And I hope to see you again in my other class. Thank you and goodbye.