Introduction to Book Cover Design. Redesigning George Orwell | Manuel García Pallarés | Skillshare

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Introduction to Book Cover Design. Redesigning George Orwell

teacher avatar Manuel García Pallarés, Architect + Graphic Designer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

7 Lessons (37m)
    • 1. Presentation of the course

    • 2. The statement of the editor

    • 3. Theoretical and graphic research I

    • 4. Theoretical and graphic research II

    • 5. Graphic materialization

    • 6. ¿How much to charge?

    • 7. International fairs and digital world

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About This Class

How to design a book cover? Which are the main keys you have to keep in mind to be successful in this special design task?

In this class I will take you through the fundamentals of book cover design. Taking as an example one of my most successful works which had the applause of the editorial field, we will analyze the creative process of the cover for the famous book 1984. 

You will learn how to:

  • Listen to carefully the statement of the editor or director 
  • Different tools for developing a theoretical and graphic research
  • Translate your ideas into a graphic materialization
  • Work with Indesign till you get your final  printing PDF

Besides this, I will give you some inputs about:

  • How much to charge for your work
  • How editorial market works in different levels
  • The future of the industry where digital books are becoming  bigger and bigger 


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Manuel García Pallarés

Architect + Graphic Designer


Hello everyone,

My name is Manuel Pallarés. I am an architect from the University of Alcalá de Henares and the Sapienza in Rome. After finishing my studies and working in different studios, I specialized in graphic design through a master's degree at the Artes Creactivas school in Madrid, where I also began my career as a teacher. At the end of the master it turned out that they needed a teacher for the Photoshop, Indesign and Illustrator module and there I was.

Since then my professional activity has been linked both to creative projects of different kinds (editorial design, graphic design, landscaping, architecture ...), but I have always had one foot in teaching.

I have worked as a teacher at the Universidad Superior de Diseño de Valladoli... See full profile

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1. Presentation of the course: Hello everybody. My name is manually by R S. I am an architect and a graphic and editorial designer. In this course, we will go through the creative and professional process for the creation of a book cover. In this case, the cost will be focused, especially on one of my last and successful Job's, the redesign of the famous book written by yours are well, 1984. We will take as a start point the statement of the editor or director of the editorial we are working for. From that point on, we will see different techniques and different tools for translating our abstract ideas to the paper successfully till eventually we get the printing PDF. The signing a book cover is surely one of the most beautiful jobs that a graphic designer can have. We will have to express graphically and narrative content, which means that we will have to put images on a story which is made just with words. Furthermore, we will have a very attractive physical format, a pure rectangle. This rectangle can even be extended and we will have to understand the diarchy of the different sections. Like a final project, you will have to choose one of your favorite books and redesign. It's covered following the steps described in this course. Don't be afraid to publish it in the project gallery. And we will interact one with another. By the way, a part of the design process, we will talk about different aspects of the tutorial fill, which I consider are not much information about them. Like how much money can we expect for our work? How the editorial industry works in terms of business or which are the main international book first in the world. I hope you really like the course and that you make the most of my experience to improve in all of your projects. 2. The statement of the editor: Hello everyone and welcome to this first class of this course of redesigning or well, in where we are going to take the statement of work that could be done by the editor or director of the publisher who hires us. In this case, this editorial is going to be the editorial adapt. It is not the same to work for one publisher or for another. Therefore, it would be appropriate before conducting this interview to have investigated a lot about that editorial. He's working modes, his graphic line, his history, he's different collections, et cetera, et cetera. In this regard, it could be advisable to make a visit to their website and see a little bit the catalog of their collections, as well as to enter, for example, in the who we are section, where we will find very relevant information about the history of the editorial. That as we can see in this case, it has more than 60 years old that has a catalog with more than one hundred, ten hundred and titles and authors and whose main objective is to transmit to a Spanish speaking audience the big works of universal culture. In this way, it has markets both in Spain and Argentina, Mexico, and TV. And since the 70s. We can also highlight that it has four basic editing lines, each of which makes up an independent catalog, such as the sections of humanities, health, psychology, and new weights. We can also see that it has different collections among with standout library eight, arc of wisdom, chronicle of history, et cetera, et cetera. All this information is going to serve as a lot to connect with the publisher for widths we are going to work once we are already in the meeting with the editor or the director, the first thing we should take into account is that it is a meeting in which they are going to set goals and conditions. It will serve as a lot, as an orientation for our future work. So we have to have a very listening and open-minded attitudes. Yes, listen. Since I said they are going to propose different objectives that we want to achieve. In this case, the main objective is to redesign a classic of literature, as is 1984 by George Orwell, where we will have many examples already edited and where our scope will be to make a refreshing addition that can return a little to live in an original and different way. That great classic of the literature. On the other hand, we would also have conditions. These conditions and factors will have a lot to do with the collection in which we are affiliated will be part of a collection that already has a root and has already edited and published different books. So in our graphic line, we will have to be in line with those previous books. To begin with. The size will be a very important condition that we will have to meet. Of course, in this case, we will also have in mind that the book will be a size of 13 centimeters wide by 21 centimeters high and soft cover. They will show us different examples of the collection of which we are going to be part and provide us with information relating to the placement of the logo and both the front and on the spine and on the back cover. As well as some predefined ideas on the part of the publisher or director who has in mind and who wants us to comply with. And as I said, it is time to gather a lot of information, have a very listening attitude. And not so much of being proactive, but simply assimilating all the information, asking doubts so that we are all very clear. And then another phase will appear a little later in widths. Of course, we will be much more proactive. 3. Theoretical and graphic research I: Hello everyone and welcome to this new course class redesigning Orwell, where we are going to enter a new phase for the realization of the cover of our book. This phase is going to be called theoretical and graphic results. Let's say this face is a much more Baptists phase where we are going to have a very permeable attitude when it comes to doing these results and collecting different information that we will then use in a creative way. Therefore, we are going to have different inputs. So this phase also will narrows us a lot as a person and will help us to creatively internalize all that information in our own way. We will start to have ideas that we will turn on paper. The first of the things that I advise you to start to in, in this phase is of course, if we are involved in the world of editorial design and our job now is the realization of the cover of a book. To read that book, we need to read it. So take a previous edition and spent time reading the book from start to finish. This will provide us with an emotional and intellectual connection with the work that cannot be achieved in any other way. Also, I'm sure that we will start to come up with ideas about what we want to communicate through that cover. The second thing, in my opinion, would be to study and research the biography of the author. This biography can be obtained through the editorial seat provided by our editor. Or we can also dive on the Internet to investigate the author's life, in this case, yours Orwell. The third aspect to take into account would be the historical context. That is, the novel is published in 1949. This is a very marked date since we are in the middle of the 20th century, Second World War and just ended in September 1945. The Nuremberg trials have just occurred. The first steps are being taken for what we know today as the European Union. And all this is happening because there is a little awareness of the devastation and horror produced by the war that ravaged Europe for all its history and of which Orwell is an earth throughout his life. So as you can imagine, these all phase is a very personal process. I will live here collected, that was mine, but each one of you will have your own, which will result in a completely different cover for one of the others. One of the things that caught my attention most when I read the novel was the love story collected by the characters, protagonists. This was one of the key ideas that I wanted to convey on the deck. I wanted to convey that there was a story between two human beings who loved each other. Because the other part, the big brother part, the part where that ubiquitous government that controls through the media and watches and suffocated has already been seen over time. Of course, I wanted that big brother I to be present, but that was not going to be something original and refreshing. So the another story between these people in such a totalitarian ambient that breaks their spirit, also seemed to be like a good book for that cover. On the other hand, and this time again, starting from the historical contexts, I began to visualize my cover in a recent constructivist aesthetic, Let's say that this graphical system of representation, so avant-garde at the time, apart from being powerful, was very tied to totalitarian systems. So it seemed to me a good point to start, let's say to graphically investigate how I could embody these ideas on paper. 4. Theoretical and graphic research II: Hello everyone and welcome to this new course, Glass redesigning or well, where we will continue our theoretical and graphic research. In the previous episode, we saw that the first thing we could have to do is read the book carefully. From there. We would also conduct a study of the author's biography as well as the historical contexts as where our novel is written. Well, from there would come our first ideas. Some ideas would be abstract since they would appear in our mind is spontaneously. And where in my case, the first idea that came up with me was to somehow represent the love story among their protagonists. Then of course, to, in my case, I wanted to tell how it has been done in almost all the works that have tried to reproduce this Nobel by Irwell, the phenomenon of Big Brother, that totalitarian and ubiquitous government of which we have already talked about. And then moreover, I also came up with the idea of using a graphic ascetic based on the avant-garde movement called Ras and constructivism. Well from there, the next step would be work with those abstract ideas that we see at the top and turn it into something graphic, something tangible, something other than just ideas that are in our minds. For that, I advise that the first thing we could do is go to Amazon, use this resource that we have on the net and look for the different editions we can find there from the book we are working with, in this case 1984. Then we would also use another platforms such as Pinterest to search for more graphic references. Once on Amazon, we would type the name of our novel and then we would see covers from a lot of additions that has been made since 1949 when the first edition was published. Until now, more than 70 years have passed for this novel that has been a real best-seller and that is still contemporary in its contents today. Then let's see that there are actually a lot of additions that has a common signs such as The Big Brothers I, that kind of camera installed in every room of every citizen who observes everything and controls everything. Let's say this is the most used are repeated idea. What we want to do is a newer, innovative, refreshing addition. So we also have to have the idea of getting a little out of the most immediate or the most topical elements. Once we have already analyzed previous editions and we know a little bit of the work that has been done to date. I recommend that we go to the Pinterest platform. Let's create an account. Because here we can work with boards. That is, we can organize our ideas graphically in a very simple way. For example, I have made a board called 1984, where I've been placing pins, which are images of things that I for some reason liked graphically. Then we'll try to solve the puzzle that we mentally have in our head. But for now, we just have to get carried away by instincts and just go adding elements that for some reason, even if we don't know why exactly, they seem appealing to us. Notice that in this case, I already have in my mind the idea of pursuing a little that acetic of Russia Constructivism. But at the same time, I also found that I wanted my cover to have a great cinematic error. Because the Nobel also seemed very cinematic and it could be perfectly taken to the cinema. I imagine it as a billboard with a huge poster. So I also started to pass on Hitchcock film covers because they seemed very suggestive to me in his use of colors, shadows, I'm predictions. We can see different examples here of this mix of appealing ideas. Look again at the idea of the predicted shadows, too flat colors. And as a kind of cinematic story that the poster tries to tell. Well, apart from this, I also did research about graphic references around race and constructivism. As I said, where you can see as for example, the use of diagonals is very characterized. We always have very important lines of force. Normally diagonals or straight lines, red and black colors are mostly used in a very clear way. Let's say typography is almost always in uppercase. We used to have orthagonal elements and we don't find often organic curved elements. We can find through this idea of two main carers and powerful elements such as hand or assigned. All these references are what we have to go together in a super personal way. It's one will have to develop the Earth without any fear of letting ourselves carried away by our instinct. This is a very liberating phase that gives us a feeling of freedom because we can put things together without worrying about how are they going to be connected. We are creating our own graphic wall. Moving forward, this idea that we have been putting together will need to have a solving point to take a form and a narrative discourse. This narrative discourse is very important and it is what we will worry about in the following classes. 5. Graphic materialization: Hello everyone and welcome to this new course class redesigning Orwell, a class that we are going to call graphic materialization. We came in previous episodes of an abstract goal where we were creating graphic universe that helped us, inspired us. In this class, we are going to have to done on Earth and translate our ideas on paper. For this, I advice that from all those references we choose the ones we'd like most. In my case, this particular image we can see now on the screen was the one that inspired me the most. Why? Because it gathered certain elements that I wanted to get. On one hand, we found those red, black, and white chorus that seems to me to be very hooked. Russian constructivism. And with the idea of a strong dominant colors linked to the totalitarian system. On the other hand, we had those shadows that broke down the human figures a little. And from there I started to think about the composition of that story that I wanted to tell. We also had that circle behind us, an AI that could refer to big brother. So let's say that I don't Not quite well understand why it was still, but this image was very interesting for me. Then I suggest that we already start working free hand on paper that will leave the computer for a moment. Because through the hand, we can express our thoughts much better either for from that image I showed you earlier, I started to make a few sketches, as you see here. In this first sketch, we find some cells that are projected in the foreground. And then we find other elements that already begin to intuit that they were going to occupy the most protagonists part of the cover. And that we are going to be no more nor less than the title of the book 1984. Here we see then that development of the idea. We're already 1984, that numbering is going to be the most protagonists element and the most powerful. And from there, the shadows will turn off. We already started to see also those projections of those human silhouettes. We'll want to tell the idea that was important for me from the beginning, the break of that loving relationship. Well, we can see as well in this triptych that development from the spiral, the image to the first sketch. I'm moving to the second, where there are no longer rectangular and abstract elements, but already the title of the book and everything begins to take a definitive CEP. Once we have past that phase of the sketches and we already have more or less clear that idea we want to carry out is the time to move to InDesign. Indesign is a program that to carry out this type of projects, it is very important that you use it fluently. The first thing we would do in InDesign would be composing the model of the book. We have to keep in mind that the layout of the book will be given by our editor. The editor will tell us the size that has the book and we will have to occupy in InDesign I layout of the unfolded cover. That is, we will place the flaps, the back cover, the spine, the front and the other flap all unfolded as you can see in the picture. First thing we are going to do is to place the mandatory elements. How will the logo or barcode B? Then we will begin to place the color elements, those elements that will occupy the different parts of the cover. As we said, the flaps, the front, the spine, the back cover, and the last flap. Here we see how I played against between red and black curves. In the next phase, we will start working directly on the front cover. The front is going to be the most important part because it is the part that will be more visible, that will introduce the buyer into the whole inside of the book at a glance. So we will have to attract attention and produce an interest in the future reader through this front cover, we have to keep in mind that the books are deposited in bookstores. That is with many more books around them. And somehow we have to get the attention of the future buyer. Because at the end of the day, a book is a privilege that must be sold. Let's say that the front of the book, we'll do 90 percent of that work. Going back to talk about the sign is used, we will start putting the main graphic elements within the margins of the cover. I have already placed what for me is going to be the first protagonist of the front cover, which is the title 1984. Colors are already chosen and the projections of its saddles are already drawn. We also see how the title of the author's name begins to appear at the top. In the next phase, what I did was start to inserting elements that complex size, the cover editor, that black background and that red background suddenly starts to fusion with an image of a city. Since the whole novel runs in an atmosphere of a city that is quite suffocating and oppressive. A city like futuristic where mobility is a scarce, we'll all those typical elements of gigantic cities. Megalopolis is where the individual feels lonely and isolated. So those backgrounds merge with this image of that city. At the same time, human elements appear like silhouettes on white background so that they seem to be illuminated on their back. Their saddles begin to the form as a metaphor for what happens to the protagonists. In the next step, the front cover is finished only with insertion of that circular element that is going to work as a policy spotlight tracking the movements of citizens. That of course, is referred to big brother's eye. Moreover, we see that already here. I have also moved to work on the back cover. The back cover in this case was much easier to perform since we already had the city on black background. And all I did was multiply the policy spotlight. Since in reality, big brother's eye is not only one but many. It is actually ubiquitous, one for every citizen in it's one of the rooms of their homes. So I multiplied that eye on the back cover to transmit that sense of perpetual vigilance that the Nobel offers. Obviously, here we need to introduce another mandatory element, as is the text on the back cover that is given by the editor. Finally, to complete the cover entirely, we would need to design the flaps. The flaps in this new collection are going to be subjected to the placement of different phrases that came from the book, since the authors are of great renown. So here, the only thing I had to do basically is to choose some quotations from the book that I found more interesting. Well, at this point, we would have finished the complete design of the cover of our book. We could therefore go to another phase. That could be the elaboration of a mockup. As you know, a mock-up, it is an image that will help us visualize what the book is going to look like once it is printed. The mockup, along with a final PDF test, will be what I sent at this stage to the editor as we need to sew him the work that we have been doing individually and put it in common with him to start making some corrections. The editor will therefore give us his opinion and make different corrections. Here we see, for example, the PDF that my editor sent me at that time with different corrections at the bottom, many of them related to the text of the cover that exceeded the size, and we had to delete certain phrases. The rest of it seemed very good. We also had to do some rectification in some quotations from the flaps. But this was a quite going for what worked in the sense that there were not too many amends to be done. Once the corrections were made. The only thing we would have to do is already the final PDF for the printing press. It is important to note that the final PDF will have to go with a few clipping marks, as you can see on the screen to avoid errors when the cover will be cut. So if we have color to the margins, we will have to have added an indent. Moreover, it is important that we don't forget to have been working in CMYK color mode. Since it is where we will see the chorus most similar to how they will be displayed in the press. Finally, it should be noted that we might also wanted to add a u v glass coated to some specific parts of the cover. What we are going to do is a new PDF where we mark certain areas that we want be much brighter than the rest. In this case, I chose the author's name. Yours are well, and the number in 1984 to have that glass appearance at the time of printing? Well, once we had already sent our final PDF for printing as well as the UV booking PDF. Our work would be over and we would only have to wait for that book to be printed and in our hands. 6. ¿How much to charge?: Hello everyone and welcome to this new course class redesigning or well, where today we are going to talk about how much to charge in the Paleocene wall, working as a freelance when they make an order of the 1984 type, we have to keep in mind that publishers can normally order for us to make the cover of a book. Or we can be loaded by the interiors under layout as well as its corrections on these issues. There is not much information and my intention is casting a little light so that you have some references which of course are not absolute. Or there may have others. But this is at least my experience and where I have learned. So if you are working as a freelance, when you are commissioned on a cover, price is usually range between one hundred and fifty and three hundred euros. Of course, it can be more or less. But that will also depend a little on the prestige you have of the capacity of the publisher and that kind of things that in the end, we'll mark the difference so that you can actually demand a higher salary for that job. On the other hand, interiors are determined based on the price prepaids, meaning you are marked and amount of euros prepaids. And you then multiply by the number of pages that the book hats. No matter if one page, of course, has a lot of texts and has taken you a lot of work. Or if another page is completely empty. In any case, in my experience, my editorial offered me to Euros per page. If you can see in this order, I charge €200 for the cover as well as the interiors for €2 per page and 356 pages. That leaves us with a total of €672. The sum of the two, as you can see on the screen, it gives a total of €872 for the realization of the completed book. That amount of euros are tax-free. That is, withholdings are not yet applied. Which will also depend a little on the tax situation of each one. As you can see, the profitability is quite high. And above all, will also depend on the time to invest, meaning it is not the same as for the realization of this MOOC, both covers and interiors to take us two months of work or a month. In my case, for example, as I already have enough experience, the cover did not take me more than five days and interiors 20 days. The correction with the editor takes you a bit longer. But let's say that in general, it was a job of not more than three weeks. Therefore, the profitability is high. If you have several orders at the same time, you can perfectly earn approximately more than 100 years for two orders. In this concrete case, I had us well as 1984, Another book, Animal Farm, that is roughly half the pages, but the cover is still charges exactly the same. Therefore, you can go to almost one hundred, ten hundred and three hundred euro easily with two small orders in a month and without working, of course, a full-time requirement. And other important concept for understanding how the financial sector works within the publishing wall would be the percentage of the PSP. Psp means the price of sale to the public. That is, for example, if we sell a book in a bookstore for €15. That €15 is the PSP. The aim is to distribute this money by different percentages among the different actors who have intervened in the achievement of this book. Percentages work as follows. The intellectual author of the book will take between 8, 12% of that PSP on which he will have to give 1% to its editorial agent. Therefore, the author remains with 10 percent of that PSP. They probably said that will be the company in charge of investing in the achievement of that product that will be put for sale to the public and take out our profitability will take 30 percent on that PSP. It should be borne in mind that the publisher will have to be the cost of correcting the work, the collection, the sign of the cover. This would be our work as a cover designers, the layout of the interiors, which also in this case would be our task. And the translation if it were necessary. The next agents to take into account would be the distributor, which will take a very high percentage on their PSP. No more nor less than 60 percent. The distributor will be the one in charge of the transport, sometimes by sea, even with huge delivery notes put on sips or trucks, Let's say that the distributor negotiate first with a publisher and then when they have agreed a percentage on that PSP, The distributor will negotiate with the seller. There are two types of sellers, large areas and small and medium areas. In large areas, the percentages usually range between 10 and 50 percent for the distributor, widely acellular percentage remains at 45, 50 percent when the seller is a small or medium, the distributor percentage in this case remains approximately 30 percent. So let us put an example to understand it better. If we have a book which price is €10.4, we would have to first of all reduce the percentage relative to taxes. In this case in Spain, is 4%. Therefore, it would stay at €10, about which it would start to be distributed among the following agents. 10 percent approximately would be for the author. So for each sale, the author would take €1. The editorial meanwhile would take €3 tied to that 30 percent, which corresponds to those €10. The distributor would take that 60 percent, which means €6, that should be distributed between them and the seller according to the percentages we have seen earlier. So once you understand how this editorial structure works financially, as you can imagine, the number of copies sold of its copy is essential. Therefore, it is not the same as a book sells 10 thousand copies, selling 100000 copies, or selling 1 million. From the number of copies will multiply profits for all its protagonists in an exponential way. This matter will engage us with the next concept which would clearly distinguish what is a book of literature and a book of Visual Arts. These concepts are very different and you have to be clear, that will not have anything to do when it comes to profitability. In literature books, actions, costs will be lower because the size of the book, the colors that we will use will always be black and white and all the book, all pages will be occupied basically by written word. On the contrary, in visual art books, we will find that there is a small proportion of written word, but a higher percentage of photographs, more or less usually 30 percent written word against 70 percent photography. Therefore, photography will require higher quality within printing. Ions with different colors, the size of the book will have to be bigger. So at the end, the PSP at Davis will add MOOC will be higher than the literature one. We can find out photography book for a price of approximately 45 or 50, €5 against of a book of literature that can cost us between 10 and 13 euros. On the other hand, in addition, literature books can attract a large number of readers. We can get a lot of copies sold, which will mean that both the author, the editorial, the sale, and the distributor have great profits. Imagine only if we are thinking about the author who gets through a best-seller a million copies. Because for €1 to be taken for each of those copies, as it would be half already pocketed a million euros. On the other hand, we have to understand that it is impossible for a graphic art book to be that profitable because that demand is much smaller. So we have to understand that a monograph of a great artist, however successful it maybe we'll have approximately 3 thousand to 15 thousand copies sold as at most. In the next class we will see what are the main international book first, where much of the reasons is related to this sector are resolved. And we will talk to about the digital wall and how that revolution is this mandolin, that classic editorial financial structure of which we have talked about. 7. International fairs and digital world: Hello everyone and welcome to this last class of this course, redesigning Orwell, where we're going to start by talking about the most important book first, one of the most important for is the Frankfurt Book Fair in Germany. This firm takes place during the month of October and is of paramount importance within the publishing sector. During these fairer, important activities takes place such as negotiations between booksellers and publishers, and negotiations mainly on sales right around the wall. Participate all kinds of entrepreneurs, advertising companies, small booksellers going through a wide spectrum of participants, such as translators, illustrators, and academics, to give us an idea of the specific way that this firm has globally. There are some data we have on screen. For example, in 2004 and gathered 7 thousand exhibitors. 270000 people visited, the first of which approximately 174 thousand were businessmen. 12200, 35 year analysts from 92 different countries, and approximately 2855 events were held at defer. The next most important international firm would be the London firm, which takes place in marts. Both this firm and the Frankfurt are mainly intended for the English speaking sector. On the contrary, in Mexico, in the city of what Le Havre in September takes place, the most important international fair at is Spanish speaking level. I strongly recommend that you visit them as the atmosphere that can be lived there around the book is practically indescribable since different energies come together from lats publishing industries at the same time, from private individuals, at the same time, tourists who simply go there to observe and enjoy the atmosphere take into account that we can find books of all kinds and conditions and of practically any era. Die publishers, Japanese publishers. We can also find books from centuries ago. We can also find antique books, science book, botany books, children's books. It is established as a grand universe, resembling a filename of Harry Potter, where really, once you are there, you would understand the amount of money, people, etc, surround the book business. Last but not least. And to finish this series of episodes, I want to talk to you about the arrival of the digital wall and the strong influence it is happening in the publishing industry. We have to bear in mind that the so-called e-books have radically changed the rules of the game we explained in the previous chapter. Production costs have practically disappeared. Also store its cost is almost 0. So the entire classical structure system of the industry has been turned upside down. This has led many authors to choose the option of digital self-publishing and not going through an old-fashioned editorial. We also need to keep in mind that the growth of digital devices in our modern society based on smart phones, tablets, eBooks, etc, has been growing fast and a strong during the past decade. Also in these electronic devices, we can incorporate sounds, videos, animations, and even in the near future where we are, we are going to be able to enjoy experiences in virtual reality, holograms, augmented reality, etc, any way. And this is already a personal opinion. I think books offer us a unique experience since we have to use our imagination to create images based on that text. So all these digital devices that make explicit all the elements around the book are going to be able to pick up a market sector making it row. But I don't think it can really replace the reading experience at the classical level. When we these reflection, I leave you in a table so that everyone can create their own. I say goodbye. I hope you get to do the final term exercise so we could be able to interact and chat this topic that we are all passionate about.